Sample records for neurological evaluation scale

  1. Appropriate neurological evaluation and multimodality magnetic resonance imaging in eclampsia. (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Keiseb, J; Moodley, J; Corr, P


    Simultanagnosia is common in eclampsia and a visuospatial test may be the most appropriate method in assessing the degree and monitoring of neurological deficit. To determine a sensitive clinical test for the degree of neurological deficit in eclampsia and in monitoring neurological change. Thirty women with eclampsia were evaluated by clinical neurological quantitative scales including the Canadian Neurological Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, a validated Cookie Theft Picture Test (CTPT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1/T2), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The CTPT, used to measure simultanagnosia, had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 84.5-100), specificity of 33.3% (95% CI: 1.8-87.5) with positive predictive value of 93.1% (95% CI: 75.8-98.8) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 5.5-100). The degree of agreement between simultanagnosia as measured by CTPT and DWI was 93.3% (Kappa=0.474; P=0.001). Standard MRI compared with DWI had a sensitivity of 77.8% (95% CI: 57.3-90.6), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 31-100), positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 80.8-100) and negative predictive value of 33.3% (95% CI: 9-69.1). The degree of agreement between standard MRI and DWI was 90%, this was statistically significant (Kappa=0.412: P=0.001). The validated CTPT for simultanagnosia was abnormal in the majority (n=29; 96.7%) of eclamptic patients with other neurological scales normal. Standard MRI and DWI showed excellent correlation with this simple bedside clinimetric evaluation. The oedema in eclampsia is primarily of vasogenic origin.

  2. A simple and useful coma scale for patients with neurologic emergencies: the Emergency Coma Scale. (United States)

    Takahashi, Chiaki; Okudera, Hiroshi; Origasa, Hideki; Takeuchi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Fukuda, Osamu; Date, Isao; Tokutomi, Takashi; Aruga, Tohru; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kobata, Hitoshi; Ohta, Tomio


    The Emergency Coma Scale (ECS) was developed in Japan in 2003. We planned a multicenter study to evaluate the utility of the ECS by comparison of the ECS and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Ten medical facilities, including 4 university hospitals in Japan, participated in this study. We evaluated and recorded the level of consciousness, using the ECS and GCS, of all patients transported to these medical facilities by ambulance. We then performed a statistical analysis of the level of rater agreement of each scale using the average weighted κ coefficient according to the types of diagnosis at time of discharge and the occupations of the raters. We then evaluated the relationship between outcome of patients and their scores on the ECS and GCS by logistic regression analysis. The ECS showed the greater agreement among raters in patient scoring (0.802). In patients with traumatic brain injury and cerebrovascular disease, the ECS also yielded the higher agreement (0.846 and 0.779, respectively). The ECS score appears to be more strongly related than the GCS to patient outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Our results showed that the ECS is a simple and readily understandable coma scale for a wide range of professionals in the field of neurologic emergencies. Furthermore, ECS appears to be suitable for evaluating patients in neurologic emergency settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of motor imagery ability in neurological patients: a review


    Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah; Spildooren, Joke; Feys, Peter; Helsen, W.; Nieuwboer, Alice


    Motor imagery is a promising new intervention strategy within neurological rehabilitation. However, previous studies have shown that the ability to perform motor imagery is not well preserved in all neurological patients. Therefore, patients’ motor imagery ability needs to be thoroughly examined when they are included in motor imagery rehabilitation programs or studies. In the past, objective methods to evaluate motor imagery were lacking rigour, and participants’ imagery ability was often in...

  4. [Nationwide evaluation of German university teaching methods in neurology]. (United States)

    Biesalski, A-S; Zupanic, M; Isenmann, S


    Germany is confronted with a lack of medical doctors and an increasing need for neurologists in particular. In order to recruit future doctors in neurology it is essential to attract young students when still at university. This article presents the first German national survey of medical students' acceptance of teaching methods in neurology. The participants evaluated teaching methods and examination formats and were asked about their preferences. The survey was based on a questionnaire distributed to 22 German medical schools and 1245 participating students. Interactive teaching methods, especially courses in practical examinations, clinical internships and bedside teaching were highly rated among the students. In contrast, multiple choice tests, as one of the most widespread examination methods, were poorly rated compared to practical and oral examinations. For most of the students it was not decisive, in which semester teaching of neurology took place, while the majority asked for additional and more intensive neurological education. The data give an overview of teaching of neurology in Germany and students' assessment of various approaches. The results should be utilized towards reorientation of future curricula that should aim at innovative and even more practically oriented teaching.

  5. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination (United States)

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.


    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  6. Use of the interRAI CHESS scale to predict mortality among persons with neurological conditions in three care settings.

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    John P Hirdes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persons with certain neurological conditions have higher mortality rates than the population without neurological conditions, but the risk factors for increased mortality within diagnostic groups are less well understood. The interRAI CHESS scale has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality in the overall population of persons receiving health care in community and institutional settings. This study examines the performance of CHESS as a predictor of mortality among persons with 11 different neurological conditions. METHODS: Survival analyses were done with interRAI assessments linked to mortality data among persons in home care (n = 359,940, complex continuing care hospitals/units (n = 88,721, and nursing homes (n = 185,309 in seven Canadian provinces/territories. RESULTS: CHESS was a significant predictor of mortality in all 3 care settings for the 11 neurological diagnostic groups considered after adjusting for age and sex. The distribution of CHESS scores varied between diagnostic groups and within diagnostic groups in different care settings. CONCLUSIONS: CHESS is a valid predictor of mortality in neurological populations in community and institutional care. It may prove useful for several clinical, administrative, policy-development, evaluation and research purposes. Because it is routinely gathered as part of normal clinical practice in jurisdictions (like Canada that have implemented interRAI assessment instruments, CHESS can be derived without additional need for data collection.

  7. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries (ASIA/ISNCSCI scale, revised 2015 67

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    Sergei V Vissarionov


    Full Text Available Standardization of neurological examination and diagnosis in the case of spinal injury is currently an important challenge in neurotraumatology. At present, most organizations, worldwide, that are involved with spinal injuries, apply the International Standards for Neurological Classifications of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI, drafted by American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA and approved in 1992. The ASIA/ISNCSCI scale is a quantitative system for estimation of the neurological status of spinal cord injury patients. The ASIA/ISNCSCI scale has been repeatedly updated and revised since 1992. The 2015 version of the ISNCSCI on the American Spinal Injury Association website is demonstrated in this study, and the form and testing instruction are translated into Russian.

  8. Pharmacologic Considerations during the Preoperative Evaluation of Neurologic Patients. (United States)

    Mabry, Christian


    Optimizing a patient for surgery is a central goal during the preoperative period. Patients with common neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, may require special attention on the perioperative management of their neurologic medications. This review aims to organize the most current recommendations for neurologic medication management during the perioperative period to minimize the risk of postoperative neurologic decline. A review of current literature present on Pubmed and Medline of peer-reviewed research papers was conducted. The quality of the papers was assessed by their research methodology and many of their sources were further analyzed in the same manner. A focused review question for each disease type was used, and, at times, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Manuscripts covered a wide range of medical subspecialties with the most common sources being anesthetic, neurologic, and pharmacologic journals. The systemic inflammation that occurs in the perioperative period is detrimental to a patient's neurologic status. It is important to recognize that the proper management of neurologic medications can limit the negative effects of these stresses on a patient. Most medications appear safe to continue until the morning of surgery. Consultation of a neurologist regarding continuation of specific medications may be necessary to ensure patient safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  9. [Interobserver reliability of the Glasgow coma scale in critically ill patients with neurological and/or neurosurgical disease]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Sánchez-Izquierdo, R; Sánchez-Muñoz, E I; Martínez-Yegles, I; Fraile-Gamo, M P; Arias-Rivera, S


    The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a common tool used for neurological assessment of critically ill patients. Despite its widespread use, the GCS has some limitations, as sometimes different observers may value differently the same response. To evaluate the interobserver agreement, among intensive care nurses with a minimum of 3 years experience, both in the overall estimate of GCS and for each of its components. Prospective observational study including 110 neurological and/or neurosurgical patients conducted in a critical care unit of 18 beds, from October 2010 until December 2012. Registered variables: Demographic characteristics, reason for admission, overall GCS and its components. The neurological evaluation was conducted by a minimum of 3 nurses. One of them applied an algorithm and consensual assessment technique and all, independently, valued response to stimuli. Interobserver agreement was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Clinical Trails. The intraclass correlation coefficient (confident interval) for scale was: Overall GCS: 0.989 (0.985-0.992); ocular response: 0.981 (0.974-0.986); verbal response: 0.971 (0.960-0.979); motor response: 0.987 (0.982-0.991). In our cohort of patients we observed a high level of consistency in the application of both the GCS as in each of its components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Traumatic Spine by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Correlation with Neurological Recovery. (United States)

    Magu, Sarita; Singh, Deepak; Yadav, Rohtas Kanwar; Bala, Manju


    Prospective study. To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with clinical profile and neurological status of the patient and to correlate the MRI findings with neurological recovery of the patients and predict the outcome. Previous studies have reported poor neurological recovery in patients with cord hemorrhage, as compared to cord edema in spine injury patients. High canal compromise, cord compression along with higher extent of cord injury also carries poor prognostic value. Neurological status of patients was assessed at the time of admission and discharge in as accordance with the American Spine Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. Mean stay in hospital was 14.11±5.74 days. Neurological status at admission and neurological recovery at discharge was compared with various qualitative cord findings and quantitative parameters on MRI. In 27 patients, long-term follow-up was done at mean time of 285.9±43.94 days comparing same parameters. Cord edema and normal cord was associated with favorable neurological outcome. Cord contusion showed lesser neurological recovery, as compared to cord edema. Cord hemorrhage was associated with worst neurological status at admission and poor neurological recovery. Mean canal compromise (MCC), mean spinal cord compression (MSCC) and lesion length values were higher in patients presenting with ASIA A impairment scale injury and showed decreasing trends towards ASIA E impairment scale injury. Patients showing neurological recovery had lower mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length, as compared to patients showing no neurological recovery (p<0.05). Cord hemorrhage, higher MCC, MSCC, and lesion length values have poor prognostic value in spine injury patients.

  11. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...

  12. Stroke scale items associated with neurologic deterioration within 24 hours after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy. (United States)

    Nanri, Yusuke; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Hara, Megumi; Eriguchi, Makoto; Okada, Ryuichirou; Yukitake, Motohiro; Hara, Hideo


    It is unclear when and which neurologic deficits should be examined within 24 hours after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Relationships between serial changes in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) subscores and neurologic deterioration (ND) within the first 24 hours after therapy were investigated in 43 consecutive patients. The NIHSS score was measured by neurologists 28 times within 24 hours after therapy. Assessments of subscores associated with ND, defined as the first change 4 or more points from baseline, were performed at 15 minutes (most frequent time of the first ND), 120 minutes (median time of the first ND), and 24 hours after therapy. Seventeen of 43 patients (age range, 55-94 years) showed ND. Of the NIHSS subscores, increases in scores for loss of consciousness (15 minutes, P = .001; 120 minutes, P = .026; 24 hours, P = .018) and motor limbs total (15 minutes, P = .014; 120 minutes, P = .031) were related to deterioration. Items such as questions, gaze, visual fields, ataxia, language, dysarthria, and extinction/inattention were not related to deterioration at any time. In conclusion, ND of ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA therapy was frequently seen within 120 minutes after therapy. Items such as loss of consciousness and motor limbs total may be considered indices for monitoring neurologic deficits after therapy. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Adaptation and validation of the neurological soft sign's scale of Krebs et al. to children]. (United States)

    Halayem, S; Hammami, M; Fakhfakh, R; Gaddour, N; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O; Bouden, A


    Neurological soft signs (NSS) include anomalies in motor integration, coordination, sensory integration and lateralization and could be endophenotypic markers in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Their characterization provides a more precise phenotype of ASD and more homogeneous subtypes to facilitate clinical and genetic research. Few scales for NSS have been adapted and validated in children including children with ASD. Our objective was to perform an adaptation to the child of a scale assessing neurological soft signs and a validation study in both general and clinical populations. We have selected the NSS scale of Krebs et al. (2000) already validated in adults. It encompasses 5 dimensions: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, involuntary movement, laterality. After a preliminary study that examined 42 children, several changes have been made to the original version to adapt it to the child and to increase its feasibility, particularly in children with ASD. Then we conducted a validation study by assessing the psychometric properties of this scale in a population of 86 children including 26 children with ASD (DSM 5 Criteria) and 60 typically developing children. Children's ages ranged between 6 and 12 years, and patients and controls were matched for gender, age and intelligence. Patients were assessed using the Autism diagnostic Interview-revised and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to confirm diagnosis. Typically developing children were assessed using the semi-structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to eliminate any psychiatric disorder. All children with neurological pathologies (history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma) and obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that could interfere with neurological assessment were excluded from the study. Both patients

  14. The decision evaluation scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalmeier, PFM; Roosmalen, MS; Verhoef, LCG; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Oosterwijk, JC; Moog, U; Hoogerbrugge, N; van Daal, WAJ

    There are several instruments to assess how patients evaluate their medical treatment choice. These are used to evaluate decision aids. Our objective is to investigate which psychological factors play a role when patients evaluate their medical treatment choices. A pool of 36 items was constructed,

  15. Lipidomic Evaluation of Feline Neurologic Disease after AAV Gene Therapy

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    Heather L. Gray-Edwards


    Full Text Available GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal lysosomal disorder, for which there is no effective treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV gene therapy in GM1 cats has resulted in a greater than 6-fold increase in lifespan, with many cats remaining alive at >5.7 years of age, with minimal clinical signs. Glycolipids are the principal storage product in GM1 gangliosidosis whose pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood. Targeted lipidomics analysis was performed to better define disease mechanisms and identify markers of disease progression for upcoming clinical trials in humans. 36 sphingolipids and subspecies associated with ganglioside biosynthesis were tested in the cerebrospinal fluid of untreated GM1 cats at a humane endpoint (∼8 months, AAV-treated GM1 cats (∼5 years old, and normal adult controls. In untreated GM1 cats, significant alterations were noted in 16 sphingolipid species, including gangliosides (GM1 and GM3, lactosylceramides, ceramides, sphingomyelins, monohexosylceramides, and sulfatides. Variable degrees of correction in many lipid metabolites reflected the efficacy of AAV gene therapy. Sphingolipid levels were highly predictive of neurologic disease progression, with 11 metabolites having a coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.75. Also, a specific detergent additive significantly increased the recovery of certain lipid species in cerebrospinal fluid samples. This report demonstrates the methodology and utility of targeted lipidomics to examine the pathophysiology of lipid storage disorders.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Miki Kaneko


    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  17. Brain perfusion studies in the evaluation of acute neurologic abnormalities. (United States)

    Zuckier, Lionel S; Sogbein, O O


    Two categories of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals for brain perfusion exist, nonlipophilic and lipophilic compounds. The former are useful in performing simple flow examinations which today have application primarily in the determination of brain death. The latter also exhibit a parenchymal uptake phase that allows for evaluation of the distribution of blood flow within the brain. The lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals, therefore, have application in the evaluation of patients following catastrophic brain injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in prognosticating the outcome following cerebral vascular accidents. Use of these agents to monitor therapy with thrombolytic agents, although theoretically helpful, is technically difficult due to the need to institute treatment rapidly, without undue delay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

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    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje


    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  19. Effect of Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Score on Neurological Outcome in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Receiving Therapeutic Hypothermia. (United States)

    Hifumi, Toru; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Sawano, Hirotaka; Tahara, Yoshio; Hase, Mamoru; Nishioka, Kenji; Shirai, Shinichi; Hazui, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Hideki; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Kasaoka, Shunji; Motomura, Tomokazu; Yasuga, Yuji; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Ken; Nonogi, Hiroshi


    Because the initial (on admission) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) examination has not been fully evaluated in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) who receive therapeutic hypothermia (TH), the aim of the present study was to determine any association between the admission GCS motor score and neurologic outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital CA who receive TH. In the J-PULSE-HYPO study registry, patients with bystander-witnessed CA were eligible for inclusion. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on GCS motor score (1, 2-3, and 4-5) to assess various effects on neurologic outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of good neurologic outcome at 90 days. Of 452 patients, 302 were enrolled. There was a significant difference among the 3 patient groups with regard to neurologic outcome at 90 days in the univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the GCS motor score on admission, age >65 years, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation, and pupil size patients sustaining out-of-hospital CA who receive TH.

  20. Neurology cases evaluated by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine 2000-2012. (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Roger; Heaton, John


    Historically, neurologic conditions are a major cause for removing aviators from flying status. Early neuropsychiatry studies included psychiatric conditions along with neurologic disorders. Previously reported data specifically addressing neurologic conditions in aviators are limited. And there is little current neurology-specific data reported. A retrospective review was done on patients with diagnoses evaluated by Neurology at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Consultation Service (ACS) between 2000 and 2012 using ACS records and databases to identify cases. Patient demographics, major diagnoses with associated International Classification of Diseases (9th rev.) codes, and aeromedical disposition recommendations were abstracted into a separate database for analysis. In total, 871 cases were identified. Patients were predominantly male (91%) with average age 34 and were predominantly pilots (69%). The top neurology-related diagnoses found in our series were headaches, head injuries, and radiculopathies. Of the cases evaluated, 570 aviators (65%) were recommended by ACS to return to flying status. Waiver authorities accepted 88% of ACS recommendations. Current patterns in neurologic conditions in the selected population of cases evaluated by the ACS were presented. Of the neurologic diagnoses seen, a novel finding was the prominence of head injuries in our series not seen in previous studies. This may be due to more stringent aeromedical standards with advances in medical practice and underscores that this issue is not just about disability but affects aircrew operational readiness. Most cases of neurologic disease evaluated by the ACS were recommended for return to flying status.

  1. Correlation properties of spontaneous motor activity in healthy infants: a new computer-assisted method to evaluate neurological maturation. (United States)

    Waldmeier, Sandra; Grunt, Sebastian; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Steinlin, Maja; Fuhrer, Katharina; Frey, Urs


    Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor activity in early infancy is widely used in clinical practice. It enables the description of maturational changes of motor behavior in both healthy infants and infants who are at risk for later neurological impairment. These assessments are, however, time-consuming and are dependent upon professional experience. Therefore, a simple physiological method that describes the complex behavior of spontaneous movements (SMs) in infants would be helpful. In this methodological study, we aimed to determine whether time series of motor acceleration measurements at 40-44 weeks and 50-55 weeks gestational age in healthy infants exhibit fractal-like properties and if this self-affinity of the acceleration signal is sensitive to maturation. Healthy motor state was ensured by General Movement assessment. We assessed statistical persistence in the acceleration time series by calculating the scaling exponent α via detrended fluctuation analysis of the time series. In hand trajectories of SMs in infants we found a mean α value of 1.198 (95 % CI 1.167-1.230) at 40-44 weeks. Alpha changed significantly (p = 0.001) at 50-55 weeks to a mean of 1.102 (1.055-1.149). Complementary multilevel regression analysis confirmed a decreasing trend of α with increasing age. Statistical persistence of fluctuation in hand trajectories of SMs is sensitive to neurological maturation and can be characterized by a simple parameter α in an automated and observer-independent fashion. Future studies including children at risk for neurological impairment should evaluate whether this method could be used as an early clinical screening tool for later neurological compromise.

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic role of MRI in spinal trauma, its comparison and correlation with clinical profile and neurological outcome, according to ASIA impairment scale

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    Umesh C Parashari


    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with acute and chronic spinal trauma and to compare and correlate the MRI findings with those of patients′ clinical profile and neurological outcome according to ASIA impairment scale to assess prognostic and clinical value of MRI. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients of spinal trauma formed the study group in a prospective fashion. The patients undergoing MR imaging and magnetic resonance images were analyzed and correlated with findings on neurological examination according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment scale (AIS at the time of MRI examination and subsequently at sub-acute interval to assess neurological outcome. Statistical Analysis : Sample profile was described in terms of 95% confidence limit and proportion. To describe strength of association between extent of spinal cord injury and outcome, odd′s ratio, bivariate and multi variant analysis, was used. Pearson′s chi square (χ 2 statistics was applied to test the association between two categorical variables. Data were analyzed using statistical software package, STATA 9.2 and the difference was considered to be significant if ′P′ value was <0.05. Observation and Results: The cord edema without hemorrhage was the most common MR finding (41.5%. The others were sizable focus of hemorrhage within the cord (33%, epidural hematoma (5.0%, and normal cord (26%. Majority of MR findings correlated well with clinical profile of the patient according to ASIA impairment scale. This study demonstrated that patients with presence of sizable focus of haemorrhage had larger cord edema and more severe grade of initial ASIA impairment scale( AIS with poor recovery at follow up (P=0.032.Improvement in upper extremity was more than lower extremity. Severe cord compression was also associated with poor neurological outcome; however it was not

  3. 76 FR 80448 - VASRD Forum-Improving VA's Disability Evaluation Criteria for Neurological Conditions and... (United States)


    ... p.m., will cover skin conditions. The Neurology Work Group meeting will take place from 9 a.m.-4:30... Group will also meet at the Manhattan Campus. The Neurology, Opthomamology and Skin Conditions Work...

  4. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2-RF neurological complaints and cognitive complaints scales to over-reporting in simulated head injury. (United States)

    Bolinger, Elizabeth; Reese, Caitlin; Suhr, Julie; Larrabee, Glenn J


    We examined the effect of simulated head injury on scores on the Neurological Complaints (NUC) and Cognitive Complaints (COG) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Young adults with a history of mild head injury were randomly assigned to simulate head injury or give their best effort on a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the MMPI-2-RF. Simulators who also showed poor effort on performance validity tests (PVTs) were compared with controls who showed valid performance on PVTs. Results showed that both scales, but especially NUC, are elevated in individuals simulating head injury, with medium to large effect sizes. Although both scales were highly correlated with all MMPI-2-RF over-reporting validity scales, the relationship of Response Bias Scale to both NUC and COG was much stronger in the simulators than controls. Even accounting for over-reporting on the MMPI-2-RF, NUC was related to general somatic complaints regardless of group membership, whereas COG was related to both psychological distress and somatic complaints in the control group only. Neither scale was related to actual neuropsychological performance, regardless of group membership. Overall, results provide further evidence that self-reported cognitive symptoms can be due to many causes, not necessarily cognitive impairment, and can be exaggerated in a non-credible manner.

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of the Use of Actigraphy for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Weidong Pan


    Full Text Available Quantitative and objective evaluation of disease severity and/or drug effect is necessary in clinical practice. Wearable accelerometers such as an actigraph enable long-term recording of a patient’s movement during activities and they can be used for quantitative assessment of symptoms due to various diseases. We reviewed some applications of actigraphy with analytical methods that are sufficiently sensitive and reliable to determine the severity of diseases and disorders such as motor and nonmotor disorders like Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, depression, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD for vascular dementia (VD, seasonal affective disorder (SAD, and stroke, as well as the effects of drugs used to treat them. We believe it is possible to develop analytical methods to assess more neurological or psychopathic disorders using actigraphy records.

  6. Comparision of GCS and FOUR scores used in the evaluation of neurological status in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Sultan sahin


    Full Text Available Objective: The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS is the most widely used scoring system to evaluation of neurological status for patients in intensive care unit. Limitations of the GCS include severe to assess the verbal score in intubated or aphasic patients. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score (FOUR, a new coma scale not reliant on verbal response, was recently proposed. New scales strongly suggest a scale is needed that could provide further nerological detail that is easy to use. We aimed to compare FOUR score and GCS among unselected patients in intensive care units and comparerealibility betweenobservers. Material-Methods: In our study 105 patients was admitted. Three different types of examiners tested FOUR score and GCS: one intensive care unit nurse, one anaesthesiology resident (2. year, and one anaesthesiology fellow. Patients receiving sedative agents or neuromuscular function blockers were excluded. The raters performed their examination within 1 hour of each other without knowledge of the others scores. Results: In our study compared the interrater agreement of GCS and FOUR score. Although FOUR score was thought to be superior in aphasic and intubated patients, there was neither a statistical significant difference between the GCS and the FOUR score nor a difference among ICU staff. Conclusion: As a result, the scores that used in ICUs, should be simple, reliable and predictive. Our study revealed that the FOUR score is at least equivalent to the GCS. And for us, GCS and FOUR scores are easy to use both doctors and nurses. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 167-172

  7. Evaluation of nosocomial infection risk using APACHE II scores in the neurological intensive care unit. (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Shu-Juan; Yang, Nan; Hu, Wen-Li


    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using the Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system for predicting the risk of nosocomial infection in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU), 216 patients transferred to NICU within 24hours of admission were retrospectively evaluated. Based on admission APACHE II scores, they were classified into three groups, with higher APACHE II scores representing higher infectious risk. The device utilization ratios and device-associated infection ratios of NICU patients were analyzed and compared with published reports on patient outcome. Statistical analysis of nosocomial infection ratios showed obvious differences between the high-risk, middle-risk and low-risk groups (pAPACHE II model in predicting the risk of nosocomial infection was 0.81, which proved to be reliable and consistent with the expectation. In addition, we found statistical differences in the duration of hospital stay (patient-days) and device utilization (device-days) between different risk groups (pAPACHE II scoring system was validated in predicting the risk of nosocomial infection, duration of patient-days and device-days, and providing accurate assessment of patients' condition, so that appropriate prevention strategies can be implemented based on admission APACHE II scores. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Evaluation of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation effectiveness in treatment of psychiatric and neurologic diseases]. (United States)

    Pastuszak, Żanna; Stępień, Anna; Piusińska-Macoch, Renata; Brodacki, Bogdan; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz


    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment option with proved effectiveness especially in drug resist depression. It is used in functional brain mapping before neurosurgery operations and diagnostic of corticospinal tract transmission. Many studies are performed to evaluate rTMS using in treatment of obsessive - compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, autism, strokes, tinnitus, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, cranial traumas. Moreover rTMS was used in treatment of multiple sclerosis, migraine, dystonia. Electromagnetical field generated by rTMS penetrate skin of the scalp and infiltrate brain tissues to a depth of 2 cm, cause neurons depolarization and generating motor, cognitive and affective effects. Depending on the stimulation frequency rTMS can stimuli or inhibit brain cortex. rTMS mechanism of action remains elusive. Probably it is connected with enhancement of neurotransmitters, modulation of signals transductions pathways in Central Nervous System, gene transcription and release of neuroprotective substances. Studies with use of animals revealed that rTMS stimulation can generate brain changes similar to those seen after electric shock therapy without provoking seizures. The aim of presenting study was to analyze actual researches evaluating rTMS use in treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  9. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology. (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V


    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  10. Cardinal Scales for Public Health Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Policy studies often evaluate health for a population by summing the individuals' health as measured by a scale that is ordinal or that depends on risk attitudes. We develop a method using a different type of preferences, called preference intensity or cardinal preferences, to construct scales...

  11. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports research to seek scalable solutions to improve the lives of people in the developing world. While there is general understanding of the meaning of "scaling up/ within the domain of research for ...

  12. Neurological symptoms, evaluation and treatment in Danish patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, Mia Aagaard; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Hove, Hanne Buciek


    Aim To investigate the prevalence of neurological symptoms and the types of complications in a cohort of Danish patients with mutation verified achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia and compare the results with previously reported findings. Methods Retrospective descriptive study by chart review...... of patients followed in three outpatients clinics in the period 1997-2014. Forty-eight patients with achondroplasia and a median age of 9,5 years old and 20 patients with hypochondroplasia and a median age of 12 years old were enrolled. Neurological manifestations, epidemiological variables and clinical data...... for referral to an MRI scan or neurosurgery. Conclusion Through investigation of phenotypes and genotypes in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia we report the frequencies of neurological symptoms, foramen magnum stenosis, spinal cord compression and neurosurgery in Danish patients. Variation...

  13. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system. (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Peterman, Amy H; Heinemann, Allen W; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David


    To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool.

  14. Evaluation of the role of SNCA variants in survival without neurological disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Heckman

    Full Text Available A variety of definitions of successful aging have been proposed, many of which relate to longevity, freedom from disease and disability, or preservation of high physical and cognitive function. Many behavioral, biomedical, and psychological factors have been linked with these various measures of successful aging, however genetic predictors are less understood. Parkinson's disease (PD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, and variants in the α-synuclein gene (SNCA affect susceptibility to PD. This exploratory study examined whether SNCA variants may also promote successful aging as defined by survival without neurological disease.We utilized 769 controls without neurological disease (Mean age: 79 years, Range: 33-99 years and examined the frequency of 20 different SNCA variants across age groups using logistic regression models. We also included 426 PD cases to assess the effect of these variants on PD risk.There was a significant decline in the proportion of carriers of the minor allele of rs10014396 as age increased (P = 0.021, from 30% in controls younger than 60 to 14% in controls 90 years of age or older. Findings were similar for rs3775439, where the proportion of carriers of the minor allele declined from 32% in controls less than 60 years old to 19% in those 90 or older (P = 0.025. A number of SNCA variants, not including rs10014396 or rs3775439, were significantly associated with susceptibility to PD.In addition to its documented roles in PD and α-synucleinopathies, our results suggest that SNCA has a role in survival free of neurological disease. Acknowledging that our findings would not have withstood correction for multiple testing, validation in an independent series of aged neurologically normal controls is needed.

  15. Evaluation of Problem- and Simulator-Based Learning in Lumbar Puncture in Adult Neurology Residency Training. (United States)

    Sun, Chenjing; Qi, Xiaokun


    Lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential part of adult neurology residency training. Technologic as well as nontechnologic training is needed. However, current assessment tools mostly focus on the technologic aspects of LP. We propose a training method-problem- and simulator-based learning (PSBL)-in LP residency training to develop overall skills of neurology residents. We enrolled 60 neurology postgraduate-year-1 residents from our standardized residents training center and randomly divided them into 2 groups: traditional teaching group and PSBL group. After training, we assessed the extent that the residents were ready to perform LP and tracked successful LPs performed by the residents. We then asked residents to complete questionnaires about the training models. Performance scores and the results of questionnaires were compared between the 2 groups. Students and faculty concluded that PSBL provided a more effective learning experience than the traditional teaching model. Although no statistical difference was found in the pretest, posttest, and improvement rate scores between the 2 groups, based on questionnaire scores and number of successful LPs after training, the PSBL group showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the traditional group. Findings indicated that nontechnical elements, such as planning before the procedure and controlling uncertainties during the procedure, are more crucial than technical elements. Compared with traditional teaching model, PSBL for LP training can develop overall surgical skills, including technical and nontechnical elements, improving performance. Residents in the PSBL group were more confident and effective in performing LP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale Reliability Evaluation with Heterogeneous Populations (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.


    A latent variable modeling approach for scale reliability evaluation in heterogeneous populations is discussed. The method can be used for point and interval estimation of reliability of multicomponent measuring instruments in populations representing mixtures of an unknown number of latent classes or subpopulations. The procedure is helpful also…

  17. A pilot evaluation of the role of bracing in stable thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurological deficit. (United States)

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Roffey, Darren M; Young, Darryl K; Reindl, Rudy; Wai, Eugene K


    Prospective, 2-center, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Investigate clinical and radiologic outcomes of bracing versus no-bracing in the treatment of stable thoracolumbar burst fractures. Management of thoracolumbar burst fractures depends upon clinical presentation of neurological deficit and radiographic features of fracture severity. Neurologically intact patients with mild deformity and biomechanical stability may be treated with conservative therapy. Patients with stable (AO type A3), single level, thoracolumbar burst fractures between T12 and L2 with no neurological deficit were randomized to nonoperative treatment with a customized thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) or no-brace. Self-reported clinical outcomes of pain, disability, and health-related quality of life, and radiographic outcomes of kyphotic progression and loss of vertebral height, assessed by 2 independent reviewers blinded to treatment group, were measured at 6 months follow-up. Twenty-three consecutive eligible patients were included (TLSO: n=12; no-brace: n=11). There were no between-group differences regarding level of injury (P=0.75) and baseline spine geometry including fractional canal compromise (P=0.49), anterior loss of vertebral body height (P=0.28), and sagittal Cobb angle (P=0.13). In-hospital stay was significantly shorter in the no-brace group (mean: 2.8±3.0 d) compared with the TLSO group (mean: 6.3±2.1 d; P=0.004). At follow-up there were no differences in anterior loss of vertebral body height (TLSO: 12.5%±10.2% vs. no-brace: 11.9%±8.1%; P=0.88), kyphotic progression (TLSO: 5.3±4.4 degrees vs. no-brace 5.2±3.6 degrees; P=0.93), adverse events, or self-reported clinical outcomes. Neurologically intact patients with stable thoracolumbar burst fractures treated with or without bracing had similar radiographic and clinical outcomes at 6 months follow-up. The no-brace group had shorter in-hospital lengths of stay. Conservative therapy involving early

  18. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge and Skills Regarding Use of Glasgow Coma Scale in Neurological Assessment of Patients among Nurses Working in Critical Care Units of KLE Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Madhale


    Full Text Available Background: The brain is the central unit that controls all the functions of our body. The brain cannot function all by its self without the neurons. The proper functioning of the brain and its relationship with the world is known as consciousness. The level of consciousness is the sensitive and reliable indicator of the patient’s neurological status. The alteration in the consciousness helps to determine if there is any damage in the nervous system that can occur even without visible damage to the head. There are numerous tools used to determine level of consciousness. The most common tool used to determine level of consciousness is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS. It was used with ease and helped to standardize clinical observations of the patients with impaired consciousness. A proper neurological assessment using the Glasgow Coma Scale is the essential part of nursing care. It is very essential for the nurse to have knowledge and skills about neurological assessment and the Glasgow Coma Scale.Hence the present study to evaluate the effectiveness of Self Instructional Module (SIM on knowledge and skill regarding Glasgow Coma Scale was undertaken. Aim and Objectives: 1]To assess the knowledge and skills regarding the use of Glasgow Coma Scale in neurological assessment of patients among the staff nurses. 2] To determine the effectiveness of the Self Instructional Module on knowledge and skills regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. 3] To find association between the pre test knowledge and skills scores and demographic variables. 4] To find the correlation between the knowledge score sand the skills scores regarding the GCS in neurological assessment of patients. Material and Methods: The study was evaluative in nature. A purposive sampling technique was used for the study. A total of 55 staff nurses working in Critical Care Units of KLES Hospital and MRC,Belgaum were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire and an

  19. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik


    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  20. Neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury: III. Criterion-related validity and sensitivity to change in the NABIS hypothermia-II clinical trial. (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Moretti, Paolo; Macleod, Marianne C; Pedroza, Claudia; Drever, Pamala; Fourwinds, Sierra; Frisby, Melisa L; Beers, Sue R; Scott, James N; Hunter, Jill V; Traipe, Elfrides; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Zygun, David A; Puccio, Ava M; Clifton, Guy L


    The neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury (NOS-TBI) is a measure assessing neurological functioning in patients with TBI. We hypothesized that the NOS-TBI would exhibit adequate concurrent and predictive validity and demonstrate more sensitivity to change, compared with other well-established outcome measures. We analyzed data from the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia-II clinical trial. Participants were 16-45 years of age with severe TBI assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. For analysis of criterion-related validity (concurrent and predictive), Spearman's rank-order correlations were calculated between the NOS-TBI and the glasgow outcome scale (GOS), GOS-extended (GOS-E), disability rating scale (DRS), and neurobehavioral rating scale-revised (NRS-R). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through significant correlations between the NOS-TBI and GOS, GOS-E, DRS, and NRS-R measured contemporaneously at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury (all pvalidity as well as sensitivity to change, compared with gold-standard outcome measures. The NOS-TBI may enhance prediction of outcome in clinical practice and measurement of outcome in TBI research.

  1. Neurologic Complications of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Patients with celiac disease (CD [n=l 11] and controls (n=211 were questioned regarding neurologic disorders, their charts were reviewed, and they received neurologic evaluations, including brain imaging or EEG if indicated, in a study of neurologic complications of CD at Carmel Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

  2. Neurologic complications of vaccinations. (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri


    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Evaluation of Educational Neurological Eye Movement Disorder Videos Posted on Internet Video Sharing Sites. (United States)

    Hickman, Simon J


    Internet video sharing sites allow the free dissemination of educational material. This study investigated the quality and educational content of videos of eye movement disorders posted on such sites. Educational neurological eye movement videos were identified by entering the titles of the eye movement abnormality into the search boxes of the video sharing sites. Also, suggested links were followed from each video. The number of views, likes, and dislikes for each video were recorded. The videos were then rated for their picture and sound quality. Their educational value was assessed according to whether the video included a description of the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion (if appropriate), and the underlying diagnosis. Three hundred fifty-four of these videos were found on YouTube and Vimeo. There was a mean of 6,443 views per video (range, 1-195,957). One hundred nineteen (33.6%) had no form of commentary about the eye movement disorder shown apart from the title. Forty-seven (13.3%) contained errors in the title or in the text. Eighty (22.6%) had excellent educational value by describing the eye movement abnormality, the anatomical location of the lesion, and the underlying diagnosis. Of these, 30 also had good picture and sound quality. The videos with excellent educational value had a mean of 9.84 "likes" per video compared with 2.37 for those videos without a commentary (P educational value with good picture and sound quality had a mean of 10.23 "likes" per video (P = 0.004 vs videos with no commentary). There was no significant difference in the mean number of "dislikes" between those videos that had no commentary or which contained errors and those with excellent educational value. There are a large number of eye movement videos freely available on these sites; however, due to the lack of peer review, a significant number have poor educational value due to having no commentary or containing errors. The number of "likes

  4. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency. (United States)

    Schor, Nina F


    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  5. Evaluation of the internet use disorder scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to evaluate the Internet Use Disorder Scale administered to the sample of Internet users in Serbia, as well as to confirm its factorial structure and correlate it with some parameters of Internet use. The total sample included 280 participants, divided into the clinical (70 and control group (210, age (M=26.73, SD=7.830. The control group was randomly formed out of the total number of the participants (327 who voluntarily responded to the test battery and fulfilled the entry criteria. The clinical group comprised the subjects who had sought professional help due to the symptoms of dysfunctional Internet use in some of the institutions or private psychiatric and psycho-therapeutic practices in Serbia, all of whom met the classification criteria of Internet use disorder. The internal consistency of the scale is α=.944, and through factor analysis three factors were extracted, together explaining 67.23% of the total variance: Inability to control behaviour and the consequences, Internet preoccupation and responses to deprivation, Social consequences of Internet use disorder. A statistically significant difference between the total scores of the clinical and control group on the scale was reported (t(278=20.434; p<.000, and all individual items showed significant discriminative values with 89.6% of the participants regularly classified into appropriate categories. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the PUI score and the amount of hours spent online was found (r=.524; p<.001, however the analysis did not show any correlation with the work experience and age variables, nor significant differences by the sex, education and place of residence criterion in the clinical group. These results are similar to the ones with the control group accept for a low correlation between the PUI score and age (r=-0.253; p=.001.

  6. The claustrophobia scale: a psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Ost, Lars-Göran


    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  7. Wikipedia and neurological disorders. (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M


    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia. (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J


    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM


    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  10. Primary care perceptions of neurology and neurology services. (United States)

    Loftus, Angela M; Wade, Carrie; McCarron, Mark O


    Neurophobia (fear of neural sciences) and evaluation of independent sector contracts in neurology have seldom been examined among general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire determined GPs' perceptions of neurology compared with other medical specialties. GP experiences of neurology services with independent sector companies and the local National Health Service (NHS) were compared. Areas of potential improvement in NHS neurology services were recorded from thematic analyses. Among 76 GPs neurology was perceived to be as interesting as other medical specialties. GPs reported less knowledge, more difficulty and less confidence in neurology compared with other medical specialties. There was a preference for a local NHS neurology service (pneurology services provided better patient satisfaction. GPs prefer local NHS neurology services to independent sector contracts. GPs' evaluations should inform commissioning of neurology services. Combating neurophobia should be an integral part of responsive commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Perioperative Management of Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Dhallu


    Full Text Available Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease. In this article, we emphasize on early diagnosis and management strategies of neurological disorders in the perioperative period to minimize morbidity and mortality of patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA


    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  13. Improving the rehabilitative management of client sexual health concerns after neurological disability: evaluation of a staff sexuality training programme in New Zealand. (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame; Anwar, Samir; Wilson, Joan; Bertapelle, Tanya


    To evaluate the effectiveness of a staff sexuality training programme as a means of improving the rehabilitative management of client sexual health concerns after neurological disability. A prospective controlled pre- and posttest evaluation design with six-month follow-up. Seventy-four multidisciplinary rehabilitation and disability staff who attended a two-day workshop, and a control group of 25 staff members who did not receive the training. Two workshops were held at major rehabilitation centres in the North and South Islands of New Zealand respectively. The Sex Attitude Scale, as well as three purpose-designed measures including an objective knowledge test, a self-rating inventory of skills and clinical activity, and a single-item measure of the degree of staff comfort. Workshop participants showed significant increases in knowledge, skills and comfort comparing pre-to post-workshop scores. A number of these gains were maintained at the six-month follow-up. There was an associated increase in the level of reported staff activity in addressing patient/client sexual health concerns in the six months to follow-up, compared to a similar time period preceding the workshop. In contrast, the control group had similar pre-workshop scores to the workshop participants, but recorded no increase on the measures, or in their level of reported activity, at the six-month follow-up. The programme showed initial promise as an effective intervention in upgrading the capacity of staff working in rehabilitation and disability agencies to address the sexual health concerns of their patients/clients.

  14. The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Further Construct Validation Evidence (United States)

    Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.


    The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…

  15. Cetane Scale Evaluation and Possible Modification. (United States)


    heptamethylnonane is 15. The definicion of the ASTM C.N. [7] is the whole nomber nearest to the value determined by calculation from the percentage by...and engine variables . Even most of the relationships between many per- 35 formance parameters and the independent variables are not known or well...timing and injector opening pressure. The only engine variable is the compression ratio. The Cetane Scale was not intended to rate any other combustion

  16. Evaluating Large-scale National Public Management Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Morten Balle

    This article explores differences and similarities between two evaluations of large-scale administrative reforms which were carried out in the 2000s: The evaluation of the Norwegian NAV reform (EVANAV) and the evaluation of the Danish Local Government Reform (LGR). We provide a comparative analysis...... of the similarities and differences between the evaluations of the two reforms and discuss their pros and cons....

  17. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana


    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  18. The value of cervical magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the obtunded or comatose patient with cervical trauma, no other abnormal neurological findings, and a normal cervical computed tomography. (United States)

    Khanna, Pavan; Chau, Cam; Dublin, Arthur; Kim, Kee; Wisner, David


    The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the obtunded or comatose patient with a potential neck injury is a controversial subject. Some authors have suggested that MRI of the cervical spine adds no value in the evaluation of patients with a normal computed tomography (CT) of the neck. However, others have suggested that MRI is the gold standard for clearing the cervical spine in a clinically suspicious or unevaluatable blunt trauma patient. The purpose of this study is to evaluate our data in regard to these conflicting hypotheses. Five consecutive years of data from 17,000 patients seen at our Level I trauma center yielded 512 individuals who underwent both CT and MRI of the cervical spine. Of the latter group, 150 individuals met three strict inclusion criteria for this study: (1) obtundation (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤13, with 94 of this group comatose [Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8]); (2) no obvious neurologic deficits; and (3) a normal cervical CT. The effect of MRI on the clinical management of these patients was evaluated. Among the 150 obtunded or comatose patients with a negative CT, the majority (51%) had a normal MRI. Among the patients with a positive MRI, the most common MRI-positive findings were ligamentous and soft tissue injury (81%). However, no MRI findings were deemed unstable, and no surgical intervention or change in the clinical management aside from collar immobilization of these individuals occurred after MRI. The addition of a cervical MRI to the evaluation protocol of obtunded or comatose patients with an otherwise normal neurologic examination and a normal cervical CT did not provide any additional useful information to change the management of these patients.

  19. A retrospective evaluation of species-specific sensitivity for neurological signs in toxicological studies: Is the dog more sensitive than the non-human primate? (United States)

    Backes, Kathrin; Lorenz, Helga; Laplanche, Loic; Hudzik, Thomas J; Potschka, Heidrun; Hempel, Katja


    Selection of the appropriate non-rodent species in preclinical programs is crucial for good translatability and human safety. There is no data available in the literature which provides exact comparison of dog and non-human primate (NHP) sensitivity regarding neurological signs in toxicological studies. We performed a retrospective analysis of 174 toxicity studies with 15 neuroscience substances. Neurological signs in dogs and NHPs were evaluated in correlation to exposure data. Overall incidence of substance induced convulsions was similar in both species and no gender differences were observed. The reported liability of beagles to spontaneous convulsions was not confirmed in our studies. The symptom tremor showed the best inter-species translatability. The current toxicological study design does not include exposure assessment at the time-point of neurological signs, therefore, we propose to include additional toxicokinetic samples. Our analysis revealed factors including housing, handling, and behavior, which prevents direct species comparison. In addition only one non-rodent species is routinely tested in development programs, therefore data for both species is rare. We however, had sufficient data which enabled comparison for one compound. In the spirit of 3Rs further examples should be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurology clerkship goals and their effect on learning and satisfaction. (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E


    To define medical student goals in the neurology clerkship and explore the association between goal setting and student performance, clerkship satisfaction, self-directed learning (SDL), and interest in neurology. A 4-year prospective study of consecutive second- to fourth-year medical students rotating through a required 4-week neurology clerkship was conducted. A goal-generating cohort (first 2 years) was enrolled to describe the breadth of student-derived goals. A goal-evaluating cohort (second 2 years) was used to evaluate the frequency of goal achievement and assess associations with performance (e.g., National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME], examination), satisfaction, and SDL behaviors (both based on 5-point Likert scale). Of 440 evaluable students, 201 were goal-generating and 239 goal-evaluating. The top 3 goals were (1) improvement in neurologic examination, (2) understanding neurologic disease, and (3) deriving a differential diagnosis. More than 90% (n = 216/239) of students reported achieving goals. Achievers reported significantly higher clerkship satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0, p neurology (71% vs. 35%, p = 0.001), and higher observed tendency toward SDL (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.1 ± 0.8, p neurology clerkship. Goal achievers had better adjusted standardized test scores, higher satisfaction, and greater tendency toward SDL. This student-generated, goal-setting program may be particularly appealing to clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking resource-lean mechanisms to improve student experience and performance in the clinical clerkships. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Large Scale Multi-view Stereopsis Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Vogiatzis, George


    The seminal multiple view stereo benchmark evaluations from Middlebury and by Strecha et al. have played a major role in propelling the development of multi-view stereopsis methodology. Although seminal, these benchmark datasets are limited in scope with few reference scenes. Here, we try to take...... these works a step further by proposing a new multi-view stereo dataset, which is an order of magnitude larger in number of scenes and with a significant increase in diversity. Specifically, we propose a dataset containing 80 scenes of large variability. Each scene consists of 49 or 64 accurate camera...... of the art multiview stereo algorithms of Tola et al., Campbell et al. and Furukawa et al. Hereby we demonstrate the usability of the dataset as well as gain insight into the workings and challenges of multi-view stereopsis. Through these experiments we empirically validate some of the central hypotheses...

  2. Advocacy in neurology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauranik, Apoorva


    ...), launched the Neurological Alliance of Ireland, a nationwide coalition of patient advocacy groups and physicians and authored Standards of Care, the "blueprint" for the development of neurological...

  3. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss


    and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We......Research on the evaluation of large-scale public sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance. The impact of such reforms is considerable. Furthermore they change the context in which evaluations of other...... compare the evaluation process (focus and purpose), the evaluators and the organization of the evaluation as well as the utilization of the evaluation results. The analysis uncovers several significant findings including how the initial organization of the evaluation show strong impact on the utilization...

  4. A Spectrographically Grounded Scale for Evaluating Reading Expressiveness (United States)

    Benjamin, Rebekah George; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Groff, Carolyn; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Steiner, Lilly


    This study evaluated the validity of a new scale for assessing children's reading fluency skill called the Comprehensive Oral Reading Fluency Scale (CORFS). The CORFS consists of two subscales that capture key elements of the Kuhn, Schwanenflugel, and Meisinger (2010) definition of reading fluency: reading expression, reading rate, and accuracy.…

  5. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Ultrasound Evaluation in Intensive Care Unit: Possible Role and Clinical Aspects in Neurological Critical Patients' Daily Monitoring. (United States)

    Toscano, M; Spadetta, G; Pulitano, P; Rocco, M; Di Piero, V; Mecarelli, O; Vicenzini, E


    Background. The increase of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a reliable, noninvasive sonographic marker of intracranial hypertension. Aim of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ONSD evaluation, when monitoring neurocritical patients, to early identify malignant intracranial hypertension in patients with brain death (BD). Methods. Data from ultrasound ONSD evaluation have been retrospectively analyzed in 21 sedated critical patients with neurological diseases who, during their clinical course, developed BD. 31 nonneurological controls were used for standard ONSD reference. Results. Patients with neurological diseases, before BD, showed higher ONSD values than control group (CTRL: RT 0.45 ± 0.03 cm; LT 0.45 ± 0.02 cm; pre-BD: RT 0.54 ± 0.02 cm; LT 0.55 ± 0.02 cm; p evaluated with invasive monitoring. ONSD was further significantly markedly increased in respect to the pre-BD evaluation in neurocritical patients after BD, with mean values above 0.7 cm (RT 0.7 ± 0.02 cm; LT 0.71 ± 0.02 cm; p monitoring could be of help in Intensive Care Units when invasive intracranial pressure monitoring is not available, to early recognize intracranial hypertension and to suspect BD in neurocritical patients.

  6. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  7. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls. (United States)

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara


    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice (United States)

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.


    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  9. Development of a scale to evaluate mobility in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Carneiro Vasconcelos Basto Gonçalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and to assess the psychometric characteristics of a mobility scale for dogs. The original ten questions were reduced using validation process. One hundred and twenty three dog owners were invited to answer the questionnaire. Internal consistency, factor analysis, floor and ceiling effect and construct validity were studied. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha=0.854 was determined with two items eliminated. The instrument comprises 8 final questions, each of which has five possible answers (never, rarely, sometimes, often and always scored between 0 and 4 or between 4 and 0 (for the items with inverse score. Three hypotheses proposed for the construct validity were verified: 1 gender does not influence dog mobility (P=0.584; 2 mobility decreases with age (P<0.001; 3 dogs with orthopaedic or neurological diagnosed pathologies have less mobility (median score (P25; P75 46.9% (31.3; 68.8 than healthy dogs (median score (P25; P75 81.3% (71.9; 93.8 (P<0.001. Total score range was 0 to 32 points, with higher values indicating greater mobility of dogs. The Dog Mobility Scale was capable of assessing mobility in dogs, with good psychometric characteristics, and is simple and inexpensive to apply in clinical practice.

  10. Neurological assessment with validated tools in general ICU: multicenter, randomized, before and after, pragmatic study to evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning platform for continuous medical education. (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Umbrello, Michele; Anania, Stefania; Andrighi, Elisa; DI Carlo, Alessandra; Martinetti, Federica; Barello, Serena; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Formenti, Paolo; Maraffi, Tommaso; Marrazzo, Francesco; Palo, Alessandra; Bellani, Giacomo; Russo, Riccarda; Francesconi, Silvia; Valdambrini, Federico; Cigada, Marco; Riccardi, Francesca; Moja, Egidio A; Iapichino, Gaetano


    International guidelines recommend systematic assessment of pain, agitation/sedation and delirium with validated scales for all ICU patients. However, these evaluations are often not done. We have created an e-learning training platform for the continuous medical education, and assessed its efficacy in increasing the use of validated tools by all medical and nursing staff of the participating ICUs during their daily practice. Multicenter, randomized, before and after study. The eight participating centers were randomized in two groups, and received training at different times. The use of validated tools (Verbal Numeric Rating or Behavioral Pain Scale for pain; Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale for agitation; Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU for delirium) was evaluated from clinical data recorded in medical charts during a week, with follow-up up to six months after the training. All the operators were invited to complete a questionnaire, at baseline and after the training. Among the 374 nurses and physicians involved, 140 (37.4%) completed at least one of the three courses. The assessment of pain (38.1 vs. 92.9%, Pe-learning program shows encouraging effectiveness, and the increase in the use of validated tools for neurological monitoring in critically ill patients lasts over time.

  11. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A


    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  12. An Evaluation Framework for Large-Scale Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun


    An evaluation framework for large-scale network structures is presented, which facilitates evaluations and comparisons of different physical network structures. A number of quantitative and qualitative parameters are presented, and their importance to networks discussed. Choosing a network...... is closed by an example of how the framework can be used. The framework supports network planners in decision-making and researchers in evaluation and development of network structures....

  13. Large Scale Solar Heating:Evaluation, Modelling and Designing


    Heller, Alfred; Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, Simon


    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out based on measurements on the Marstal plant, Denmark, and through comparison with published and unpublished data from other plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performance...

  14. Neurology and neurologic practice in China. (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping


    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  15. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy. (United States)

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin


    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (ppsychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychometric Properties of a Social Abilities Evaluation Scale: C-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rabazo Méndez


    Full Text Available In this paper the psychometric data of a scale of evaluation of the social abilities (social expression and motor skills are presented. The scale was constructed to investigate social competence and antisocial conduct in adolescence. The process of the scale’s construction is explained; and the data on its internal consistency, its test-retest reliability, and its concurrent validity are presented. The scale was filled out by 325 teachers from different schools in the city of Badajoz (Spain; however, 20 scales were rejected because they were not properly completed. As well, the scale was analyzed, giving as a result 9 factors that explain 59.4% of the total variance. With the results obtained, the position of situational specificity with regard to social abilities is supported.

  17. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: evaluation and management of concussion in sports: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (United States)

    Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Ashwal, Stephen; Barth, Jeffrey; Getchius, Thomas S D; Gioia, Gerard A; Gronseth, Gary S; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mandel, Steven; Manley, Geoffrey; McKeag, Douglas B; Thurman, David J; Zafonte, Ross


    To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 3) What clinical factors identify those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early postconcussion impairments, neurologic catastrophe, recurrent concussions, or chronic neurobehavioral impairment? 4) What interventions enhance recovery, reduce recurrent concussion risk, or diminish long-term sequelae? The complete guideline on which this summary is based is available as an online data supplement to this article. We systematically reviewed the literature from 1955 to June 2012 for pertinent evidence. We assessed evidence for quality and synthesized into conclusions using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process. We used a modified Delphi process to develop recommendations. Specific risk factors can increase or decrease concussion risk. Diagnostic tools to help identify individuals with concussion include graded symptom checklists, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, neuropsychological assessments, and the Balance Error Scoring System. Ongoing clinical symptoms, concussion history, and younger age identify those at risk for postconcussion impairments. Risk factors for recurrent concussion include history of multiple concussions, particularly within 10 days after initial concussion. Risk factors for chronic neurobehavioral impairment include concussion exposure and APOE ε4 genotype. Data are insufficient to show that any intervention enhances recovery or diminishes long-term sequelae postconcussion. Practice recommendations are presented for preparticipation counseling, management of suspected concussion, and management of diagnosed concussion.

  18. Evaluation of a wireless, portable, wearable multi-parameter vital signs monitor in hospitalized neurological and neurosurgical patients. (United States)

    Weller, Robert S; Foard, Kristina L; Harwood, Timothy N


    Unrecognized changes in patients' vital signs can result in preventable deaths in hospitalized patients. Few publications or studies instituting routine patient monitoring have described implementation and the setting of alarm parameters for vital signs. We wanted to determine if continuous multi-parameter patient monitoring can be accomplished with an alarm rate that is acceptable to hospital floor nurses and to compare the rate of patient deterioration events to those observed with routine vital sign monitoring. We conducted a prospective, observational, 5-month pilot study in a 26-bed adult, neurological/neurosurgical unit (non-ICU) in an academic medical center. A patient surveillance system employing a wireless body-worn vital signs monitor with automated nursing notification of alarms via smartphones was used to gather data. Data collected included: alarm rates, rapid response team (RRT) calls, intensive care unit (ICU) transfers, and unplanned deaths before and during the pilot study. Average alarm rate for all alarms (SpO2, HR, RR, NIBP) was 2.3 alarms/patient/day. The RRT call rate was significantly reduced (p monitoring can be customized to reduce a high alarm rates, and may reduce rapid response team calls.

  19. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2. Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03 and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05. Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  20. Methods for evaluation of small scale quality improvement projects. (United States)

    Harvey, G; Wensing, M


    Evaluation is an integral component of quality improvement and there is much to be learned from the evaluation of small scale quality improvement initiatives at a local level. This type of evaluation is useful for a number of different reasons including monitoring the impact of local projects, identifying and dealing with issues as they arise within a project, comparing local projects to draw lessons, and collecting more detailed information as part of a bigger evaluation project. Focused audits and developmental studies can be used for evaluation within projects, while methods such as multiple case studies and process evaluations can be used to draw generalised lessons from local experiences and to provide examples of successful projects. Evaluations of small scale quality improvement projects help those involved in improvement initiatives to optimise their choice of interventions and use of resources. Important information to add to the knowledge base of quality improvement in health care can be derived by undertaking formal evaluation of local projects, particularly in relation to building theory around the processes of implementation and increasing understanding of the complex change processes involved.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and of the Short Parkinson's Evaluation Scale. (United States)

    Martignoni, E; Franchignoni, F; Pasetti, C; Ferriero, G; Picco, D


    The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation) and construct validity (factor analysis, intercorrelations, and relationship with Hoehn and Yahr staging and Schwab and England's ADL scale) of the sections "motor examination" and "activities of daily living" of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and of the Short Parkinson's Evaluation Scale (SPES) were analyzed in 59 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) with various degrees of disability. Our results indicate that the SPES is easier and quicker than UPDRS and that it maintains many psychometric properties similar to those of the UPDRS, but with the reduction of a number of items and ordinal levels of each item studied here (producing more homogenous sections than the original versions). The tremor items would be better represented as a separate section in both scales.

  2. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine]. (United States)

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor


    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  3. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  4. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei


    Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...... wind farm which is able to enhance a capability of delivering a power instead of controlling an uncontrollable output of wind power. Therefore, this paper introduces a method to evaluate the reliability depending upon structures of wind farm and to reflect the result to the planning stage of wind farm....

  5. Evaluation of Brain and Cervical MRI Abnormality Rates in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Neurological Manifestations


    Seyed Reza Najafizadeh; Hazhir Saberi; Mohammad Hossein Harirchian; Seyed Ahad Hashemi


    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been observed in 14-80% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an appropriate method for evaluating CNS involvement in these patients. Clinical manifestations and MRI findings of CNS lupus should be differentiated from other mimicking diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS).Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of brain and cervical cord MRI lesions...

  6. Proprioceptive reflexes and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.C.


    Proprioceptive reflexes play an important role during the control of movement and posture. Disturbed modulation of proprioceptive reflexes is often suggested as the cause for the motoric features present in neurological disorders. In this thesis methods are developed and evaluated to quantify

  7. Chapter 38: American neurology. (United States)

    Freemon, Frank R


    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.

  8. Neurological aspects of vibroacoustic disease. (United States)

    Martinho Pimenta, A J; Castelo Branco, N A


    Mood and behavioral abnormalities are the most common early findings related to vibroacoustic disease (VAD). Other signs and symptoms have been observed in VAD patients. Brain MRI discloses small multifocal lesions in about 50% of subjects with more than 10 yr of occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude (> or = 90 dB SPL) and low frequency (< or = 500 Hz) (LPALF) noise. However, to date, there have been no studies globally integrating all the neurological, imaging and neurophysiological data of VAD patients. This is the main goal of this study. The 60 male Caucasians diagnosed with VAD were neurologically evaluated in extreme detail in order to systematically identify the most common and significant neurological disturbances in VAD. This population demonstrates cognitive changes (identified through psychological and neurophysiological studies (ERP P300)), vertigo and auditory changes, visual impairment, epilepsy, and cerebrovascular diseases. Neurological examination reveals pathological signs and reflexes, most commonly the palmo-mental reflex. A vascular pattern underlying the multifocal hyperintensities in T2 MR imaging, with predominant involvement of the small arteries of the white matter, is probably the visible organic substratum of the neurological picture. However, other pathophyisological mechanisms are involved in epileptic symptomatology.

  9. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women


    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su; Lee, Hae-Hyeog


    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured...

  10. Acupuncture application for neurological disorders. (United States)

    Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Park, Jongbae; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, Meesuk; Yang, Jongsoo; Choi, Sunmi; Lee, Hyejung


    Acupuncture has been widely used for a range of neurological disorders. Despite its popularity, the evidence to support the use of acupuncture is contradictory. This review was designed to summarize and to evaluate the available evidence of acupuncture for neurological disorders. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from lack of methodological rigor. Owing to paucity and poor quality of the primary studies, no firm conclusion could be drawn on the use of acupuncture for epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ataxic disorders, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. For stroke rehabilitation, the evidence from recent high-quality trials and previous systematic reviews is not convincing. More rigorous trials are warranted to establish acupuncture's role in neurological disorders.

  11. MRI and neurological findings in patients with spinal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switlyk, M.D.; Hole, K.H.; Knutstad, K. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail:; Skjeldal, S.; Zaikova, O. [Department of Orthopedics, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hald, J.K. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Seierstad, T. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen (Norway)


    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the recommended primary investigation method for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Initiating treatment before the development of motor deficits is essential to preserve neurological function. However, the relationship between MRI-assessed grades of spinal metastatic disease and neurological status has not been widely investigated. Purpose. To analyze the association between neurological function and MRI-based assessment of the extent of spinal metastases using two different grading systems. Material and Methods. A total of 284 patients admitted to our institution for initial radiotherapy or surgery for symptomatic spinal metastases were included in the study. Motor and sensory deficits were categorized according to the Frankel classification system. Pre-treatment MRI evaluations of the entire spine were scored for the extent of spinal metastases, presence and severity of spinal cord compression, and nerve root compression. Two MRI-based scales were used to evaluate the degree of cord compression and spinal canal narrowing and relate these findings to neurological function. Results. Of the patients included in the study, 28 were non-ambulatory, 49 were ambulatory with minor motor deficits, and 207 had normal motor function. Spinal cord compression was present in all patients with Frankel scores of B or C, 23 of 35 patients with a Frankel score of D (66%), and 48 of 152 patients with a Frankel score of E (32%). The percentage of patients with severe spinal canal narrowing increased with increasing Frankel grades. The grading according to the scales showed a significant association with the symptoms according to the Frankel scale (P < 0.001). Conclusion. In patients with neurological dysfunction, the presence and severity of impairment was associated with the epidural tumor burden. A significant number of patients had radiological spinal cord compression and normal motor function (occult MSCC)

  12. Further Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Kreeger, Richard E.


    The paper will present experimental results from two recent icing tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The first test, conducted in February 2009, was to evaluate the current recommended scaling methods for fixed wing on representative rotor airfoils at fixed angle of attack. For this test, scaling was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity determined by constant Weber number and water film Weber number. Models were un-swept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 91.4 cm and scale model had a chord of 35.6 cm. Reference tests were conducted with velocity of 100 kt (52 m/s), droplet medium volume diameter (MVD) 195 m, and stagnation-point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5 at angle of attack of 5deg and 7deg . It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved with constant Weber number for NACA 0012 airfoils with angle of attack up to 7deg . The second test, completed in May 2010, was primarily focused on obtaining transient and steady-state iced aerodynamics, ice accretion and shedding, and thermal icing validation data from an oscillating airfoil section over some selected ranges of icing conditions and blade assembly operational configurations. The model used was a 38.1-cm chord Sikorsky SC2110 airfoil section installed on an airfoil test apparatus with oscillating capability in the IRT. For two test conditions, size and condition scaling were performed. It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved for SC2110 airfoil at dynamic pitching motion. The data obtained will be applicable for future main rotor blade and tail rotor blade applications.

  13. [Application of psychophysics to neurology]. (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi


    Although psychophysics has already been used in many neurological evaluations including the visual and hearing tests, the use of psychophysics has been limited to the evaluation of sensory disorders. In this review paper, however, the author introduced recent attempts to apply psychophysics to the evaluation of higher cognitive functions such as perception of scenes and facial expressions. Psychophysics was also used to measure visual hypersensitivity in a patient with migraine. The benefits of the use of psychophysics in neurological and neuropsychological settings would be as follows. (1) We can evaluate higher cognitive functions quantitatively. (2) We can measure performance both above and below the normal range by the same method. (3) We can use the same stimulus and task as other research areas such as neuroscience and neuroimaging, and compare results between research areas.

  14. Genetics of neurological disorders. (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes


    Neurological diseases are defined as an inappropriate function of the peripheral or central nervous system due to impaired electrical impulses throughout the brain and/or nervous system that may present with heterogeneous symptoms according to the parts of the system involved in these pathologic processes. Growing evidence on genetic components of neurological disease have been collected during recent years. Genetic studies have opened the way for understanding the underlying pathology of many neurological disorders. The outcome of current intense research into the genetics of neurological disorders will hopefully be the introduction of new diagnostic tools and the discovery of potential targets for new and more effective medications and preventive measures.

  15. Focal neurological deficits (United States)

    ... or head Electromyogram (EMG), nerve conduction velocities (NCV) MRI of the back, neck, or head Spinal tap Alternative Names Neurological deficits - focal Images Brain References Daroff RB, Jankovic ...

  16. [Postpolio syndrome. Neurologic and psychiatric aspects]. (United States)

    Weber, M-A; Schönknecht, P; Pilz, J; Storch-Hagenlocher, B


    Postpolio syndrome is defined as a clinical syndrome of new pareses in individuals who had been affected by acute paralytic poliomyelitis years before. The objective of this study was to describe neurologic and psychiatric signs of the disease. We evaluated the clinical signs and treatment of 16 patients with postpolio syndrome. Possible symptoms of depression were evaluated by the Hamilton and Geriatric Depression Scales. Postpolio syndrome manifested at a median age of 57.5 years (range 25-73) in a median of 41 years (range 16-70 years) after acute poliomyelitis. Muscles already affected during acute poliomyelitis were affected in all patients with postpolio syndrome. Six of 16 patients (37.5%) developed paresis in muscles formerly not affected by acute poliomyelitis. In eight of 15 patients (53%), depressive episodes were recognized according to the ICD-10 criteria. Symptoms of depression should be recognized in patients with postpolio syndrome and incorporated in therapy based on physiotherapy.

  17. The hemostatic system in canine neurology: study of the fibrinolytic activity in cerebrospinal fluid in neurological disorders and evaluation of tissue factor expression, fibrin/fibrinogen deposition and fibrinolysis in canine gliomas


    de la Fuente Hernández, Cristian


    La neurología es una de las especialidades veterinarias que más ha evolucionado en los últimos años. Los avances médicos junto a la demanda de la sociedad para diagnosticar y tratar enfermedades neurológicas en perros han contribuido a una mayor compresión de la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades. Aún así, la etiología de ciertas enfermedades sigue siendo desconocida, lo que limita el diagnóstico y tratamiento en muchos casos. La necesidad de nuevas líneas de investigación es clara. Estudio...

  18. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale (United States)

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos


    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.


    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  20. Kinect V2 Performance Assessment in Daily-Life Gestures: Cohort Study on Healthy Subjects for a Reference Database for Automated Instrumental Evaluations on Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Scano


    Full Text Available Background. The increase of sanitary costs related to poststroke rehabilitation requires new sustainable and cost-effective strategies for promoting autonomous and dehospitalized motor training. In the Riprendo@Home and Future Home for Future Communities research projects, the promising approach of introducing low-cost technologies that promote home rehabilitation is exploited. In order to provide reliable evaluation of patients, a reference database of healthy people’s performances is required and should consider variability related to healthy people performances. Methods. 78 healthy subjects performed several repetitions of daily-life gestures, the reaching movement (RM and hand-to-mouth (HtMM movement with both the dominant and nondominant upper limbs. Movements were recorded with a Kinect V2. A synthetic biomechanical protocol based on kinematical, dynamical, and motor control parameters was used to assess motor performance of the healthy people. The investigation was conducted by clustering participants depending on their limb dominancy (right/left, gender (male/female, and age (young/middle/senior as sources of variability. Results. Results showed that limb dominancy has minor relevance in affecting RM and HtMM; gender has relevance in affecting the HtMM; age has major effect in affecting RM and HtMM. Conclusions. An investigation of healthy subjects’ upper limb performances during daily-life gestures was performed with the Kinect V2 sensor. Findings will be the basis for a database of normative data for neurological patients’ motor evaluation.

  1. Neurologic Outcomes of Complex Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenke, Lawrence G; Fehlings, Michael G; Shaffrey, Christopher I


    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, international observational study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor neurologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for complex adult spinal deformity (ASD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The neurologic outcomes after surgical correction for ASD have been repo...

  2. Neurological evaluation of the selection stage of metaphor comprehension in individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Chouinard, Brea; Volden, Joanne; Cribben, Ivor; Cummine, Jacqueline


    Because of their difficulties with figurative language in conversation, it is commonly thought that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not understand figurative meaning. However, recent research indicates that individuals with and without ASD are similar in the first two stages of metaphor comprehension, up to and including successful generation of the figurative meaning. In the current study, we used a sentence decision task to evaluate the subsequent stage of metaphor comprehension, the selection stage, which requires suppression/inhibition of the unintended meaning as part of selecting the intended meaning. fMRI activation and functional connectivity were used to compare the selection stage of metaphor comprehension between high-functioning individuals with ASD and carefully matched controls. Cortical and subcortical regions of interest were selected based on the basal-ganglia model of cognitive control. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD recruited greater activation in regions related to verbal memory (thalamus), semantic associations (medial temporal gyrus), and basic visual processing (middle occipital gyrus). Functional connectivity analysis revealed fewer overall connections and cortical-subcortical connections in the ASD group compared to controls. There was a novel finding of maintenance of subcortical-subcortical connectivity in the ASD group, specific to the selection condition, despite differences in cortically involved connections. Reduced cortical-subcortical connectivity in the ASD group compared to controls may reflect a more global impairment in cognitive control pathways, while consistent subcortical-subcortical connectivity may reflect systemic inflexibility or preserved subcortical function and dissociation between subcortical and cortical systems. Further investigation is required. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Apathy in untreated, de novo patients with Parkinson's disease: validation study of Apathy Evaluation Scale. (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Cuoco, Sofia; Raimo, Simona; Pezzella, Domenica; Picillo, Marina; Erro, Roberto; Moccia, Marcello; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Amboni, Marianna; Santangelo, Franco; Franco, Santangelo; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi; Vitale, Carmine


    Apathy is a behavioural disturbance occurring alone or in concomitance with depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we present a validation study for the self-report version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S), carried out in a sample of 60 non-demented, non-depressed untreated, drug-naïve, de novo PD patients; 20 patients of the sample (33.3%) were classified as apathetic according to current clinical criteria. All enrolled patients completed the AES-S and a neurological and cognitive assessment. Mean AES-S score was 34.43. AES-S did not show floor or ceiling effect. Cronbach's alpha was 0.872. Principal component analysis revealed three factors: the first (34.4% of the variance) represented constitutive aspects of the construct of apathy; the second (8.5% of the variance) represented a social dimension; the third factor (7.9% of the variance) represented a dimension related to insight. With respect to clinical criteria for apathy considered as the gold standard, receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that a cut-off of 36/37 has the maximum discrimination power. High sensitivity and negative predictive values were obtained with cut-off scores of 33/34 or lower; high specificity and positive predictive values were obtained with cut-off scores of 38/39 or higher. AES-S score correlated with scores on frontal tasks, but not on Beck Depression Inventory, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr scale. The AES-S is a reliable and valid questionnaire for detecting apathy in PD. For screening purposes a 33/34 cut-off score is indicated, but a 38/39 cut-off score is necessary when a high specificity is desired.

  4. Functional neurological disorders: imaging. (United States)

    Voon, V


    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS × What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS See More About Research The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( ...

  6. The construction and evaluation of a scale of employee empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Cloete


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a scale of employee empowerment that may benefit organisational transformation. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire consisting of 90 items was developed and administered to 164 respondents within a large metropolitan council. The study indicated that the Employee Empowerment Questionnaire is highly reliable (rxx=0,982 and sensitive to group differences.Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ‘n skaal van werknemer-bemagtiging vir organisasie-transformasiedoeleindes te konstrueer en te evalueer. ‘n Werknemer-bemagtigingsvraelys, bestaande uit 90 items is ontwikkel en toegepas op 164 respondente in ‘n plaaslike owerheid. Die studie het aangedui dat die Werknemerbemagtigingsvraelys hoogs betroubaar (rxx=0,982 en sensitief vir groepsverskille is.

  7. Evaluation of aerosol processes between roadside and neighbourhood scale (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Pirjola, Liisa; Keuken, Menno P.


    Particle emissions from road transport include vehicle exhaust emissions, tire/brake wear and re-suspension of road dust. Vehicle exhaust emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultrafine particles (UFP), i.e. particles with diameters air pollution legislation. UFP emitted from road traffic are subject to complex dilution and transformation processes in the urban environment. This model study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on PN concentration on the spatial and temporal range between the roadside, typically represented by measurements at a traffic monitoring site, and the neighbourhood scale, extending from several hundred meters to several kilometres. Several dispersion scenarios for the cities Oslo, Helsinki and Rotterdam were simulated using the multicomponent aerosol dynamics process model MAFOR, approximating dilution by a power-law function. Aerosol processes considered in this study were condensation/evaporation of n-alkanes, coagulation and the dry deposition of particles. Under typical dispersion conditions dilution clearly dominated the change of total PN on the neighbourhood scale. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamical processes controlling the removal of particles from emitted from vehicular exhaust on urban time scales. The effect of condensation/evaporation of organic vapours emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. A simplified parameterization for the implementation of coagulation and dry deposition of particles in urban air quality models is presented. Further work is needed to validate size segregated PN concentration distributions modelled by the urban models.

  8. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.


    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  9. Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials and functional brain magnetic resonance in the evaluation of neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest: a case study of three patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanatta Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract This case series investigates whether painful electrical stimulation increases the early prognostic value of both somatosensory-evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Three single cases with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were considered. A neurophysiological evaluation with an electroencephalogram and somatosensory-evoked potentials during increased electrical stimulation in both median nerves was performed within five days of cardiac arrest. Each patient also underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with the same neurophysiological protocol one month after cardiac arrest. One patient, who completely recovered, showed a middle latency component at a high intensity of stimulation and the activation of all brain areas involved in cerebral pain processing. One patient in a minimally conscious state only showed the cortical somatosensory response and the activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. The last patient, who was in a vegetative state, did not show primary somatosensory evoked potentials; only the activation of subcortical brain areas occurred. These preliminary findings suggest that the pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials performed to increase the prognosis of comatose patients after cardiac arrest are associated with regional brain activity showed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during median nerves electrical stimulation. More importantly, this cases report also suggests that somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging during painful electrical stimulation may be sensitive and complementary methods to predict the neurological outcome in the acute phase of coma. Thus, pain-related somatosensory-evoked potentials may be a reliable and a cost-effective tool for planning the early diagnostic evaluation of comatose patients.

  10. Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials and functional brain magnetic resonance in the evaluation of neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest: a case study of three patients. (United States)

    Zanatta, Paolo; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Baldanzi, Fabrizio; Bendini, Matteo; Saccavini, Marsilio; Tamari, Wadih; Palomba, Daniela; Bosco, Enrico


    This case series investigates whether painful electrical stimulation increases the early prognostic value of both somatosensory-evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Three single cases with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were considered. A neurophysiological evaluation with an electroencephalogram and somatosensory-evoked potentials during increased electrical stimulation in both median nerves was performed within five days of cardiac arrest. Each patient also underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with the same neurophysiological protocol one month after cardiac arrest. One patient, who completely recovered, showed a middle latency component at a high intensity of stimulation and the activation of all brain areas involved in cerebral pain processing. One patient in a minimally conscious state only showed the cortical somatosensory response and the activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. The last patient, who was in a vegetative state, did not show primary somatosensory evoked potentials; only the activation of subcortical brain areas occurred. These preliminary findings suggest that the pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials performed to increase the prognosis of comatose patients after cardiac arrest are associated with regional brain activity showed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during median nerves electrical stimulation. More importantly, this cases report also suggests that somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging during painful electrical stimulation may be sensitive and complementary methods to predict the neurological outcome in the acute phase of coma. Thus, pain-related somatosensory-evoked potentials may be a reliable and a cost-effective tool for planning the early diagnostic evaluation of comatose patients.

  11. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders. (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim


    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurology in Asia. (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin


    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Neurology and international organizations. (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J


    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  14. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents. (United States)

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  15. Respondingness and demandingness: two scales to evaluate parenting styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabiana T da Costa; Marco A P Teixeira; William B Gomes


    ...). According to these scales levels, it is possible to categorize four parenting styles. The scales were administred to 378 adolescents of both sexes and showed satisfactory reliability coefficients...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY


    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature.MethodsThis prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed.ResultsIn neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5% of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations.ConclusionIt is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  17. A large-scale evaluation of computational protein function prediction. (United States)

    Radivojac, Predrag; Clark, Wyatt T; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Schnoes, Alexandra M; Wittkop, Tobias; Sokolov, Artem; Graim, Kiley; Funk, Christopher; Verspoor, Karin; Ben-Hur, Asa; Pandey, Gaurav; Yunes, Jeffrey M; Talwalkar, Ameet S; Repo, Susanna; Souza, Michael L; Piovesan, Damiano; Casadio, Rita; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Jianlin; Fang, Hai; Gough, Julian; Koskinen, Patrik; Törönen, Petri; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Holm, Liisa; Cozzetto, Domenico; Buchan, Daniel W A; Bryson, Kevin; Jones, David T; Limaye, Bhakti; Inamdar, Harshal; Datta, Avik; Manjari, Sunitha K; Joshi, Rajendra; Chitale, Meghana; Kihara, Daisuke; Lisewski, Andreas M; Erdin, Serkan; Venner, Eric; Lichtarge, Olivier; Rentzsch, Robert; Yang, Haixuan; Romero, Alfonso E; Bhat, Prajwal; Paccanaro, Alberto; Hamp, Tobias; Kaßner, Rebecca; Seemayer, Stefan; Vicedo, Esmeralda; Schaefer, Christian; Achten, Dominik; Auer, Florian; Boehm, Ariane; Braun, Tatjana; Hecht, Maximilian; Heron, Mark; Hönigschmid, Peter; Hopf, Thomas A; Kaufmann, Stefanie; Kiening, Michael; Krompass, Denis; Landerer, Cedric; Mahlich, Yannick; Roos, Manfred; Björne, Jari; Salakoski, Tapio; Wong, Andrew; Shatkay, Hagit; Gatzmann, Fanny; Sommer, Ingolf; Wass, Mark N; Sternberg, Michael J E; Škunca, Nives; Supek, Fran; Bošnjak, Matko; Panov, Panče; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav; Kourmpetis, Yiannis A I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Gong, Qingtian; Dong, Xinran; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Di Camillo, Barbara; Toppo, Stefano; Lan, Liang; Djuric, Nemanja; Guo, Yuhong; Vucetic, Slobodan; Bairoch, Amos; Linial, Michal; Babbitt, Patricia C; Brenner, Steven E; Orengo, Christine; Rost, Burkhard; Mooney, Sean D; Friedberg, Iddo


    Automated annotation of protein function is challenging. As the number of sequenced genomes rapidly grows, the overwhelming majority of protein products can only be annotated computationally. If computational predictions are to be relied upon, it is crucial that the accuracy of these methods be high. Here we report the results from the first large-scale community-based critical assessment of protein function annotation (CAFA) experiment. Fifty-four methods representing the state of the art for protein function prediction were evaluated on a target set of 866 proteins from 11 organisms. Two findings stand out: (i) today's best protein function prediction algorithms substantially outperform widely used first-generation methods, with large gains on all types of targets; and (ii) although the top methods perform well enough to guide experiments, there is considerable need for improvement of currently available tools.

  18. Evaluation of Effective Microorganisms on home scale organic waste composting. (United States)

    Fan, Yee Van; Lee, Chew Tin; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Chua, Lee Suan; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Leow, Chee Woh


    Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition. As assayed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the functional group of humic acid was initially dominated by aliphatic structure but was dominated by the aromatic in the final compost. The EM compost has a sharper peak of aromatic CC bond presenting a better degree of humification. Compost with EM achieved a slightly higher temperature at the early stage, with foul odour suppressed, enhanced humification process and a greater fat reduction (73%). No significant difference was found for the final composts inoculated with and without EM. The properties included pH (∼7), electric conductivity (∼2), carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C: N 100%), humic acid content (4.5-4.8%) and pathogen content (no Salmonella, compost has a higher nitrogen content (+1.5%). The overall results suggested the positive effect provided by EM notably in odour control and humification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurological diseases and pain


    Borsook, David


    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequentl...

  20. Childhood acute bacterial meningitis: risk factors for acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae. (United States)

    Antoniuk, Sérgio A; Hamdar, Fátima; Ducci, Renata D; Kira, Ariane T F; Cat, Mônica N L; Cruz, Cristina R da


    To assess acute neurological complications and neurological sequelae of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in order to determine possible warning signs. This retrospective study evaluated children with acute bacterial meningitis (between 1 month and 14 years of age) admitted between 2003 and 2006. Of the 44 patients studied, 17 (38.6%) had acute neurological complications. Seizure was the most frequent (31.8%) complication. Patients with acute neurological complications showed a higher frequency of lower neutrophil count (p = 0.03), seizure at admission (p 200 mg/dL (p < 0.01), and cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio (p < 0.01) were identified as risk variables for sequelae. Neutrophil count < 60%, seizure at admission, and S. pneumoniae as the etiologic agent were identified as warning signs for acute neurological complications, while protein levels, cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration/glycemia ratio, and seizure at admission were seen as risk factors for neurological sequelae.

  1. Symptom prevalence, severity and palliative care needs assessment using the Palliative Outcome Scale: a cross-sectional study of patients with Parkinson's disease and related neurological conditions. (United States)

    Saleem, Tariq Z; Higginson, Irene J; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Martin, Anne; Burman, Rachel; Leigh, P Nigel


    Palliative care is rarely being offered to patients with Parkinson's disease. To assess symptom prevalence, severity and palliative care needs in advanced stages of Parkinsonism. A cross-sectional survey using a palliative care assessment tool, the Palliative Outcome Scale was administered to patients. Eight-two patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, multiple systems atrophy or progressive supranuclear palsy were included in the study. Their mean age and disease stages 3-5 Hoehn and Yahr were 67 years and 4.1, respectively. Patients reported a mean of 10.7 (standard deviation = 3.9) physical symptoms. Over 80% had pain, fatigue, day time somnolence and problems with mobility. Other symptoms in 50%-80% included constipation, loss of bladder control, swallowing difficulties, drooling, breathlessness and sleep problems. Symptoms rated as causing severe problems were pain, fatigue, constipation and drooling. Assessment of mood revealed 70% of the patients felt anxiety and 60% had felt depressed. Eight-five per cent felt their families were anxious or worried about them. Thirty-eight per cent would have liked more information and 42% had practical problems that still needed to be addressed. There was a positive correlation between number of symptoms and disease severity (r = 0.39, p = 0.01). The total mean Palliative Outcome Scale score was 13.6 (standard deviation = 6.1), suggesting moderate palliative care needs. This is the first study to describe the care needs of people with Parkinson's disease using the Palliative Outcome Scale tool. The burden of symptoms and concerns was high in advanced stages of disease. It might be appropriate that people severely affected by these conditions should be considered for referral to specialist palliative care services.

  2. Evaluation of the osteoporosis health belief scale in korean women. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su; Lee, Hae-Hyeog


    The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population.

  3. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.


    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  4. Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria. (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Deforche, Benedicte; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien


    The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix - diversity, land use mix - access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 -0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 -0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement

  5. Validity of a Neurological Scoring System for Canine X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy (United States)

    Meisner, Allison; Mack, David; Goddard, Melissa; Coulter, Ian T.; Grange, Robert; Childers, Martin K.


    Abstract A simple clinical neurological test was developed to evaluate response to gene therapy in a preclinical canine model of X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). This devastating congenital myopathy is caused by mutation in the myotubularin (MTM1) gene. Clinical signs include muscle weakness, early respiratory failure, and ventilator dependence. A spontaneously occurring canine model has a similar clinical picture and histological abnormalities on muscle biopsy compared with patients. We developed a neuromuscular assessment score, graded on a scale from 10 (normal) to 1 (unable to maintain sternal recumbency). We hypothesize that this neurological assessment score correlates with genotype and established measures of disease severity and is reliable when performed by an independent observer. At 17 weeks of age, there was strong correlation between neurological assessment scores and established methods of severity testing. The neurological severity score correctly differentiated between XLMTM and wild-type dogs with good interobserver reliability, on the basis of strong agreement between neurological scores assigned by independent observers. Together, these data indicate that the neurological scoring system developed for this canine congenital neuromuscular disorder is reliable and valid. This scoring system may be helpful in evaluating response to therapy in preclinical testing in this disease model, such as response to gene therapy. PMID:26086764

  6. Evaluation of two pollutant dispersion models over continental scales (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.; Walker, H.; Klepikova, N.; Kostrikov, A.; Zhuk, Y.

    Two long-range, emergency response models—one based on the particle-in-cell method of pollutant representation (ADPIC/U.S.) the other based on the superposition of Gaussian puffs released periodically in time (EXPRESS/Russia)—are evaluated using perfluorocarbon tracer data from the Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). The purpose of the study is to assess our current capabilities for simulating continental-scale dispersion processes and to use these assessments as a means to improve our modeling tools. The criteria for judging model performance are based on protocols devised by the Environmental Protection Agency and on other complementary tests. Most of these measures require the formation and analysis of surface concentration footprints (the surface manifestations of tracer clouds, which are sampled over 24-h intervals), whose dimensions, center-of-mass coordinates and integral characteristics provide a basis for comparing observed and calculated concentration distributions. Generally speaking, the plumes associated with the 20 releases of perfluorocarbon (10 each from sources at Glasgow, MT and St. Cloud, MN) in January 1987, are poorly resolved by the sampling network when the source-to-receptor distances are less than about 1000 km. Within this undersampled region, both models chronically overpredict the sampler concentrations. Given this tendency, the computed areas of the surface footprints and their integral concentrations are likewise excessive. When the actual plumes spread out sufficiently for reasonable resolution, the observed ( O) and calculated ( C) footprint areas are usually within a factor of two of one another, thereby suggesting that the models possess some skill in the prediction of long-range diffusion. Deviations in the O and C plume trajectories, as measured by the distances of separation between the plume centroids, are on the other of 125 km d -1 for both models. It appears that the inability of the models to simulate large-scale

  7. [Neurology and literature]. (United States)

    Iniesta, I


    Literature complements medical literature in the academic and clinical development of neurologists. The present article explores the contributions of writers of fiction on neurology. Literary works of fiction with particular reference to neurology. A symbiosis between writers of fiction and doctors has been well recognised. From Shakespeare to Cervantes by way of Dickens and Cela to writer - physicians such as Anton Chekhov or António Lobo Antunes have contributed through their medically informed literature to the better understanding of neurology. Some writers like Dostoevsky, Machado de Assis and Margiad Evans have written about their own experiences with disease thus bringing new insights to medicine. Furthermore, some neurological disorders have been largely based on literary descriptions. For instance, Dostoevsky's epilepsy has been retrospectively analysed by famous neurologists including Freud, Alajouanine or Gastaut, whilst his writings and biography have prompted others like Waxman and Geschwind to describe typical behavioural changes in temporal lobe epilepsy, finding their source of inspiration in Dostoevsky. Likewise, Cirignotta et al have named an unusual type of seizure after the Russian novelist. Inspired by Lewis Carroll, Todd introduced the term Alice in Wonderland Syndrome to refer to visual distortions generally associated with migraine. Writers of fiction offer a humanised perception of disease by contributing new insights into the clinical history, informing about the subjective experience of the illness and helping to eradicate the stigma associated to neurological disorders.

  8. Suicide in Neurologic Illness. (United States)

    Arciniegas, David B.; Anderson, C. Alan


    The risk of attempted or completed suicide is increased in patients with migraine with aura, epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Huntington's disease. Contrary to the general perception that the risk of suicide among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementing conditions is low, several reports suggest that the risk of suicide in these patients increases relative to the general population. Some patients at risk for neurologic disorders are also at increased risk for suicide; in particular, the risk of suicide is increased among persons at risk for Huntington's disease, independent of the presence or absence of the Huntington's gene mutation. The risk of attempted or completed suicide in neurologic illness is strongly associated with depression, feelings of hopelessness or helplessness, and social isolation. Additional suicide risk factors in persons with neurologic illness include cognitive impairment, relatively younger age (under 60 years), moderate physical disability, recent onset or change in illness, a lack of future plans or perceived meaning in life, recent losses (personal, occupational, or financial), and prior history of psychiatric illness or suicidal behavior. Substance dependence, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders (eg, borderline personality disorder) may also contribute to increased risk of suicide among persons with neurologic illnesses. Identification and aggressive treatment of psychiatric problems, especially depression, as well as reduction of modifiable suicide risk factors among patients with neurologic illness is needed to reduce the risk of attempted and completed suicide in this population.

  9. [Neurological soft signs in pervasive developmental disorders]. (United States)

    Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M O


    Many studies have focused on specific motor signs in autism and Asperger's syndrome, but few has been published on the complete range of neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Scarce are the studies evaluating NSS in children suffering from PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). This study compared performance of 11 autistic children (AD) and 10 children with PDDNOS, with controls matched on age, sex and cognitive performance on Krebs et al.'s NSS scale. Because of the duration of the assessments and specific difficulties encountered in managing some items, an adaptation of the scale had to be made during a pilot study with the agreement of the author. To be eligible, patients had to meet the following inclusion criteria: an age range of 6-16 years, a diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDDNOS based on the DSM IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association 1994). The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) was used in order to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the association of the symptoms to the severity of the NSS. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was completed for the patients in order to evaluate symptoms at the time of the NSS examination. Cognitive ability was assessed with Raven's progressive matrices. Were excluded patients with: history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, known genetic syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma, Asperger's syndrome, obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that would interfere with neurological assessment, deep mental retardation and recent or chronic substance use or abuse. Healthy controls shared the same exclusion criteria, with no personal history of neurological, psychiatric disorder or substance abuse, no family history of psychiatric disorder and normal or retardation in schooling. All study procedures were approved by the local Ethics Committee (Comité d

  10. [Neurological sleep disorders]. (United States)

    Khatami, Ramin


    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  11. The neurological disease ontology. (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Cox, Alexander P; Chaudhry, Naveed; Ng, Marcus; Sule, Donat; Duncan, William; Ray, Patrick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Smith, Barry; Ruttenberg, Alan; Szigeti, Kinga; Diehl, Alexander D


    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'disease course', and 'disorder'. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data

  12. [Early prediction of the neurological result at 12 months in newborns at neurological risk]. (United States)

    Herbón, F; Garibotti, G; Moguilevsky, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Amiel-Tison neurological examination (AT) and cranial ultrasound at term for predicting the neurological result at 12 months in newborns with neurological risk. The study included 89 newborns with high risk of neurological damage, who were discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care of the Hospital Zonal Bariloche, Argentina. The assessment consisted of a neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term, and neurological examination and evaluation of development at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictor value was calculated. The relationship between perinatal factors and neurodevelopment at 12 month of age was also calculated using logistic regression models. Seventy children completed the follow-up. At 12 months of age, 14% had an abnormal neurological examination, and 17% abnormal development. The neurological examination and the cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity to predict abnormal neurodevelopment. At 12 months, 93% of newborns with normal AT showed normal neurological results, and 86% normal development. Among newborns with normal cranial ultrasound the percentages were 90 and 81%, respectively. Among children with three or more perinatal risk factors, the frequency of abnormalities in the neurological response was 5.4 times higher than among those with fewer risk factors, and abnormal development was 3.5 times more frequent. The neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity but high negative predictive value for the neurodevelopment at 12 months. Three or more perinatal risk factors were associated with neurodevelopment abnormalities at 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurologic Diseases and Sleep. (United States)

    Barone, Daniel A; Chokroverty, Sudansu


    Sleep disorders and neurologic illness are common and burdensome in their own right; when combined, they can have tremendous negative impact at an individual level as well as societally. The socioeconomic burden of sleep disorders and neurologic illness can be identified, but the real cost of these conditions lies far beyond the financial realm. There is an urgent need for comprehensive care and support systems to help with the burden of disease. Further research in improving patient outcomes in those who suffer with these conditions will help patients and their families, and society in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurologic Complications in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Cuero, Mauricio Ruiz; Varelas, Panayiotis N


    Pregnant women are subject to the same complications as the general population, as well to specific neurologic complications associated with pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. The hormonal and physiologic changes during pregnancy lead to altered incidences of these complications, which usually present during the late period of pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. In addition, the treatment of these conditions is different from that of nonpregnant women, because special attention is paid to avoid any abnormalities or death of the fetus. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The neurology literature 2016. (United States)

    Khoujah, Danya; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Abraham, Michael K


    Emergency neurology is a complex and rapidly changing field. Its evolution can be attributed in part to increased imaging options, debates about optimal treatment, and simply the growth of emergency medicine as a specialty. Every year, a number of articles published in emergency medicine or other specialty journals should become familiar to the emergency physician. This review summarizes neurology articles published in 2016, which the authors consider crucial to the practice of emergency medicine. The articles are categorized according to disease process, with the understanding that there can be significant overlap among articles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale: Psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Thuras, Paul; Batres-Y-Carr, Tegan; McNairy, Scott; Swanson, Heather


    The current study describes the psychometric properties of a scale (entitled "Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale-10 items" or 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale) designed for longitudinal studies. Sixteen male veterans attending a substance use disorder recovery clinic were studied over a 2-year period. The attending nurse and physician conducted four, 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale scale ratings, each encompassing a 6-month period, for each participant. Analyses involved scale descriptive results, Cronbach alpha scores, effects of deleting the item on Cronbach alpha scores for the remaining items, and item-to-scale correlations across the four periods, plus three exploratory studies. Scale scores showed skewness p ≤ 1.0 and Cronbach alphas of 0.89 to 0.93. Six of 10 items correlated with total scale scores at 3 or 4 rating periods at p ≤ 0.005. Two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the first two periods, and two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the last two periods. Exploratory analyses revealed some item convergence over time plus non-significant associations with long-standing demographic and clinical variables. Desirable 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale psychometric properties included normal distribution, excellent Cronbach alphas, and high item-to-score correlations, all of which persisted over time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zaborovskii


    Full Text Available Purpose – to evaluate the survival, neurological status, and complications after surgical management of patients with multiple myeloma of the spine. Materials and methods. A retrospective study of 44 patients with multiple myeloma of the spine operated in Vreden Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics was held in the period between 2000 and 2015. Patients underwent decompressive surgery with additional spinal instrumentation. following parameters were evaluated: demographic data, pain intensity, neurological deficit, survival, and complications after surgery. Results. Overall results showed efficiency of surgical management of spinal instability and neurological compromise due to multiple myeloma of the spine. The mean postoperative survival time was 63 months. A significant improvement in VAS scale and neurological function was observed in the study population after surgery. Postoperative VAS was 7.1 scores compared with 3.6 scores preoperatively (p = 0.021. Twenty nine of 31 patients improved their neurological status. Poor life expectancy was associated with neurological deficit both before and after surgery (p<0.0001. There were 28 postoperative complications. Most frequent complications were deep wound infection and adjacent degenerative disease. There was no survival difference in cohorts with and without complications (p = 0.942.> <0.0001. There were 28 postoperative complications. Most frequent complications were deep wound infection and adjacent degenerative disease. There was no survival difference in cohorts with and without complications (p = 0.942. Conclusion. Decompression surgery with additional instrumentation significantly decrease pain intensity and improve neurological function in selected patients affected by spinal myeloma with spinal instability. Severe neurological deficit influence on survival both before and after surgery. Survival did not depend on complications.

  18. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density. Methods The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572 was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales. Results There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81. Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37

  19. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.


    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  20. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model (United States)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.


    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  1. Clinimetric properties of lower limb neurological impairment tests for children and young people with a neurological condition: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramona Clark; Melissa Locke; Bridget Hill; Cherie Wells; Andrea Bialocerkowski


    .... Objective To determine the clinimetric evidence underpinning neurological impairment tests currently used in paediatric rehabilitation to evaluate muscle strength, tactile sensitivity, and deep...

  2. Construct validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale: evaluation by Mokken scale analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YH


    Full Text Available Ya-Hsin Chou,1 Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Chia-Yih Liu,1,2 Ching-I Hung1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS, a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Methods: A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS.Results: All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403, supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67, including a general somatic scale (GSS, melancholic scale (MS, muscular pain scale (MPS, and chest symptom scale (CSS. The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales.Conclusion: The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. Keywords: depression, somatization, Mokken scale analysis, item response theory, construct validity

  3. Otoliths versus scales: evaluating the most suitable structure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoliths (1.4% rejected) were more readable than scales (41.7% and 7.5% rejected) for Wriggleswade and Mankazana Impoundments respectively. Otolith readings were more precise (average percentage error (APE) = 13.6%; coefficient of variation (CV) = 15.8%) than scales (APE = 18.0%; CV = 21.9%) for the total sample ...

  4. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  5. The role of animal models in evaluating reasonable safety and efficacy for human trials of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions (United States)

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra JH; Blass, David M; Bok, Hilary; Coyle, Joseph T; Duggan, Patrick; Faden, Ruth; Finkel, Julia; Gearhart, John D; Hillis, Argye; Hoke, Ahmet; Johnson, Richard; Johnston, Michael; Kahn, Jeffrey; Kerr, Douglas; King, Patricia; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Liao, S Matthew; McDonald, John W; McKhann, Guy; Nelson, Karin B; Rao, Mahendra; Siegel, Andrew W; Smith, Kirby; Solter, Davor; Song, Hongjun; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vescovi, Angelo; Young, Wise; Greely, Henry T; Traystman, Richard J


    Progress in regenerative medicine seems likely to produce new treatments for neurologic conditions that use human cells as therapeutic agents; at least one trial for such an intervention is already under way. The development of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions (CBI-NCs) will likely include preclinical studies using animals as models for humans with conditions of interest. This paper explores predictive validity challenges and the proper role for animal models in developing CBI-NCs. In spite of limitations, animal models are and will remain an essential tool for gathering data in advance of first-in-human clinical trials. The goal of this paper is to provide a realistic lens for viewing the role of animal models in the context of CBI-NCs and to provide recommendations for moving forward through this challenging terrain. PMID:18728679

  6. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale. (United States)

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory


    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  7. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Tomazini Borghardt


    Full Text Available AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients.METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories.RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71% and low specificity (21% and 47% respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale.CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power.

  8. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water. (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R


    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  9. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Utrecht grief rumination scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk A W; Van Den Bout, Jan; Boelen, Paul A.; Stroebe, Wolfgang


    Two different types of ruminative coping, depressive rumination and grief rumination, negatively influence bereavement outcome. Although grief-specific rumination is likely to be relevant in the bereavement context no internationally validated scale to measure grief rumination exists. Therefore, the

  10. Lifestyle Alternatives: Development and Evaluation of an Attitude Scale. (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.; And Others


    Describes the construction and testing of an instrument to assess attitudes toward voluntary simplicity of lifestyle. The scale consists of 120 Likert items concerning such behaviors as recycling, home production of goods, conservation of resources, and sharing of skills. (SK)

  11. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection. (United States)

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Fletcher, James L K; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena


    To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre-antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3-56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: Preconditions and general framework before and after 1933]. (United States)

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H


    This article focuses on the institutional development of neurology in Germany up to the rise to power of the National Socialists and the radical sociopolitical changes after 1933. A wide range of scattered secondary literature was assessed and evaluated. Additionally, some original sources are literally quoted and interpreted according to the context. Since the end of the nineteenth century a complicated process of separation from internal medicine and psychiatry led to the formation of a self-conscious discipline of neurology. The first generation of German neurologists succeeded in founding the German Journal for Neurology ("Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde") in 1890 and their own neurological association, the Society of German Neurologists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte", GDN) in 1907. On an international scale, however, the institutional implementation of neurology with only a small number of chairs and few neurology departments remained more than modest. The ambitions for autonomy ended 2 years after the change of power in 1933. Regulatory interventions by the government and psychiatric interests led to the fusion of the GDN with the psychiatric specialist society, the new association being called the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists ("Gesellschaft Deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater", GDNP) in 1935. In this group psychiatrists dominated the discourse. The expulsion, imprisonment and murder of physicians declared as non-Aryan or Jewish along with the forced consolidation ("Gleichschaltung") at the universities prompted profound changes in medical and academic life. It remains an ongoing challenge of neurological historical research to measure the impact of this upheaval on the few neurology departments in hospitals and private practices.

  13. The neurology of proverbs. (United States)

    Van Lancker, D


    Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are "concrete", recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests) point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH). Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  14. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker


    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  15. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta


    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  16. [Vitamin D and neurology]. (United States)

    Thouvenot, Éric; Camu, William


    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis and also with a higher relapse rate as well as a higher number of MRI lesions. Elders with vitamin D deficiency have worse cognitive performance. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Ischemic stroke are more frequent and more severe in patients with low vitamin D levels. Carotid atherosclerosis is more frequent and more severe in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk and worse prognosis of Parkinson's disease. In the different neurological disorders discussed herein, gene polymorphisms that could alter vitamin D metabolism are also associated with a higher incidence or a worse disease prognosis. Despite the links between vitamin D deficiency and the risks of developing neurological disorders, there is, to date, no proof that supplementation could alter the course of these diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H


    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  18. Neurologic complications of alcoholism. (United States)

    Noble, James M; Weimer, Louis H


    This review serves as an overview of neurologic conditions associated with alcohol abuse or withdrawal, including epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment. Frequent alcohol abuse and frank alcoholism are very common among adults in the United States. Although rates decline with each decade, as many as 10% of the elderly drink excessively. Given the ubiquitous nature of alcoholism in society, its complications have been clinically recognized for generations, with recent advances focusing on improved understanding of ethanol's biochemical targets and the pathophysiology of its complications. The chronic effects of alcohol abuse are myriad and include neurologic complications through both direct and indirect effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. These disorders include several encephalopathic states related to alcohol intoxication, withdrawal, and related nutritional deficiencies; acute and chronic toxic and nutritional peripheral neuropathies; and myopathy. Although prevention of alcoholism and its neurologic complications is the optimal strategy, this article reviews the specific treatment algorithms for alcohol withdrawal and its related nutritional deficiency states.

  19. Palliative care and neurology (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean


    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  20. Evaluation of Icing Scaling on Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil Models (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Lee, Sam


    Icing scaling tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) were performed on swept wing models using existing recommended scaling methods that were originally developed for straight wing. Some needed modifications on the stagnation-point local collection efficiency (i.e., beta(sub 0) calculation and the corresponding convective heat transfer coefficient for swept NACA 0012 airfoil models have been studied and reported in 2009, and the correlations will be used in the current study. The reference tests used a 91.4-cm chord, 152.4-cm span, adjustable sweep airfoil model of NACA 0012 profile at velocities of 100 and 150 knot and MVD of 44 and 93 mm. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.4. All tests were conducted at 0deg angle of attack (AoA) and 45deg sweep angle. Ice shape comparison results were presented for stagnation-point freezing fractions in the range of 0.4 to 1.0. Preliminary results showed that good scaling was achieved for the conditions test by using the modified scaling methods developed for swept wing icing.

  1. The Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshino, Jun; Usuda, Shigeru


    [Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects...

  2. Translation and psychometric evaluation of Persian versions of Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale and Impact of Event Scale. (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Ardebili, Fatimah Mohades; Rafii, Forough; Hagani, Hamid


    Burn as a traumatic life incident manifests severe pain and psychological problems. Specific instruments are needed to evaluate burn patients' psychological issues related to the injury. The aim of this study was to translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian versions of Impact of Burn Specific Pain Anxiety scale (BSPAS) and Impact of Event Scale (IES). In this cross-sectional study, convenience sampling method was utilized to select 55 Iranian hospitalized burn patients. Combined translation was utilized for translating scales. Alpha cronbach, item-total correlation, convergent and discriminative validity were evaluated. The Cronbach's α for both BSPAS- and IES-Persian version was 0.96. Item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Convergent construct validity was confirmed by indicating high correlation between the scales designed to measure the same concepts. The mean score of BSPAS- and IES-Persian version was lower for individuals with a lower TBSA burn percentage which assessed discriminative construct validity of scales. BSPAS- and IES-Persian version showed high internal consistency and good validity for the assessment of burn psychological outcome in hospitalized burn patients. Future studies are needed to determine repeatability, factor structure, sensitivity and specificity of the scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource......-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state...

  4. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard


    Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource......-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state...

  5. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Social Justice Scale (SJS). (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Siers, Brian; Olson, Bradley D


    The study describes the development of the Social Justice Scale (SJS). Practitioners, educators, students, and other members of the community differ on their attitudes and values regarding social justice. It is important to assess, not only individuals' attitudes and values around social values, but also other constructs that might be related to social justice behaviors. The implication of Ajzen in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50:179-211, (1991) theory of planned behavior suggests that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and social norms predict intentions, which then lead to behaviors. A scale was designed to measure social justice-related values, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and intentions based on a four-factor conception of Ajzen's theory. Confirmatory factor analysis and analyses for reliability and validity were used to test the properties of the scale.

  6. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  7. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.


    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  8. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.


    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  9. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies. (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes


    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  10. Clinical, neurological, and neurophysiological evaluation of the efficiency of motor rehabilitation in children with cerebral palsy using robotic mechanotherapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Ikoeva


    Full Text Available Introduction. Rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy (CP remains a very difficult task. Stable and growing movement restrictions in such patients cause a life-long need for treatment and rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation of children with CP at various stages includes not only traditional physical rehabilitation methods, but also extensive use of robotic mechanotherapy techniques and new technologies in the field of neurophysiology. One of such technology is non-invasive percutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Aim of the study: To assess the effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord to improve the motor function of children with spastic diplegia using the “Lokomat” robotic mechanotherapy system. Materials and methods. A clinical rehabilitation study of 26 patients aged 6–12 years with CP was conducted. The treatment group included 11 patients who received one course of robotic mechanotherapy using the “Lokomat” system combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. The control group included 15 patients who received one course of robotic mechanotherapy only. Results. A comparative analysis of the two groups based on the results of clinical examinations using specific scales (GMFCS, GMFM-88, Modified Ashworth Scale of Muscle Spasticity, locomotor tests (L-FORCE, L-ROM, and evaluations of muscle activity using electromyography showed that one course of rehabilitation resulted in improvement in motor function in all patients of both groups, but positive dynamics were more significant in the treatment group that underwent percutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Conclusion. Based on clinical data, changes in indicators of the locomotor tests L-FORCE and L-ROM, as well as assessment of changes in muscle activity, showed that motor rehabilitation of children with spastic diplegia using the “Lokomat” robotic mechanotherapy system combined with

  11. A Modified Rule of Thumb for Evaluating Scale Reproducibilities Determined by Electronic Computers (United States)

    Hofmann, Richard J.


    The Goodenough technique for determining scale error is compared to the Guttman technique and demonstrated to be more conservative than the Guttman technique. Implications with regard to Guttman's evaluative rule of thumb for evaluating a reproducibility are noted. (Author)

  12. Wind and Photovoltaic Large-Scale Regional Models for hourly production evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.


    This work presents two large-scale regional models used for the evaluation of normalized power output from wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants on a European regional scale. The models give an estimate of renewable production on a regional scale with 1 h resolution, starting from a mesoscale...

  13. The Effect of Rubric Rating Scale on the Evaluation of Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ahn, Beung-uk


    This paper explores the impact of the rubric rating scale on the evaluation of projects from a first year engineering design course.Asmall experiment was conducted in which twenty-one experienced graders scored five technical posters using one of four rating scales. All rating scales tested...

  14. A Unified Multi-scale Model for Cross-Scale Evaluation and Integration of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes (United States)

    Liu, C.; Yang, X.; Bailey, V. L.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hinkle, C.


    scale simulations were then used to simulate coupled flow and moisture migration in soils in saturated and unsaturated zones, surface and groundwater exchange, and surface water flow in streams and lakes at the DWP site under dynamic precipitation conditions. Laboratory measurements of soil hydrological and biogeochemical properties are used to parameterize the UMSM at the small scales, and field measurements are used to evaluate the UMSM.

  15. Experimental evaluation of small-scale erectable truss hardware (United States)

    Mcgowan, David M.; Lake, Mark S.


    To aid in the prediction of the dynamic behavior of the space station, a one-tenth scale dynamic test model is to be constructed of commercially available, small scale truss hardware. Tests have been performed to determine the axial stiffness characteristics and failure loads of the truss joint. A parametric study has shown that the stiffness of the joint increases as the attachment bolt torque value is increased. Furthermore, at torque values equal to or higher than 250 in-lbs, hysteresis in the load-deflection curve is essentially eliminated. Also, the joint stiffness remained relatively constant between specimens. The effective stiffness of a joint subassembly tested is 76 percent that of the strut. Tensile and compressive failure occurred in the region of the bonded plug, with lower failure loads corresponding to compressive loadings.

  16. Neurology and literature 2. (United States)

    Iniesta, I


    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of scale formation in waterwall heated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylasheva Tatiana


    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of forecasting assessments of the speed and the time of formation of depositions in the evaporator-tube elements of double-drum boilers. The values of thermal flow in the wall region of tank screens of boiler furnace are obtained, besides the velocity values of scaling metal corrosion products are obtained. Conclusions about the ability of forecasting unnominal situations and emergency risks dependent with damage to the screen surface heating pipes are made.

  18. Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Staff Perception of the Disruptive Patient Behavior Scale. (United States)

    Lipkis-Orlando, Robin; Carroll, Diane L; Duffy, Mary E; P Weiss, Anthony; Jones, Dorothy A


    The aim of this study is to develop and psychometrically test the Staff Perception of Disruptive Patient Behavior (SPDPB) Scale. Disruptive patient behaviors impact work safety for nurses in hospitals. There is no standardized approach to capturing staff perceptions of these behaviors. A mixed-methods approach was used to develop and psychometrically evaluate the SPDPB Scale. Items were generated from a survey completed by 770 healthcare providers. A prototype 66-item instrument was developed and content validity was obtained. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the SPDPB Scale was completed with 558 nurses. Evaluation included internal consistency reliability, principal components analysis, and internal consistency reliability derived subscales to refine the final scale. The SPDPB Scale is a multidimensional measure of perceptions of disruptive patient behaviors. The analysis identified 6 components explaining 54.1% of the variance. The final scale contained 65 items. This scale demonstrated psychometric adequacy and can be recommended to measure staff perceptions of disruptive patient behavior.

  19. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa


    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  20. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S


    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  1. Education Research: Neurology resident education (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John


    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  2. Development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and Patient-Perceived Age Visual Analog Scale. (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Vivek; Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L


    The primary outcome measures for patients who undergo aesthetic facial procedures are quality of life and satisfaction with appearance. The FACE-Q, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument composed of independently functioning scales, is designed to measure a broad range of important outcomes in patients who undergo cosmetic surgical and/or nonsurgical facial procedures. The authors describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and the FACE-Q Patient-Perceived Age Visual Analog Scale (VAS). International guidelines for creating PRO instruments were strictly observed throughout development of the FACE-Q scales. Qualitative methods were used to identify the concepts most important to patients who received aesthetic facial procedures. These were turned into "items"-and the resultant FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale was field tested, along with the Patient-Perceived Age VAS, in 288 patients who underwent cosmetic surgical and/or nonsurgical facial procedures. Rasch measurement theory and traditional psychometric methods confirmed the reliability and validity of the scales. The FACE-Q Aging Appraisal Scale and Patient-Perceived Age VAS are psychometrically sound, condition-specific PRO instruments with excellent reliability and validity. They enable accurate outcome assessments in patients who undergo aesthetic facial procedures.

  3. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo


    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  4. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES: development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigell Erik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES, for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54 were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24. The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42 to 'almost perfect' (0.87. Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility.

  5. Neurological aspects of grief. (United States)

    Silva, Adriana C; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Natalia P; de Mello Schier, Alexandre R; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flavia; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Pessoa, Tamires M


    Despite grief being a universal experience and the increased scientific attention paid to grief and bereavement in recent years, studies that seek to better understand the role of the neurological aspects of grief are still scarce. We found 5 studies that discussed the relationship between the neurological aspects of grief due to the death of a loved one. All studies showed an activation of common areas, i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula and amygdala. These findings could indicate that there is a group of areas working together and responding to generate the symptomatology of grief. Because grief is a universal experience, it is essential that the necessary and effective support can be provided to those who experience the loss of someone considered important in their lives, and this requires understanding grief's manifestation, its differential diagnosis in reference to other clinical conditions, mainly psychiatric ones, and adequate forms of intervention and treatment when necessary. Proper understanding and support can help prevent the emergence of more serious health problems.

  6. Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System. (United States)

    Tobin, W Oliver; Pittock, Sean J


    This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Some are highly specific for certain cancer types, and the neural antibody profiles may help direct the physician's cancer search. The diagnosis of an autoimmune neurologic disorder is aided by the detection of an objective neurologic deficit (usually subacute in onset with a fluctuating course), the presence of a neural autoantibody, and improvement in the neurologic status after a course of immunotherapy. Neural autoantibodies should raise concern for a paraneoplastic etiology and may inform a targeted oncologic evaluation (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antibodies are associated with teratoma, antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 [ANNA-1, or anti-Hu] are associated with small cell lung cancer). MRI, EEG, functional imaging, videotaped evaluations, and neuropsychological evaluations provide objective evidence of neurologic dysfunction by which the success of immunotherapy may be measured. Most treatment information emanates from retrospective case series and expert opinion. Nonetheless, early intervention may allow reversal of deficits in many patients and prevention of future disability.

  7. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.


    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased.




  9. Sponsorship Evaluation Scale (SES): a validity and reliability study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of consumer response to sport sponsorship is limited in the academic literature. This research was aimed to conduct a dimensionality, validity and reliability study of the Speed and Thompson Sponsorship Questionnaire in Turkey (2000). Eight hundred and fifty-two (852) university students participated in the ...

  10. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results...

  11. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting. (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep


    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  12. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie


    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  13. Eight attention points when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Hjørdis Halvorsen, Anne


    of the central, regional and local government and a social policy reform. Meta-evaluations assess the usefulness of one or more evaluations and should not be confused with meta-analyses. The purpose of this meta-evaluation was to identify general principles for organizing the evaluations of large-scale public......This chapter analyses the challenges related to evaluations of large-scale public sector reforms. It is based on a meta-evaluation of the evaluation of the reform of the Norwegian Labour Market and Welfare Administration (the NAV-reform) in Norway, which entailed both a significant reorganization...... sector reforms. Based on the analysis, eight crucial points of attention when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms are elaborated. We discuss their reasons and argue that other countries will face the same challenges and thus can learn from the experiences of Norway....

  14. Porphyria and its neurologic manifestations. (United States)

    Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B


    Porphyrias are rare disorders resulting from a defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can produce significant disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, in addition to other organ systems, with acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria as the subtypes associated with neurologic manifestations. The presence of a motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy (axonal predominant), accompanied by gastrointestinal distress and neuropsychiatric manifestations, should be a strong clue to the diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical confirmation can be made through evaluation of urine porphyrins during an exacerbation of disease. While hematin is helpful for acute treatment, long-term effective management requires avoidance of overstimulation of the cytochrome P450 pathway, as well as other risk factor control. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A national neurological excellence centers network. (United States)

    Pazzi, S; Cristiani, P; Cavallini, A


    The most relevant problems related to the management of neurological disorders are (i) the frequent hospitalization in nonspecialist departments, with the need for neurological consultation, and (ii) the frequent requests of GPs for highly specialized investigations that are very expensive and of little value in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In 1996, the Consorzio di Bioingegneria e Informatica Medica in Italy realized the CISNet project (in collaboration with the Consorzio Istituti Scientifici Neuroscienze e Tecnologie Biomediche and funded by the Centro Studi of the National Public Health Council) for the implementation of a national neurological excellence centers network (CISNet). In the CISNet project, neurologists will be able to give on-line interactive consultation and off-line consulting services identifying correct diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, evaluating the need for both examination in specialist centers and admission to specialized centers, and identifying the most appropriate ones.

  16. Deja vu in neurology. (United States)

    Wild, Edward


    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  17. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna


    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  18. Neurology and diving. (United States)

    Massey, E Wayne; Moon, Richard E


    Diving exposes a person to the combined effects of increased ambient pressure and immersion. The reduction in pressure when surfacing can precipitate decompression sickness (DCS), caused by bubble formation within tissues due to inert gas supersaturation. Arterial gas embolism (AGE) can also occur due to pulmonary barotrauma as a result of breath holding during ascent or gas trapping due to disease, causing lung hyperexpansion, rupture and direct entry of alveolar gas into the blood. Bubble disease due to either DCS or AGE is collectively known as decompression illness. Tissue and intravascular bubbles can induce a cascade of events resulting in CNS injury. Manifestations of decompression illness can vary in severity, from mild (paresthesias, joint pains, fatigue) to severe (vertigo, hearing loss, paraplegia, quadriplegia). Particularly as these conditions are uncommon, early recognition is essential to provide appropriate management, consisting of first aid oxygen, targeted fluid resuscitation and hyperbaric oxygen, which is the definitive treatment. Less common neurologic conditions that do not require hyperbaric oxygen include rupture of a labyrinthine window due to inadequate equalization of middle ear pressure during descent, which can precipitate vertigo and hearing loss. Sinus and middle ear overpressurization during ascent can compress the trigeminal and facial nerves respectively, causing temporary facial hypesthesia and lower motor neuron facial weakness. Some conditions preclude safe diving, such as seizure disorders, since a convulsion underwater is likely to be fatal. Preventive measures to reduce neurologic complications of diving include exclusion of individuals with specific medical conditions and safe diving procedures, particularly related to descent and ascent. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. History of neurologic examination books. (United States)

    Boes, Christopher J


    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors).

  20. Neurological and endocrine phenotypes of fragile X carrier women. (United States)

    Hall, D; Todorova-Koteva, K; Pandya, S; Bernard, B; Ouyang, B; Walsh, M; Pounardjian, T; Deburghraeve, C; Zhou, L; Losh, M; Leehey, M; Berry-Kravis, E


    Women who carry fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1)gene premutation expansions frequently report neurological or endocrine symptoms and prior studies have predominantly focused on questionnaire report of medical issues. Premutation carrier (PMC) women (n = 33) and non-carrier controls (n = 13) were recruited and evaluated by a neurologist, neuropsychologist, and endocrinologist. Blood and skin biopsies were collected for molecular measures. Scales for movement disorders, neuropathy, cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, sleep, and quality of life were completed. The average age of the women was 51 years (n = 46) and average CGG repeat size was 91 ± 24.9 in the FMR1 PMC women. Seventy percent of the PMC women had an abnormal neurological examination. PMC women had significantly higher scores on the Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) rating scale, more neuropathy, and difficulty with tandem gait compared to controls. Central sensitivity syndromes, a neuroticism profile on the NEO Personality Profile, and sleep disorders were also prevalent. Discrepancies between subject report and examination findings were also seen. This pilot study suggests that women with the FMR1 premutation may have a phenotype that overlaps with that seen in FXTAS. Additional research with larger sample sizes is warranted to better delineate the clinical features. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the pure procrastination scale, the irrational procrastination scale, and the susceptibility to temptation scale in a clinical population. (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Forsell, Erik; Svensson, Andreas; Forsström, David; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per


    Procrastination is a prevalent self-regulatory failure associated with stress and anxiety, decreased well-being, and poorer performance in school as well as work. One-fifth of the adult population and half of the student population describe themselves as chronic and severe procrastinators. However, despite the fact that it can become a debilitating condition, valid and reliable self-report measures for assessing the occurrence and severity of procrastination are lacking, particularly for use in a clinical context. The current study explored the usefulness of the Swedish version of three Internet-administered self-report measures for evaluating procrastination; the Pure Procrastination Scale, the Irrational Procrastination Scale, and the Susceptibility to Temptation Scale, all having good psychometric properties in English. In total, 710 participants were recruited for a clinical trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination. All of the participants completed the scales as well as self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Principal Component Analysis was performed to assess the factor validity of the scales, and internal consistency and correlations between the scales were also determined. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Minimal Detectable Change, and Standard Error of Measurement were calculated for the Irrational Procrastination Scale. The Swedish version of the scales have a similar factor structure as the English version, generated good internal consistencies, with Cronbach's α ranging between .76 to .87, and were moderately to highly intercorrelated. The Irrational Procrastination Scale had an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of .83, indicating excellent reliability. Furthermore, Standard Error of Measurement was 1.61, and Minimal Detectable Change was 4.47, suggesting that a change of almost five points on the scale is necessary to determine a reliable change in self-reported procrastination severity. The

  2. African Journal of Neurological Sciences - 2009 Vol. 28 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine and Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-. University .... dementia, however, these neurological signs are not to prevail; 3) even after careful evaluation no reason for .... resource poor settings seems to be crucial for the future health care of African countries. Also ...

  3. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis. (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik


    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Adults with pneumococcal meningitis have the highest risk of developing focal neurological deficits, which are most commonly caused by cerebral infarction, but can also be due to cerebritis, subdural empyema, cerebral abscess or intracerebral bleeding. Focal deficits may improve during clinical course and even after discharge, but a proportion of patients will have persisting focal neurological deficits that often interfere in patient's daily life. Hearing loss occurs in a high proportion of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and has been associated with co-existing otitis. Children and adults recovering from bacterial meningitis without apparent neurological deficits are at risk for long-term cognitive deficits. Early identification of neurological sequelae is important for children to prevent additional developmental delay, and for adults to achieve successful return in society after the disease. Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Splicing Regulation in Neurologic Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Licatalosi, Donny D; Darnell, Robert B


    .... It is becoming evident that alternative splicing plays a particularly important role in neurologic disease, which is perhaps not surprising given the important role splicing plays in generating...

  5. Evaluation of Large-Scale Public-Sector Reforms: A Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Breidahl, Karen N.; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Hansen, Morten Balle


    Research on the evaluation of large-scale public-sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance since the impact of such reforms is considerable and they change the context in which evaluations of other and more delimited policy areas take place. In our…

  6. A census of P. longum's phytochemicals and their network pharmacological evaluation for identifying novel drug-like molecules against various diseases, with a special focus on neurological disorders. (United States)

    Choudhary, Neha; Singh, Vikram


    Piper longum (P. longum, also called as long pepper) is one of the common culinary herbs that has been extensively used as a crucial constituent in various indigenous medicines, specifically in traditional Indian medicinal system known as Ayurveda. For exploring the comprehensive effect of its constituents in humans at proteomic and metabolic levels, we have reviewed all of its known phytochemicals and enquired about their regulatory potential against various protein targets by developing high-confidence tripartite networks consisting of phytochemical-protein target-disease association. We have also (i) studied immunomodulatory potency of this herb; (ii) developed subnetwork of human PPI regulated by its phytochemicals and could successfully associate its specific modules playing important role in diseases, and (iii) reported several novel drug targets. P10636 (microtubule-associated protein tau, that is involved in diseases like dementia etc.) was found to be the commonly screened target by about seventy percent of these phytochemicals. We report 20 drug-like phytochemicals in this herb, out of which 7 are found to be the potential regulators of 5 FDA approved drug targets. Multi-targeting capacity of 3 phytochemicals involved in neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway was further explored via molecular docking experiments. To investigate the molecular mechanism of P. longum's action against neurological disorders, we have developed a computational framework that can be easily extended to explore its healing potential against other diseases and can also be applied to scrutinize other indigenous herbs for drug-design studies.

  7. Multi-scale modelling to evaluate building energy consumption at the neighbourhood scale (United States)

    Coccolo, Silvia; Kaempf, Jérôme; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis


    A new methodology is proposed to couple a meteorological model with a building energy use model. The aim of such a coupling is to improve the boundary conditions of both models with no significant increase in computational time. In the present case, the Canopy Interface Model (CIM) is coupled with CitySim. CitySim provides the geometrical characteristics to CIM, which then calculates a high resolution profile of the meteorological variables. These are in turn used by CitySim to calculate the energy flows in an urban district. We have conducted a series of experiments on the EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland, to show the effectiveness of the coupling strategy. First, measured data from the campus for the year 2015 are used to force CIM and to evaluate its aptitude to reproduce high resolution vertical profiles. Second, we compare the use of local climatic data and data from a meteorological station located outside the urban area, in an evaluation of energy use. In both experiments, we demonstrate the importance of using in building energy software, meteorological variables that account for the urban microclimate. Furthermore, we also show that some building and urban forms are more sensitive to the local environment. PMID:28880883

  8. [Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure health behaviors of adolescents]. (United States)

    Shin, Yun Hee


    The purpose was to develop a preliminary scale to measure Korean adolescents' health behaviors through a qualitative approach, to evaluate the scale psychometrically, and to develop a final scale. Participants were 61 adolescents for qualitative interviews and 1,687 adolescents for the psychometric evaluation. Procedure included content analysis of interviews to identify health behavior categories for Korean adolescents, pre-test to confirm that preliminary scale items were understandable, content validity by an expert panel, development of the web-based computer-assisted survey (CAS), and psychometric analysis to determine reliability and validity of the final scale. A final scale was developed for both paper-and-pencil and CAS. It consisted of 14 health behaviors (72 items), including stress and mental health (10), sleep habits (5), dietary habits (12), weight control (4), physical activity (4), hygiene habits (5), tobacco use (5), substance use (2), alcohol consumption (4), safety (4), sexual behavior (9), computer use (3), health screening (4), and posture (1). The scale's strong points are: 1) Two thirds of the final scale items are Likert scale items, enabling calculation of a health behavior score. 2) The scale is appropriate to Korean culture. 3) The scale focuses on concrete health behaviors, not abstract concepts.

  9. Cannabinoids in neurology – Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. D. Brucki


    Full Text Available The use of cannabidiol in some neurological conditions was allowed by Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo and by Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA. Specialists on behalf of Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepared a critical statement about use of cannabidiol and other cannabis derivatives in neurological diseases.

  10. [Scales for evaluation of the overload of caregivers of patients with stroke]. (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Sousa, Vanessa Emille Carvalho de; Araujo, Thelma Leite de; Silva, Viviane Martins da; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the available productions in literature about scales to measure the overload of caregivers of patients with stroke. It was carried out a bibliographical revision in three databases: LILACS, CINAHL and SCOPUS. In 23 works, 24 different scales were identified, and the most cited were: the Caregiver Strain Index, the Caregiver Burden Scale, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment, the Sense of Competence Questionnaire, the Relatives Stress Scale and the Zarit Burden Interview. The use of scales to measure the overload is an important tool to evaluate the context in which the caregiver is inserted, but is more trustworthy to use more than one measure instrument than use only one. Therefore, the validation of scales becomes important for this population.

  11. The assessment of minor neurological dysfunction in infancy using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination : strengths and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    Aim Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method Inter-assessor

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handong Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of solar thermal power (STP system, a novel modular system combining cooling, heating, and power generation (CCHP is proposed and introduced in this work. This modular CCHP system can simultaneously provide 10 kW electricity, −15~5°C coolant, and 60°C hot water to meet the requirements of cooling, heating, and electricity in a general family or other fields. The flow chart and working process of the modular system are introduced, based on which the energy and exergy efficiencies at the CCHP and STP operation modes are primarily evaluated and discussed. The results show that when the output electricity is constant, the overall efficiencies of energy and exergy of the system operating at the CCHP mode are 9.37 times and 2.62 times as big as those of the system operating at the STP mode, respectively. Thus, the modular solar thermal CCHP system can improve the energy and exergy efficiencies. Furthermore, calculation shows that both the overall energy and exergy efficiencies decrease with increase of inlet vapor temperature at given inlet vapor pressure, but both the efficiencies increase with increase of inlet vapor pressure at given inlet temperature.

  13. Sleep disorders in children with neurologic diseases. (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Bruni, O


    Pediatric neurologic diseases are often associated with different kinds of sleep disruption (mainly insomnia, less frequently hypersomnia or parasomnias). Due to the key-role of sleep for development, the effort to ameliorate sleep patterns in these children could have important prognostic benefits. Study of sleep architecture and organization in neurologic disorders could lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and a better treatment of the disorders. This article focuses on the following specific neurologic diseases: nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and abnormal motor behaviors of epileptic origin, evaluating differential diagnosis with parasomnias; achondroplasia, confirming the crucial role of craniofacial deformity in determining sleep-disordered breathing; neuromuscular diseases, mainly Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy; cerebral palsy, evaluating either the features of sleep architecture and the importance of the respiratory problems associated; headaches, confirming the strict relationships with sleep in terms of neurochemical and neurobehavioral substrates; and finally a review on the effectiveness of melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurologic syndromes and mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy.

  14. Validation of apathy evaluation scale and assessment of severity of apathy in Alzheimer's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsieh, Chia‐Jung; Chu, Hsin; Cheng, Joseph Jror‐Serk; Shen, Winston W; Lin, Chia‐Chin


    Aim:  Apathy is a well‐recognized symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to validate the Taiwanese version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale, clinician version (AES‐C...

  15. An Evaluation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Scales (United States)

    Handel, Richard W.; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Dandy, Kristina L.


    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scales are measures of acquiescence and nonacquiescence included among the standard validity scales on these instruments. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  16. Evaluating 5 and 8 pH-point titrations for measuring VFA in full-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 24, 2012 ... An evaluation of 5 and 8 pH-point titrimetric methods for determining volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was conducted, and the results were compared for tap water and primary treated wastewater at the laboratory scale. These techniques were then applied to full-scale primary sludge hydrolysate, and the results ...

  17. Novice Use of a Dimensional Scale for the Evaluation of the Hypermedia User Interface: Caveat Emptor. (United States)

    Harmon, Stephen W.


    Discusses a dimensional scale for the evaluation of the multimedia user interface. Reports on a study of the use of the scale by novice graduate students at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Discusses hypermedia as a subset of multimedia, and investigates dependent measures including navigation. (LRW)

  18. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.


    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  19. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings]. (United States)

    Mechri, A; Slama, H; Bourdel, M-C; Chebel, S; Mandhouj, O; Krebs, M-O; Gaha, L


    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological signs indicating non specific cerebral dysfunction. Several studies have found an excess of NSS in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. Although NSS have been consistently reported in schizophrenic patients, their clinical relevance and their relation to functional impairment and severity of this disease are not well-clarified. In addition, the presence of NSS in schizophrenic patient's relatives suggests that they could be associated with the genetic liability. To determine the prevalence and scores of NSS in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings and to examine the clinical correlates of NSS in the schizophrenic patients. Sixty-six schizophrenic patients (50 males and 16 females, mean age=31.16+/-7.17 years), were compared to 31 of their nonaffected siblings (22 males and nine females, mean age=32.19+/-5.88 years) and to 60 controls subjects (40 males and 20 females, mean age=30.70+/-6.54 years) without family psychiatric history. NSS were assessed with Krebs et al.'s neurological soft signs scale. It is a comprehensive and standardized scale consisting of 23 items comporting five factors: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, quality of lateralization and involuntary movements or posture. The Simpson and Angus scale for extrapyramidal symptoms was also rated. Clinical assessment of the schizophrenic patients was conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), clinical global impressions (CGI) and global functioning evaluation (GAF). Psychiatric disorders were ruled out among siblings of schizophrenic patients and control subjects by psychiatric review evaluation, according to the DSM-IV check list. When the total NSS score of 11.5 was considered the cut-off point, the prevalence of NSS was 96.9% in the schizophrenic patients versus 35.5% in the nonaffected siblings (ptotal score and subscores than the siblings and control groups. The NSS

  20. Practice guideline summary: Use of fMRI in the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Gloss, David; Binder, Jeffrey R; Gaillard, William D; Golby, Alexandra J; Holland, Scott K; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Spencer, David C; Swanson, Sara J; French, Jacqueline A; Theodore, William H


    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of functional MRI (fMRI) in determining lateralization and predicting postsurgical language and memory outcomes. An 11-member panel evaluated and rated available evidence according to the 2004 American Academy of Neurology process. At least 2 panelists reviewed the full text of 172 articles and selected 37 for data extraction. Case reports, reports with epilepsy (MTLE; Level C), temporal epilepsy in general (Level C), or extratemporal epilepsy (Level C). For patients with temporal neocortical epilepsy or temporal tumors, the evidence is insufficient (Level U). fMRI may be considered to predict postsurgical language deficits after anterior temporal lobe resection (Level C). The use of fMRI may be considered for lateralizing memory functions in place of IAP in patients with MTLE (Level C) but is of unclear utility in other epilepsy types (Level U). fMRI of verbal memory or language encoding should be considered for predicting verbal memory outcome (Level B). fMRI using nonverbal memory encoding may be considered for predicting visuospatial memory outcomes (Level C). Presurgical fMRI could be an adequate alternative to IAP memory testing for predicting verbal memory outcome (Level C). Clinicians should carefully advise patients of the risks and benefits of fMRI vs IAP during discussions concerning choice of specific modality in each case. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. The translation and evaluation of an Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. (United States)

    Mumford, D B; Tareen, I A; Bajwa, M A; Bhatti, M R; Karim, R


    The translation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) into Urdu was undertaken by the authors in committee. After examining initial drafts by 6 independent translators, an agreed Urdu text was given to 6 back-translators, and subsequently modified further. The evaluation of the new translation was performed in 3 stages: evaluation of linguistic equivalence of items in a bilingual population; evaluation of conceptual equivalence by examining item-subscale correlations: and evaluation of scale equivalence by 2-way classification of high and low scorers. Satisfactory results at each stage suggest that the Urdu version is a reliable and valid translation of the HADS for use in Pakistan.

  2. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] . (United States)

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A


    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed.

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of a clinical global impression for schizoaffective disorder scale. (United States)

    Allen, Michael H; Daniel, David G; Revicki, Dennis A; Canuso, Carla M; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Alphs, Larry; Ishak, K Jack; Bartko, John J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre


    The Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scale is a new rating scale adapted from the Clinical Global Impression scale for use in patients with schizoaffective disorder. The psychometric characteristics of the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder are described. Content validity was assessed using an investigator questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability was determined with 12 sets of videotaped interviews rated independently by two trained individuals. Test-retest reliability was assessed using 30 randomly selected raters from clinical trials who evaluated the same videos on separate occasions two weeks apart. Convergent and divergent validity and effect size were evaluated by comparing scores between the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Young Mania Rating Scale scales using pooled patient data from two clinical trials. Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scores were then linked to corresponding Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Content validity was strong. Inter-rater agreement was good to excellent for most scales and subscales (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.50). Test-retest showed good reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.444 to 0.898. Spearman correlations between Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder domains and corresponding symptom scales were 0.60 or greater, and effect sizes for Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder overall and domain scores were similar to Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Young Mania Rating Scale, and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Raters anticipated that the scale might be less effective in distinguishing negative from depressive symptoms, and, in fact, the results here may reflect that clinical reality. Multiple lines of evidence support the

  4. The Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS): psychometric evaluation of a scale to assess outcome in psychosis. (United States)

    Haddock, Gillian; Wood, Lisa; Watts, Rachel; Dunn, Graham; Morrison, Anthony P; Price, Jason


    A range of outcome measures has been developed to assess psychotic symptoms. Many of these are observer based assessments which rate the presence and severity of broad symptom types. There is a need for service-user generated multi-dimensional scales to assess psychosis. To investigate the psychometric properties of a service user generated, self-report scale to assess recovery in relation to psychotic symptoms. The reliability and validity of the Subjective Experiences of Psychosis Scale (SEPS) was investigated with 100 participants experiencing psychosis against observer rated assessments of psychosis and self report measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. Two factors emerged representing positive and negative aspects of psychotic experiences. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and sensitivity to change were good and the scales correlated with the PANSS, PSYRATS and measures of affect, esteem, recovery and functioning. The SEPS is a reliable and valid tool which can be used to evaluate outcome from treatment and which reflects the multi-dimensional experience of psychosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysphagia and cerebrovascular accident: relationship between severity degree and level of neurological impairment. (United States)

    Itaquy, Roberta Baldino; Favero, Samara Regina; Ribeiro, Marlise de Castro; Barea, Liselotte Menke; Almeida, Sheila Tamanini de; Mancopes, Renata


    The aim of this case study was to verify the occurrence of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in order to establish a possible relationship between the level of neurologic impairment and the severity degree of dysphagia. After emergency hospital admission, three patients underwent neurological clinical evaluation (general physical examination, neurological examination, and application of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale - NIHSS), and clinical assessment of swallowing using the Protocolo Fonoaudiológico de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia (PARD--Speech-Language Pathology Protocol for Risk Evaluation for Dysphagia). One of the patients presented functional swallowing (NIHSS score 11), while the other two had mild and moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia (NIHSS scores 15 and 19, respectively). The service flow and the delay on the patients' search for medical care determined the small sample. The findings corroborate literature data regarding the severity of the neurological condition and the manifestation of dysphagia.

  6. Interventional neurology: a reborn subspecialty. (United States)

    Edgell, Randall C; Alshekhlee, Amer; Yavagal, Dileep R; Vora, Nirav; Cruz-Flores, Salvador


    Neurologists have a long history of involvement in cerebral angiography; however, the roots of neurologist involvement in therapeutic endovascular procedures have not been previously documented. As outlined in this article, it has taken the efforts of several early pioneers to lay the ground work for interventional neurology, a specialty that has become one of the fastest growing neurological subspecialties. The ground work, along with a great clinical need, has allowed the modern interventional neurologist to tackle some of the most intractable diseases, especially those affecting the cerebral vasculature. The institutionalization of interventional neurology as a subspecialty was first advocated in 1995 in an article entitled, "Interventional Neurology, a subspecialty whose time has come." The institutions created in the wake of this article have provided the framework that has allowed interventional neurology to transition from "a subspecialty whose time has come" to a subspecialty that is here to stay and thrive. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS): Development and Evaluation of a Population-Based Screening Scale for Bipolar Disorder


    Papachristou, Efstathios; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Reinares, Maria; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frangou, Sophia


    Context: Early identification of Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poor despite the high levels of disability associated with the disorder. Objective: We developed and evaluated a new DSM orientated scale for the identification of young people at risk for BD based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and compared its performance against the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-PBD) and the CBCL-Externalizing Scale, the two most widely used scales. Methods: The new scale, CBCL-Mania Scale (CBCL...

  8. Child Behavior Checklist?Mania Scale (CBCL-MS): Development and Evaluation of a Population-Based Screening Scale for Bipolar Disorder


    Efstathios Papachristou; Johan Ormel; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Marinos Kyriakopoulos; María Reinares; Abraham Reichenberg; Sophia Frangou


    CONTEXT: Early identification of Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poor despite the high levels of disability associated with the disorder. OBJECTIVE: We developed and evaluated a new DSM orientated scale for the identification of young people at risk for BD based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and compared its performance against the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-PBD) and the CBCL-Externalizing Scale, the two most widely used scales. METHODS: The new scale, CBCL-Mania Scale (CBCL...

  9. [Analysis of efficacy evaluation scales for anxiety treated with acupuncture-moxibustion]. (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Chen, Jie; Liu, Huan; Lai, Deli; Li, Mengjing; Fu, Li; Zhao, Zhengyu


    Scales are important tools to measure and evaluate the severity degree and treatment effect of anxiety, but objective index with high quality is insufficient. Clinical researches of anxiety treated with acupuncture and moxibustion from the domestic and the oversea in recent 10 years are retrieved. The applications of all kinds of scales for anxiety treated with acupuncture and moxibustion in clinical research are analyzed, and problems needed to be paid attention to about scales are further explored. The establishment of effect evaluation system combining clinical symptoms with the quality of life is raised, so as to provide reference to further research.

  10. Correlation between Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in the evaluation of autism spectrum disorder


    Al Backer, Nouf Backer


    Identification of health issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is paramount to provide appropriate care and interventions. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) is the one of the few current measures that assesses ASD-associated health problems thus informing intervention decisions. However, little research has been conducted to compare ATEC with other more recognized measures such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). It is unclear whether these two scales ...

  11. The reliability and validity of the clinical competence evaluation scale in physical therapy. (United States)

    Yoshino, Jun; Usuda, Shigeru


    [Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects] The subjects were 278 novice physical therapy trainees and 119 tutors from 21 medical facilities. [Methods] The trainees self-evaluated their clinical competences and the tutors evaluated trainee competences using the CEPT. Overall trainee autonomy was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) for self-evaluation and the trainees were also evaluated by their tutors. The content validity of the CEPT was examined by asking if the CEPT could evaluate the competence of novice physical therapists on a four-point scale. [Results] Cronbach's alpha of the CEPT was 0.96 for the trainees and 0.97 for the tutors. The correlation coefficient between the total score of the CEPT and whole competence by VAS was 0.83 for the trainees and 0.87 for the tutors. Factor analysis identified two factors, "the specialty of the physical therapist" and "the essential competence of a health professional". Ninety percent or more of the trainees and the tutors answered that the CEPT could sufficiently evaluate the competence of novice physical therapists. [Conclusion] The CEPT is a reliable and valid scale for clinical competence evaluation of novice physical therapists.

  12. Heavy cannabis use prior psychosis in schizophrenia: clinical, cognitive and neurological evidences for a new endophenotype? (United States)

    Mallet, Jasmina; Ramoz, Nicolas; Le Strat, Yann; Gorwood, Philip; Dubertret, Caroline


    Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, and is considered to impact late neurodevelopment. Neurological soft signs (NSS) associated with schizophrenia are considered as markers of early neurodevelopmental impairment. Our study examines the association between heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and clinical, neuropsychological and neurological symptoms, including NSS. In a cross-sectional study, we consecutively included 61 patients with schizophrenia (34 reporting heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis and 27 not reporting such use), in the setting of a University Hospital and a Medical Center. Symptoms assessment and substance use disorder were evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. NSS were assessed with the Neurological Evaluation Scale. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. All patients underwent a battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating attention, memory and executive functions domains. Patients with heavy cannabis use before the onset of psychosis showed significantly less NSS (p cannabis before the onset of schizophrenia. Patients with heavy cannabis use before the onset of schizophrenia may exhibit later neurodevelopmental impairment than those who do not report such use. Schizophrenia associated with heavy cannabis use could represent a specific phenotype.

  13. Development of the Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients and psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Xia, Hao-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Song, Hui; Shi, Bao-Xin


    To develop a Meaning in Life Scale for cancer patients in Chinese version and to test the validity and reliability. Meaning in life is a protective factor of psychological well-being and is negatively related to depression and demoralisation among cancer patients. The existing scales measuring meaning in life are mostly designed in English and there is no scale designed for Chinese cancer patients based on Chinese cultural background. Process of instrument development and psychometric evaluation were used. Items were generated from literature review and a focus group interview. Delphi technique was used to test the content validity. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed with data from 251 cancer patients. The internal consistency of the scale was tested by Cronbach's alpha. A 25-item Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version with five domains was developed. The five factors explained 62·686% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0·897. The Meaning in Life Scale in Chinese version has acceptable internal consistency reliability and good content validity and acceptable construct validity. The content of the scale reflected the attitudes of cancer patients towards meaning in life based on Chinese cultural background. The Chinese version of Meaning in Life Scale for Cancer Patients appears to be a new scale to assess meaning in life among Chinese cancer patients exactly and the concept of meaning in life presented in this scale provides new ideas of meaning intervention in routine clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the authenticity scale on the sample of students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grijak Đurđa


    Full Text Available The aim of this study, conducted at two time points, was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Serbian translation of the Authenticity Scale on the sample of students. The paper presents the results of testing the validity construct of the Authenticity Scale by confirmatory factor analysis at two time points, on the initial sample of 706 students and on the test-retest sample of 206 students within a 10-week interval. The model in which there are three separate, mutually related dimensions with the superordinate factor of authenticity best describes the scale structure. The test-retest sample was used to test the convergent validity of the Authenticity Scale by evaluating its relation to the measures of both positive and negative affect, self-esteem, psychological distress and psychological well-being and mental health index. The results showed that the Serbian translation of the Authenticity Scale represents a reliable and valid measure of authenticity.

  15. [Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Transcultural Self-efficacy Scale for Nurses]. (United States)

    Oh, Won Oak; Park, Eun Sook; Suk, Min Hyun; Im, Yeo Jin


    This methodological study was conducted to develop and psychometrically test the Transcultural Self-efficacy scale (TCSEscale) for nurses. Initial 41 items for the TCSE-scale were generated based on extensive literature reviews and in-depth interviews with 18 nurses who had experience in caring for foreign patients. Cultural Competence and Confidence model was used as a conceptual framework. Content validity was evaluated by an expert panel. Psychometric testing was performed with a convenience sample of 242 nurses recruited from four general hospitals in the Seoul metropolitan area and Gyeonggi-do province of South Korea. To evaluate the reliability of TCSE-scale, a test-retest reliability and an internal consistency reliability were analyzed. Construct validity, concurrent validity, criterion validity, convergent validity and discriminative validity were used to evaluate the validity. The 25-item TCSE-scale was found to have three subscales-Cognitive, Practical, and Affective domain-explaining 91.5% of the total variance. TCSE-scale also demonstrated a concurrent validity with the Cultural Competence Scale. Criterion-related validity was supported by known-group comparison. Reliability analysis showed an acceptable-to-high Cronbach's alpha-.88 in total, and subscales ranged from .76 to .87. The ICC was .90, indicating that the TCSE-scale has internal consistency and stability of reliability. This preliminary evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated an acceptable validity and reliability. The TCSE-scale is able to contribute to building up empirical and evidence based on data collection regarding the transcultural self-efficacy of clinical nurses. We suggest further testing of the applicability of TCSE-scale in different settings and community contexts.

  16. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale. (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie


    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Turkish Version of Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study (United States)

    Dag, Funda


    The purpose of this study is to determine the language equivalence and the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the "Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale" ("Web Tabanli Ögrenme Ortami Degerlendirme Ölçegi" [WTÖODÖ]) used in the selection and evaluation of web-based learning environments. Within this scope,…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Large-Scale Professional Development Programme (United States)

    Main, Katherine; Pendergast, Donna


    An evaluation of the effectiveness of a large-scale professional development (PD) programme delivered to 258 schools in Queensland, Australia is presented. Formal evaluations were conducted at two stages during the programme using a tool developed from Desimone's five core features of effective PD. Descriptive statistics of 38 questions and…

  19. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des


    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  20. Evolutional neurologic evaluation of seven year-old children born prematurely Avaliação neurológica evolutiva aos sete anos de idade de crianças nascidas prematuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Ohiweiler


    Full Text Available A sample of 51 children aged 7 with a history of prematurity was compared to 44 age-matched children who were born at term at the HCPA. The premature children had had gestational ages up to 37 weeks and 6 days and were born weighing less than 2500g. The control group consisted of children born with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks and weights above 2S00g. The evaluation criteria were clinical examination, neurological examination and the evolutional neurological evaluation (ENE. The results pointed out that impulsiveness, aggressiveness, disorganization and enuresis were prevalent symptoms of developmental disturbances in the sample of prematures. Alterations at neurological examination did not discriminate between the two groups, although cerebral palsy occurred only in the proup of prematures. The ENE functions which differentiated the two groups studied were dynamic balance, appendicular and trunk-limb coordination and motor persistence.Para estudar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em amostra de prematuros aos 7 anos de idade, foram avaliadas 51 crianças prematuras e comparadas com 44 a termo. O grupo de prematuros tinha idade gestacional de até 37 semanas e 6 dias e peso de nascimento até 2500g. O grupo controle foi constituído de crianças com idade gestacional entre 38 e 42 semanas e acima de 2500g. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram os exames clinico, neurológico e neurológico evolutivo (ENE. Os resultados mostraram que impulsividade, agressividade, desorganização e enurese foram sintomas prevalentes nos prematuros. As alterações no exame neurológico não discriminaram os grupos, embora paralisia cerebral só tenha ocorrido nos prematuros. As funções do ENE que distinguiram os grupos foram equilíbrio dinâmico, coordenação tronco-membros e persistência motora, constituindo-se esta no comprometimento dominante nos prematuros e as alterações na coordenação tronco-membros em achado peculiar neste

  1. Spectrum of ocular manifestations in CLN2-associated batten (Jansky-Bielschowsky) disease correlate with advancing age and deteriorating neurological function. (United States)

    Orlin, Anton; Sondhi, Dolan; Witmer, Matthew T; Wessel, Matthew M; Mezey, Jason G; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Hackett, Neil R; Yohay, Kaleb; Kosofsky, Barry; Souweidane, Mark M; Kaplitt, Michael G; D'Amico, Donald J; Crystal, Ronald G; Kiss, Szilárd


    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), one form of Batten's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a CLN2 gene mutation. The spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL and the relationship with neurological function has not been previously described. Patients underwent ophthalmic evaluations, including anterior segment and dilated exams, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Patients were also assessed with the LINCL Neurological Severity Scale. Ophthalmic findings were categorized into one of five severity scores, and the association of the extent of ocular disease with neurological function was assessed. Fifty eyes of 25 patients were included. The mean age at the time of exam was 4.9 years (range 2.5 to 8.1). The mean ophthalmic severity score was 2.6 (range 1 to 5). The mean neurological severity score was 6.1 (range 2 to 11). Significantly more severe ophthalmic manifestations were observed among older patients (p<0.005) and patients with more severe neurological findings (p<0.03). A direct correlation was found between the Ophthalmic Severity Scale and the Weill Cornell Neurological Scale (p<0.002). A direct association was also found between age and the ophthalmic manifestations (p<0.0002), with older children having more severe ophthalmic manifestations. Ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL correlate closely with the degree of neurological function and the age of the patient. The newly established LINCL Ophthalmic Scale may serve as an objective marker of LINCL severity and disease progression, and may be valuable in the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies for LINCL, including gene therapy.

  2. Spectrum of ocular manifestations in CLN2-associated batten (Jansky-Bielschowsky disease correlate with advancing age and deteriorating neurological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Orlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL, one form of Batten's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a CLN2 gene mutation. The spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL and the relationship with neurological function has not been previously described. METHODS: Patients underwent ophthalmic evaluations, including anterior segment and dilated exams, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Patients were also assessed with the LINCL Neurological Severity Scale. Ophthalmic findings were categorized into one of five severity scores, and the association of the extent of ocular disease with neurological function was assessed. RESULTS: Fifty eyes of 25 patients were included. The mean age at the time of exam was 4.9 years (range 2.5 to 8.1. The mean ophthalmic severity score was 2.6 (range 1 to 5. The mean neurological severity score was 6.1 (range 2 to 11. Significantly more severe ophthalmic manifestations were observed among older patients (p<0.005 and patients with more severe neurological findings (p<0.03. A direct correlation was found between the Ophthalmic Severity Scale and the Weill Cornell Neurological Scale (p<0.002. A direct association was also found between age and the ophthalmic manifestations (p<0.0002, with older children having more severe ophthalmic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL correlate closely with the degree of neurological function and the age of the patient. The newly established LINCL Ophthalmic Scale may serve as an objective marker of LINCL severity and disease progression, and may be valuable in the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies for LINCL, including gene therapy.

  3. Spectrum of Ocular Manifestations in CLN2-Associated Batten (Jansky-Bielschowsky) Disease Correlate with Advancing Age and Deteriorating Neurological Function (United States)

    Orlin, Anton; Sondhi, Dolan; Witmer, Matthew T.; Wessel, Matthew M.; Mezey, Jason G.; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Hackett, Neil R.; Yohay, Kaleb; Kosofsky, Barry; Souweidane, Mark M.; Kaplitt, Michael G.; D’Amico, Donald J.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Kiss, Szilárd


    Background Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), one form of Batten’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a CLN2 gene mutation. The spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL and the relationship with neurological function has not been previously described. Methods Patients underwent ophthalmic evaluations, including anterior segment and dilated exams, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Patients were also assessed with the LINCL Neurological Severity Scale. Ophthalmic findings were categorized into one of five severity scores, and the association of the extent of ocular disease with neurological function was assessed. Results Fifty eyes of 25 patients were included. The mean age at the time of exam was 4.9 years (range 2.5 to 8.1). The mean ophthalmic severity score was 2.6 (range 1 to 5). The mean neurological severity score was 6.1 (range 2 to 11). Significantly more severe ophthalmic manifestations were observed among older patients (p<0.005) and patients with more severe neurological findings (p<0.03). A direct correlation was found between the Ophthalmic Severity Scale and the Weill Cornell Neurological Scale (p<0.002). A direct association was also found between age and the ophthalmic manifestations (p<0.0002), with older children having more severe ophthalmic manifestations. Conclusions Ophthalmic manifestations of LINCL correlate closely with the degree of neurological function and the age of the patient. The newly established LINCL Ophthalmic Scale may serve as an objective marker of LINCL severity and disease progression, and may be valuable in the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies for LINCL, including gene therapy. PMID:24015292

  4. Neurological examination in small animals

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    Viktor Paluš


    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  5. 3. Neurological & Psychiatric Society of Zambia's Evidence-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ”. No evidence provided. Not evidence-based and impractical for a resource .... European Federation of. Neurological Sciences. Task Force[18]. Non-acute headache. EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache.

  6. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

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    Guo-Hong Li


    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  7. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.


    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  8. Evaluation of Alternative Altitude Scaling Methods for Thermal Ice Protection System in NASA Icing Research Tunnel (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Addy, Harold E. Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David M.


    A test was conducted at NASA Icing Research Tunnel to evaluate altitude scaling methods for thermal ice protection system. Two new scaling methods based on Weber number were compared against a method based on Reynolds number. The results generally agreed with the previous set of tests conducted in NRCC Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel where the three methods of scaling were also tested and compared along with reference (altitude) icing conditions. In those tests, the Weber number-based scaling methods yielded results much closer to those observed at the reference icing conditions than the Reynolds number-based icing conditions. The test in the NASA IRT used a much larger, asymmetric airfoil with an ice protection system that more closely resembled designs used in commercial aircraft. Following the trends observed during the AIWT tests, the Weber number based scaling methods resulted in smaller runback ice than the Reynolds number based scaling, and the ice formed farther upstream. The results show that the new Weber number based scaling methods, particularly the Weber number with water loading scaling, continue to show promise for ice protection system development and evaluation in atmospheric icing tunnels.

  9. Neurological outcomes in children with and without amalgam-related mercury exposure: seven years of longitudinal observations in a randomized trial. (United States)

    Lauterbach, Martin; Martins, Isabel P; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; Bernardo, Mario; Luis, Henrique; Amaral, Helena; Leitão, Jorge; Martin, Michael D; Townes, Brenda; Rosenbaum, Gail; Woods, James S; Derouen, Timothy


    Although large-scale, randomized trials involving children have been completed and their results demonstrate an absence of neurobehavioral effects from clinical exposure to mercury amalgam, neurological findings from such studies have not been reported. The authors conducted a randomized, prospective trial examining the safety of dental amalgam in which 507 children aged 8 through 12 years were assigned to treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite. During seven years of follow-up, the authors performed annual clinical neurological examinations, including an evaluation of neurological hard signs (NHSs), presence of tremor and neurological soft signs (NSSs). The authors found no significant differences between treatment groups in any of the neurological measures. Groups did not differ with respect to the presence or absence of NHSs or tremor, nor the presence or absence or severity of NSSs at any point. As expected, NSS severity scores diminished with increasing age. Even at the levels of amalgam exposure in this study (a mean of 7.7-10.7 amalgam surfaces per subject across the seven years of follow-up), the authors conclude that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological status. The current evidence is that potential neurobehavioral or neurological effects from dental amalgam mercury exposure in children are inconsequential.

  10. Toward a Neurology of Loneliness (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P.; Cacioppo, John T.


    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter century. The brain is the key organ of social connections and processes, however, and the same objective social relationship can be experienced as caring and protective or as exploitive and isolating. We review evidence that the perception of social isolation (i.e., loneliness) impacts brain and behavior and is a risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. However, the causal role of loneliness on neural mechanisms and mortality is difficult to test conclusively in humans. Mechanistic animal studies provide a lens through which to evaluate the neurological effects of a member of a social species living chronically on the social perimeter. Experimental studies show that social isolation produces significant changes in brain structures and processes in adult social animals. These effects are not uniform across the brain or across species but instead are most evident in brain regions that reflect differences in the functional demands of solitary versus social living for a particular species. The human and animal literatures have developed independently, however, and significant gaps also exist. The current review underscores the importance of integrating human and animal research to delineate the mechanisms through which social relationships impact the brain, health, and well-being. PMID:25222636

  11. [Assessment of the influence of rehabilitation in patients treated in a hospital rehabilitation ward due to consequences of neurological diseases]. (United States)

    Liwocha, Małgorzata; Galus, Krzysztof; Kozak-Szkopek, Elzbieta; Kowal, Roman


    THE AIM OF THE STUDY was evaluation effects of rehabilitation in patients with consequences of neurological diseases. The study was conducted in the hospital department of rehabilitation. The study involved group of 30 patients consisting of 12 men aged from 48 to 76 years (mean age 64.3 +/- 7.9), and 18 women aged from 45 to 82 years (mean age 65.4 +/- 13,2). These were patients mostly after stroke, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease enrolled in rehabilitation. TESTS were performed before and after 21 days rehabilitation, using the following scales and ratings: Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), Scale Barthel, test Tinetti, Expanded "Get-Up-and-Go" Test (ETGUG) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). RESULTS. In men, the average number of points in the scale of ADL, IADL, Barthel increased statistically significant, the results obtained in the test Tinetti, ETGUG, GSD were changed not significant statistically. In women, the average number of points in the IADL scale, Barthel scale and GDS increased, and the test ETGUG were reduced, all statistically significant. The results of the scale ADL and test Tinetti, improved statistically not significant. CONCLUSIONS. The physical rehabilitation in patients with neurological consequences had a positive impact on the ability to perform simple and complex activities of daily living, physical and mental condition. ADL, IADL, Barthel scale, GDS, test Tinetti and ETGUG can be used for evaluation of rehabilitation results.

  12. Evaluation of complete functional status of patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure scale on admission, discharge, and six months poststroke (United States)

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Alikhani, Ebrahim; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Karimzadeh, Afshin


    Background: To evaluate the patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, at the times of admission to hospital, discharge, and six-month poststroke, and to determine the level of improvement in patients after rehabilitative procedures. Methods: A total number of 108 patients with stroke entered the study who were admitted to neurology ward. They all received rehabilitation consultation, and occupational and physical therapies were prescribed for them. Finally, their functional status was evaluated by FIM scale. Results: The median (and range) of FIM scores were 86 (15-119), 102 (16-123) and 119 (17-126) at admission, discharge, and after six-month follow-up, respectively. Our observations showed a significant improvement in FIM scores (P < 0.001). About 13, 30, and 76 percent of the patients in individual functional tasks of motor domain and 61, 75, and 86 percent in cognitive domain got the score of 6 or 7 (complete or partial independence) on admission, discharge, and after six months, respectively. There was a reverse correlation between age and FIM improvement and also duration of hospitalization (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that the FIM is a valid tool for evaluation of patients with stroke, their follow-up and tracking the disease course. Moreover, we concluded that patients with stroke make a significant improvement in their functional status overtime. The exact effect of rehabilitative procedures and comparison with no treatment, must be assessed in separate studies. PMID:28435628

  13. Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures (United States)

    ... of diagnostic imaging techniques and chemical and metabolic analyses to detect, manage, and treat neurological disease. Some ... performed in a doctor’s office or at a clinic. Fluoroscopy is a type of x-ray that ...

  14. Neurological complications of underwater diving. (United States)

    Rosińska, Justyna; Łukasik, Maria; Kozubski, Wojciech


    The diver's nervous system is extremely sensitive to high ambient pressure, which is the sum of atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure. Neurological complications associated with diving are a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They occur in both commercial and recreational diving and are connected with increasing interest in the sport of diving. Hence it is very important to know the possible complications associated with this kind of sport. Complications of the nervous system may result from decompression sickness, pulmonary barotrauma associated with cerebral arterial air embolism (AGE), otic and sinus barotrauma, high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) and undesirable effect of gases used for breathing. The purpose of this review is to discuss the range of neurological symptoms that can occur during diving accidents and also the role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection in pathogenesis of stroke in divers. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurologic Complications of Smallpox Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Smallpox and smallpox vaccination is reviewed from the Departments of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, and University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque.

  16. Neurological Complications of Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry Clay


    Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential.

  17. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility. (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon


    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of neurologic assessment E-learning in nurses. (United States)

    Shin, Ji Yeon; Issenberg, S Barry; Roh, Young Sook


    A firm understanding of the preliminary assessment of a patient with neurological disorders is needed for ensuring optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using e-learning on neurologic assessment knowledge, ability, and self-confidence among nurses. This study used a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Nurses working in the neurology and neurosurgery wards, Republic of Korea PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 50 nurses was assigned to either the experimental group (n=24) or the control group (n=26). The experimental group participated in the self-directed e-learning program related to neurologic assessment, and control group underwent self-directed learning with handout. Knowledge, ability, and self-confidence were measured at pretest and posttest. There were no significant differences in knowledge (U=270, p=0.399) and self-confidence (U=241.5, p=0.171) between the two groups. Nurses in the experimental group showed higher neurologic assessment ability compared with those in the control group (U=199, p=0.028). Self-directed neurologic assessment e-learning induced improvement in the neurologic assessment ability among nurses. Self-directed e-learning can be applied for improving competencies in neurologic assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry. (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan


    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Avaliação neurológica de pacientes adultos com linfoma não-Hodgkin: estudo prospectivo Neurologic evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adult patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo incluindo 67 pacientes adultos com linfoma não-Hodgkin, considerados segundo o "Working Formulation". A população foi estudada como um todo, quer apresentasse ou não anticorpos anti-HIV no soro. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação neurológica e o exame do líquido cefalorraqueano (LCR foi realizado em 63 deles. Os achados neurológicos e do exame do LCR foram correlacionados. Mostraram-se significativas as associações: dor tóraco-lombar localizada e alterações do LCR (presença de células neoplásicas, aumento da concentração proteica e/ou aumento do teor de globulinas gama; anormalidade da força muscular nos membros inferiores e alterações do LCR nos pacientes HIV soro-negativos. Houve correlação entre o aparecimento de sinais de comprometimento dos nervos cranianos III, IV e VI e a detecção de células neoplásicas no LCR.This prospective study included 67 adult patients with low, intermediate or high malignancy degrees of non-Hodgkin' s lymphomas according to the Working Formulation. Patients with or without anti-HIV antibodies in the serum were considered. All patients were submitted to neurologic evaluation, and 63 of them to examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Patients presenting neurologic signs and symptoms were 42 (62.7%. Neurologic findings and CSF changes were correlated. The association of localized thoraco-lumbar pain and CSF changes (presence of neoplastic cells, increased protein concentration and/or increased gamma globulin content was statistically significant, as the association of abnormal muscle strength in the lower limbs and CSF changes in patients without HIV antibodies in the serum. Cranial nerve dysfunction (III, IV and VI cranial nerves correlated with the finding of neoplastic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  1. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

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    Shrikant Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  2. Historical perspective of Indian neurology (United States)

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan


    Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching


    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  4. Avaliação cognitiva breve de pacientes atendidos em ambulatórios de neurologia geral Brief cognitive evaluation of patients attended in a general neurological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula P. Vitiello


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O exame das funções cognitivas é habitual na avaliação das demências, porém não é usualmente realizado em pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relevância da semiologia cognitiva sistemática em pacientes com doenças neurológicas diversas. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 105 pacientes consecutivamente atendidos no período de um ano em ambulatório de neurologia geral de hospital universitário público, sem queixas de alterações cognitivas. Os pacientes foram submetidos aos seguintes testes cognitivos: mini-exame do estado mental (MEEM, extensão de dígitos, testes de memória de figuras, fluência verbal e desenho do relógio. Sempre que possível as notas de corte foram corrigidas em função da escolaridade. RESULTADOS: Cerca de 2/3 dos pacientes apresentaram alterações do desempenho em pelo menos um teste. O MEEM mostrou-se alterado em 20% dos pacientes, o teste da extensão de dígitos apresentou alteração em 50,4% (29,5% na ordem direta e 20,9% na indireta. A evocação tardia esteve alterada em 14,2% dos casos, a fluência verbal esteve abaixo da nota de corte em 27,6% dos pacientes e o desenho do relógio, em 40,0%. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos comprovam a necessidade da inclusão da avaliação cognitiva como parte obrigatória do exame neurológico, mesmo em pacientes sem queixas relacionadas.INTRODUCTION: Cognitive evaluation is usually performed in the assessment of patients with suspected dementia, but is not generally performed in patients with other neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of a systematic cognitive examination in patients with different neurological conditions. METHOD: One-hundred and five patients consecutively attended over a one-year period in a general Neurology outpatient clinic from a public-affiliated hospital, with no complaints of cognitive changes, were submitted to the following cognitive tests: Mini-Mental State Examination

  5. Measuring Evaluation Fears in Adolescence: Psychometric Validation of the Portuguese Versions of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale and the Specific Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (United States)

    Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.


    Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…

  6. Performance evaluation on reactor power control by H{sup {infinity}} controller with gain scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    A `gain scaling method` is proposed to improve the performance of reactor power control by the controller based on linear control theory. The method is derived from the simple nonlinearity of the neutron kinetics of reactor that is caused by the cross term of input reactivity and neutronic output. It is the main idea to scale down the control input generated by the linear controller with respect to the reactor power level. The evaluation of the performance of H{sup {infinity}} control system with the gain scaling in time and frequency domains indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  7. Designing and validity evaluation of Quality of Nursing Care Scale in Intensive Care Units. (United States)

    Zeraati, Mashaalah; Alavi, Negin Masoudi


    Quality of nursing care measurement is essential in critical care units. The aim of this study was to develop a scale to measure the quality of nursing care in intensive care units (ICUs). The 68 items of nursing care standards in critical care settings were explored in a literature review. Then, 30 experts evaluated the items' content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). Items with a low CVI score (nursing care scale in ICU (Quality of Nursing Care Scale- ICU) that was developed in this research had acceptable CVI and CVR.

  8. 'Stand still …, and move on' , an early neurologically-focused follow-up for cardiac arrest survivors and their caregivers: a process evaluation. (United States)

    Moulaert, Véronique R M; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Wade, Derick T; van Heugten, Caroline M; Verbunt, Jeanine A


    A cardiac arrest can lead to hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury which can result in cognitive and emotional impairments and may negatively affect daily functioning, participation in society and quality of life. Furthermore, the impact on the family of the patient can be high. We designed an intervention called 'Stand still …, and move on', which is a concise, individualised, semi-structured intervention for survivors of cardiac arrest and their caregivers, consisting of between one and six face-to-face consultations provided by a trained nurse. The intervention is directed at early detection of cognitive and emotional problems, provision of information, promotion of self-management and referral to specialised care if necessary. The effectiveness of the intervention is being examined in a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN74835019]. Alongside this trial we performed a process evaluation which aims to investigate the feasibility of the intervention by assessing: 1) the attendance and dose delivered; 2) performance according to protocol; and 3) the opinion of patients, caregivers and nurses on the intervention. Participants of this process evaluation were 97 patients allocated to the intervention group of the RCT, their 91 caregivers, and six nurses who conducted the intervention. Measurement instruments used were evaluation forms for patients and caregivers, registration and evaluation forms for nurses, and semi-structured interviews with nurses. Seventy-nine of the patients (81%) allocated to the intervention group and 65 caregivers (71%) participated in the intervention. The mean (SD) number of consultations per patient was 1.8 (1.0), and most consultations were conducted at the patients' home. The intervention was performed largely according to protocol, except that the intervention usually started later than intended, consultations were longer than expected, and the topic of self-management was not regularly addressed. Patients marked the quality of the

  9. Development and evaluation of the "BRISK Scale," a brief observational measure of risk communication competence. (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Joekes, Katherine; Mills, Greg; Gutheil, Caitlin; Smith, Kahsi; Cochran, Nancy E; Elwyn, Glyn


    To develop and evaluate a brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. A 4-item checklist-type measure, the BRISK (Brief Risk Information Skill) Scale, was developed by selecting and refining items from a more comprehensive measure of clinical risk communication competence. Six volunteer raters received brief training on the measure and then used the BRISK Scale to evaluate 52 video-recorded encounters between 2nd-year medical students and standardized patients conducted as part of an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) involving a risk communication task. Internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and criterion validity were assessed. Raters reported no difficulties using the BRISK Scale; scores across all raters and subjects ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 6.49 (SD=3.17). The BRISK Scale showed good internal consistency reliability (α=0.64), and inter-rater reliability at the scale level (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC)=0.79 for consistency, and 0.75 for absolute agreement) and individual-item level (ICC range: 0.62-.91). Novice raters' BRISK Scale scores were highly correlated (r=0.84, pCommunication Content measure, a more comprehensive measure of risk communication competence. The BRISK Scale is a promising new brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the cultural competence scale for clinical nurses. (United States)

    Chae, Duck-Hee; Lee, Chung-Yul


    To develop and psychometrically test the Korean version of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses (K-CCSN). A multi-phase questionnaire development method was used to develop the scale from November 2012 to April 2013. The item pool was generated based on literature review, existing scales and in-depth interviews. The content validity was evaluated twice by an expert panel. The scale validation was conducted with a convenience sample of 456 general hospital nurses recruited from five general hospitals and a nursing college in the Seoul Metropolitan Area of South Korea. The construct-related and criterion-related validity and internal consistency reliability of the scale were tested. The 33-item K-CCSN comprised four subscales-cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural sensitivity and cultural skills-explaining 53.96% of the total variance. The criterion-related validity was supported by a known-group comparison. The reliability analysis showed an acceptable-to-high Cronbach's alpha in total and for subscales ranging from .879 to .932. This preliminary evaluation of psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. The K-CCSN is able to provide scientific and empirical data regarding the cultural competence of clinical nurses. However, further studies are needed to test the applicability of the scale in different settings and contexts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  12. Residency Training: Work engagement during neurology training. (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Artemiadis, Artemios K


    Work engagement, defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, can ameliorate patient care and reduce medical errors. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate work engagement among neurology residents in the region of Attica, Greece. In total, 113 residents participated in this study. Demographic and work-related characteristics, as well as emotional exhaustion and personality traits (neuroticism), were examined via an anonymous questionnaire. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The study sample had a mean age of 34.6 ± 3.6 years, ranging from 26 to 45 years. Sixty-two (54.9%) participants were women and 45 (39.8%) were married. After adjusting for sex, emotional exhaustion, and neuroticism, the main factors associated with work engagement were autonomy and chances for professional development. Providing more chances for trainees' professional development as well as allowing for and supporting greater job autonomy may improve work engagement during neurology training. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Correlation between skin color evaluation by skin color scale chart and narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Treesirichod, Arucha; Chansakulporn, Somboon; Wattanapan, Pattra


    Various methods are available for the evaluation of skin color. A skin color scale chart is a convenient and inexpensive tool. However, the correlation between a skin color scale chart and objective measurement has not been evaluated. To assess the correlation between skin color evaluation done by a skin color scale chart (Felix von Luschan skin color chart) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18). The participants were evaluated for skin color by using the Felix von Luschan skin color chart (range 1-36) and a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer (Mexameter MX18) in which the results of the measurements were expressed as Erythema (E) and Melanin (M) indices. Skin color was measured on four different anatomical skin sites from each participant on the medial aspect of the volar and the dorsal regions of both forearms. A total of 208 records from 52 participants were established. The majority of participants (19.2%) were rated with the skin color scale at the number 16 (range 14-33). The mean M plus E, M, and E indices were 498.9 ± 143.9, 230.4 ± 74.4, and 268.5 ± 73.2, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the number on the skin color scale and each index: M plus E, M, and E indices were 0.90, 0.90, and 0.86, respectively, with a statistical significance of P spectrophotometer.

  14. Characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease: evaluating with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale. (United States)

    Kanda, Fumio; Oishi, Kenichi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kuga, Atsushi; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masatsugu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki


    The purpose of the study was to elucidate characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight PD patients were evaluated with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Scores for "suicidal ideation" on the SDS correlated with posture and gait disturbances on the UPDRS. Twenty-six patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were also evaluated with the SDS. SDS scores for "indecisiveness" and "constipation" were significantly higher in PD patients than SCD patients. Our results suggest that depression is common in disabled persons but PD patients might have a characteristic clinical presentation.

  15. [Evaluation of diagnostic scales for appendicitis in patients with lower abdominal pain]. (United States)

    Sanabria, Alvaro; Domínguez, Luis Carlos; Bermúdez, Charles; Serna, Adriana


    Diagnosis of apendicitis is difficult; however several clinical scales have been developed that attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy. The operational characteristics of Alvarado and Fenyö scales were defined in patients with abdominal pain suggestive of appendicitis and were compare with clinical and pathological diagnoses. A prospective trial assessed the diagnostic tests. Sign, symptoms, and laboratory tests were included in scales selected. Surgeon decision was maintained independent from the results of the scales. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratio for each scale was compared with the surgeon evaluation. The sample included 374 patients with approximately equal sexes. Of these 269 patients underwent surgery. Howeve, 16.9% of the male and 31.4% of female patients did not have appendicitis. For men, a diagnosis made by the surgeon had better sensitivity than scales (86.2% vs. 73% for Alvarado and 67.2% for Fenyö) without significant differences in specificity. For women, surgeon and Alvarado scale diagnoses were similar, and better than Fenyö scale (77.1% vs. 79.5% for Alvarado and 47% for Fenyö), but specificity was higher for Fenyö scale (92.9% vs. 71.4% for Alvarado and 75.9% for surgeon). Accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis increases with a higher Alvarado score. For men with abdominal pain on right lower quadrant, surgeon diagnosis is more accurate than scales. For women, Fenyö scale offers a better sensitivity. Alvarado score can facilitate decision-making in patients with these abdominal symptoms.

  16. Development of the learning programme management and evaluation scale for the South African skills development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo C. Tshilongamulenzhe


    Full Text Available Research purpose: The present study developed and tested the construct validity and reliability of the learning programme management and evaluation (LPME scale.Motivation for the study: The LPME scale was developed to measure and enhance the effectiveness of the management and evaluation of occupational learning programmes in the South African skills development context. Currently no such instrument exists in the South African skills development context; hence there is a need for it.Research design, approach and method: This study followed a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional design using primary data. The LPME scale was administered to a sample of 652 skills development practitioners and learners or apprentices drawn from six organisations representing at least five economic sectors in South Africa. Data were analysed using SPSS and Rasch modelling to test the validity and reliability of the new scale.Main findings: The findings show that the LPME scale is a valid and reliable 11-dimensional measure comprising 81 items.Practical/managerial implications: In view of the seriousness of the skills shortage challenge facing South Africa, this study provides a solid base upon which skills development practitioners can effectively manage and evaluate occupational learning programmes. Furthermore, the newly developed LPME scale provides a basis for further human resource development research in the quest for a solution to the skills shortage challenge.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes by developing a new scale and testing its validity and reliability. As a valid and reliable measure, the LPME scale can be applied with confidence in various South African workplaces.

  17. Architecture for large-scale automatic web accessibility evaluation based on the UWEM methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulltveit-Moe, Nils; Olsen, Morten Goodwin; Pillai, Anand B.


    The European Internet Accessibility project (EIAO) has developed an Observatory for performing large scale automatic web accessibility evaluations of public sector web sites in Europe. The architecture includes a distributed web crawler that crawls web sites for links until either a given budget...... of web pages have been identified or the web site has been crawled exhaustively. Subsequently, a uniform random subset of the crawled web pages is sampled and sent for accessibility evaluation and the evaluation results are stored in a Resource Description Format (RDF) database that is later loaded...... challenges that the project faced and the solutions developed towards building a system capable of regular large-scale accessibility evaluations with sufficient capacity and stability. It also outlines some possible future architectural improvements....

  18. Functional progression of patients with neurological diseases in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit: Our experience. (United States)

    Madurga Revilla, P; López Pisón, J; Samper Villagrasa, P; García Íñiguez, J P; Garcés Gómez, R; Domínguez Cajal, M; Gil Hernández, I


    Neurological diseases explain a considerable proportion of admissions to paediatric intensive care units (PICU), and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to analyse the functional progression of children with critical neurological conditions. Retrospective descriptive study of children admitted to PICU with neurological diseases over a period of 3 years (2012-2014), assessing vital and functional prognosis at PICU discharge and at one year according to the Pediatric Cerebral and Overall Performance Category scales (PCPC-POPC) and the Functional Status Scale (FSS). The results are compared with our previous data (1990-1999), and those of the international multicentre PANGEA study. A total of 266 children were studied. The mortality rate was 3%; the PRISM-III and PIM2 models did not show predictive ability. Clinically significant worsening was observed in functional health at discharge in 30% of the sample, according to POPC, 15% according to PCPC, and 5% according to FSS. After one year, functional performance improved according to PCPC-POPC, but not according to FSS. Children with no underlying neurological disease had a higher degree of functional impairment; this was prolonged over time. We observed a decrease in overall and neurocritical mortality compared with our previous data (5.60 vs. 2.1%, P=.0003, and 8.44 vs. 2.63%, P=.0014, respectively). Compared with the PANGEA study, both mortality and cerebral functional impairment in neurocritical children were lower in our study (1.05 vs. 13.32%, P<.0001, and 10.47% vs. 23.79%, P<.0001, respectively). Nearly one-third of critically ill children have neurological diseases. A significant percentage, mainly children without underlying neurological diseases, had a clinically significant functional impact at PICU discharge and after a year. Neuromonitoring and neuroprotection measures and the evaluation of functional progression are necessary to improve critical child care. Copyright

  19. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder]. (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei


    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  20. Stroke Social Network Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure


    Northcott, S.; Hilari, K.


    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure which assesses a person’s social network in the first six months post stroke. Although it is known that the social networks of those with stroke and aphasia are vulnerable to change, there is currently no social network scale that has been validated for this population.\\ud \\ud Design and Setting: Repeated measures psychometric study, evaluating internal consistency, construct validity, and res...

  1. Reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients. (United States)

    Kutchak, Fernanda Machado; Debesaitys, Andressa Maciel; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Meneguzzi, Carla; Skueresky, Amanda Soares; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt


    To evaluate the use of reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients who were candidates for weaning from mechanical ventilation. This was a cross-sectional study of 135 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h in the ICU of Cristo Redentor Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Reflex cough PEF, the rapid shallow breathing index, MIP, and MEP were measured, as were ventilatory, hemodynamic, and clinical parameters. The mean age of the patients was 47.8 ± 17 years. The extubation failure rate was 33.3%. A reflex cough PEF of PEF and the Glasgow Coma Scale score are independent predictors of extubation failure in neurological patients admitted to the ICU.

  2. Emergy evaluation using the calculation software SCALE: case study, added value and potential improvements. (United States)

    Arbault, Damien; Rugani, Benedetto; Marvuglia, Antonino; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia


    This paper reports the emergy-based evaluation (EME) of the ecological performance of four water treatment plants (WTPs) using three different approaches. The results obtained using the emergy calculation software SCALE (EMESCALE) are compared with those achieved through a conventional emergy evaluation procedure (EMECONV), as well as through the application of the Solar Energy Demand (SED) method. SCALE's results are based on a detailed representation of the chain of technological processes provided by the lifecycle inventory database ecoinvent®. They benefit from a higher level of details in the description of the technological network as compared to the ones calculated with a conventional EME and, unlike the SED results, are computed according to the emergy algebra rules. The analysis delves into the quantitative comparison of unit emergy values (UEVs) for individual technospheric inputs provided by each method, demonstrating the added value of SCALE to enhance reproducibility, accurateness and completeness of an EME. However, SCALE cannot presently include non-technospheric inputs in emergy accounting, like e.g. human labor and ecosystem services. Moreover, SCALE is limited by the approach used to build the dataset of UEVs for natural resources. Recommendations on the scope and accuracy of SCALE-based emergy accounting are suggested for further steps in software development, as well as preliminary quantitative methods to account for ecosystem services and human labor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Assessment of the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological disabilities on the caregiver]. (United States)

    Boaventura, Luiz Carlos; Borges, Heloise Cazangi; Ozaki, Armando Hitoshi


    The scope of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations on informal caregivers. Sixteen informal caregivers of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations were evaluated, using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale to evaluate the burden on caregivers, as well as gather data on the care and socio-demographic profile of the caregivers, on the socio-economic data and the degree of functional independence of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations. Student's t-test, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey method and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results associated lower education level of the caregiver (p = 0.01) and lower level of information of the affected pathology (p-value = 0.01) to a heavier burden on the caregiver. The therapeutic and social support provided by the support institutions, such as the Physiotherapy Clinic/School of CEUNSP, was revealed as being important to help caregivers to handle situations in an easier manner. Understanding the factors that influence the burden on the caregiver is important for planning and intervention for this specific population group.

  4. Neurologic presentation of celiac disease. (United States)

    Bushara, Khalafalla O


    Celiac disease (CD) long has been associated with neurologic and psychiatric disorders including cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, epilepsy, dementia, and depression. Earlier reports mainly have documented the involvement of the nervous system as a complication of prediagnosed CD. However, more recent studies have emphasized that a wider spectrum of neurologic syndromes may be the presenting extraintestinal manifestation of gluten sensitivity with or without intestinal pathology. These include migraine, encephalopathy, chorea, brain stem dysfunction, myelopathy, mononeuritis multiplex, Guillain-Barre-like syndrome, and neuropathy with positive antiganglioside antibodies. The association between most neurologic syndromes described and gluten sensitivity remains to be confirmed by larger epidemiologic studies. It further has been suggested that gluten sensitivity (as evidenced by high antigliadin antibodies) is a common cause of neurologic syndromes (notably cerebellar ataxia) of otherwise unknown cause. Additional studies showed high prevalence of gluten sensitivity in genetic neurodegenerative disorders such as hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia and Huntington's disease. It remains unclear whether gluten sensitivity contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or whether it represents an epiphenomenon. Studies of gluten-free diet in patients with gluten sensitivity and neurologic syndromes have shown variable results. Diet trials also have been inconclusive in autism and schizophrenia, 2 diseases in which sensitivity to dietary gluten has been implicated. Further studies clearly are needed to assess the efficacy of gluten-free diet and to address the underlying mechanisms of nervous system pathology in gluten sensitivity.

  5. [Nutritional and metabolic aspects of neurological diseases]. (United States)

    Planas Vilà, Mercè


    The central nervous system regulates food intake, homoeostasis of glucose and electrolytes, and starts the sensations of hunger and satiety. Different nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Patients with acute neurological diseases (traumatic brain injury, cerebral vascular accident hemorrhagic or ischemic, spinal cord injuries, and cancer) and chronic neurological diseases (Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease) increase the risk of malnutrition by multiple factors related to nutrient ingestion, abnormalities in the energy expenditure, changes in eating behavior, gastrointestinal changes, and by side effects of drugs administered. Patients with acute neurological diseases have in common the presence of hyper metabolism and hyper catabolism both associated to a period of prolonged fasting mainly for the frequent gastrointestinal complications, many times as a side effect of drugs administered. During the acute phase, spinal cord injuries presented a reduction in the energy expenditure but an increase in the nitrogen elimination. In order to correct the negative nitrogen balance increase intakes is performed with the result of a hyper alimentation that should be avoided due to the complications resulting. In patients with chronic neurological diseases and in the acute phase of cerebrovascular accident, dysphagia could be present which also affects intakes. Several chronic neurological diseases have also dementia, which lead to alterations in the eating behavior. The presence of malnutrition complicates the clinical evolution, increases muscular atrophy with higher incidence of respiratory failure and less capacity to disphagia recuperation, alters the immune response with higher rate of infections, increases the likelihood of fractures and of pressure ulcers, increases the incapacity degree and is an independent factor to increase mortality. The periodic nutritional

  6. Evaluation of integral continuing experimental capability (CEC) concepts for light water reactor research: PWR scaling concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condie, K G; Larson, T K; Davis, C B; McCreery, G E


    In this report reactor transients and thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on probabilistic risk assessment and the International Code Assessment Program) to reactor safety were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral thermal-hydraulic testing facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of each concept are evaluated. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally suggest that a facility capable of operating at typical reactor operating conditions will scale most phenomena reasonably well. Although many phenomena in facilities using Freon or water at nontypical pressure will scale reasonably well, those phenomena that are heavily dependent on quality (heat transfer or critical flow for example) can be distorted. Furthermore, relation of data produced in facilities operating with nontypical fluids or at nontypical pressures to large plants will be a difficult and time consuming process.

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in an Israeli Sample. (United States)

    Shkalim, Eleanor


    The current study cross-culturally evaluated the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)/MMPI-2-Restructured Form Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in psychiatric settings in Israel with a sample of 100 men and 133 women. Participants were administered the MMPI-2 and were rated by their therapists on a 188-item Patient Description Form. Results indicated that in most instances the RC Scales demonstrated equivalent or better internal consistencies and improved intercorrelation patterns relative to their clinical counterparts. Furthermore, external analyses revealed comparable or improved convergent validity (with the exceptions of Antisocial Behavior [RC4] and Ideas of Persecution [RC6] among men), and mostly greater discriminant validity. Overall, the findings indicate that consistent with previous findings, the RC Scales generally exhibit comparable to improved psychometric properties over the Clinical Scales. Implications of the results, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild


    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort...... with Life Scale and various life conditions were investigated in the Swedish cohort. RESULTS: For both samples, the analysis indicated that the obtained four-dimensional 11-item scale had satisfactory properties. Moderately high scores were obtained in the four subscales: "living," "social relationships......," "self and present life" and "work." They correlated positively with each other, the internal consistencies of the subscales were acceptable and the means for the subscales indicated no apparent floor or ceiling effects. The four dimensions obtained seem relevant and presented good face validity...

  9. Evaluating Existing and New Validity Evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.


    The current study evaluates existing and new validity evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS; Vallerand et al., 1992). We first provide a narrative review synthesizing past research, and then conduct a validity investigation of the scores from the measure. Data analysis using a sample of 1406 American college students provided construct…

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de


    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  11. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale : Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Polackova Solcova, Iva; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Tavel, Peter

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the

  12. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.


    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L*

  13. Forest biomass supply for bioenergy in the southeast: Evaluating assessment scale (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Robert C. Abt


    This study evaluates the potential impacts of expanded forest biomass use in the Southeast from present year through 2036, focusing on the forest supply, industrial, and GHG emissions implications of maximizing biomass co-firing with coal. We model demand scenarios at the state, subregional, and regional levels, and assess the influence of study scale on the observed...

  14. Development and evaluation of the "BRISK Scale," a brief observational measure of risk communication competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Mills, G.; Gutheil, C.; Smith, K.; Cochran, N.E.; Elwyn, G.


    OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. METHODS: A 4-item checklist-type measure, the BRISK (Brief Risk Information Skill) Scale, was developed by selecting and refining items from a more comprehensive measure of clinical risk

  15. Development of a Decision Support System for Evaluating BMP Efficiencies at Watershed Scale (United States)

    A decision support system (DSS) is needed to evaluate best management practices (BMPs) at the watershed scale for their environmental impacts as well as their associated cost-benefit analysis. Work is in progress to develop a GIS/BMP-DSS, which comprises the watershed model AnnAGNPS (capable of asse...

  16. Evaluation of the energy fluence in the small scale gap test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Bouma, R.H.B.


    The Small Scale Gap Test is a relatively simple experimental tool to obtain a measure of the shock sensitivity of explosives. An evaluation of this test is carried out with use of a computer simulation. The simulated pressures in the water gap compare to experimental data and justify the obtained

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Patient Safety Violation Scale in Medical Oncology Units in Iran. (United States)

    Shali, Mahboobeh; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Ebadi, Abbas


    Patient safety is one of the key components of nursing care for cancer cases. Valid and reliable context-based instruments are necessary for accurate evaluation of patient safety in oncology units. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Patient Safety Violation Scale in medical oncology units in Iran. In this methodological study, a pool of 58 items was generated through reviewing the existing literature. The validity of the 58-item scale was assessed through calculating impact score, content validity ratio, and content validity index for its items as well as conducting exploratory factor analysis. The reliability of the scale was evaluated by assessing its internal consistency and test- retest stability. Study sample consisted of 300 oncology nurses who were recruited from thirteen teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Sixteen items were excluded from the scale due to having low impact scores, content validity ratios, or content validity indices. In exploratory factor analysis, the remaining 42 items were loaded on five factors including patient fall, verification of patientidentity, harm during care delivery, delay in care delivery, and medication errors. These five factors explained 62% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale and the test-retest interclass correlation coefficient were equal to 0.933 and 0.92, respectively. The 42-item Patient Safety Violation Scale is a simple and short scale which has acceptable validity and reliability. Consequently, it can be used for assessing patient safety in clinical settings such as medical oncology units and for research projects.

  18. Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Araújo Rodrigues Funayama


    . These patients gave birth between 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8% one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

  19. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resuscitation Self-efficacy Scale for nurses. (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kim, So Sun


    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate psychometric properties of the instrument, Resuscitation Self-Efficacy Scale for nurses. This was a methodological study for instrument development and psychometric testing. The initial item pool derived from literature review and experts resulted in 30 items linked to resuscitation self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 509 Korean nurses from eleven academic teaching hospitals participated in a survey to examine psychometric properties of the scale. To examine construct validity, exploratory factor analysis and known-group comparison were used. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to determine the scale's internal consistency reliability. The final scale included 17 items with four-component structure termed 'Recognition', 'Debriefing and recording', 'Responding and rescuing', and 'Reporting'. These four factors accounted for 57.5% of the variance. Each subscale and the total scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency: .82; .88; .87; .83; and .91 respectively. Experienced nurses reported significantly higher self-efficacy mean scores in both total and subscales compared to new graduate nurses. The Resuscitation Self-Efficacy Scale for nurses yields reliable and valid results in appraising the level of resuscitation self-efficacy for Korean nurses. Further study is needed to test and refine the scale.

  20. A psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan version of the Individual Workload Perception Scale. (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Lin, Chung-Hui; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lin, Shu-Ying; Hwang, Yueh-Jiau


    The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale on staff nurses in southern Taiwan. Most psychometric measures of the nursing work environment were developed in North America and reflect nursing practice in Western health care environments. As these instruments are used most often in translation, it is important to inquire whether they appropriately capture the characteristics of nursing work in environments outside of the original contexts. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 June-30 September 2009, with a convenience sample of 344 nurses providing direct patient care at a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was created by translating the original English language Individual Workload Perception Scale-Revised, which is used to measure the staff nurses' perceptions of their work environment. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is a 24-item five-point Likert scale measuring manager support, peer support, unit support, workload and intent to stay. Content validity, construct validity and reliability of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale were evaluated. The content validity index of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.93. Cronbach's alpha for the total Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.88, with a range of 0.61-0.85 for the subscales. Factorial validity was supported using a five-factor model solution that accounted for 55.47% of the total variance for nursing work environment. Manager support had the highest explained variance (28.38%). Acceptable reliability and content validity were found; the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is recommended for measuring nurses' perceptions of their work environment

  1. A short scale for evaluation of neuropsychiatric disorders in Parkinson's disease: first psychometric approach. (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Frades-Payo, Belen; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Ayuga-Martinez, Angel


    The neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral disorders affecting Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are common and disabling. A PD-specific interview-based 12-item scale, the Scale for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (SEND-PD), has been developed to assess the severity of neuropsychiatric manifestations. The present study is aimed at testing some basic psychometric attributes of this scale. A total of 633 consecutive patients and their caregivers were included in this cross-sectional, multicenter, observational study. In addition to the tested scale, the following assessments were applied: Hoehn and Yahr staging, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease Motor and Psychiatric complications, MiniMental State Examination, Clinical Impression of Severity Index, and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory. Patients in all stages of disease were included and 18.38 % were demented. The SEND-PD was responded by patients (86.16 %), caregivers (13.15 %), or both (0.69 %). Three factors (accounting for 66.63 % of the variance) were identified and considered as subscales: Psychotic symptoms, Mood/Apathy, and Impulse control disorders. The subscales showed satisfactory scaling assumptions (multitrait-item success rate 100 %) and internal consistency (alpha indices >0.70). The convergent validity with other measures of psychiatric symptoms and the discriminant validity to distinguish between categories of patients' age, duration and severity of disease, and dopaminergic treatment were satisfactory. The precision of the scale dimensions was acceptable. The SEND-PD performed as an acceptable, consistent, valid, and precise scale for evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Stroke Social Network Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure. (United States)

    Northcott, Sarah; Hilari, Katerina


    To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure that assesses a person's social network in the first six months post stroke. Although it is known that the social networks of those with stroke and aphasia are vulnerable to change, there is currently no social network scale that has been validated for this population. Repeated measures psychometric study, evaluating internal consistency, construct validity, and responsiveness to change of the Stroke Social Network Scale. Participants were interviewed two weeks, three months and six months following a first stroke. Stroke Social Network Scale; Medical Outcomes Studies (MOS) Social Support Survey; National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39g; Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test. 87 participants were recruited, of whom 71 were followed up at six months. Factor analysis was used with the Stroke Social Network Scale to derive five subdomains: satisfaction; children; relatives; friends; and groups, which explained 63% of variance. There was good evidence for the scale's internal consistency (α = 0.85); acceptability; and convergent (r = 0.34; r = 0.53) and discriminant validity (r = -0.10; r = -0.19). It differentiated between those with high versus low perceived social support (p = 0.01). Moderate changes from two weeks to six months supported responsiveness (d = 0.32; standardised response mean (SRM) = 0.46), with the friends factor, as expected, showing more change than the children's factor (friends factor: d = 0.46; SRM = 0.50; children's factor: d = 0.06; SRM = 0.19). The Stroke Social Network Scale is a new measure that demonstrates good internal consistency, validity and responsiveness to change.

  3. Rethinking the neurological examination I: static balance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles A. Maranhão-Filho


    Full Text Available The authors advocate a modernization of the neurologic exam with regard to the evaluation of static equilibrium through the application of some easily performed and interpreted bedside maneuvers like the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance - modified and the Functional Reach Test. The authors also believe that these and other assessments, such as that of the risk of falling for elderly patients, should be incorporated into the routine neurological examination.

  4. Neurologic considerations in propionic acidemia. (United States)

    Schreiber, John; Chapman, Kimberly A; Summar, Marshall L; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Sutton, V Reid; MacLeod, Erin; Stagni, Kathy; Ueda, Keiko; Franks, Jill; Island, Eddie; Matern, Dietrich; Peña, Loren; Smith, Brittany; Urv, Tiina; Venditti, Charles; Chakarapani, Anupam; Gropman, Andrea L


    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an organic acidemia which has a broad range of neurological complications, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, structural abnormalities, metabolic stroke-like episodes, seizures, optic neuropathy, and cranial nerve abnormalities. As the PA consensus conference hosted by Children's National Medical Center progressed from January 28 to 30, 2011, it became evident that neurological complications were common and a major component of morbidity, but the role of imaging and the basis for brain pathophysiology were unclear. This paper reviews the hypothesized pathophysiology, presentation and uses the best available evidence to suggest programs for treatment, imaging, and monitoring the neurological complications of PA. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality Metrics in Inpatient Neurology. (United States)

    Dhand, Amar


    Quality of care in the context of inpatient neurology is the standard of performance by neurologists and the hospital system as measured against ideal models of care. There are growing regulatory pressures to define health care value through concrete quantifiable metrics linked to reimbursement. Theoretical models of quality acknowledge its multimodal character with quantitative and qualitative dimensions. For example, the Donabedian model distils quality as a phenomenon of three interconnected domains, structure-process-outcome, with each domain mutually influential. The actual measurement of quality may be implicit, as in peer review in morbidity and mortality rounds, or explicit, in which criteria are prespecified and systemized before assessment. As a practical contribution, in this article a set of candidate quality indicators for inpatient neurology based on an updated review of treatment guidelines is proposed. These quality indicators may serve as an initial blueprint for explicit quality metrics long overdue for inpatient neurology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. [Child neurology and multimedia technology]. (United States)

    Nihei, Kenji


    Methods of computer technology (intelligent technology, IT), such as multimedia and virtual reality, are utilized more and more in all medical fields including child neurology. Advances in the digitalization of individual medical data and multi-media technology have enabled patients to be able to obtain their own medical data by small media and to receive medical treatment at any hospitals even if they are located in distance place. Changes from a doctor oriented to patients oriented medicine is anticipated. It is necessary to store medical data from birth to adulthood and to accumulate epidemiological data of rare diseases such as metabolic diseases or degenerative diseases especially in child neurology, which highly require tele medicine and telecare at home. Moreover, IT may improve in the QOL of patients with neurological diseases and of their families. Cooperation of medicine and engineering is therefore necessary. Results of our experiments on telemedicine, telecare and virtual reality are described.

  7. [Neurologic manifestations in pediatric patients with AIDS]. (United States)

    Samudio-Domínguez, G; Dávila, G; Martínez-Aguilar, G; Santos-Preciado, J I


    Since the first cases of childhood AIDS were reported, the neurological involvement has been more frequently recognized. Several motor, intellectual and conductual changes as well as unexplained abnormalities have been described due to CNS infections. Findings have shown HIV to affect the CNS although it is unknown as to when the viral invasion actually occurs. This report describes the neurological manifestations found in pediatric patients with HIV infection at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico and their correlations with CT scans, EEGs, auditory evoked potentials, I.Q.s and postmortem findings. The medical records of 60 symptomatic HIV infected children, stages P0 to P2, are reviewed. Neurological abnormalities were found in 51 patients, 20 of which (39.2%) were due to perinatal infection with symptoms starting, on the average at 11 months 7 days (from the initial contact) taking into consideration in utero exposure. Nine cases (17.6%) were patients infected through transfusions with symptoms appearing on the average at 24 months 8 days; 2 cases (3.9%) were of unknown origin. The CT scans, EEGs and psychometric evaluations of the HIV infected patients correlated well with the clinical findings.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of revised Task-Related Worry Scale (TRWS-R: A Mokken model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Marko


    Full Text Available Task-related worries can be understood as an inherent component of an anxious state and stress response. Under evaluating conditions (e.g. cognitive testing, these worries, due to cognitive interference they create, may have undesirable effects on a cognitive performance at hand. Since cognitive interference has been documented to affect a broad spectrum of cognitive performance (Hembree, 1988, development of a method for its assessment is required. For this purpose we modified a part of the original Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (Sarason et al., 1986 in order to create the revised Task- Related Worry Scale (TRWS-R and investigated its psychometric properties. Data from two hundreds of participants (72 male, 139 female; age ranging from 18 to 24 were obtained to inspect the modified scale’s properties on Slovak sample. After the scale was reformulated and shortened, the resulting set of eight items was subjected for examination of internal consistency (Cronbach'salpha, Revelle’sbeta, Armor'stheta, and McDonald'somega coefficients, expected unidimensionality (confirmatory factor analysis, and scalability (nonparametric item response model - Mokken scale analysis. The results indicate that the scale has rather reasonable consistency. Both mean inter-item correlation and corrected mean item-score correlation were relatively high (r= .469 and r = .636 respectively. Additionally, all estimated consistency coefficients reached required thresholds (namely: ? = .88,ß = .79,? = .86,? =.88. Robust confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach-Mesbah curve convergently supported the hypothesized unidimensional factor solution (CFA fit indexes: ?2 (28= 26.73, p = .143, CFI = .994, TLI = .992, RMSEA = .041, SRMR = .055.. Moreover, Mokken scale analysis indicated that the scale is scalable (scale’s H = .496 and satisfies the criteria of both monotone homogenity model and double monotonicity model (no significant violations were present. Consistency

  9. Neurological manifestations of atypical celiac disease in childhood. (United States)

    Sel, Çiğdem Genç; Aksoy, Erhan; Aksoy, Ayşe; Yüksel, Deniz; Özbay, Ferda


    Various typical and atypical neurological manifestations can be seen as the initial symptoms of celiac disease (CD). We suggest that gluten toxicity is the most suspicious triggering risk factor for probable pathophysiological pathways of neurological involvement in atypical CD. The medical charts of 117 patients diagnosed with atypical CD were retrieved from a tertiary center in Ankara, Turkey. Eight patients reported as having neurologic manifestations as initiating symptoms were evaluated in detail. The initial neurological manifestations of CD in our study included atypical absence, which was reported first in this study, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, severe axial hypotonia and down phenotype, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, mild optic neuritis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and short duration headaches. Seizures mostly emphasizing atypical absence could be the initial presentation manifestation of CD, first described in this literature. Gluten toxicity could be one of the most powerful triggering factors for developing epilepsy in CD. Learning disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, short duration headaches, mild optic neuritis, encephalopathy, and DS could also be the initial neurological manifestations of atypical CD. A gluten-restricted diet may improve neurological complaints, epileptic discharges, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. All we found may be a small part of the full range of neurological disorders of unknown origin related to CD. Clinical suspicion should be the rule for accurate diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Educational interventions in neurology: a comprehensive systematic review. (United States)

    McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O


    A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  11. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

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    Uzair Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  12. Neurological manifestations in Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin


    . Neurological symptoms, such as burning sensations (occasionally accompanied by acroparesthesia) and stroke, are among the first to appear, and occur in both male and female patients. A delay in establishing the diagnosis of Fabry's disease can cause unnecessary problems, especially now that enzyme replacement...... treatment is available to prevent irreversible organ damage. Females with Fabry's disease who present with pain have often been ignored and misdiagnosed because of the disorder's X-linked inheritance. This Review will stress the importance of recognizing neurological symptoms for the diagnosis of Fabry...

  13. Sleep disorders in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Guryevich Poluektov


    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are closely associated with both nervous system diseases and mental disorders; however, such patients prefer to seek just neurological advice. Insomnia is the most common complaint in routine clinical practice. It is characterized by different impairments in sleep and daytime awakening. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is less common, but more clinically important because of its negative impact on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The common neurological disorders are restless legs syndrome and REM sleep behavior disorder, as well as narcolepsy, the major manifestations of which are impaired nocturnal sleep and daytime awakening.

  14. Are neurology residents interested in headache? (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    The years of residency are the pillars of the subsequent practice in every medical specialty. The aim of our study is to evaluate the current situation, degree of involvement, main interests, and perceived quality of the training received by Spanish residents of neurology, specifically in the area of headache. A self-administered survey was designed by the Headache Study Group of the Spanish Society of Neurology (GECSEN) and was sent via e-mail to all residents who were members of the Society as of May 2015. Fifty-three residents completed the survey (N = 426, 12.4%): 6% were first year residents, 25.5% second year, 23.5% third year, and 45% fourth year residents, all from 13 different Spanish autonomous communities. The areas of greatest interest are, in this order: Vascular neurology, headache, and epilepsy. Of them, 85% believe that the area of headache is undervalued. More than half of residents (52.8%) do not rotate in specific Headache Units and only 35.8% complete their training dominating anaesthetic block and toxin infiltration techniques. Of them, 81.1% believe that research is scarce or absent; 69.8% have never made a poster/presentation, 79.3% have not published and only 15% collaborate on research projects in this area. Lastly, 40% believe that they have not received adequate training. Headache is among the areas that interest our residents the most; however, we believe that we must improve their training both at a patient healthcare level and as researchers. Thus, increasing the number of available courses, creating educational web pages, involving residents in research, and making a rotation in a specialised unit mandatory are among the fundamental objectives of the GECSEN. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurologic Injury in Operatively Treated Acetabular Fractures. (United States)

    Bogdan, Yelena; Tornetta, Paul; Jones, Clifford; Gilde, Alex K; Schemitsch, Emil; Vicente, Milena; Horwitz, Daniel; Sanders, David; Firoozabadi, Reza; Leighton, Ross; de Dios Robinson, Juan; Marcantonio, Andrew; Hamilton, Benjamin


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a series of operatively treated acetabular fractures with neurologic injury and to track sensory and motor recovery. Operatively treated acetabular fractures with neurologic injury from 8 trauma centers were reviewed. Patients were followed for at least 6 months or to neurologic recovery. Functional outcome was documented at 3 months, 6 months, and final follow-up. Outcomes included motor and sensory recovery, brace use, development of chronic regional pain syndrome, and return to work. One hundred thirty-seven patients (101 males and 36 females), average age 42 (17-87) years, met the criteria. Mechanism of injury included MVC (67%), fall (11%), and other (22%). The most common fracture types were transverse + posterior wall (33%), posterior wall (23%), and both-column (23%). Deficits were identified as preoperative in 57%, iatrogenic in 19% (immediately after surgery), and those that developed postoperatively in 24%. A total of 187 nerve deficits associated with the following root levels were identified: 7 in L2-3, 18 in L4, 114 in L5, and 48 in S1. Full recovery occurred in 54 (29%), partial recovery in 69 (37%), and 64 (34%) had no recovery. Forty-three percent of S1 deficits and 29% of L5 deficits had no recovery. Fifty-five percent of iatrogenic injuries did not recover. Forty-eight patients wore a brace at the final follow-up, all for an L5 root level deficit. Although 60% (42/70) returned to work, chronic regional pain syndrome was seen to develop in 19% (18/94). Peripheral neurologic injury in operatively treated acetabular fractures occurs most commonly in the sciatic nerve distribution, with L5 root level deficits having only a 26% chance of full recovery. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Neurological complications of kernicterus. (United States)

    AlOtaibi, Suad F; Blaser, Susan; MacGregor, Daune L


    Prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy relies on the detection of newborns who are at risk of developing serious hyperbilirubinemia. The objective of this study was to reassess the clinical syndrome of kernicterus as neurodiagnostic studies have become more readily available and can be used to evaluate these infants. The study population was neonates born at term or near term admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between January 1990 and May 2000. During the study period, there were 9776 admissions (average number of admissions per year--888 infants). The inclusion criteria were that patients had total serum bilirubin levels of >400 micromol/L at the time of diagnosis and no evidence of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Records were reviewed to establish neurodevelopment outcomes. Twelve neonates (nine males) were identified. Bilirubin levels at the time of diagnosis ranged from 405 to 825 micromol/L. Causes of these elevated levels included glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (seven patients), dehydration (three patients), sepsis (one patient), and was undetermined in one patient. Abnormal visual evoked potentials were found in three of nine patients and abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials in seven of ten patients. Abnormal electroencephalograms were documented in five patients studied. Brain magnetic resonance imaging results were abnormal in three of four patients. Magnetic resonance imaging typically showed an increased signal in the posteromedial aspect of the globus pallidus and was, therefore, useful in the assessment of the structural changes of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy after kernicterus.

  17. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Thirst Distress Scale for patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Waldréus, Nana; Jaarsma, Tiny; van der Wal, Martje Hl; Kato, Naoko P


    Patients with heart failure can experience thirst distress. However, there is no instrument to measure this in patients with heart failure. The aim of the present study was to develop the Thirst Distress Scale for patients with Heart Failure (TDS-HF) and to evaluate psychometric properties of the scale. The TDS-HF was developed to measure thirst distress in patients with heart failure. Face and content validity was confirmed using expert panels including patients and healthcare professionals. Data on the TDS-HF was collected from patients with heart failure at outpatient heart failure clinics and hospitals in Sweden, the Netherlands and Japan. Psychometric properties were evaluated using data from 256 heart failure patients (age 72±11 years). Concurrent validity of the scale was assessed using a thirst intensity visual analogue scale. Patients did not have any difficulties answering the questions, and time taken to answer the questions was about five minutes. Factor analysis of the scale showed one factor. After psychometric testing, one item was deleted. For the eight item TDS-HF, a single factor explained 61% of the variance and Cronbach's alpha was 0.90. The eight item TDS-HF was significantly associated with the thirst intensity score ( r=0.55, pfailure.

  18. Neurological Soft Signs and Corpus Callosum morphology in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Bersani, G; Quartini, A; Paolemili, M; Clemente, R; Iannitelli, A; Di Biasi, C; Gualdi, G


    Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) have been found to be more prevalent in schizophrenic patients. A breakdown in intracortical functional connectivity, including interhemispheric communication, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Indeed, problems with interhemispheric information transfer via the Corpus Callosum (CC) have been documented in schizophrenics. Our study goal was to relate NSS to CC morphology. CC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements were collected from 29 right-handed male schizophrenia inpatients. NSS were evaluated employing the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES). We examined the scores obtained from the NES total and the three NES subscales: Integrative Sensory Function, Motor Coordination, and Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts. We compared CC morphology of patients with "high" NSS with that of patients with "low" NSS. Correlation analyses were performed to further clarify the relationship between CC size, NSS, and total lifetime antipsychotic consumption. Patients with "high" scores at the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale showed a smaller CC rostral body, whereas patients with "high" scores at the Integrative Sensory Function subscale showed a smaller CC splenium. For both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale, "high" scores were accompanied by an increase of the CC genu. Correlation analyses revealed a significant inverse correlation between the CC rostral body size and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale score. In addition, a significant positive correlation was shown between the CC genu size and both the NES total and the Sequencing Of Complex Motor Acts subscale scores. The presence of NSS and the accompanying CC structural abnormalities were independent on antipsychotic treatment. Our data provide evidence for an association between NSS and CC morphology and further support the hypothesis of a disturbed interhemispheric functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Copyright

  19. Evaluation of Corrosion and Scaling Potential of a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Hoseinzadeh


    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Hoseinzadeh E, Yusefzadeh A, Rahimi N, Khorsandi H. Evaluation of Corrosion and Scaling Potential of a Water Treatment Plant. Arch Hyg Sci 2013;2(2:41-47. Background & Aims of the Study: We evaluated corrosion and scaling potential of water treated by “Takab city (Western Iran water treatment plant (called Chahar Tagh facilities” using field observation of water treatment plant, and study of physical and chemical parameter values of water. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, during a 10-month period (from January to October 2012 in each month, 15 grab samples with 2 to 3 L of water were collected for analysis. Some physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, calcium and magnesium hardness, calcium and magnesium ions concentration, total alkalinity, bicarbonate concentration and electrical conductivity were measured. The corrosion and scaling potential of water were calculated by Langelier saturation index (LSI, Risnar index (RI, aggressive index (AI and Puckorius scaling index (PSI. Results: Values recorded for all physicochemical parameters were in acceptable standard levels. The calculated values of LSI index indicated slightly scale forming and corrosive, RI index showed heavy corrosion, AI index showed water is non-aggressive and based on PSI index results water is likely to dissolve scale. Based on LSI, RI, AI and PSI monthly indices results the water of water treatment plant showed a uniform quality of corrosion and precipitation potential. Conclusions: The results showed that values of all measured physical and chemical parameters were in the range of national and international standards. Based on LSI and AI indices results, water tends to scale forming while based on RI and PSI indices results water tend to be corrosive.

  20. Evaluating Corrosion and Scaling Potential of Drinking Water Supplies in Juybar, North of Iran

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    Abdoliman Amouei


    Full Text Available Background & purpose: One of the major factors in the quality of drinking water is corrosion and scaling. The aim of the present study was to evaluate corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water supply network in Juybar (A city in Iran. Materials and Methods: 60 samples of drinking water in distribution network were collected randomly in summer and autumn seasons and transferred into laboratory. Some parameters including temperature, TDS, pH, total alkalinity and hardness and calcium hardness were measured based on the standard methods. The corrosion and scaling potential of water have been evaluated by Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius and aggressive indices. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean values of pH, TDS, total alkalinity and calcium hardness in summer were 7.6, 637.5, 300, and 120 mg/l, respectively; and in autumn were 7.5, 646.5, 301, and 118 mg/l, respectively. The Langelier index in summer and autumn were 0.57 and 0.5, respectively, which showed that water had a potential for scaling. The Ryznar index in summer and autumn were 6.42 and 6.53, respectively indicating that water samples had neither scaling, nor corrosive potential. The Puckorius index in water samples was also determined to be 5.83 and 5.92 in summer and autumn, respectively, which showed that the samples were depositing water. Based on the aggressive index, the water samples in summer and autumn were 12.65 and 12.59, respectively, showing that water was mild scaling. Conclusion: This study showed that the drinking water of Juybar city has tendency to scaling.

  1. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States


    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.


    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance ...

  2. Historical perspective on the use of visual grading scales in evaluating skin irritation and sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Visual assessment of skin reactions has long been used to evaluate the safety of chemicals and preparations that contact the skin, and to meet regulatory requirements. This article reviews the history of visual grading scales, and the results of investigations into the reliability of the method...... quality in comparison with current testing methods that rely on visual assessment. In addition, such measuring techniques can add considerably to the complexity of testing protocols. When benefits and cost are weighed in the balance, the visual assessment scales popularized by Draize and others remain...

  3. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Progressive Collapse Behavior in Scaled RC Beam-Column Subassemblage

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    Rasool Ahmadi


    Full Text Available An experimental test was carried out on a 3/10 scale subassemblage in order to investigate the progressive collapse behavior of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Investigation of alternative load paths and resistance mechanisms in scaled subassemblage and differences between the results of full-scale and scaled specimens are the main goals of this research. Main characteristics of specimen response including load-displacement curve, mechanism of formation and development of cracks, and failure mode of the scaled specimen had good agreement with the full-scale specimen. In order to provide a reliable numerical model for progressive collapse analysis of RC beam-column subassemblages, a macromodel was also developed. First, numerical model was validated with experimental tests in the literature. Then, experimental results in this study were compared with validated numerical results. It is shown that the proposed macromodel can provide a precise estimation of collapse behavior of RC subassemblages under the middle column removal scenario. In addition, for further evaluation, using the validated numerical model, parametric study of new subassemblages with different details, geometric and boundary conditions, was also done.

  4. New approach to the evaluation of skin color of pigmentary lesions using Skin Tone Color Scale. (United States)

    Konishi, Natsuko; Kawada, Akira; Morimoto, Yoshinobu; Watake, Asami; Matsuda, Hiromasa; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru


    Objective methods of measuring skin color are needed to evaluate pigmentary lesions quantitatively. We have developed a new method of measuring skin color using a plastic bar system called the Skin Tone Color Scale based on Munsell's color space system. We have also evaluated the effectiveness of various therapies using this measurement system. Our system was designed to measure skin color in normal skin, pigmentary lesions of solar lentigo, chloasma and ephelides, and postinflammatory pigmentation. Moreover, effectiveness of various therapies for these pigmentary lesions was evaluated. The evaluations made with this system were closely related to physician assessment. This method may be useful in measuring of skin color and evaluating the effectiveness of therapies for pigmentary diseases.

  5. Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment: part II neurologic basis of applied kinesiology. (United States)

    Schmitt, W H; Yanuck, S F


    Functional Neurologic Assessment and treatment methods common to the practice of applied kinesiology are presented. These methods are proposed to enhance neurological examination and treatment procedures toward more effective assessment and care of functional impairment. A neurologic model for these procedures is proposed. Manual assessment of muscular function is used to identify changes associated with facilitation and inhibition, in response to the introduction of sensory receptor-based stimuli. Muscle testing responses to sensory stimulation of known value are compared with usually predictable patterns based on known neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, guiding the clinician to an understanding of the functional status of the patient's nervous system. These assessment procedures are used in addition to other standard diagnostic measures to augment rather than replace the existing diagnostic armamentarium. The proper understanding of the neurophysiologic basis of muscle testing procedures will assist in the design of further investigations into applied kinesiology. Accordingly, the neurophysiologic basis and proposed mechanisms of these methods are reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov


    Full Text Available We have conducted a study about the influence of natural flavonoids of phloridzine and icariins on the working capacity and a state of neurological status of animals in conditions of long exhausting physical and psychoemotional stresses. We have used outbred male mice weighing 20-25 g in the experiment. The compounds under study were administered per os at dose of 100 mg/kg 60 minutes before the stresses modeling. Physical and psychoemotional stresses were modeled on a forced swimming test with 20% stress from an animal weight during 10 days. After that psychoemotional state of animals was evaluated in tests of “open field” and “elevated plus maze”. As the result of the experiment, we have established that phloridzine application conduced the increase of working capacity of animals, while activity peak fell on the 7th day of administration with stable indices, which characterized psychoemotional state of animals. The administration of icariin led to the working capacity reduction of mice by 44.6%  against the original indices of this group and by 55% in comparison with control animals, decrease of motion and orient-exploratory activity in the tests of “open field” and “elevated plus maze”.

  7. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology

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    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive


    Full Text Available Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  8. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology. (United States)

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi


    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  9. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis]. (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L


    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John


    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  11. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet. (United States)

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D


    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. International electives in neurology training (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.


    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  13. The Ability of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 to Detect Aspiration in Patients With Neurological Disorders (United States)

    Arslan, Selen Serel; Demir, Numan; Kılınç, Hasan E; Karaduman, Aynur A


    Background/Aims Dysphagia is common in patients with neurological disorders. There is a need to identify patients at risk early by a useful clinical tool to prevent its serious complications. The study aims to determine the ability of the Turkish version of Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) to detect aspiration in patients with neurological disorders. Methods Two hundred fifty-nine patients with neurological disorders who had complaints about swallowing difficulty and referred for a swallowing evaluation were included. Oropharyngeal dysphagia was evaluated with the T-EAT-10 and videofluoroscopic swallowing study in the same day. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was used to document the penetration and aspiration severity. Results The mean age of the patients was 59.72 ± 17.24 years (minimum [min] = 18, maximum [max] = 96), of which 57.1% were male. The mean T-EAT-10 of patients who had aspiration (PAS > 5) was 25.91 ± 10.31 (min = 1, max = 40) and the mean T-EAT-10 of patients who did not have aspiration (PAS < 6) was 15.70 ± 10.54 (min = 0, max = 40) (P < 0.001). Patients with a T-EAT-10 score higher than 15 were 2.4 times more likely to aspirate. A linear correlation was found between T-EAT-10 and PAS scores of the patients (r = 0.416, P < 0.001). The sensitivity of a T-EAT-10 higher than 15 in detecting aspiration was 81.0% and the specificity was 58.0%. A T-EAT-10 score of higher than 15 has a positive predictive value of 72.0% and a negative predictive value of 69.0%. Conclusion The T-EAT-10 can be used to detect unsafe airway protection in neurology clinics to identify and refer dysphagic patients for further evaluation. PMID:28545185

  14. Suicide and patients with neurologic diseases. Methodologic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon


    OBJECTIVE: The suicide risk in patients with many neurologic diseases has been reported to be greater than that in the general population. Studies on the subject are, however, often encumbered with methodologic problems. We appraised these problems and, based on an evaluation, reappraised knowledge...... of the suicide risk in patients with specific neurologic diseases. DATA SOURCE: Using the computerized database MEDLINE, we identified all published reports with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and neurologic diseases. STUDY SELECTION: We assessed and reviewed studies concerning the most common...... neurologic diseases for methodologic problems in the study design. DATA EXTRACTION: The following methodologic problems emerged during our review: (1) choice of study type, ie, autopsy study or follow-up study; (2) choice of study population; (3) choice of control groups; (4) epidemiologic...

  15. Neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients in Tehran, Iran

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    Minoo Mohraz


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the neurological complications among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 patients diagnosed with HIV infection between 2006 and 2009 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic and clinical variables as well as laboratory tests were extracted and analyzed. Also, another 100 patients refereed to Voluntary Counseling and Testing center of the hospital were visited and evaluated for neurological complications. Results: Among the patients, neurologic manifestations were observed in 34 (7.94% patients. Twenty three percent of the patients received antiretroviral therapy. Identified causes included brain toxoplasmosis (14.7%, progressive multi-focal leuko encephalopathy (5.9%, HIV encephalopathy (5.9%, TB meningitis (5% and unknown etiologies (11.8%. Also, among 100 patients who were admitted and visited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing center, no one was diagnosed for any neurological manifestations. Conclusions: According to our results, toxoplasmosis is the most frequent cause of neurological conditions among Iranian HIV infected patients and should be considered in any HIV/AIDS patient with neurological manifestations.

  16. Neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in childhood moyamoya syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.L.; Chavali, R.V.; Robson, C.D.; Barnes, P.D.; Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Eldredge, E.A. [Department of Anesthesia, Children`s Hospital Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Scott, R.M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Children`s Hospital Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose. To determine the incidence of neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in children with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as compared to children without MMS. Materials and methods. One-hundred-ninety consecutive cerebral angiograms obtained in 152 children were evaluated. Sixty of these angiograms were obtained in 40 children with MMS. Patients underwent neurologic evaluation prior to and after the procedure. For this study, a neurologic complication was defined as any new focal neurologic deficit or alteration in mental status occurring during the procedure or within the ensuing 24 hours. Results. There were 2 neurologic complications within 24 hours of angiography, one in the MMS group and one in the non-MMS group. One patient with MMS became mute following angiography. The symptom resolved within 12 hours. One patient without MMS being examined postoperatively for residual arteriovenous malformation developed intracranial hemorrhage requiring reexploration 12 hours after the angiogram. Using a two-tail Fisher`s exact test, there was no significant statistical difference in the ischemic (P = 0.3) or hemorrhagic (P = 1.0) complication rates between the group of patients with MMS and the non-MMS groups. Conclusion. The risk of a neurologic complication from cerebral angiography in children with MMS is low and not statistically different from the risk in children with other cerebrovascular disorders. (orig.) With 8 tabs., 37 refs.

  17. Evaluation of drought propagation in an ensemble mean of large-scale hydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Van Loon


    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is increasingly studied using large-scale models. It is, however, not sure whether large-scale models reproduce the development of hydrological drought correctly. The pressing question is how well do large-scale models simulate the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought? To answer this question, we evaluated the simulation of drought propagation in an ensemble mean of ten large-scale models, both land-surface models and global hydrological models, that participated in the model intercomparison project of WATCH (WaterMIP. For a selection of case study areas, we studied drought characteristics (number of droughts, duration, severity, drought propagation features (pooling, attenuation, lag, lengthening, and hydrological drought typology (classical rainfall deficit drought, rain-to-snow-season drought, wet-to-dry-season drought, cold snow season drought, warm snow season drought, composite drought.

    Drought characteristics simulated by large-scale models clearly reflected drought propagation; i.e. drought events became fewer and longer when moving through the hydrological cycle. However, more differentiation was expected between fast and slowly responding systems, with slowly responding systems having fewer and longer droughts in runoff than fast responding systems. This was not found using large-scale models. Drought propagation features were poorly reproduced by the large-scale models, because runoff reacted immediately to precipitation, in all case study areas. This fast reaction to precipitation, even in cold climates in winter and in semi-arid climates in summer, also greatly influenced the hydrological drought typology as identified by the large-scale models. In general, the large-scale models had the correct representation of drought types, but the percentages of occurrence had some important mismatches, e.g. an overestimation of classical rainfall deficit droughts, and an

  18. Prosocial behaviour in palliative nurses: psychometric evaluation of the prosociality scale. (United States)

    Biagioli, Valentina; Prandi, Cesarina; Giuliani, Lucia; Nyatanga, Brian; Frida, Roberta


    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a prosociality scale within the palliative nursing context, and then examine the impact of prosocial behaviour in relation to job and educational satisfaction among palliative nurses. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 25 Italian palliative care centres, with a total of 107 nurses completing the prosociality scale by Caprara et al (2005) . Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were examined to evaluate a multidimensional model of prosociality. A three-factor solution with a second order factor fitted the data well. The three dimensions extracted were labelled as helping, empathy, and sharing. Participants reported high levels of prosociality. In addition, prosociality was positively associated with job and educational satisfaction. The prosociality scale was valid and reliable when tested with palliative nurses. Although prosociality may be embedded in nurses' personalities, this quality should be actively promoted to expand and improve the culture and the ethics of nursing.

  19. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level]. (United States)

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana


    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  20. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo


    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale. (United States)

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L


    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (pTourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the pediatric and parent-proxy Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Neurology and Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life measurement item banks in pediatric traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rivara, Frederick P; Kisala, Pamela A; Wang, Jin; Yeates, Keith Owen; Durbin, Dennis; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Bell, Michael J; Temkin, Nancy; Tulsky, David S


    The primary objective is to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the pediatric and parent-proxy versions of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Peer Relations, Mobility, Pain Interference, and Fatigue item banks, the Neurology Quality of Life measurement system (Neuro-QOL) Cognition-General Concerns and Stigma item banks, and the Traumatic Brain Injury Quality of Life (TBI-QOL) Executive Function and Headache item banks in a pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample. Participants were 134 parent-child (ages 8-18 years) days. Children all sustained TBI and the dyads completed outcome ratings 6 months after injury at one of six medical centers across the United States. Ratings included PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks, as well as the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL), the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as legacy criterion measures against which these item banks were validated. The PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks demonstrated good convergent validity, as evidenced by moderate to strong correlations with comparable scales on the legacy measures. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks showed weaker correlations with ratings of unrelated constructs on legacy measures, providing evidence of discriminant validity. Our results indicate that the constructs measured by the PROMIS, Neuro-QOL, and TBI-QOL item banks are valid in our pediatric TBI sample and that it is appropriate to use these standardized scores for our primary study analyses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krenn


    Full Text Available The diagnostic  histopathology scales are mainly  the  multilevel  evaluation systems. The same principle  is lying in the  basis of synovitis  scale elaboration. This  scale gradually  and  semi-quantitatively assesses the  inflammatory and immunological changes in case of synovitis  considering  three  synovial components: thickness  of synovial cellular layer, cellular  stroma  density  and  severity  of inflammatory infiltration. The  scale comprises  four semi-quantitative  grades: normal 0, mild, moderate  and severe. Scale points from 0 to 9 are summated. Such sum evaluation allows to identify high and low degree synovitis.  Scale points  from 1 to ≤4 correspond to low degree synovitis  which determines and includes the following diagnosis: arthritis associated  synovitis;  synovitis  associated  with  meniscus  pathology;  hemochromatosis associated  synovitis.  Scale points  from ≥5 to  9 determine high  degree  synovitis  including  diagnosis  like rheumatoid arthritis; psoriatic  arthritis; Lyme arthritis; post  infection  (reactive arthritis and  peripheral arthritis in Bekhterev’s disease. Thus, the synovitis scale allows to assess degenerative or posttraumatic (low degree synovitis and inflammatoryrheumatoid pathology  (high  degree  synovitis based  on histopathological diagnostics with  sensitivity of 61,7% and specificity  of 96,1%. The scale is characterized by a good diagnostics significance  by ROC  analysis (area  under  curve: 0,8–0,9.  Two versions of synovitis  scale was published:  first in 2002, second reworked  in 2006 and the latter includes the concept  of subdivision  into two groups of high and low degree synovitis.  Thanking to both  versions a national  and international recognition of histological  evaluation during  15 years was gained.   To clarity  diagnosis description using synovitis  scale particularly in rheumatology various

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

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    Ittner, Henrik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  5. The Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Psychometric Evaluation of the Shortened Version in Czech Adolescents. (United States)

    Malinakova, Klara; Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Solcova, Iva Polackova; Husek, Vit; Kracmarova, Lucie Kluzova; Dubovska, Eva; Kalman, Michal; Puzova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P; Tavel, Peter


    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the shortened version of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) in Czech adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 4217 adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The internal consistency of the SWBS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α) and Mean Inter-Item Correlation (MIIC) values. The factor structure was evaluated using principal component analyses. After adjustment, our new seven-item version of the scale supports a two-factorial model of the SWBS with satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.814, MIIC = 0.379). This version of the SWBS is suitable for measuring spiritual well-being in a secularising environment.

  6. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...... development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...

  7. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS). (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin


    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  9. Susceptibility of functional impairment scales to noncredible responses in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD. (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Butzbach, Marah; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara


    A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples. Impairment ratings on the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) of 62 patients with ADHD were compared to 142 healthy individuals who were instructed to show normal behavior. Furthermore, impairment ratings of patients with ADHD were compared to ratings of 330 healthy individuals who were randomly assigned to one of four simulation conditions that were instructed to complete the scale as if they had ADHD. Patients with ADHD reported higher levels of impairment than the healthy control group in all domains of life. Furthermore, individuals instructed to feign ADHD indicated higher levels of impairments in most domains of life compared to control participants and genuine patients with ADHD. The group differences between individuals feigning ADHD and individuals with genuine ADHD, however, were only small to moderate. Further analyses revealed that the WFRIS was not useful to successfully differentiate genuine from feigned ADHD. The present study confirms the conclusion that self-reported impairments are susceptible to noncredible responses and should be used with caution in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Yeh


    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES and to perform a cross-cultural validity assessment. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, 554 inpatients in three general hospitals in northern Taiwan were recruited. Principal component analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the measurement model of the Chinese version of the PPES. Results. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the presence of a second-order four-factor model (information, decision, individual, and self-management of the Chinese version of the PPES when used with a Taiwanese inpatient population. The results indicate that the 11-item, second-order, four-factor Chinese version of the PPES provided best goodness-of-fit for the data in this study. Conclusion. The 11-item four-factor Chinese version of the PPES is a self-completion scale. This study demonstrated that the Chinese version of the PPES is a reliable and valid self-report instrument for the assessment of patient perceptions of empowerment in clinical practice. Further adaptation and evaluation of the scale will hopefully stimulate further studies on PPES in the fields of psychometrics in Taiwan.

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Seyedin, Hesam


    Introduction: The number of requests for emergency medical services (EMSs) has increased during the past decade. However, most of the transports are not essential. Therefore, it seems crucial to develop an instrument to help EMS staff accurately identify patients who need pre-hospital care and transportation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (Pre-MEWS). Materials and Methods: This mixed-method study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qualitative content analysis study was conducted to identify the predictors of medical patients' need for pre-hospital EMS and transportation. In the second phase, the face and the content validity as well as the internal consistency of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the items of the scale were scored and scoring system was presented. Results: The final version of the scale contained 22 items and its total score ranged from 0 to 54. Conclusions: Pre-MEWS helps EMS staffs properly understand medical patients' conditions in pre-hospital environments and accurately identify their need for EMS and transportation. PMID:28515604

  12. A multi-scaled approach to evaluating the fish assemblage structure within southern Appalachian streams USA. (United States)

    Kirsch, Joseph; Peterson, James T.


    There is considerable uncertainty about the relative roles of stream habitat and landscape characteristics in structuring stream-fish assemblages. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental characteristics on fish occupancy at the local and landscape scales within the upper Little Tennessee River basin of Georgia and North Carolina. Fishes were sampled using a quadrat sample design at 525 channel units within 48 study reaches during two consecutive years. We evaluated species–habitat relationships (local and landscape factors) by developing hierarchical, multispecies occupancy models. Modeling results suggested that fish occupancy within the Little Tennessee River basin was primarily influenced by stream topology and topography, urban land coverage, and channel unit types. Landscape scale factors (e.g., urban land coverage and elevation) largely controlled the fish assemblage structure at a stream-reach level, and local-scale factors (i.e., channel unit types) influenced fish distribution within stream reaches. Our study demonstrates the utility of a multi-scaled approach and the need to account for hierarchy and the interscale interactions of factors influencing assemblage structure prior to monitoring fish assemblages, developing biological management plans, or allocating management resources throughout a stream system.

  13. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.


    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  14. Prognostic value of ICU-acquired hypernatremia in patients with neurological dysfunction. (United States)

    Hu, Bei; Han, Qianpeng; Mengke, Nashun; He, Kairan; Zhang, Yiqin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Hongke


    Many studies have indicated that hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia and the prognosis of critically neurological patients.Based on serum sodium level in the ICU, 450 patients were divided into 3 groups: 222 had normal serum sodium, 142 had mild hypernatremia, and 86 had severe hypernatremia. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hypernatremia in critically neurological patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for serum sodium levels to determine their roles in predicting ICU mortality.Hypernatremia was significantly related with age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, serum sodium, APACHE II score, and serum creatinine. Moreover, the different treatment outcome including mechanical ventilation, the days of stayed in ICU, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score had correlation with serum sodium levels. Old ages, GCS score, therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) score, APACHE II score, serum sodium peak, and so on were all associated with the mortality. In addition, hypernatremia was an independent prognostic factor for critically neurological patients by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 1.192, 95% confidence interval = 1.135-1.252, P = 0.000). Moreover, we got the sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 74.5% in the ROC analysis between peak serum sodium and the mortality. The area under the ROC curve was 0.844, and the optimal cutoff value was 147.55.Our results showed that ICU-acquired hypernatremia may be a potential prognosis marker for critically neurological patients.

  15. Vascular Neurology Nurse Practitioner Provision of Telemedicine Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M. Demaerschalk


    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to define and evaluate a role for the Vascular Neurology-Nurse Practitioner (VN-NP in the delivery of telemedicine consultations in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Methods. Prospective stroke alert patients at participating hospitals underwent a two-way audio video telemedicine consultation with a VN-NP at a remotely located stroke center in partnership with a vascular neurologist. Demographic information, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, diagnoses, CT contraindications to thrombolysis, thrombolysis eligibility, and time interval data were collected. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments was calculated. Results. Ten patients were evaluated. Four were determined to have ischemic stroke, one had a transient ischemic attack, two had intracerebral hemorrhages, and three were stroke mimics. Overall, three patients received thrombolysis. The inter-rater agreement between VN-NP and vascular neurologist assessments were excellent, ranging from 0.9 to 1.0. The duration of VN-NP consultation was 53.2±9.0 minutes, which included the vascular neurologist supervisory evaluation time of 12.0±9.6 minutes. Conclusion. This study illustrated that a stroke center VN-NP, in partnership with a vascular neurologist, could deliver timely telemedicine consultations, accurate diagnoses, and correct treatments in acute stroke patients who presented to remotely located rural emergency departments within a hub and spoke network. VN-NPs may fulfill the role of a telestroke provider.

  16. The tablet device in hospital neurology and in neurology graduate medical education: a preliminary study. (United States)

    George, Pravin; Newey, Christopher R; Bhimraj, Adarsh


    There is limited literature on tablet devices for neurohospitalists and in neurological graduate medical education. This study evaluated utilization, benefits, and limitations of customized tablets on inpatient neurology practice and resident education. The hypothesis was the perception of the tablet would be positive, given their portability, convenience to accessing point-of-care reference, and accessibility to the electronic medical record. Second-generation iPads with neurology-specific applications and literature were provided to our in-hospital general, stroke, and consult neurology teams. After 1 year, residents on these teams were surveyed on demographic data, familiarity, and utilization of the iPad and their perceptions of the device. All 27 residents responded to the survey. Most participants (23 of 27) used a tablet while on inpatient service. Twelve regularly utilized the neurology-specific apps and/or accessed scientific articles. Technologically savvy residents felt significantly more comfortable using tablets and were more quickly acquainted with the features. Thirteen respondents wanted a formal orientation on the advanced features of the tablet independent of their familiarity with the device or level of technological comfort. Overall, the perception was that the tablet was beneficial for inpatient clinical care and as an educational reference. Participants became easily familiarized with the device features quickly, regardless of whether they owned one previously or not. Most physicians indicated interest in advanced features of tablets; however, a formal orientation may be beneficial for optimal utilization. A reliable network connection is essential to in-hospital use of tablet devices. Additional research pertaining to patient outcomes, objective educational benefit, and cost-effectiveness is necessary.

  17. Evaluation of an Arabic version of the non-motor symptoms scale in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Sellami, Leila; Kacem, Imen; Nasri, Amina; Djebara, Mouna Ben; Sidhom, Youssef; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh


    Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson Disease (PD) are common and can cause severe disability. They are often under-recognized and remain untreated. Tools to evaluate these symptoms in Arabic-speaking patients are still lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate an Arabic version of the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) of PD as an instrument for measuring NMS in Arabic-speaking patients. Sixty-two PD patients clustered around Hoehn & Yahr Stages 2-3 were evaluated by the Arabic version of NMSS. They also underwent a battery of standard psychometric assessment measures that included the scales for outcomes of Parkinson's disease-autonomic (SCOPA-AUT), the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), the Beck depression inventory, the geriatric depression scale (GDS), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the visual analogical scale for pain(VAS) and the neuro-psychiatric inventory (NPI). The metric properties of the NMSS were studied as well as its correlation with other standard tests evaluating NMS. The mean NMSS score was 82 ± 56 (skewness 0.88). There were highly significant correlations between the NMSS and the SCOPA-AUT as well as the NMSS and PSQI scores. Significant positive correlations between NMSS and GDS, BECK and VAS were also observed. The sleep/fatigue domain significantly correlated with the PSQI, the cardiovascular/urinary/sexual function/gastrointestinal domains significantly correlated with the SCOPA-AUT, the mood/cognition domain significantly correlated with the GDS and BECK findings. The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing a satisfactory internal consistency. The Arabic version of NMSS can be considered a comprehensive and reliable measure for non-motor symptoms in Arabic-speaking PD patients.

  18. [Care quality in intensive care evaluated by the patients using a service quality scale (SERVQUAL)]. (United States)

    Regaira Martínez, E; Sola Iriarte, M; Goñi Viguria, R; Del Barrio Linares, M; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C


    The evaluation made by the patients on the quality of service received is important to introduce improvement strategies in the care quality. 1. To evaluate the care quality through the analysis of the differences obtained between expectations and perceptions, that the patients have of the service received in the ICU. 2. To analyze if there is any relationship between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. A total of 86 patients who were conscious and oriented during their stay in the ICU were studied prospectively. At 24h of the discharge from the ICU, the SERVQUAL (Service Quality) scale, adapted for the hospital setting by Babakus and Mangold (1992), was applied. This scale measures the care quality based on the difference in scores obtained between expectations and perceptions of the patients. The positive scores indicate that the perceptions of the patients exceed their expectations. The scale has 5 dimensions: Tangibility, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurances and Empathy. It includes 15 items for perceptions and the same for expectations, with 5 grades of response (1 totally disagree - 5 totally agree). The mean score of perceptions 66.92) exceeded that of the expectations (62.30). The mean score of the difference between perceptions and expectations for the total of the SERVQUAL scale was 4.62. It was also positive for each one of the dimensions: Tangibility=1.44, Reliability=0.53, Responsiveness=0.95, Assurances=0.99, Empathy=0.71. No statistically significant associations were found between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. The care quality perceived by the patients in the ICU exceeds their expectations, and had no relationship with the sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Negative Cognitions in Children and Adolescents: Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Atalan ERGÝN


    Conclusion: Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale, evaluates the presence and severity of negative cognition in children and adolescents, could be utilized in research and clinical practice. It could also be used in educational settings where the thought content of children and adolescents are important in areas such as friendship, academic success and bullying. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 72-77 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 72-77

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of preoperative interventions: the appropriateness of using the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale. (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William


    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two preoperative nursing interventions and examining the appropriateness of using the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale in evaluating the effectiveness of preoperative interventions. There is some evidence that the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale can be used as an objective assessment tool in documenting children's emotional responses. However, it is uncertain from previous study that whether the scale can be used in evaluating the effectiveness of preoperative interventions. A randomized controlled trial, between subjects design was carried out in a well-established day surgery unit. Children (7-12 years of age; n = 203) admitted for elective day surgery during a 13-month period, were recruited. By using a simple randomization method, 97 of children were assigned to the experimental group receiving therapeutic play intervention and 106 children were assigned to the control group receiving routine information preparation. Children receiving therapeutic play preparation reported statistically significant lower anxiety levels, fewer negative emotions and lower heart rates and mean arterial blood pressures than children receiving information preparation. Children with high preoperative anxiety levels manifested more negative emotional behaviour during anaesthesia induction and were associated with faster heart rates and higher mean blood pressures. The study demonstrates the appropriateness of using the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale in evaluating the effectiveness of preoperative nursing interventions and presents clear evidence to support the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in preparing children for surgery when compared with the information preparation approach. This study contributes towards enriching the experience of using child-sensitive research tools in evaluating the effectiveness of preoperative nursing interventions. The findings heighten the awareness of the

  1. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield


    Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr,Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves


    Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontran...

  2. Evaluating and Improving Cloud Processes in the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The research performed under this grant was intended to improve the embedded cloud model in the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) for convective clouds by using a 2-moment microphysics scheme rather than the single moment scheme used in all the MMF runs to date. The technical report and associated documents describe the results of testing the cloud resolving model with fixed boundary conditions and evaluation of model results with data. The overarching conclusion is that such model evaluations are problematic because errors in the forcing fields control the results so strongly that variations in parameterization values cannot be usefully constrained

  3. Effective spatial scales for evaluating environmental determinants of population density in Yakushima macaques. (United States)

    Agetsuma, Naoki; Koda, Ryosuke; Tsujino, Riyou; Agetsuma-Yanagihara, Yoshimi


    Population densities of wildlife species tend to be correlated with resource productivity of habitats. However, wildlife density has been greatly modified by increasing human influences. For effective conservation, we must first identify the significant factors that affect wildlife density, and then determine the extent of the areas in which the factors should be managed. Here, we propose a protocol that accomplishes these two tasks. The main threats to wildlife are thought to be habitat alteration and hunting, with increases in alien carnivores being a concern that has arisen recently. Here, we examined the effect of these anthropogenic disturbances, as well as natural factors, on the local density of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We surveyed macaque densities at 30 sites across their habitat using data from 403 automatic cameras. We quantified the effect of natural vegetation (broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous/broad-leaved forest, etc.), altered vegetation (forestry area and agricultural land), hunting pressure, and density of feral domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The effect of each vegetation type was analyzed at numerous spatial scales (between 150 and 3,600-m radii from the camera locations) to determine the best scale for explaining macaque density (effective spatial scale). A model-selection procedure (generalized linear mixed model) was used to detect significant factors affecting macaque density. We detected that the most effective spatial scale was 400 m in radius, a scale that corresponded to group range size of the macaques. At this scale, the amount of broad-leaved forest was selected as a positive factor, whereas mixed forest and forestry area were selected as negative factors for macaque density. This study demonstrated the importance of the simultaneous evaluation of all possible factors of wildlife population density at the appropriate spatial scale. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk


    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden

  5. [Evaluation of the sibutramine effect on satiety with a visual analogue scale in obese adolescents]. (United States)

    Corrêa, Lívia L; Platt, Monique W; Carraro, Lucia; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Faria Júnior, Raul; Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Póvoa, Luiz César; Appolinário, José C; Coutinho, Walmir F


    Initially used to measure algic symptoms, visual analogue scales (VAS) can also be useful for the evaluation of satiety. The antiobesity agent sibutramine, unlike anorectic agents, decreases food intake mainly by stimulating satiety. To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on satiety, we used a VAS in obese adolescents participating in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing 10 mg of sibutramine to placebo. Each patient received 13 scales to be checked at hourly intervals, in a single day, from 9 am to 9 pm. A 500 kcal deficit diet was divided into 3 meals, with previously fixed times: 9:30 h, 12:30 h, 18:30 h. Using the scores obtained from each scale, a line graph was designed to represent the average satiety score throughout the day. Comparing the area under the curve for the 2 groups, we found 4.609 +/- 1.309 for the group treated with sibutramine and 4.141 +/- 1.432 for the placebo group, not reaching statistical significance (p= NS). Therefore, sibutramine does not seem do have an effect on satiety of obese adolescents, at least when satiety is evaluated by a VAS.

  6. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale with Korean Students: A Rasch Model Approach (United States)

    Nam, Suk Kyung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Sang Hee; Seol, Hyunsoo


    The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) is one of the most frequently used in the field of career development and counseling. In this study, using the Rasch rating scale model analysis, the CDSE Scale was evaluated by the content, structural, and substantive aspects of validity in a sample of college students from South Korea. Overall, the…

  7. The ESI scale, an ethical approach to the evaluation of seismic hazards (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca


    The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases


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    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  9. Neurologic manifestations of hypothyroidism in dogs. (United States)

    Bertalan, Abigail; Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric


    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A variety of clinicopathologic abnormalities may be present; however, neurologic deficits are rare. In some instances, neurologic deficits may be the sole manifestation of hypothyroidism. Consequent ly, the diagnosis and management of the neurologic disorders associated with hypothyroidism can be challenging. This article describes several neurologic manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs; discusses the pathophysiology of hypothyroidism-induced neurologic disorders affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems; and reviews the evidence for the neurologic effects of hypothyroidism.

  10. Nondestructive chemical imaging of wood at the micro-scale: advanced technology to complement macro-scale evaluations (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Julia Sedlmair; Miriam Unger; Carol Hirschmugl


    Chemical images help understanding of wood properties, durability, and cell wall deconstruction for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels, nanocellulose and other value added chemicals in forest biorefineries. We describe here a new method for nondestructive chemical imaging of wood and wood-based materials at the micro-scale to complement macro-scale methods based...

  11. Development of an evaluation scale for self-monitoring by patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Hattori, Yoko; Taru, Chiemi; Miyawaki, Ikuko


    Many chronic heart failure patients are hospitalized repeatedly because many of them are still uncertain about the methods necessary for managing their own health. "Self-monitoring" is a useful concept for breaking through this vicious cycle. However, there are no suitable tools to measure aspects of self- monitoring. This study aimed at the development of an evaluation scale for self-monitoring by patients with chronic heart failure based on the concept of self-monitoring. Outpatient with chronic heart failure completed a self-administered scale comprises 2 domains and covers 38 items. Domain 1 deals with "awareness" and "measurement" of aspects of self-monitoring, domain 2 with "interpretation" of aspects of self-monitoring. The reliability and validity of this scale were thoroughly evaluated. Of the 167 patients asked to participate in the study, 142 gave valid responses. Factor analysis showed that the domain1 comprised six factors (21 items) and the domain2 four factors (16 items). Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.91 for domain1, 0.89 for domain2. The intra-class correlation coefficient of total score was 0.74 for domain1, 0.67 for domain2. Concurrent validity with the Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale was demonstrated. The scale is reasonably reliable and valid, and was proved to be useful for assessing conditions related to patient self-monitoring. Since it has become an indicator that shows to what degree patients can perceive their own health status, and nurses have been utilizing it to provide individual support to reduce the risks of exacerbated heart failure.

  12. Large-scale simulation of karst processes - parameter estimation, model evaluation and quantification of uncertainty (United States)

    Hartmann, A. J.


    Heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of karst systems. It results in complex hydrological behavior that is characterized by an interplay of diffuse and concentrated flow and transport. In large-scale hydrological models, these processes are usually not considered. Instead average or representative values are chosen for each of the simulated grid cells omitting many aspects of their sub-grid variability. In karst regions, this may lead to unreliable predictions when those models are used for assessing future water resources availability, floods or droughts, or when they are used for recommendations for more sustainable water management. In this contribution I present a large-scale groundwater recharge model (0.25° x 0.25° resolution) that takes into karst hydrological processes by using statistical distribution functions to express subsurface heterogeneity. The model is applied over Europe's and the Mediterranean's carbonate rock regions ( 25% of the total area). As no measurements of the variability of subsurface properties are available at this scale, a parameter estimation procedure, which uses latent heat flux and soil moisture observations and quantifies the remaining uncertainty, was applied. The model is evaluated by sensitivity analysis, comparison to other large-scale models without karst processes included and independent recharge observations. Using with historic data (2002-2012) I can show that recharge rates vary strongly over Europe and the Mediterranean. At regions with low information for parameter estimation there is a larger prediction uncertainty (for instance in desert regions). Evaluation with independent recharge estimates shows that, on average, the model provides acceptable estimates, while the other large scale models under-estimate karstic recharge. The results of the sensitivity analysis corroborate the importance of including karst heterogeneity into the model as the distribution shape factor is the most sensitive parameter for

  13. Development of an evaluation performance scale for social educators in child protection centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Fernández Millán


    Full Text Available Purpose: In a context of economic crisis, as in the case of Spain, the evaluation of the performance of employees in any field is a key tool for improving worker efficiency. For those professions that are developed in order to provide basic social services to the people of its importance is even greater. Thereby, this study is focused on developing a Performance Rating Scale of Social Workers using BARS technique. Design/methodology/approach: We asked 11 experts to list those competencies they believed necessary to perform this task efficiently. Thereafter, we selected competencies what coincide with an Interjudge arrangement of at least 3. Then each competency was associated with two critical incidents and developed corresponding behavioral anchors. In addition, the scale has a collection of personal data such as age and time off work, often used as indicators defining performance. Finally, the scale was tested to a sample of 128 Social Workers working in interim child care centers and children and youth correctional centers. Findings and Originality/value: The results show that the scale meets the criteria required for validation psychometric (α= 0,873. Also, the scale could be factored (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0,810. Three dimensions were obtained: team work, interpersonal skills and competencies of the work. Research limitations/implications: An appreciation of the lack of covariation between external criteria used as identifiers of good performance (age and number of sick leave and the employee's competence. This confirms the inadequacy of these criteria to predict performance. Necessitating the development of performance evaluation tools that include absenteeism and experience as predictors of performance measures. Practical implications: The inadequacy may be due to the usually confusion between work experience - seniority and sick leave - absenteeism. Originality/value: The study helps define the figure and the competences of social

  14. Neurological diseases in famous painters. (United States)

    Piechowski-Jozwiak, Bartlomiej; Bogousslavsky, Julien


    Visual art production involves multiple processes including basic motor skills, such as coordination of movements, visual-spatial processing, emotional output, sociocultural context, and creativity. Thus, the relationship between artistic output and brain diseases is particularly complex, and brain disorders may lead to impairment of artistic production in multiple domains. Neurological conditions may also occasionally modify artistic style and lead to surprisingly innovative features in people with an initial loss of creativity. This chapter focuses on anecdotal reports of various neurological disorders and their potential consequences on works produced by famous or well-established artists, including Carl Frederik Reutersward, Giorgio de Chirico, Krystyna Habura, Leo Schnug, Ignatius Brennan, and many others. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PET and SPECT in neurology

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    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology


    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  16. Proust, neurology and Stendhal's syndrome. (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Cardoso, Francisco


    Marcel Proust is one of the most important French writers of the 20th century. His relationship with medicine and with neurology is possibly linked to the fact that his asthma was considered to be a psychosomatic disease classified as neurasthenia. Stendhal's syndrome is a rare psychiatric syndrome characterized by anxiety and affective and thought disturbances when a person is exposed to a work of art. Here, the authors describe neurological aspects of Proust's work, particularly the occurrence of Stendhal's syndrome and syncope when he as well as one of the characters of In Search of Lost Time see Vermeer's View of Delft during a visit to a museum. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Technical Analysis of Teacher Responses to the Self-Evaluation Scale-Teacher (SES-T) Version (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Lowe, Samantha; Chang, Catherine Y.


    The Self-Evaluation Scale--Teacher version, used to assess teacher perceived self-esteem of students, was analyzed. A unidimensional model emerged from exploratory factor analysis, with cautious acceptance of data fit. Reliability and external aspects of validity were supported by the Self-Evaluation Scale--Teacher data.

  18. The Arizona Clinical Interview Rating Scale: Its Applicability and Adaptability for the Evaluation of Pre-Search Reference Interviews. (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    This paper discusses the applicability and adaptability for evaluating reference interviews in library science of the Arizona Clinical Interview Rating Scale (ACIRS), a process-oriented scale originally developed in 1976 at the Arizona College of Medicine to evaluate the interview performance of medical students. The analysis surveys the content…

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Joo-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Yeong Jo; Lee, Sang Heon; Post, Marcel W. M.; Park, Hae Yean


    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (K-USER-P) in patients with stroke. Stroke patients participated in this study. The Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation was

  20. Strokes with minor symptoms: an exploratory analysis of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials. (United States)

    Khatri, Pooja; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Yeatts, Sharon D; Saver, Jeffrey L; Levine, Steven R; Lyden, Patrick D; Moomaw, Charles J; Palesch, Yuko Y; Jauch, Edward C; Broderick, Joseph P


    The pivotal National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials excluded patients with ischemic stroke with specific minor presentations or rapidly improving symptoms. The recombinant tissue plasminogen activator product label notes that its use for minor neurological deficit or rapidly improving stroke symptoms has not been evaluated. As a result, patients with low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores are not commonly treated in clinical practice. We sought to further characterize the patients with minor stroke who were included in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials. Minor strokes were defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤ 5 at baseline for this retrospective analysis, because this subgroup is most commonly excluded from treatment in clinical practice and trials. Clinical stroke syndromes were defined based on prespecified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale item score clusters. Clinical outcomes were reviewed generally and within these cluster subgroups. Only 58 cases had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 0 to 5 in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials (42 recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and 16 placebo), and 2971 patients were excluded from the trials due to "rapidly improving" or "minor symptoms" as the primary reason. No patients were enrolled with isolated motor symptoms, isolated facial droop, isolated ataxia, dysarthria, isolated sensory symptoms, or with only symptoms/signs not captured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (ie, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale=0). There were ≤ 3 patients with each of the other isolated deficits enrolled in the trial. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials excluded a substantial number of strokes with minor presentations, those that were included were small in number, and conclusions

  1. Satellite differential SAR interferometry for the evaluation of effects of hydrogeological disasters: definition of a scale for damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rizzo


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of monitoring soil movements over an about 10 km2 area around the border between the Calabria and Basilicata regions in Italy. Monitoring has been performed using the satellite differential SAR interferometry measurements integrated with GPS measurements. In particular, we used ERS data acquired at time interval of several months (about two acquisitions per year, and after particularly strong pluvial events. Terrain displacement spatial and temporal analysis has been performed by employing the original method described in Berardino et al. (2002, 2003. Obtained results allow us to characterise unstable areas, and can be used within projects aimed at territory classification and characterisation, and at performing damage evaluation. Accordingly, this technique has been included in the framework of a proposed UE project (WEDELOP project aimed at developing an integrated methodology to devise a damage scale for hydrogeological disasters. This scale is of great interest in many fields; in particular, definition of a damage scale would be highly desirable from the viewpoint of insurance companie

  2. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas


    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  3. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and cinema]. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Jiménez-Antona, Carmen


    Cinema has been defined in many different ways, but most of them agree that it should be considered both a technique and an art. Although films often depict fantasy stories, in many cases they also reflect day-to-day realities. In its earliest days cinema was already attracted to the world of health and sickness, and frequently addressed topics like medical practice, how patients lived with their illnesses, bioethical issues, the relationship between physician and patient or research. To review the presence of neurological pathologies in the cinema with a view to identifying the main neurological disorders that have been portrayed in films. Likewise it also intends to describe the medical praxis that is employed, the relationship between physician and patient, how the experiences of the patient and the family are represented, the adaptation to social and occupational situations, and the intervention of other health care professionals related with neurological patients. Some of the most significant films that have addressed these topics were reviewed and it was seen that in some of them the illness is dealt with in a very true-to-life manner, whereas others tend to include a greater number of inaccuracies and a larger degree of fiction. Cinema has helped to shape certain ways of thinking about the health care professionals who work with neurological patients, the importance of support from the family and the social role, among other things. This confirms that resorting to cinematographic productions is a fruitful tool for stimulating a critical interest in the past and present of medical practice.

  4. The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic aerosol effects on climate produce one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Much of this uncertainty arises from the multi-scale nature of the interactions between aerosols, clouds and large-scale dynamics, which are difficult to represent in conventional general circulation models (GCMs. In this study, we develop a multi-scale aerosol-climate model that treats aerosols and clouds across different scales, and evaluate the model performance, with a focus on aerosol treatment. This new model is an extension of a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF model that embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM within each grid column of a GCM. In this extension, the effects of clouds on aerosols are treated by using an explicit-cloud parameterized-pollutant (ECPP approach that links aerosol and chemical processes on the large-scale grid with statistics of cloud properties and processes resolved by the CRM. A two-moment cloud microphysics scheme replaces the simple bulk microphysics scheme in the CRM, and a modal aerosol treatment is included in the GCM. With these extensions, this multi-scale aerosol-climate model allows the explicit simulation of aerosol and chemical processes in both stratiform and convective clouds on a global scale.

    Simulated aerosol budgets in this new model are in the ranges of other model studies. Simulated gas and aerosol concentrations are in reasonable agreement with observations (within a factor of 2 in most cases, although the model underestimates black carbon concentrations at the surface by a factor of 2–4. Simulated aerosol size distributions are in reasonable agreement with observations in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, while the model underestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations near the surface, and overestimates the accumulation mode number concentrations in the middle and upper free troposphere by a factor

  5. Sustainability Risk Evaluation for Large-Scale Hydropower Projects with Hybrid Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyao Tang


    Full Text Available As large-scale hydropower projects are influenced by many factors, risk evaluations are complex. This paper considers a hydropower project as a complex system from the perspective of sustainability risk, and divides it into three subsystems: the natural environment subsystem, the eco-environment subsystem and the socioeconomic subsystem. Risk-related factors and quantitative dimensions of each subsystem are comprehensively analyzed considering uncertainty of some quantitative dimensions solved by hybrid uncertainty methods, including fuzzy (e.g., the national health degree, the national happiness degree, the protection of cultural heritage, random (e.g., underground water levels, river width, and fuzzy random uncertainty (e.g., runoff volumes, precipitation. By calculating the sustainability risk-related degree in each of the risk-related factors, a sustainable risk-evaluation model is built. Based on the calculation results, the critical sustainability risk-related factors are identified and targeted to reduce the losses caused by sustainability risk factors of the hydropower project. A case study at the under-construction Baihetan hydropower station is presented to demonstrate the viability of the risk-evaluation model and to provide a reference for the sustainable risk evaluation of other large-scale hydropower projects.

  6. Fatal neurological respiratory insufficiency is common among viral encephalitides. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Kesler, Kyle K; Hall, Jeffery O; Motter, Neil E; Julander, Justin G; Morrey, John D


    Neurological respiratory insufficiency strongly correlates with mortality among rodents infected with West Nile virus (WNV), which suggests that this is a primary mechanism of death in rodents and possibly fatal West Nile neurological disease in human patients. To explore the possibility that neurological respiratory insufficiency is a broad mechanism of death in cases of viral encephalitis, plethysmography was evaluated in mice infected with 3 flaviviruses and 2 alphaviruses. Pathology was investigated by challenging the diaphragm, using electromyography with hypercapnia and optogenetic photoactivation. Among infections due to all but 1 alphavirus, death was strongly associated with a suppressed minute volume. Virally infected mice with a very low minute volume did not neurologically respond to hypercapnia or optogenetic photoactivation of the C4 cervical cord. Neurons with the orexin 1 receptor protein in the ventral C3-5 cervical cord were statistically diminished in WNV-infected mice with a low minute volume as compared to WNV-infected or sham-infected mice without respiratory insufficiency. Also, WNV-infected cells were adjacent to neurons with respiratory functions in the medulla. Detection of a common neurological mechanism of death among viral encephalitides creates opportunities to create broad-spectrum therapies that target relevant neurological cells in patients with types of viral encephalitis that have not been treatable in the past.

  7. Prospects for neurology and psychiatry. (United States)

    Cowan, W M; Kandel, E R


    Neurological and psychiatric illnesses are among the most common and most serious health problems in developed societies. The most promising advances in neurological and psychiatric diseases will require advances in neuroscience for their elucidation, prevention, and treatment. Technical advances have improved methods for identifying brain regions involved during various types of cognitive activity, for tracing connections between parts of the brain, for visualizing individual neurons in living brain preparations, for recording the activities of neurons, and for studying the activity of single-ion channels and the receptors for various neurotransmitters. The most significant advances in the past 20 years have come from the application to the nervous system of molecular genetics and molecular cell biology. Discovery of the monogenic disorder responsible for Huntington disease and understanding its pathogenesis can serve as a paradigm for unraveling the much more complex, polygenic disorders responsible for such psychiatric diseases as schizophrenia, manic depressive illness, and borderline personality disorder. Thus, a new degree of cooperation between neurology and psychiatry is likely to result, especially for the treatment of patients with illnesses such as autism, mental retardation, cognitive disorders associated with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease that overlap between the 2 disciplines.

  8. French Translation and Validation of Three Scales Evaluating Stigma in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Garcia


    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe concept of stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice, and behavior (discrimination. Stigma may hinder access to care, housing, and work. In the context of implementation of programs such as “housing first” or “individual placement and support” in French speaking regions, validated instruments measuring stigma are necessary. “Attitudes to Mental Illness 2011” is a questionnaire that includes three scales measuring stigma through these three dimensions. This study aimed to translate, adapt, and validate these three scales in French.MethodsThe “Attitudes to Mental Illness 2011” questionnaire was translated into French and back-translated into English by an expert. Two hundred and sixty-eight nursing students completed the questionnaire. Content validity, face validity, internal validity, and convergent validity were assessed. Long-term reliability was also estimated over a three-month period.ResultsExperts and participants found that the questionnaire’s content validity and face validity were appropriate. The internal validities of the three scales were also considered adequate. Convergent validity indicated that the scales did indeed measure what they were supposed to. Long-term stability estimates were moderate; this pattern of results suggested that the construct targeted by the three scales is adequately measured but does not necessarily represent stable and enduring traits.ConclusionBecause of their good psychometric properties, these three scales can be used in French, either separately, to measure one specific dimension of stigma, or together, to assess stigma in its three dimensions. This would seem of paramount importance in evaluating campaigns against stigma since it allows measures to be adapted according to campaign goals and the target population.

  9. Neurology residency training in Europe--the current situation. (United States)

    Struhal, W; Sellner, J; Lisnic, V; Vécsei, L; Müller, E; Grisold, W


    Little is known about neurological training curricula in Europe. A joint approach by the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS), the Union of European Medical Specialists/European Board of Neurology and the European Association of Young Neurologist and Trainees was established to explore the spectrum of neurology training in Europe. In 2006, a questionnaire-based survey on neurology curricula as well as demographic data was designed by WS and WG and distributed by the EFNS to the national delegates of the EFNS, which comprises all European countries and Israel. By 2009, delegates from 31 of 41 countries (representing 76% of 505 million) had returned the questionnaire. A total of 24,165 specialists (46% women) were registered in the 31 countries. This corresponds to an average of 6.6 neurologists per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.9-17.4/100,000 inhabitants). Duration of training in Europe was on average 4.9,years, ranging from 3 to 6,years. The number of residents interested in neurological training exceeded the amount of available training positions. Performance of neurological trainees was regularly assessed in 26 countries (84%), usually by recurrent clinical evaluation. Board examinations were held in 23 countries (74%). Interim examinations were performed in three countries, exit examinations in 14 and both interim and exit examination in 6. Considerable differences were also found in manpower (0.9-17.4 neurologists/100,000 inhabitants) and working conditions (e.g. average weekly working hours ranging from 30-80 h/month). We found a significant positive correlation between manpower and theoretical training hours. Considerable differences exist in training curricula of European countries. These data might provide the basis for European training and quality assurance initiatives. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  10. Do changing levels of maternal exercise during pregnancy affect neonatal adiposity? Secondary analysis of the babies after SCOPE: evaluating the longitudinal impact using neurological and nutritional endpoints (BASELINE) birth cohort (Cork, Ireland) (United States)

    Norris, Tom; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Murray, Deidre M; Kiely, Mairead; Hourihane, Jonathan O’B; Baker, Philip N; Kenny, Louise C


    Objective To investigate whether changing levels of exercise during pregnancy are related to altered neonatal adiposity. Design Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. Setting Cork, Ireland. Participants 1200 mother–infant pairs recruited as part of a prospective birth cohort, Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE). Main outcome measures Neonatal adiposity was assessed within several days of birth using air displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD). Per cent body fat (BF%) as a continuous outcome and a pair of dichotomous variables; high or low adiposity, representing BF% >90th or exercise and the respective outcomes. Results Crude analysis revealed no association between a changing level of exercise (since becoming pregnant) at 15 weeks’ gestation and any of the outcomes (BF%, low adiposity and high adiposity). At 20 weeks’ gestation, analyses revealed that relative to women who do not change their exercise level up to 20 weeks, those women who decreased their exercise level were more likely to give birth to a neonate with adiposity above the 90th centile (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.46). This association was maintained after adjustment for putative confounders (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.47). Conclusions We observed a possible critical period for the association between changing exercise levels and neonatal adiposity, with no association observed with exercise recall for the first 15 weeks of gestation, but an association with a decreasing level of exercise between 15 and 20 weeks. These results should be interpreted in line with the limitations of the study and further studies utilising objectively measured estimates of exercise are required in order to replicate these findings. Trial registration number NCT01498965. PMID:29196482

  11. Neutronic evaluation of transuranics in a GFR model using MCNPX and scale 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Anderson A.P.; Castro, Victor F.; Silva, Clarysson A.M. da; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear


    In this study, a GFR core model with 100 MWt was evaluated using three different fuel compositions: a conventional (U, Pu)C and two reprocessed fuels reprocessed by UREX+ technique one spiked with depleted uranium, (U,TRU)C, and the other one reprocessed spiked with thorium, (Th,TRU)C. The reprocessed fuel came from a PWR standard fuel (33,000 MWd/T burned) with 3.1% of initial enrichment and left in the pool by 5 years. Some important nuclides were followed during burnup and k{sub inf} was evaluated for 1400 days. The results also include analysis of the B4C insertion and the temperature coefficient. The simulations were performed comparing results between MCNPX and SCALE 6.0 codes. The main goal is to validate the model and evaluate the possibility to use TRU spiked with Th in a GFR. (author)

  12. Analysis of four scales for global severity evaluation in Parkinson’s disease (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rojo-Abuin, Jose Manuel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Garretto, Nélida; Martínez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Arillo, Víctor Campos; Fernández, William; Chaná-Cuevas, Pedro; Arakaki, Tomoko; Alvarez, Mario; Ibañez, Ivonne Pedroso; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray; Merello, Marcelo


    Global evaluations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) severity are available, but their concordance and accuracy have not been previously tested. The present international, cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the agreement level among four global scales for PD (Hoehn and Yahr, HY; Clinical Global Impression of Severity, CGIS; Clinical Impression of Severity Index, CISI-PD; and Patient Global Impression of Severity, PGIS) and identifying which of them better correlates with itemized PD assessments. Assessments included additional scales for evaluation of the movement impairment, disability, affective disorders, and quality of life. Spearman correlation coefficients, weighted and generalized kappa, and Kendall’s concordance coefficient were used. Four hundred thirty three PD patients, 66% in HY stages 2 or 3, mean disease duration 8.8 years, were analyzed. Correlation between the global scales ranged from 0.60 (HY with PGIS) to 0.91 (CGIS with CISI-PD). Kendall’s coefficient of concordance resulted 0.76 (Pscales agree moderately to strongly among them; clinician-based ratings estimate PD severity, as established by other measures, better than PGIS; and the CISI-PD showed the highest association with measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life. PMID:28725695

  13. Functional Disorders in Neurology : Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new

  14. Clinical trials in neurology: design, conduct, analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravina, Bernard


    .... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...

  15. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.

  16. Some thoughts on building, evaluating and constraining hydrologic models from catchment to continental scales (United States)

    Wagener, Thorsten


    We increasingly build and apply hydrologic models that simulate systems beyond the catchment scale. Such models run at regional, national or even continental scales. They therefore offer opportunities for new scientific insights, for example by enabling comparative hydrology or connectivity studies, and for water management, where we might better understand changes to water resources from larger scale activities like agriculture or from hazards such as droughts. However, these models also require us to rethink how we build and evaluate them given that some of the unsolved problems from the catchment scale have not gone away. So what role should such models play in scientific advancement in hydrology? What problems do we still have to resolve before they can fulfill their role? What opportunities for solving these problems are there, but have not yet been utilized? I will provide some thoughts on these issues in the context of the IAHS Panta Rhei initiative and the scientific challenges it has set out for hydrology (Montanari et al., 2013, Hydrological Sciences Journal; McMillan et al., 2016, Hydrological Sciences Journal).

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale in a Mexican male sample. (United States)

    Escoto Ponce de León, María Del Consuelo; Bosques-Brugada, Lilián Elizabeth; Camacho Ruiz, Esteban Jaime; Alvarez-Rayón, Georgina; Franco Paredes, Karina; Rodríguez Hernández, Gabriela


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS) shows acceptable psychometric properties in Mexican bodybuilders. A total of 258 Mexican male bodybuilders were recruited. Two self-report questionnaires, including the MASS and drive for muscularity scale (DMS), were administered. Six models of the latent structure of the MASS were evaluated, using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood, considering robust Satorra-Bentler correction to estimate the fit of the models to the data. Similar to the original MASS, the series of CFA confirmed that the Mexican version was well represented with the 17-item five-factor structure, which showed a good model fit [Satorra-Bentler Chi-square (109, n = 258) = 189.18, p muscle checking scale (0.77). Test-retest reliability analysis showed stability of the MASS total as well as of the subscale scores over a 2-week period (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.75-0.91). Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between MASS and DMS results (r = 0.75; p = 0.0001). These results were similar to those of previous studies, which demonstrate the scale's usefulness. Our results support the suitability of the MASS and its subscales to measure muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Mexican male bodybuilders.

  18. Teriflunomide reduces relapse-related neurological sequelae, hospitalizations and steroid use. (United States)

    O'Connor, Paul W; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Confavreux, Christian; Comi, Giancarlo; Freedman, Mark S; Olsson, Tomas P; Miller, Aaron E; Dive-Pouletty, Catherine; Bégo-Le-Bagousse, Gaëlle; Kappos, Ludwig


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses impose a substantial clinical and economic burden. Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing MS. We evaluated the effects of teriflunomide treatment on relapse-related neurological sequelae and healthcare resource use in a post hoc analysis of the Phase III TEMSO study. Confirmed relapses associated with neurological sequelae [defined by an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale/Functional System (sequelae-EDSS/FS) ≥ 30 days post relapse or by the investigator (sequelae-investigator)] were analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population (n = 1086). Relapses requiring hospitalization or intravenous (IV) corticosteroids, all hospitalizations, emergency medical facility visits (EMFV), and hospitalized nights for relapse were also assessed. Annualized rates were derived using a Poisson model with treatment, baseline EDSS strata, and region as covariates. Risks of sequelae and hospitalization per relapse were calculated as percentages and groups were compared with a χ(2) test. Compared with placebo, teriflunomide reduced annualized rates of relapses with sequelae-EDSS/FS [7 mg by 32 % (p = 0.0019); 14 mg by 36 % (p = 0.0011)] and sequelae-investigator [25 % (p = 0.071); 53 % (p Teriflunomide-treated patients spent fewer nights in hospital for relapse (p Teriflunomide 14 mg also decreased annualized rates of all hospitalizations (p = 0.01) and EMFV (p = 0.004). The impact of teriflunomide on relapse-related neurological sequelae and relapses requiring healthcare resources may translate into reduced healthcare costs.

  19. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  20. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties? (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud


    With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items ("partner" subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the "baby" subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of "nurse," "physician," and "baby," which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the "self" subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Farsi version of the MCSRS showed excellent repeatability (r = 0

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the surrogate decision making self-efficacy scale. (United States)

    Lopez, Ruth Palan; Guarino, A J


    Currently, no instrument exists to assess self-efficacy for surrogate decision making. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Surrogate Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale (SDM-SES). Interview data from surrogate decision makers (SDMs) were used to generate the items. Items were assessed for face validity by expert gerontological nurses. Responses from a sample of 155 SDMs for nursing home residents with dementia were analyzed to assess the psychometric properties of the scale scores. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient suggested high internal consistency, and results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the instrument. The SDM-SES may be useful as an assessment instrument, as well as an outcome measure for interventions aimed at increasing the capacity of SDMs. Future validations are suggested to optimize its utility. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Development and psychometric evaluation of the patient care associates' work environment scale. (United States)

    Ives-Erickson, Jeanette; Duffy, Mary E; Jones, Dorothy A


    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Patient Care Associates' Work Environment Scale (PCA-WES). Few studies exist examining patient care associates (PCAs) working in acute care settings, and no instruments are available to examine the impact of the work environment on their practice. A psychometric evaluation using a nonprobability purposive sample of 390 PCAs was undertaken. Cronbach's α internal consistency reliability of the total score was .95. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization identified 5 components that accounted for 57.2% of variance and confirmed the original theoretical structure. The resulting 35-item scale had subscale Cronbach's α reliability estimates that ranged from .84 to .93. The multidimensional PCA-WES is a psychometrically sound measure of 5 components of the PCA practice environment in the acute care setting and is sufficiently reliable and valid for use as independent subscales in healthcare research.

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Moral Competence Scale for Home Care Nurses in Japan. (United States)

    Asahara, Kiyomi; Ono, Wakanako; Kobayashi, Maasa; Omori, Junko; Todome, Hiromi


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Moral Competence Scale for Home Care Nurses (MCSHCN). A self-administered questionnaire that included the preliminary MCSHCN (90 items) was distributed to home care nurses (HCNs) in Japan. Usable data (from 1,961 questionnaires) were analyzed. Item and exploratory factor analysis for the MCSHCN revealed 45 items that loaded on 5 factors. This 5-factor model showed reasonable fit to the data by confirmatory factor analysis (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.070). Thus, the model closely corresponded to the theoretical components of moral competence. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .78 to .93. The construct validity and internal consistency reliability were supported. Further research is needed to refine this scale to increase the generalizability.

  4. Genome scale models of yeast: towards standardized evaluation and consistent omic integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Benjamin J.; Nielsen, Jens


    Genome scale models (GEMs) have enabled remarkable advances in systems biology, acting as functional databases of metabolism, and as scaffolds for the contextualization of high-throughput data. In the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), several GEMs have been published and are curre......Genome scale models (GEMs) have enabled remarkable advances in systems biology, acting as functional databases of metabolism, and as scaffolds for the contextualization of high-throughput data. In the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), several GEMs have been published...... and are currently used for metabolic engineering and elucidating biological interactions. Here we review the history of yeast's GEMs, focusing on recent developments. We study how these models are typically evaluated, using both descriptive and predictive metrics. Additionally, we analyze the different ways...

  5. Large-scale evaluation of in silico gene deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Jochen; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard Ø


    A large-scale in silico evaluation of gene deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was conducted using a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic model. The effect of 599 single gene deletions on cell viability was simulated in silico and compared to published experimental results. In 526 cases (87.......8%), the in silico results were in agreement with experimental observations when growth on synthetic complete medium was simulated. Viable phenotypes were correctly predicted in 89.4% (496 out of 555) and lethal phenotypes were correctly predicted in 68.2% (30 out of 44) of the cases considered. The in silico...... inadequacies of the in silico model: (1) incomplete media composition, (2) substitutable biomass components, (3) incomplete biochemical information, and (4) missing regulation. This analysis eliminated a number of false predictions and suggested a number of experimentally testable hypotheses. A genome...

  6. Neurological manifestaions among Sudanese patients with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study demonstrated that the most common non- neurological symptoms was locomotor symptoms (24%) ,while the most common neurological symptoms were backache and neck pain .The most common neurological findings were cord compression (8%) followed by peripheral neuropathy (2%) and CVA (2%). 22% of ...

  7. Assessment of family functioning: evaluation of the General Functioning Scale in a Swedish Bariatric Sample. (United States)

    Bylund, Ami; Årestedt, Kristofer; Benzein, Eva; Thorell, Anders; Persson, Carina


    The General Functioning Scale (GFS) was developed to assess self-perceived overall family functioning. The scale has satisfactory psychometric properties, is internationally recognised and has been used in different contexts. However, no validated Swedish version is available. Healthy family functioning can support patients and help them adhere to treatment regimens. Moreover, it maintains the physical and emotional health and that of the family as a unit. Yet, there is limited information regarding family functioning postgastric bypass surgery. Thus, it is important to use validated instruments to understand family functioning in bariatric contexts. To evaluate aspects of reliability and validity in GFS in a Swedish bariatric sample, focusing on factor structure. The Swedish version of the GFS (S-GFS) was administered on two occasions to 163 participants who had undergone gastric bypass surgery 6-8 weeks prior to testing. Internal consistency, temporal stability and construct validity were assessed. Data were positively skewed. The S-GFS showed good internal consistency (ordinal α = 0.92) with a sufficient overall mean interitem correlation (0.500) and adequate temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.833). After modifying response alternatives, confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit for a one-factor model. The scale is a promising tool for assessing family functioning in bariatric settings. The S-GFS showed satisfactory reliability - consistent with prior research - and acceptable validity in the study sample. This study contributes to the limited research on the scale's validity. However, the S-GFS needs to be evaluated in different cultural and clinical contexts, focusing on various aspects of validity and responsiveness (sensitivity to detect significant change over time) in different samples. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Investigação dos métodos avaliativos utilizados por fisioterapeutas na especificidade da neurologia funcional Investigación de los métodos de evaluación utilizados por fisioterapeutas en la especificidad de la neurología funcional Investigation of the evaluative methods used by physical therapists in the specificity of the functional neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Llano


    Full Text Available A avaliação fisioterapêutica neurofuncional representa uma das ações mais importantes do profissional. Contudo, divergências nos métodos utilizados para elaboração diagnóstica fazem com que haja discrepâncias na prescrição e no prognóstico fisioterapêutico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e discutir métodos e técnicas de avaliação utilizados por fisioterapeutas vinculados à atenção à saúde da população, na especificidade da neurologia funcional. Para a concretização desta pesquisa, foi realizado um estudo quali-quantitativo de delineamento transversal. A amostra foi composta por fisioterapeutas registrados no Conselho Regional de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional da comarca de Mato Grosso do Sul (CREFITO-13, especialistas na área da reabilitação neurofuncional, e atuantes em hospitais, universidades e clínicas da cidade de Campo Grande (MS. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e inferencial (teste do χ², sob um nível de significância de 5% (pLa evaluación fisioterapéutica neuro-funcional representa una de las acciones más importantes del profesional. Sin embargo, los desacuerdos en los métodos utilizados para la elaboración diagnóstica hacen que haya discrepancias en la prescripción y pronóstico fisioterapéutico. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar y discutir los métodos y técnicas de evaluación utilizados por fisioterapeutas vinculados a la atención de salud de la población, en la especificidad de la neurología funcional. Para la concretización de esta investigación fue realizado un estudio cuali-cuantitativo de delineamiento transversal. La muestra fue compuesta por fisioterapeutas, especialistas en el área de rehabilitación neuro-funcional, registrados en el Consejo Regional de Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional del estado Mato Grosso do Sul (CREFITO-13. La investigación involucra profesionales presentes en hospitales, universidades y cl

  9. Evaluation of an employment program for people with mental illness using the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale. (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Boaden, Ross


    The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model aims to achieve open employment for people with mental illness. The Supported Employment Fidelity Scale (SEFS) is a 15-item instrument that evaluates the extent to which a service follows the IPS principles of best practice. This paper describes the IPS model and an evaluation of a specialist employment program for people with mental illness using the SEFS. The SEFS enabled a quantitative assessment of service provision against the criteria of evidence-based practice principles. Data were collected from multiple sources. In addition, a literature review was conducted, and personnel engaged in implementation of the IPS model at other Australian employment programs were consulted. The program achieved a score of 59 of a possible 75 on the SEFS, which is described as fair supported employment. Analysis of the 15-scale items resulted in the identification of strengths, areas for further development, and a set of recommendations. The program was operating substantially in line with evidence-based practice principles and had considerable scope for further development. Issues arising from the evaluation, areas of applicability of the SEFS and the underlying literature, and implications for occupational therapy are highlighted.

  10. Large-scale image region documentation for fully automated image biomarker algorithm development and evaluation. (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P; Xie, Yiting; Liu, Shuang


    With the advent of fully automated image analysis and modern machine learning methods, there is a need for very large image datasets having documented segmentations for both computer algorithm training and evaluation. This paper presents a method and implementation for facilitating such datasets that addresses the critical issue of size scaling for algorithm validation and evaluation; current evaluation methods that are usually used in academic studies do not scale to large datasets. This method includes protocols for the documentation of many regions in very large image datasets; the documentation may be incrementally updated by new image data and by improved algorithm outcomes. This method has been used for 5 years in the context of chest health biomarkers from low-dose chest CT images that are now being used with increasing frequency in lung cancer screening practice. The lung scans are segmented into over 100 different anatomical regions, and the method has been applied to a dataset of over 20,000 chest CT images. Using this framework, the computer algorithms have been developed to achieve over 90% acceptable image segmentation on the complete dataset.

  11. Evaluating the Health Impact of Large-Scale Public Policy Changes: Classical and Novel Approaches. (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Meghani, Ankita; Siddiqi, Arjumand


    Large-scale public policy changes are often recommended to improve public health. Despite varying widely-from tobacco taxes to poverty-relief programs-such policies present a common dilemma to public health researchers: how to evaluate their health effects when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Here, we review the state of knowledge and experience of public health researchers who rigorously evaluate the health consequences of large-scale public policy changes. We organize our discussion by detailing approaches to address three common challenges of conducting policy evaluations: distinguishing a policy effect from time trends in health outcomes or preexisting differences between policy-affected and -unaffected communities (using difference-in-differences approaches); constructing a comparison population when a policy affects a population for whom a well-matched comparator is not immediately available (using propensity score or synthetic control approaches); and addressing unobserved confounders by utilizing quasi-random variations in policy exposure (using regression discontinuity, instrumental variables, or near-far matching approaches).

  12. Psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for clinical evaluation scale in Turkish nursing students. (United States)

    Zengin, Neriman; Pınar, Rukiye; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Yildiz, Hicran


    To examine psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Clinical Evaluation Scale (SECS) in a nursing student sample. Self-efficacy is a good choice to be used in order to make a prediction of nursing students' performance in clinical practice. The SECS, consisting of perceived self-efficacy and importance subscales, seems to be suitable to evaluate self-efficacy regarding care skills for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is not a valid tool to evaluate the perception of self-efficacy for Turkish nursing students. Cross-sectional methodological design. The sample included 400 Turkish nursing students who attended practicum at a hospital. Content of the SECS was evaluated by content validity index (CVI). Reliability was evaluated with internal consistency, item-total correlation and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent and divergent validity were used to test the validity. The CVI results were satisfactory. We found satisfactory evidence for internal consistency and item-total correlations. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed stability of subscales. The CFA replicated two-factor structure for the SECS. This was reflected in all fit indices. All factor loadings were positive and were above the perfect level. The convergent validity was supported by the correlation between SECS and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The divergent validity findings demonstrated that SECS differentiated between students with various levels of general point average, which is an indicator of academic success. In conclusion, SECS is a reliable and valid tool used in clinical nursing education settings. Measuring students' self-efficacy in a clinical environment can provide an insight for students into what they have learned. Nurse educators can also use the SECS to spot nursing students with weaknesses in care activities and create educational strategies to help them to enhance their academic performance. Using the SECS can yield an

  13. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury. (United States)

    Hald, Søren V; Baker, Felicity A; Ridder, Hanne Mette O


    To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed on the proxy-rating version aiming to establish if it revealed meaningful constructs. ICCS was translated from English to Danish language, pilot tested and slightly modified for use as a self-rating scale with people with ABI. A relative/staff version of the scale was also constructed for testing. Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n = 37) were involved in testing the ICCS-staff/relative rating and ICCS-self-rating. The ICCS-Staff/Relative showed an overall Cronbach alpha of α = 0.774 and the ICCS-Self-rating α = 0.675. A factor extraction of the ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed six meaningful sub-groups that corresponded well with the original ICCS. There was a low but significant correlation between the ratings performed by the two staff members most familiar with the participants (r = 0.280, p = 0.04). The ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed a good overall internal consistency, whereas the ICCS-Self-rating revealed acceptable internal consistency. The factor analysis of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of the Scale Model Method to Simulate Lunar Vehicle Dynamics (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle; Asnani, Vivake; Polack, Jeff; Plant, Mark


    As compared to driving on Earth, the presence of lower gravity and uneven terrain on planetary bodies makes high speed driving difficult. In order to maintain ground contact and control vehicles need to be designed with special attention to dynamic response. The challenge of maintaining control on the Moon was evident during high speed operations of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on Apollo 16, as at one point all four tires were off the ground; this event has been referred to as the Lunar Grand Prix. Ultimately, computer simulation should be used to examine these phenomena during the vehicle design process; however, experimental techniques are required for the validation and elucidation of key issues. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodology for developing a scale model of a lunar vehicle using similitude relationships and to test how vehicle configuration, six or eight wheel pods, and local tire compliance, soft or stiff, affect the vehicles dynamic performance. A wheel pod consists of a drive and steering transmission and wheel. The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), a human driven vehicle with a pressurized cabin, was selected as an example for which a scale model was built. The scaled vehicle was driven over an obstacle and the dynamic response was observed and then scaled to represent the full-size vehicle in lunar gravity. Loss of ground contact, in terms of vehicle travel distance with tires off the ground, was examined. As expected, local tire compliance allowed ground contact to be maintained over a greater distance. However, switching from a six-tire configuration to an eight-tire configuration with reduced suspension stiffness had a negative effect on ground contact. It is hypothesized that this was due to the increased number or frequency of impacts. The development and testing of this scale model provided practical lessons for future low-gravity vehicle development.

  15. Scaling issues in multi-criteria evaluation of combinations of measures for integrated river basin management (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg


    In integrated river basin management, measures for reaching the environmental objectives can be evaluated at different scales, and according to multiple criteria of different nature (e.g. ecological, economic, social). Decision makers, including responsible authorities and stakeholders, follow different interests regarding criteria and scales. With a bottom up approach, the multi criteria assessment could produce a different outcome than with a top down approach. The first assigns more power to the local community, which is a common principle of IWRM. On the other hand, the development of an overall catchment strategy could potentially make use of synergetic effects of the measures, which fulfils the cost efficiency requirement at the basin scale but compromises local interests. Within a joint research project for the 5500 km2 Werra river basin in central Germany, measures have been planned to reach environmental objectives of the European Water Framework directive (WFD) regarding ecological continuity and nutrient loads. The main criteria for the evaluation of the measures were costs of implementation, reduction of nutrients, ecological benefit and social acceptance. The multi-criteria evaluation of the catchment strategies showed compensation between positive and negative performance of criteria within the catchment, which in the end reduced the discriminative power of the different strategies. Furthermore, benefit criteria are partially computed for the whole basin only. Both ecological continuity and nutrient load show upstream-downstream effects in opposite direction. The principles of "polluter pays" and "overall cost efficiency" can be followed for the reduction of nutrient losses when financial compensations between upstream and downstream users are made, similar to concepts of emission trading.

  16. Hypnosis as therapy for functional neurologic disorders. (United States)

    Deeley, Q


    treatment approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral, rehabilitative, or psychodynamic therapy. Suggestions are generally symptom-focused (designed to resolve a symptom) or exploratory (using methods such as revivification or age regression to explore experiences associated with symptom onset). The evidence base is dominated by case studies and series, with a paucity of randomized controlled trials. Future evaluation studies should allow for the fact that suggestion with or without hypnosis is a component of broader treatment interventions adapted to a wide range of symptoms and presentations. An important role of the concept of suggestion in the management of functional neurologic symptoms is to raise awareness of how interactions with clinicians and wider clinical contexts can alter expectancies and beliefs of patients in ways that influence the onset, course, and remission of symptoms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation and Tests (United States)

    ... University of Utah Research News Make a Difference Evaluation + Tests Print This Page Before diagnosing peripheral neuropathy, ... from any type of neuropathy or neurological disorder. Evaluation A neurological evaluation consists of a physical exam ...

  18. A pilot evaluation of the EMBU Scale in Japan and the USA. (United States)

    Huang, Y; Someya, T; Takahashi, S; Reist, C; Tang, S W


    Cultural differences in parental attitudes and child-rearing practices among European countries have been demonstrated in previous studies using a scale for assessment of memories of upbringing (the EMBU). In this pilot study we evaluated the EMBU in two previously unstudied populations: a culturally homogeneous sample from Japan (n = 105) and a culturally mixed sample from Southern California (n = 73). The results suggest that, compared to European parents, Japanese parents are more emotionally distant from their children, while the Southern Californians as a group scored similarly to the Europeans. Further studies are needed in order to establish the EMBU as a transcultural tool for assessment of parental rearing behaviour.

  19. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abootalebi


    Full Text Available "n Objective: Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. "n Method: This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed, and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion: The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one.

  20. Disaster Metrics: Evaluation of de Boer's Disaster Severity Scale (DSS) Applied to Earthquakes. (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; McCord, Caitlin M; Sherak, Raphael A G; Hsu, Edberdt B; Kelen, Gabor D


    Quantitative measurement of the medical severity following multiple-casualty events (MCEs) is an important goal in disaster medicine. In 1990, de Boer proposed a 13-point, 7-parameter scale called the Disaster Severity Scale (DSS). Parameters include cause, duration, radius, number of casualties, nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community. Hypothesis This study aimed to examine the reliability and dimensionality (number of salient themes) of de Boer's DSS scale through its application to 144 discrete earthquake events. A search for earthquake events was conducted via National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and US Geological Survey (USGS) databases. Two experts in the field of disaster medicine independently reviewed and assigned scores for parameters that had no data readily available (nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community), and differences were reconciled via consensus. Principle Component Analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows Version 22.0 (IBM Corp; Armonk, New York USA) to evaluate the reliability and dimensionality of the DSS. A total of 144 individual earthquakes from 2003 through 2013 were identified and scored. Of 13 points possible, the mean score was 6.04, the mode = 5, minimum = 4, maximum = 11, and standard deviation = 2.23. Three parameters in the DSS had zero variance (ie, the parameter received the same score in all 144 earthquakes). Because of the zero contribution to variance, these three parameters (cause, duration, and radius) were removed to run the statistical analysis. Cronbach's alpha score, a coefficient of internal consistency, for the remaining four parameters was found to be robust at 0.89. Principle Component Analysis showed uni-dimensional characteristics with only one component having an eigenvalue greater than one at 3.17. The 4-parameter DSS, however, suffered from restriction of scoring range on both parameter and scale levels. Jan de Boer

  1. Assessment of neurological clinical management reasoning in medical students. (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Blood, Angela; Park, Yoon Soo; Brorson, James R


    In neurology education there is evidence that trainees may have greater ability in general localization and diagnosis than they do in treatment decisions, particularly with considering longer term care and supportive care. We hypothesized that medical students completing a neurology clerkship would exhibit greater skill at considering the acute diagnostic and therapeutic management than at considering supportive management measures. Data from 720 standardized patient encounters by 360 medical students completing a neurology clerkship being evaluated via an objective structured clinical examination were analyzed for skill in three components of clinical decision making: diagnostic evaluation, therapeutic intervention, and supportive intervention. Scores for all standardized patient encounters over the 2008-2012 interval revealed a significantly higher percentage of correct responses in both the diagnostic (mean [M]=62.6%, standard deviation [SD]=20.3%) and therapeutic (M=63.0%, SD=28.8%) categories in comparison to the supportive (M=31.8%, SD=45.2%) category. However, only scores in therapeutic and supportive treatment plans were found to be significant predictors of the USA National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) clinical neurology subject examination scores; on average, a percent increase in therapeutic and support scores led to 5 and 2 point increases in NBME scores, respectively. We demonstrate empirical evidence of deficits in a specific component of clinical reasoning in medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. (United States)

    Freeman, Nerelie C; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John R; Cornish, Kim M


    Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of sperm in men, based on an interval scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Danilov


    Full Text Available Modern methods of estimation spermogram are quite difficult and highly subjective. Were analyzed spermogram 215 men aged 20 to 46 years (mean age 29,7 ± 2,4 years. The analysis spermogram were selected 5 out of 21 key indicators of ejaculate that affect fertility: the total number, motility, viability, morphology of sperm, ejaculate volume. Based on these data the interval scale, which allows to quantify the sperm. Obtained as a result of an integral index is a reflection of pathological semen analysis based on deviations from the “ideal norm”, that allows to evaluate different sperm, and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, as with the use of conservative methods, and various options for surgical intervention.

  4. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.


    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  5. Functional Test Scales for Evaluating Cell-Based Therapies in Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Ryoung Kim


    Full Text Available Recently, spinal cord researchers have focused on multifaceted approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI. However, as there is no cure for the deficits produced by SCI, various therapeutic strategies have been examined using animal models. Due to the lack of standardized functional assessment tools for use in such models, it is important to choose a suitable animal model and precise behavioral test when evaluating the efficacy of potential SCI treatments. In the present review, we discuss recent evidence regarding functional recovery in various animal models of SCI, summarize the representative models currently used, evaluate recent cell-based therapeutic approaches, and aim to identify the most precise and appropriate scales for functional assessment in such research.

  6. Analytic Tools for Evaluating Variability of Standard Errors in Large-Scale Establishment Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho MoonJung


    Full Text Available Large-scale establishment surveys often exhibit substantial temporal or cross-sectional variability in their published standard errors. This article uses a framework defined by survey generalized variance functions to develop three sets of analytic tools for the evaluation of these patterns of variability. These tools are for (1 identification of predictor variables that explain some of the observed temporal and cross-sectional variability in published standard errors; (2 evaluation of the proportion of variability attributable to the abovementioned predictors, equation error and estimation error, respectively; and (3 comparison of equation error variances across groups defined by observable predictor variables. The primary ideas are motivated and illustrated by an application to the U.S. Current Employment Statistics program.

  7. Apathy in multiple sclerosis: a validation study of the apathy evaluation scale. (United States)

    Raimo, Simona; Trojano, Luigi; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petretta, Vittorio; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Gabriella


    Apathy is defined as lack of motivation affecting cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains and is usually assessed by standardized scales, such as the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). Recently, apathy has been recognized as a frequent behavioral symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate applicability and clinical-metric properties of AES in MS and the agreement between patients' and caregivers' evaluation of apathy. Seventy non-demented MS patients underwent a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment, including evaluation of apathy according to established clinical criteria. All patients also completed the self-report version of AES (AES-S). AES-S was easy to administer and acceptable, and showed fair internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.87). The factorial analysis identified three factors, representing the cognitive dimension (α=0.87), a general aspect of apathy (α=0.84), and the behavioral-emotional aspects (α=0.74), respectively. The factors were significantly correlated with the total AES score (all rrho≥0.73, p35.5 can identify clinically significant apathy with good sensitivity (88%) and specificity (72%); such a cutoff identified apathy in 35.7% of our sample of non-demented MS patients. Total AES score was significantly correlated with reduced global cognitive efficiency and more severe frontal executive dysfunctions. AES-S can be considered as an easy and reliable tool to assess apathy in non-demented MS. The use of AES-S in non-demented MS patients is clinically important since apathy is relatively frequent and is correlated to more severe cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation Criteria and Results of Full Scale Testing of Bridge Abutment Made from Reinforced Soil (United States)

    Hildebrand, Maciej; Rybak, Jarosław


    Structures made of reinforced soil can be evaluated for their safety based on a load testing. Measurement results are essentially evaluated by displacements of surcharge (mainly in vertical direction) and facing elements (mainly in horizontal direction). Displacements are within several tenths to several millimetres and they can be taken by common geodetic equipment. Due to slow soil consolidation (progress of displacements) under constant load, observations should be made over several days or even weeks or months. A standard procedure of heating of geotextiles, used in laboratory conditions to simulate long term behaviour cannot be used in a natural scale. When the load is removed, the soil unloading occurs. Both the progress of displacements and soil unloading after unloading of the structure are the key presumptions for evaluating its safety (stability). Assessment of measuring results must be preceded by assuming even the simplest model of the structure, so as it could be possible to estimate the expected displacements under controlled load. In view of clearly random nature of soil parameters of retaining structure composed of reinforced soil and due to specific erection technology of reinforced soil structure, the assessment of its condition is largely based on expert’s judgment. It is an essential and difficult task to interpret very small displacements which are often enough disturbed by numerous factors like temperature, insolation, precipitation, vehicles, etc. In the presented paper, the authors tried to establish and juxtapose some criteria for a load test of a bridge abutment and evaluate their suitability for decision making. Final remarks are based on authors experience from a real full scale load test.

  9. Approaching the exa-scale: a real-world evaluation of rendering extremely large data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lo, Li - Ta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browniee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Chuck [UNIV OF UTAH


    Extremely large scale analysis is becoming increasingly important as supercomputers and their simulations move from petascale to exascale. The lack of dedicated hardware acceleration for rendering on today's supercomputing platforms motivates our detailed evaluation of the possibility of interactive rendering on the supercomputer. In order to facilitate our understanding of rendering on the supercomputing platform, we focus on scalability of rendering algorithms and architecture envisioned for exascale datasets. To understand tradeoffs for dealing with extremely large datasets, we compare three different rendering algorithms for large polygonal data: software based ray tracing, software based rasterization and hardware accelerated rasterization. We present a case study of strong and weak scaling of rendering extremely large data on both GPU and CPU based parallel supercomputers using Para View, a parallel visualization tool. Wc use three different data sets: two synthetic and one from a scientific application. At an extreme scale, algorithmic rendering choices make a difference and should be considered while approaching exascale computing, visualization, and analysis. We find software based ray-tracing offers a viable approach for scalable rendering of the projected future massive data sizes.

  10. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve. (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D


    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2)) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2) CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  11. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population. (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E


    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. A Comparison of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for the Quantitative Evaluation of Autism (United States)

    Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; Geier, Mark R.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scores generated from the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), a parent-rated measure, and those derived from professionally completed Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) evaluations. A cohort of 56 participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder was used for the study, and each child was…

  13. Iatrogenic neurologic deficit after lumbar spine surgery: A review. (United States)

    Ghobrial, George M; Williams, Kim A; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael; Harrop, James S


    Iatrogenic neurologic deficits after lumbar spine surgery are rare complications, but important to recognize and manage. Complications such as radiculopathy, spinal cord compression, motor deficits (i.e. foot drop with L5 radiculopathy), and new onset radiculitis, while uncommon do occur. Attempts at mitigating these complications with the use of neuromonitoring have been successful. Guidance in the literature as to the true rate of iatrogenic neurologic deficit is limited to several case studies and retrospective designed studies describing the management, prevention and treatment of these deficits. The authors review the lumbar spinal surgery literature to examine the incidence of iatrogenic neurologic deficit in the lumbar spinal surgery literature. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 from January 1, 2004 through May 14, 2015, using the following MeSH search terms "postoperative complications," then subterms "lumbar vertebrae," treatment outcome," "spinal fusion," and "radiculopathy" were included together with "postoperative complications" in a single search. Postoperative complications including radiculopathy, weakness, and spinal cord compression were included. The definition of iatrogenic neurologic complication was limited to post-operative radiculopathy, motor weakness or new onset pain/radiculitis. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 using all of the above terms together yielded 21 results. After careful evaluation, 11 manuscripts were excluded and 10 were carefully reviewed. The most common indications for surgery were degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, scoliosis, and lumbar stenosis. In 2783 patients in 12 total studies, there were 56 patients who had reported a postoperative neurologic deficit for a rate of 5.7. The rates of deficits ranged from 0.46% to 17% in the studies used. The average rate of reported neurologic complications within these papers was 9% (range 0.46-24%). Thirty patients of a total of

  14. Zolpidem for the Treatment of Neurologic Disorders: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Bomalaski, Martin N; Claflin, Edward S; Townsend, Whitney; Peterson, Mark D


    Given its selective action on the ω1 subtype of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic disorders. Eligibility criteria included any published English-language article that examined the use of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurologic disorders in humans for all dates up to March 20, 2015. Searched databases included PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Publication bias was mitigated by searching for unpublished studies. Two rounds of screening were performed based on title and then abstract, and coding was performed by 2 coders. All methods followed the PRISMA Reporting Guidelines for systematic reviews of the literature. The initial search produced 2314 articles after removing duplicates. After exclusion based on a review of abstracts, 67 articles remained for full manuscript review. Thirty-one studies treated movement disorders, 22 treated disorders of consciousness, and 14 treated other neurologic conditions, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, encephalopathy, and dementia. Study designs included case reports (n = 28), case series (n = 8), single-patient interventional (n = 13), pretest and posttest (n = 9), randomized clinical trials (n = 9), and crossover studies (n = 5). Only 11 studies had more than 10 participants. Effects of zolpidem were wide ranging (eg, improvement on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale) and generally lasted 1 to 4 hours before the participant returned to baseline. Sedation was the most common adverse effect. Zolpidem has been observed to transiently treat a large variety of neurologic disorders, most often related to movement disorders and disorders of consciousness. Much of what

  15. Evaluation of nucleus segmentation in digital pathology images through large scale image synthesis (United States)

    Zhou, Naiyun; Yu, Xiaxia; Zhao, Tianhao; Wen, Si; Wang, Fusheng; Zhu, Wei; Kurc, Tahsin; Tannenbaum, Allen; Saltz, Joel; Gao, Yi


    Digital histopathology images with more than 1 Gigapixel are drawing more and more attention in clinical, biomedical research, and computer vision fields. Among the multiple observable features spanning multiple scales in the pathology images, the nuclear morphology is one of the central criteria for diagnosis and grading. As a result it is also the mostly studied target in image computing. Large amount of research papers have devoted to the problem of extracting nuclei from digital pathology images, which is the foundation of any further correlation study. However, the validation and evaluation of nucleus extraction have yet been formulated rigorously and systematically. Some researches report a human verified segmentation with thousands of nuclei, whereas a single whole slide image may contain up to million. The main obstacle lies in the difficulty of obtaining such a large number of validated nuclei, which is essentially an impossible task for pathologist. We propose a systematic validation and evaluation approach based on large scale image synthesis. This could facilitate a more quantitatively validated study for current and future histopathology image analysis field.

  16. Evaluation of Error in IMERG Precipitation Estimates under Different Topographic Conditions and Temporal Scales over Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandy G. Mayor


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the precipitation product of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG over the Mexican region during the period between April 2014 and October 2015 using three different time scales for cumulative precipitation (hourly, daily and seasonal. Also, the IMERG data have been analyzed as a function of elevation given the rain gauges from the automatic meteorological stations network, located within the area of study, which are used as a reference. In the present study, continuous and categorical statistics are used to evaluate IMERG. It was found that IMERG showed better performance at the daily and seasonal time scale resolutions. While hourly precipitation estimates reached a mean correlation coefficient of 0.35, the daily and seasonal precipitation estimates achieved correlations over 0.51. In addition, the IMERG precipitation product was able to reproduce the diurnal and daily cycles of the average precipitation with a trend towards overestimating rain gauges. However, extreme precipitation events were highly underestimated, as shown by relative biases of −61% and −46% for the hourly and daily precipitation analysis, respectively. It was also found that IMERG tends to improve precipitation detection and to decrease magnitude errors over the higher terrain elevations of Mexico.

  17. Performance Evaluations of Three Silt Fence Practices Using a Full-Scale Testing Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alan Bugg


    Full Text Available Erosion and sediment controls on construction sites minimize environmental impacts from sediment-laden stormwater runoff. Silt fence, a widely specified perimeter control practice on construction projects used to retain sediment on-site, has limited performance-based testing data. Silt fence failures and resultant sediment losses are often the result of structural failure. To better understand silt fence performance, researchers at the Auburn University-Erosion and Sediment Control Testing Facility (AU-ESCTF have evaluated three silt fence options to determine possible shortcomings using standardized full-scale testing methods. These methods subject silt fence practices to simulated, in-field conditions typically experienced on-site without the variability of field testing or the limited application of small-scale testing. Three different silt fence practices were tested to evaluate performance, which included: (1 Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT Trenched Silt Fence, (2 ALDOT Sliced Silt Fence, and (3 Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee (AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence. This study indicates that the structural performance of a silt fence perimeter control is the most important performance factor in retaining sediment. The sediment retention performance of these silt fence practices was 82.7%, 66.9% and 90.5%, respectively. When exposed to large impoundment conditions, both ALDOT Trench and Sliced Silt Fence practices failed structurally, while the AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence did not experience structural failure.

  18. Evaluation of a modified arthritis self-efficacy scale for an ankylosing spondylitis UK population. (United States)

    Sandhu, J; Packham, J C; Healey, E L; Jordan, K P; Garratt, A M; Haywood, K L


    To evaluate an Ankylosing Spondylitis-specific Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES-AS) United Kingdom (UK) secondary care population. The ASES-AS is based on the 8-item ASES with minor alterations in phraseology. Patients from ten secondary care rheumatology centres across England were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics: Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), numerical pain rating scale (NRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form 36 (SF-36), Evaluation of AS Quality of Life questionnaire (EASi-QoL) and ASES-AS. Respondents received repeat questionnaires at 2 weeks and 6 months including health transition questions assessing change in AS-specific and general health. The ASES-AS was assessed for data quality, reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Response rate was 64% (n=612), 72% (n=438) were male, mean age 50.8yrs (SD 12.2 yrs), mean disease duration 17.3 yrs (SD 11.7 yrs) and mean symptom duration 22.4 yrs (SD 12.4 yrs). Missing data for each item/total score range was 0.7%-3.1%. Item-total correlations range was 0.66 to 0.83. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) 0.77. A priori hypothesised associations between ASAS-AS and disease status measures were supported. Social variables potentially related to self-efficacy demonstrated evidence of convergent validity (employment p<0.001, educational level p<0.005). A Modified Standard Response Mean (MSRM) of 0.44 and 0.26 in AS-specific and general health respectively at 6 months indicates moderate responsiveness. ASES-AS has good evidence supporting its application as an AS-specific self-efficacy measure in research including clinical trials at a group level.

  19. The Geopolitical Energy Security Evaluation Method and a China Case Application Based on Politics of Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Hu


    Full Text Available Combining the theories of politics of scale from political geography, security theory from international relations, and energy security theory, and putting the scale conversion of energy contention, geographical relationship and geo-structure in geo-setting, and the three properties of safety in consideration, this paper rebuilds a geo-energy security evaluation model and uses the model to quantitatively evaluate China’s geo-oil energy security in the Russian Pacific oil pipeline construction from 1995 to 2010. Five results could be drawn as follows: (1 from the aspect of time, an up-surging Geo-oil Safety Index of China in the Russian Pacific oil pipeline construction indicated an increasingly disadvantage of China in the geo-oil contention by politics of scale. If the United States and South Korea are involved, the competition would be further intensified; (2 from the aspect of geopolitical relationship, a general decrease occurred in the Sino-Japan Energy Competition Index, but a specific increase appeared in the competition of energy imports from Russia, by China and Japan individually; (3 from the aspect of regional strategy of energy export, an obvious downward tendency in Energy Export Strategy Index showed that Russia has changed its export destination off of Europe; (4 from the aspect of geo-security, a relatively steady proportion of China’s oil consumption, and a friendly comprehensive strategic partnership of cooperation between China and Russia, reduced the worries of China’s geo-oil energy security to some extent; (5 from the aspect of geopolitical structure, the increasing comprehensive national power in China, driven by rapid economic growth, will intensify the geo-oil competition in Northeast Asia.

  20. Atypical Neurological Manifestations Of Hypokalemia

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    pal P K


    Full Text Available A part from the well-established syndrome of motor paralysis, hypokalemia may present with atypical neurological manifestations, which are not well documented in literature. Methods: We treated 30 patients of hypokalemia whose neurological manifestations improved after corrections of hypokalemia. A retrospective chart review of the clinical profile was done with emphasis on the evolution of symptoms and occurrence of unusual manifestations. Results: Twenty-eight patients had subacute quadriparesis with duration of symptoms varying from 10hrs to 7 days and two had slowly progressive quadriparesis. Fifty percent of patients had more than one attack of paralysis. Early asymmetric weakness (11, stiffness and abnormal posture of hands (7, predominant bibrachial weakness (4, distal paresthesias (4, hemiparesthesia (1, hyperreflexia(4, early severe weakness of neck muscles (3, chorea (1, trismus (1,and, retention of urine (1 were the unusual features observed. The means level of serum potassium on admission was 2.1+0.6mEq/L.and the serum creatine kinase was elevated in 14 out of 17 patients. All patients except two had complete recovery.

  1. Neurological complications in hyperemesis gravidarum. (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Codemo, Valentina; Palmieri, Arianna; Schiff, Sami; Cagnin, Annachiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo


    Hyperemesis gravidarum can impair correct absorption of an adequate amount of thiamine and can cause electrolyte imbalance. This study investigated the neurological complications in a pregnant woman with hyperemesis gravidarum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for hyperemesis gravidarum. Besides undernutrition, a neurological examination disclosed weakness with hyporeflexia, ophthalmoparesis, multidirectional nystagmus and optic disks swelling; the patient became rapidly comatose. Brain MRI showed symmetric signal hyperintensity and swelling of periaqueductal area, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, medial and posterior portions of the thalamus and columns of fornix, consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Neurophysiological studies revealed an axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, likely due to thiamine deficiency or critical illness polyneuropathy. Sodium and potassium supplementation and parenteral thiamine were administered with improvement of consciousness state in a few days. WE evolved in Korsakoff syndrome. A repeat MRI showed a marked improvement of WE-related alterations and a new hyperintense lesion in the pons, suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. No sign or symptom due to involvement of the pons was present.

  2. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vakhnina


    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology]. (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E


    Popular medical literature attempts to discuss medical topics using a language that is, as far as possible, free of all medical jargon so as to make it more easily understandable by the general public. The very complexity of neurology makes it more difficult for the stories dealing with this specialty to be understood easily by an audience without any kind of medical training. This paper reviews the works written by Oliver Sacks involving the field of neurology aimed at the general public, and the main characteristics and the clinical situation discussed by the author are presented. Some biographical notes about Oliver Sacks are also included and the 11 books published by this author over the last 40 years are also analysed. In each case they are put into a historical context and the most outstanding aspects justifying what makes them an interesting read are commented on. In most cases, the genesis of the work is explained together with its most significant features. The works of Sacks contain a wide range of very interesting clinical situations that are usually explained by means of a language that is readily comprehensible to the general public. It also provides neurologists with a holistic view of different clinical situations, together with a discussion of their biographical, historical and developmental components.

  4. TOPICOP©: a new scale evaluating topical corticosteroid phobia among atopic dermatitis outpatients and their parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Moret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fear of using topical corticosteroids, usually called topical corticophobia, is a frequent concern for atopic dermatitis patients and/or their parents. Assessing patients' atopic dermatitis and their parents' topical corticosteroid phobia is an essential step to improving adherence to treatment. Because topical corticophobia appears to be a complex phenomenon, its evaluation by binary responses (yes/no is too simplistic. Thus, a scale is needed, which is capable of identifying the subtleties of topical corticosteroid phobia. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a scale, TOPICOP©, measuring worries and beliefs about topical corticosteroids among atopic dermatitis outpatients and their parents. METHODS: An initial statistical validation of TOPICOP was carried out, collecting qualitative data about patients' topical corticophobia behaviors and beliefs using focus-group methodology. Then, 208 outpatients or their parents from five French centers completed a self-administered questionnaire built from focus-group results. The scale-development process comprised an explanatory principal component analysis, Cronbach's α-coefficients and structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The validated questionnaire comprised 12 items, covering two important dimensions relative to "worries" (6 items and "beliefs" (6 items. Psychometric properties showed that items had very good communality (>0.60 within their own dimension. The final two-factor solution accounted for 47.3% of the variance. Cronbach's α-coefficients were, respectively, 0.79 and 0.78. Structural equation modeling strongly supported the possibility of calculating a global score. CONCLUSIONS: TOPICOP© is the first scale aimed at assessing topical corticophobia in adult patients and parents of children with eczema. TOPICOP® has excellent psychometric properties and should be easy to use in everyday clinical practice for clinicians and researchers. Further studies are needed to confirm

  5. Development of a clinical spasticity scale for evaluation of dogs with chronic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa J; Olby, Natasha J


    OBJECTIVE To develop a spasticity scale for dogs with chronic deficits following severe spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in clinical assessment and outcome measurement in clinical trials. ANIMALS 20 chronically paralyzed dogs with a persistent lack of hind limb pain perception caused by an acute SCI at least 3 months previously. PROCEDURES Spasticity was assessed in both hind limbs via tests of muscle tone, clonus, and flexor and extensor spasms adapted from human scales. Measurement of patellar clonus duration and flexor spasm duration and degree was feasible. These components were used to create a canine spasticity scale (CSS; overall score range, 0 to 18). Temporal variation for individual dogs and interrater reliability were evaluated. Gait was quantified with published gait scales, and CSS scores were compared with gait scores and clinical variables. Owners were questioned regarding spasticity observed at home. RESULTS 20 dogs were enrolled: 18 with no apparent hind limb pain perception and 2 with blunted responses; 5 were ambulatory. Testing was well tolerated, and scores were repeatable between raters. Median overall CSS score was 7 (range, 3 to 11), and flexor spasms were the most prominent finding. Overall CSS score was not associated with age, SCI duration, lesion location, or owner-reported spasticity. Overall CSS score and flexor spasm duration were associated with gait scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The CSS could be used to quantify hind limb spasticity in dogs with chronic thoracolumbar SCI and might be a useful outcome measure. Flexor spasms may represent an integral part of stepping in dogs with severe SCI.

  6. Comparative evaluation between the Vitapan Classical and 3D-Master color scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens da Rocha Portal Junior


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the use of two scales as regard efficiency of color selection and the selection technique used by dental surgeons that practice in the municipality of Belém in the State of Pará, and last year Dentistry students at the Centro Universitário do Pará – Brazil. Method: Four healthy maxillary anterior teeth were chosen in two volunteers. The teeth were submitted to color selection by threeprofessionals experienced in dental prosthesis. Among the interviewees, there were 30 were professionals and 15 academics, and the scales analyzed were Vitapan Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master. A questionnaire containing seven questions on the color selectiontechnique was applied, in which the following factors were analyzed: room, light source, ideal time, and whether the teeth were humid,as well as other requirements for correct color selection. The data obtained were submitted to the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test (5% as it concerned an independent variable and subjective data. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the scales researched when color selection wasmade with an unsuitable technique and that dental surgeons and academics need to improve their color selection technique. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is no difference between the use of the Vitapan Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master scales when thetechnique used does not follow ideal selection patterns, the number of errors being statistically higher than the number of correct choices, indicating a need for technical improvement in color selection by dental surgeons and academics.

  7. Utilizing a Newly Designed Scale for Evaluating Family Support and Its Association with Exclusive Breastfeeding. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiu; Liu, Luyan; Wang, Yan


    Although a woman's perception of her family members' support has long been established to be an influential factor on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), it still has not been specified and quantified as a facilitator and guidance for practice. To investigate in new mothers the association between EBF and maternal perception of family support with a standardized scale that classified support into nine items of behavioral or psychological support. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 655 new mothers to collect information on their breastfeeding behavior and their corresponding family support at a baby-friendly hospital in Beijing, China. Additionally, a nine-item standardized scale was used to explore the perceived family support for breastfeeding by new mothers. Breastfeeding behaviors were investigated using the indicators recommended by the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. The EBF rate was 37.9%. The average score on the family perception scale reported by respondents was 28.34 ± 3.84. The new mothers who performed EBF and who predominantly breastfed perceived greater family support (29.55 ± 3.53; 29.36 ± 4.09) compared with those who performed complementary feeding or mixed feeding (26.69 ± 3.33) and those who performed artificial feeding (26.17 ± 3.14) (F = 30.296, p family support were more likely to practice EBF than those with a negative perception (adjusted odds ratio = 3.971; 95% confidence interval 2.62-6.01; p Family support for breastfeeding could be evaluated by a scale, and new mothers' breastfeeding behaviors were strongly associated with their perceived family support for breastfeeding. Community healthcare providers should play a more important role in issues regarding breastfeeding among new mothers, and family support should be encouraged by health workers.

  8. A sexual health care attitude scale for nurses: development and psychometric evaluation. (United States)

    Kim, Sue; Kang, Hee Sun; Kim, Jung-Hee


    Oncology nurses should possess a high level of sensitivity while dealing with patients' sexual health needs. However, sexual health care is still inadequately addressed because of barriers such as conservative beliefs and incorrect assumptions regarding sexual issues. Most scales for measuring attitude toward sexual health care were insufficient to establish the instrument's validity and did not focus on oncology nurses. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale considering cultural contexts to investigate nurses' attitude toward sexual health care in patients suffering from cancer. This study was designed for scale development. A preliminary version of the instrument was developed through a literature review and interviews with 10 oncology nurses; this version consisted of 42 items rated on a 3-point scale. Eight experts reviewed the questionnaire for content validity and consolidated 36 items. Data were collected from 342 oncology nurses in Korea. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, and reliability was assessed using Cronbach α values. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test the concurrent validity. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 17 items (4 factors), which account for 70.49% of the total variance. The 4 factors were (1) discomfort in providing sexual health care (7 items), (2) feeling uncertain about patient's acceptance (4 items), (3) afraid of colleagues' negative response (3 items), and (4) lack of environmental support (3 items). Correlation of the sub-factors ranged from 0.35 to 0.63. The Cronbach α value was 0.92. Significant negative correlations were found between the attitude toward sexual health care and the Sexuality Attitudes and Belief Survey (r=-0.57, pattitude toward sexual health care showed validity and reliability in evaluating the attitude of oncology nurses toward sexual health care and can be used to identify attitudinal barriers in nurses as well as to develop and test educational interventions for the

  9. Testing measurement invariance of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation scale across academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo C. Mulaudzi


    Full Text Available Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population subgroups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups.Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale across levels of academic achievement.Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0 were used to analyse the data.Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes.Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus


    Full Text Available The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC.The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups.The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric properties. The new lower order scales are most likely better suited to

  11. Microbiota and neurologic diseases: potential effects of probiotics. (United States)

    Umbrello, Giulia; Esposito, Susanna


    The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases. The main aims of this review are to analyse the relationship between the gut microbiota and brain disorders and to evaluate the current evidence for the use of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of neurologic conditions. Overall, trials involving animal models and adults have reported encouraging results, suggesting that the administration of probiotic strains may exert some prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Studies involving children have mainly focused on autism spectrum disorder and have shown that probiotics seem to improve neuro behavioural symptoms. However, the available data are incomplete and far from conclusive. The potential usefulness of probiotics in preventing or treating neurologic diseases is becoming a topic of great interest. However, deeper studies are needed to understand which formulation, dosage and timing might represent the optimal regimen for each specific neurologic disease and what populations can benefit. Moreover, future trials should also consider the tolerability and safety of probiotics in patients with neurologic diseases.

  12. Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS) : Development and Evaluation of a Population-Based Screening Scale for Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Reinares, Maria; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frangou, Sophia


    Context: Early identification of Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poor despite the high levels of disability associated with the disorder. Objective: We developed and evaluated a new DSM orientated scale for the identification of young people at risk for BD based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)

  13. Evaluation of Efficacy and Sedative Profiles of H1 Antihistamines by Large-Scale Surveillance Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Izumi


    Conclusions: The sedative properties of the H1 antihistamines obtained from VAS analysis were very similar to those of H1R occupancy from positron emission tomography (PET studies and PIR from meta-analysis. Our results indicate that large-scale surveillance using VAS might be useful to evaluate the profiles of H1 antihistamines.

  14. The evaluation of truthfulness in alleged sex offenders' self-reports: 16PF and MMPI validity scales. (United States)

    Grossman, L S; Haywood, T W; Wasyliw, O E


    The evaluation of response bias (i.e., minimization or exaggeration) is central to forensic psychological evaluations. Yet few studies have assessed forensic samples to investigate the ability of psychological tests to detect response bias. We studied the relationship between the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) validity scales for 65 alleged sex offenders and assessed the effects of different cutoff scores for the 16PF validity scales. Results indicate consistent significant correlations between the validity scales of the 16PF and the MMPI for measures of minimization and exaggeration. use of a priori cutoff scores resulted in the classification of our sample in proportions parallel to those found in previous research for the 16PF Fake-Good scale but not the Fake-Bad scale. Our results indicate that 16PF validity scales are useful, but interpretations must take into account different base rates of response bias between sex offenders and the general population.

  15. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection with neurological complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Vlaminckx, B.J.; Schoondermark-Stolk, S.; Donders, R.; Meulen, M. van der; Thijsen, S.F.


    Several case studies have reported on neurological complications caused by a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We aimed to investigate the viral loads and the clinical and inflammatory characteristics of this disease entity. We evaluated all 84 cases in which the EBV polymerase chain

  16. Guillain Barre syndrome as a manifestation of neurological melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Krovvidi


    Full Text Available Neurological melioidosis is a very rare and very few cases have been reported from India. Presentation is an extremely varied and as this disease is associated with high mortality, high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose and treat. In this context, we report a patient presenting as Guillain Barre syndrome evaluated as melioidosis.

  17. Putting experimental dynamics into the field: the German 'Ostfeldzug' and the creation of emergency care chains in military neurology and neurological surgery, 1941-1945. (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W


    The interconnections between the history of neurology and neurological surgery with the development of modern, technological warfare are a vastly under-researched area of medical history. The main objectives of this paper are hence to contribute to the understanding and analysis of a major case example from World War II. The article's research is based on work at the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz, the Max Planck Gesellschaft in Berlin, and literature regarding the Fuehrungsstab der Luftwaffe, undertaken as part of a larger scale project on the history of the neurosciences and psychiatry in the first half of the 20th century. The current article focuses particularly on the Ostfeldzug of the Wehrmacht and the creation of emergency care chains in military neurology and neurological surgery. Its results show how major German neurologists, such as Otfrid Foerster, Wilhelm Toennis, Georg Merrem and Klaus Joachim Zuelch have contributed to the development of emergency care chains in military neurology. Key Messages: In conclusion, despite the atrocities and often-inhumane ways through which knowledge was gathered in contemporary military neurology, a better understanding of modern neurology can be gained from a critical assessment of the history of military neurology during World War II. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.


    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  19. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager. (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong


    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Comparison of visual analogue and Likert scales in evaluation of an emergency department bedside teaching programme. (United States)

    Celenza, Antonio; Rogers, Ian R


    The present study compares visual analogue scale (VAS) to Likert-type scale (LTS) instruments in evaluating perceptions of an ED bedside clinical teaching programme. A prospective study was conducted in the ED of an urban, adult tertiary hospital. Prospective pairing occurred of a teaching consultant and registrar who were relatively quarantined from normal clinical duties. Registrars received 3 months of the teaching intervention, and 3 months without the intervention in a cross-over fashion. Evaluation questionnaires were completed using both the LTS and 100 mm horizontal VAS for each question. Correlation between VAS and LTS gave a measure of validity, and test-retest stability and internal consistency gave measures of reliability. Registrar perceptions of the teaching programme were positive, but no differences were found between the pre- and post-intervention groups. The test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the questionnaires were 0.51 and 0.54 for the VAS, and 0.58 and 0.58 for the LTS. Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.79 and 0.91 for the VAS, and 0.79 and 0.81 for the LTS. Correlations between the two methods varied from 0.35 to 0.94 for each question. A linear regression equation describing the relationship approximated VAS = 19.5 × LTS-9 with overall r= 0.89. An ED bedside teaching programme is perceived to be a beneficial educational intervention. The VAS is a reliable and valid alternative to the LTS for educational evaluation and might provide advantages in educational measurement. Further research into the significance of extreme values and educationally important changes in scores is required. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Inverse relationship between stigma and quality of life in India: is epilepsy a disabling neurological condition? (United States)

    Nehra, Ashima; Singla, Sweta; Bajpai, Swati; Malviya, Shrividhya; Padma, Vasantha; Tripathi, Manjari


    Stigma associated with epilepsy has negative effects on psychosocial outcomes, affecting quality of life (QOL) and increasing disease burden in persons with epilepsy (PWEs). The aim of our study was to measure the impact of stigma on the QOL of PWEs and the prevalence of neurological disability due to stigmatized epilepsy. A prospective observational study with a sample of 208 PWEs was conducted. Neuropsychological Tests used were the Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale (IDEAS) to measure disability, the Dysfunctional Analysis Questionnaire (DAQ) to measure QOL, and the Stigma Scale for Epilepsy (SSE) to assess stigma. Spearman correlation was calculated, and stigma (SSE) was highly significant with QOL (DAQ) (0.019) and disability due to stigmatized epilepsy (IDEAS) (0.011). The present study supports the global perception of stigma associated with epilepsy and its negative impact on their overall QOL and its contribution to the escalation of the disease burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling


    The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…

  3. Belief-based Tobacco Smoking Scale: Evaluating the PsychometricProperties of the Theory of Planned Behavior’s Constructs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Majid Barati; Hamid Allahverdipour; Alireza Hidarnia; Shamsodin Niknami; Saeed Bashirian


    ...’ beliefs regarding tobacco smoking in the Iranian society. This study aimed to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of the belief-based tobacco smoking scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB...

  4. Comparison of two different methods for evaluating the hydrodynamic performance of an industrial-scale fish-rearing unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; McLean, Ewen


    Laboratory-scale physical and mathematical models were evaluated for their utility in examining the hydrodynamic performance of a commercial fish-rearing tank. Each method was appraised with the common objective of predicting characteristic hydrodynamic behaviour of a full-scale tank. The two...

  5. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin (United States)

    Erin S. Brooks; Mariana Dobre; William J. Elliot; Joan Q. Wu; Jan Boll


    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to...

  6. E-learning for neurological bladder management. (United States)

    Rognoni, Carla; Fizzotti, Gabriella; Pistarini, Caterina; Mazzoleni, M Cristina


    Regarding the impact of visceral dysfunction on quality of life, bowel and bladder management is a very important problem. The management of the patient with neurological bladder is often a source of uncertainty for both patients and healthcare personnel. Since the need of specialized training is growing, two CME e-learning courses have been developed to provide physicians and nurses competencies for the enhancement of the daily life of the patients. The present study aims at evaluating courses attendance and outcomes. Attendance data confirm the interest for both courses. The results document a pretty good objective and subjective effectiveness of the e-learning courses but low attitude to exploit he support of an asynchronous tutor. The analysis of test results gives some hints for eventual quality improvement of the courses themselves.

  7. Behavioural induced severe hypernatremia without neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hossam


    Full Text Available Hypernatremia is a relatively common entity and is more prevalent among the elderly and critically ill. A number of medical conditions are commonly associated with hypernatremia, and these differ substantially among children and adults. Severe hypernatremia is usually associated with central nervous system manifestations and carries a high mortality rate. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department of the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with severe hypernatremia and without any associated co-morbid conditions or neurological manifestations. We did not find any etiological background despite extensive eva-luation other than under hydration due to decreased fluid intake, which was secondary to beha-vioural causes.

  8. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: a structural equation modeling analysis. (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Li, Hui-jie; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Han-hui; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yu-na; Shi, Yan-fang; Dazzan, Paola


    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Smith


    Full Text Available Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1 discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols

  11. Assessment of child neurology outpatients with headache, dizziness, and fainting. (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Fatma Neslihan Inal; Kurul, Semra; Akay, Aynur; Miral, Süha; Dirik, Eray


    Neurologic symptoms such as headache, vertigo, dizziness, and fainting can create a diagnostic problem in pediatric neurology practice because they are also the most common presenting symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Children, especially adolescents, who are often admitted with such autonomic symptoms, are frequently misdiagnosed. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity rate in children and adolescents presenting with neurologic symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and syncope. We investigated 31 children who presented with these symptoms. All children were evaluated for their medical history and had a physical and neurologic examination. We attempted to rule out a possible organic etiology. All patients received a complete laboratory examination (blood count, electroencephalography), pediatric cardiology and otorhinolaryngology consultations, and a caloric test. All patients were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. The majority of the patients (93.5%) received a psychiatric diagnosis according to the DSM-IV criteria. Most of these patients were adolescents and female. Psychosocial stressors such as academic problems, familial dysfunction, parental psychopathology, and child sexual abuse were associated with somatic symptoms. The results of this study demonstrated the importance of differential diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity in a pediatric neurologic outpatient population. Treatment should be directed at biopsychosocial integrity, and a multidisciplinary treatment approach should be applied.

  12. Ethical clinical translation of stem cell interventions for neurologic disease. (United States)

    Cote, David J; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Smith, Timothy R; Ammirati, Mario; Brennum, Jannick; Mendez, Ivar; Ammar, Ahmed S; Balak, Naci; Bolles, Gene; Esene, Ignatius Ngene; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L


    The application of stem cell transplants in clinical practice has increased in frequency in recent years. Many of the stem cell transplants in neurologic diseases, including stroke, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, and demyelinating diseases, are unproven-they have not been tested in prospective, controlled clinical trials and have not become accepted therapies. Stem cell transplant procedures currently being carried out have therapeutic aims, but are frequently experimental and unregulated, and could potentially put patients at risk. In some cases, patients undergoing such operations are not included in a clinical trial, and do not provide genuinely informed consent. For these reasons and others, some current stem cell interventions for neurologic diseases are ethically dubious and could jeopardize progress in the field. We provide discussion points for the evaluation of new stem cell interventions for neurologic disease, based primarily on the new Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation released by the International Society for Stem Cell Research in May 2016. Important considerations in the ethical translation of stem cells to clinical practice include regulatory oversight, conflicts of interest, data sharing, the nature of investigation (e.g., within vs outside of a clinical trial), informed consent, risk-benefit ratios, the therapeutic misconception, and patient vulnerability. To help guide the translation of stem cells from the laboratory into the neurosurgical clinic in an ethically sound manner, we present an ethical discussion of these major issues at stake in the field of stem cell clinical research for neurologic disease. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

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    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  14. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

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    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)


    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine use in a pediatric neurology clinic. (United States)

    Aburahma, Samah K; Khader, Yousef S; Alzoubi, Karem; Sawalha, Noor


    To evaluate the frequency and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children attending a pediatric neurology clinic in North Jordan, a parent completed questionnaire survey of children attending the pediatric neurology clinic at King Abdullah University Hospital from March to July 2008 was conducted. A review of 176 completed questionnaires showed that 99 parents (56%) had used CAM for their child's specific neurological illness. The most common modalities were prayer/reciting the Quran (77%), religious healers (30%), massage with olive oil (32%), and consumption of honey products (29%). The most common reason was religious beliefs in 68%. None reported lack of trust in conventional medicine as the reason behind seeking CAM. Factors significantly associated with CAM use were speech delay, belief in its usefulness, father's age more than 30 years, and mothers with education less than high school. CAM had a supplementary role in relation to traditional western medicine use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Which are the most useful scales for predicting repeat self-harm? A systematic review evaluating risk scales using measures of diagnostic accuracy (United States)

    Quinlivan, L; Cooper, J; Davies, L; Hawton, K; Gunnell, D; Kapur, N


    Objectives The aims of this review were to calculate the diagnostic accuracy statistics of risk scales following self-harm and consider which might be the most useful scales in clinical practice. Design Systematic review. Methods We based our search terms on those used in the systematic reviews carried out for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence self-harm guidelines (2012) and evidence update (2013), and updated the searches through to February 2015 (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO). Methodological quality was assessed and three reviewers extracted data independently. We limited our analysis to cohort studies in adults using the outcome of repeat self-harm or attempted suicide. We calculated diagnostic accuracy statistics including measures of global accuracy. Statistical pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity. Results The eight papers included in the final analysis varied widely according to methodological quality and the content of scales employed. Overall, sensitivity of scales ranged from 6% (95% CI 5% to 6%) to 97% (CI 95% 94% to 98%). The positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 5% (95% CI 3% to 9%) to 84% (95% CI 80% to 87%). The diagnostic OR ranged from 1.01 (95% CI 0.434 to 2.5) to 16.3 (95%CI 12.5 to 21.4). Scales with high sensitivity tended to have low PPVs. Conclusions It is difficult to be certain which, if any, are the most useful scales for self-harm risk assessment. No scales perform sufficiently well so as to be recommended for routine clinical use. Further robust prospective studies are warranted to evaluate risk scales following an episode of self-harm. Diagnostic accuracy statistics should be considered in relation to the specific service needs, and scales should only be used as an adjunct to assessment. PMID:26873046

  17. Validation of the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale for Greek patients. (United States)

    Lachanas, Vasileios A; Tsiouvaka, Stergiani; Tsea, Malamati; Hajiioannou, Jiannis K; Skoulakis, Charalampos E


    Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale is a validated disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of Nasal Obstruction (NO). The aim of this study was to validate the Greek-NOSE questionnaire. Prospective instrument validation study. Tertiary referral center. NOSE questionnaire was translated into Greek and then translated back into English. A prospective study was conducted on adult patients with NO due to septal deviation (SD). Test-retest evaluation of SD patients was carried out. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha test and test-retest reliability with Pearson's test (correlation), kappa (reproducibility), and Bland-Altman plot (extent of agreement). Validity was assessed by comparing scores of a control group of volunteers without NO to preoperative scores of SD patients undergoing septoplasty with Mann-Whitney test. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing preoperative to 3 months postoperative scores of SD patients with paired t test and evaluating the magnitude of surgery effect. Test-retest evaluation was accepted on 109 patients. The Greek-NOSE had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.74 for test and 0.76 for retest). All its items were significantly correlated between test and retest evaluation. NOSE showed high reproducibility (mean kappa: 0.75), and almost all differences in Bland-Altman plot were between agreement thresholds. Controls (123 volunteers) had significant lower score. Postoperative scores were significantly lower than preoperative, and magnitude of surgery effect was high, both indicating good responsiveness. The Greek-NOSE questionnaire is a valid instrument with satisfactory internal consistency, reliability, reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the Mainland Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. (United States)

    Wang, Yuqiong; Guo, Xiujing; Lau, Ying; Chan, Kin Sin; Yin, Lei; Chen, Jing


    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been validated in many countries, but not in Mainland China. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Mainland Chinese version of the EPDS. A three-stage design was used for this study. Stage I consisted of a multi-stepped process of forward and backward translation, using a panel of six experts to test content validity. Stage II established the psychometric properties of the EPDS by examining the convergent, discriminant and construct validity, internal consistency and stability of the scale. Stage III established its sensitivity, specificity and the optimal cutoff score of the EPDS according the DSM-IV-TR criteria using the Structured Clinical Interview. Three regional public hospitals in Chengdu. A convenience sample was composed of 312 and 451 pregnant women at 28-36 weeks' gestation. Translation and back-translation of the original English instrument and content validation by an expert panel. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and standard SF-12 Health Survey (SF-12) were used to investigate the convergent, discriminant and construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient, split-half reliability and test-retest reliability were used to examine the internal consistency and stability of the scale. The translation process was rigorously conducted to ensure that equivalence was established. Content validity was confirmed by a satisfactory level of agreement with a content validity index (CVI) of 0.93. The area under curve (AUC) was 85.6% and the logistic estimate for the threshold score was 9.5 (sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 83.03%) for clinical depression. Convergent and construct validity was supported and discriminant validity suggested that the EPDS successfully discriminated among the non-depressed, mildly and clinically

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles T


    Full Text Available Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability, its validity (construct and known-groups validity, and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1–3 and total score (sum of items 1–3 in an ADHD

  20. Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) at Clod scale (ClodVESS) (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal


    Visual soil structure evaluation in the field is very popular. It is fast, easy and inexpensive to perform. It opens exciting perspectives in terms of soil quality diagnosis and rapid survey. Some studies attempted to compare the scorings with measured physical properties, but most physical methods do not operate at the same scale. Visual evaluation is performed on a whole soil pit or layers, while physical measurements are usually performed on undisturbed soil samples collected in a layer. The match between the pit or layer VESS scores and the measured physical property can be poor due to short scale variability, even with numerous sample characterizations. This is particularly true with tilled soils. Moreover the field water content is heterogeneous, which introduces additional sources of variability. How far what we see matches with physical properties should be tested on the same sample, prior to handle the variability issue. Therefore, we adapted the VESS method to score soil cores of approximatively 150 cm3 in the laboratory, on which we performed also the physical characterization using shrinkage analysis. We collected 150 samples in a large area from the Swiss plateau (120 km long) in different land management (permanent pasture, no-till, conventional tillage), different seasons. The clay contents ranged from 10 to 30%. The samples were scored after performing shrinkage analysis according to the following criteria. The samples were equilibrated at -100 hPa to standardize the moisture conditions. Some criteria of the original method had to be discarded due to the small size of the soil core, namely (i) the indication on aggregate size over a few centimetres, (ii) rooting was found not consistent enough to be used, especially in cultivated soils where sampling season is determinant for root density. Three criteria could consistently be observed on all samples and were retained: (i) breaking difficulty, (ii) aggregate shape, (iii) visible porosity, and the

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 3 months after acute lung injury. (United States)

    Jutte, Jennifer E; Needham, Dale M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Bienvenu, O Joseph


    To conduct a psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and to evaluate associations of 2 measures of psychological distress with the HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS Depression (HADS-D) subscales in acute lung injury (ALI) survivors. We used 3-month post-ALI follow-up data from 151 participants in a multisite prospective cohort study to evaluate the internal consistency and structure of the HADS subscales and items, respectively. We used Spearman ρ correlations and other statistics to relate the 3-level version of the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-3L) anxiety/depression item and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) "mental health"-related domains to the HADS subscales. Internal consistency was good for each of the HADS subscales (α ≥ .70). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 2-factor structure (anxiety and depression). The EQ-5D-3L item and the SF-36 mental health-related domain scores were associated with HADS-A (ρ = 0.54 and -0.48 to -0.70, respectively) and HADS-D (ρ = 0.41 and -0.48 to -0.52, respectively) scores (all P anxiety/depression item and SF-36 mental health-related domain scores, suggesting convergent validity for these measures of psychological distress in ALI survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of mental disorders predictive scale in evaluating pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the application of Mental Disorders Predictive Scale(MDPS in evaluating the pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression.Methods MDPS was adopted for detection in 58 depressive outpatients and 63 normal controls.The outcomes of the measurement and evaluation were compared and analyzed after a re-examination of depressive patients after 6 weeks.Results After a six-week treatment,the clinical symptoms of the depressive patients improved.The depression factor score(2.07±2.87 was significantly lower than the score(8.90±2.05 prior to treatment,(P < 0.01.However,the depression factor score was still significantly higher than the control group score(1.77±2.13,(P < 0.05.The correlation analysis of MDPS risk and depression factors showed that introversion,stressor,unhealthy defense mechanism,and lower social support had a significant correlation with the depression factor r=0.442-0.642,P < 0.05 or P < 0.01.If α=0.10,the order for entering the regression equation was as follows: unhealthy defense mechanism and lower social support.The standard regression coefficients were 0.489 and 0.371.Conclusion MDPS can be used as an index for evaluating the pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression.

  3. Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. (United States)

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Sen, Mitali


    The level of awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are the common sufferers. This study aims to evaluate the level of awareness in postmenopausal women using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS). Osteoporosis has emerged as a common health problem in geriatric population. A proactive role needs to be played for preventing its consequences. Before initiating any preventive measures, an evaluation of awareness level of the target population is necessary. The questionnaire-based study design was used for this study. A questionnaire (OHBS)-based study in 100 postmenopausal women in Chandigarh was conducted. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in each case by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were noted. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate any correlation between the various components of the OHBS and the BMD. No statistically significant difference was noted in the seven component parameters of OHBS among the normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic women suggesting that the health belief regarding susceptibility is not much different between the three groups of the study population. A statistically significant difference between the mean BMI of normal and osteoporotic population was noted. The results show that there is a great deficit in the awareness level of postmenopausal Indian women regarding osteoporosis. Most of the women were unaware of the condition and the means to prevent it. The study emphasizes that health care professionals have lot of ground to cover to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and its associated health problem.

  4. [Post-ischemia neurologic recovery]. (United States)

    Guiraud-Chaumeil, Bernard; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Chollet, François


    Stroke is one of the most common affliction of patients with neurological symptoms. Rehabilitation of stroke patients is a difficult task. Our knowledge on rehabilitation has recently improved with the emergence of data from new neuroimaging techniques. A prospective, double blind, cross over, placebo, controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia, is conducted to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke. Each patient undergoes two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations, one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. A single dose of fluoxetine is enough to modulate cerebral sensori-motor activation and significantly improves motor skills of the affected side. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine on motor function.

  5. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

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    Adriana Biedroń


    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  6. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozdemir


    Full Text Available Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for 9 months and speech loss starting 2 days ago. Strong positivity of antithyroid antibodies increases the odds for HE. Thyroid function tests showed severe hypothyroidism. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging results were compatible with HE. HE is diagnosed with differantial diagnosis and exclusion of other reasons. This uncommon disorder is not recognised enough. High titres of serum antithyroid antiboides are always needed for diagnosis. Correct diagnosis requires awareness of wide range of cognitive and clinical presentations of HE.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School-Based Assessment Evaluation Scale Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali


    Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam.       Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum

  8. A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for the medically hospitalized elderly. (United States)

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Skancke, Randi H; Selbæk, Geir


    Few psychometric studies of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scale have been performed with clinical samples of elderly individuals. The participants were 484 elderly (65-101 years, 241 men) patients in an acute medical unit. The HADS, the Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and questionnaires assessing quality of life, functional impairment, and cognitive function were used. The psychometric evaluation of the HADS included the following analyses: 1) the internal construct validity by means of principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation and corrected item-total correlation; 2) the internal consistency reliability by means of the alpha coefficient (Cronbach's) and 3) concurrent validity by means of Spearman's rho. We found a two-factor solution explaining 45% of the variance. Six of seven items loaded adequately (≥0.40) on the HADS-A subscale (item 7 did not) and five of seven items loaded adequately on the HADS-D subscale (items 8 and 10 did not). Cronbach's alpha for the HADS-A and HADS-D subscale was 0.78 and 0.71, respectively. The correlation between HADS-D and the MADRS, a measure of the concurrent validity, was 0.51. The HADS appears to differentiate well between depression and anxiety. The internal consistency of the HADS in a sample of elderly persons was as satisfactory as it is in samples with younger persons. In contrast to younger samples, item 8 ("I feel as if I have slowed down") did not load adequately on the HADS-D subscale. This may be attributed to the way elderly people experience and describe their symptoms.

  9. Evaluating the effects of scaling up on the performance of bioelectrochemical systems using a technical scale microbial electrolysis cell. (United States)

    Brown, Robert Keith; Harnisch, Falk; Wirth, Sebastian; Wahlandt, Helge; Dockhorn, Thomas; Dichtl, Norbert; Schröder, Uwe


    This study focuses on the challenges of the scaling up process of bioelectrochemical systems on the example of a technical scale microbial electrolysis cell referred to as the "prototype". Anodically treating real wastewater and operated in continuous mode at a hydraulic retention time of 1.23 d with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD)-loading rate of 0.5 g O2 d(-1) L Reactor(-1) the prototype on average showed COD removal efficiency of 67% with effluent concentrations of 210 mg O2 L(-1) and an ammonium elimination rate of 17.8 ± 3.9 mg Nd(-1) L Reactor(-1) resulting in effluent concentrations of 30.7 ± 3.7 mg NL(-1) with a removal efficiency of 40% at a current generation of 72 μA cm(-2) and Coulomb efficiency of 11%. A model is described as a method for comparing conventional and BES based technology using the above mentioned criteria and balancing them against the respective loading rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance evaluation of image-based location recognition approaches based on large-scale UAV imagery (United States)

    Hesse, Nikolas; Bodensteiner, Christoph; Arens, Michael


    Recognizing the location where an image was taken, solely based on visual content, is an important problem in computer vision, robotics and remote sensing. This paper evaluates the performance of standard approaches for location recognition when applied to large-scale aerial imagery in both electro-optical (EO) and infrared (IR) domains. We present guidelines towards optimizing the performance and explore how well a standard location recognition system is suited to handle IR data. We show on three datasets that the performance of the system strongly increases if SIFT descriptors computed on Hessian-Affine regions are used instead of SURF features. Applications are widespread and include vision-based navigation, precise object geo-referencing or mapping.

  11. Evaluation of Shipboard Wave Estimation Techniques through Model-scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Galeazzi, Roberto; H. Brodtkorb, Astrid


    The paper continues a study on the wave buoy analogy that uses shipboard measurements to estimate sea states. In the present study, the wave buoy analogy is formulated directly in the time domain and relies only partly on wave-vessel response amplitude operators (RAOs), which is in contrast to all...... previous works that either are formulated in the frequency domain and/or depend entirely on RAOs. Specifically, the paper evaluates a novel concept for wave estimation based on combined techniques using a wave frequency estimator, not dependent on RAOs, to detect wave frequency and, respectively, nonlinear...... least squares fitting to estimate wave amplitude and phase. The concept has been previously tested with only numerical simulations but in this study the techniques are applied to model-scale experiments. It is shown that the techniques successfully can be used to estimate the wave parameters...

  12. The Youth Relatedness Scale: Development of a New Evaluation Tool for Youth Programs

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    Melissa H. D'Eloia


    Full Text Available This paper examines a study to develop a reliable measure of relatedness that utilizes language appropriate for youth, is simple for staff to administer in a field-based setting, and is consistent with the Youth Outcomes Battery. Pilot instruments were distributed to three residential summer camps serving female and male campers between the ages 10-17. The results of this study indicate that the Youth Relatedness Scale is an easy-to-use measure that exhibits good evidence of internal consistency and shows good criterion evidence of validity for this population of youth. This study was a positive step towards providing a theoretically grounded, simple, and versatile measure that captures youth perceptions of relatedness and that youth program administrators can employ to evaluate their programs.

  13. Multi-time scale energy management of wind farms based on comprehensive evaluation technology (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, Z. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Guo, L.


    A novel energy management of wind farms is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel comprehensive evaluation system is proposed to quantify economic properties of each wind farm to make the energy management more economical and reasonable. Then, a combination of multi time-scale schedule method is proposed to develop a novel energy management. The day-ahead schedule optimizes unit commitment of thermal power generators. The intraday schedule is established to optimize power generation plan for all thermal power generating units, hydroelectric generating sets and wind power plants. At last, the power generation plan can be timely revised in the process of on-line schedule. The paper concludes with simulations conducted on a real provincial integrated energy system in northeast China. Simulation results have validated the proposed model and corresponding solving algorithms.

  14. Damage evaluation under thermal fatigue of a vertical target full scale component for the ITER divertor

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