Sample records for neurokinin-1 receptor nk-1r

  1. Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells.

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    Panpan Chen

    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP. We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

  2. [Effect of montelukast on the expression of neurokinin-1 receptor in young asthmatic rats with airway remodeling]. (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Shang, Yun-Xiao; Li, Miao; Zhang, Han


    To investigate the effect of montelukast on the expression of sensory neuropeptide (neurokinin-1) receptor (NK1R) in young asthmatic rats with airway remodeling. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8), asthma (n=8), and montelukast groups (n=8). A rat model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. Normal saline was used instead of sensitizing solution and 1% OVA in the control group. Each rat in the montelukast group was given montelukast (15 mg/kg) by gavage 2 h before OVA inhalation. All rats received their respective treatments for 8 weeks. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of NK1R in asthmatic airway remolding and to evaluate the effect of montelukast on NK1R expression. The asthma group showed significantly higher mRNA and protein expression levels of NK1R than the control group (Pmontelukast group were significantly lower than in the asthma group (Pmontelukast can downregulate NK1R expression during airway remodeling.

  3. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists--current prospects. (United States)

    Alvaro, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Romano


    The isolation of substance P (SP) in 1931, and the later discovery of its preferred neurokinin (NK)1 receptor, led to an intense research effort aimed at elucidating the biological role of SP, particularly within the central nervous system. There is now a large body of evidence to support the hypothesis that SP is one of the most important neurotransmitters and neuromodulators present in the brain. Its pharmacology has been intimately linked to the pathophysiology of several relevant neurological and psychiatric disorders, namely nociception, migraine, asthma, nausea, inflammatory bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, anxiety and depression. This wide therapeutic potential triggered an unprecedented research effort, both preclinically and clinically, to identify appropriate NK1 receptor antagonists and transform them into effective drugs. To date, despite huge investments made by some of the largest pharmaceutical groups worldwide, aprepitant (MK-869, an anti-emetic agent) remains the only NK1 receptor antagonist on the market. Nevertheless, the 'NK1 receptor antagonist race' is not over, as witnessed by the significant number of patents and scientific publications claiming the discovery of new NK1 receptor antagonists issued in recent years. This review describes the most relevant results obtained in this field in the period 2005 to 2006.

  4. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, prevents the hyperactivity and impulsivity of neurokinin-1 receptor gene 'knockout' mice: sex differences and implications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Porter, Ashley J; Pillidge, Katharine; Grabowska, Ewelina M; Stanford, S Clare


    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness. The preferred ligand for NK1R, substance P, is metabolised by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which forms part of the brain renin angiotensin system (BRAS). In view of evidence that the BRAS modulates locomotor activity and cognitive performance, we tested the effects of drugs that target the BRAS on these behaviours in NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. We first tested the effects of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, on locomotor activity. Because there are well-established sex differences in both ADHD and ACE activity, we compared the effects of captopril in both male and female mice. Locomotor hyperactivity was evident in male NK1R-/- mice, only, and this was abolished by treatment with captopril. By contrast, male wildtypes and females of both genotypes were unaffected by ACE inhibition. We then investigated the effects of angiotensin AT1 (losartan) and AT2 (PD 123319) receptor antagonists on the locomotor activity of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. Both antagonists increased the locomotor activity of NK1R-/- mice, but neither affected the wildtypes. Finally, we tested the effects of captopril on the performance of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task (5-CSRTT) and found that ACE inhibition prevented the impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice. These results indicate that certain behaviours, disrupted in ADHD, are influenced by an interaction between the BRAS and NK1R, and suggest that ACE inhibitors could provide a novel treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurokinin-1-receptor antagonism decreases anxiety and emotional arousal circuit response to noxious visceral distension in women with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. (United States)

    Tillisch, K; Labus, J; Nam, B; Bueller, J; Smith, S; Suyenobu, B; Siffert, J; McKelvy, J; Naliboff, B; Mayer, E


    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterised by chronic abdominal pain and frequent comorbid anxiety. The substance P ⁄ neurokinin-1 receptor system is implicated in the regulation of both pain and anxiety, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in IBS. To determine whether inhibition of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) will change pain ratings and brain responses to experimental visceral pain and anxiety symptoms in women with IBS or not. Rome II positive IBS women were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of NK1R antagonist AV608. Treatment periods were 3 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Functional MRI during a visceral distension paradigm was performed before first treatment and after treatment blocks. SPM8 was used to compare brain activity during painful and nonpainful visceral stimuli in regions associated with emotional arousal and interoception. Negative affect, anxiety symptoms and pain ratings were assessed. Eleven subjects completed the study and eight subjects provided fMRI data. AV608, compared with placebo, was associated with reduced anxiety, negative affect, and pain ratings. During AV608 treatment, the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate gyrus showed decreased activity during visceral distension. AV608 was also associated with decreases in activity in brain regions associated with interoception (posterior insula, anterior mid-cingulate gyrus). Chronic treatment with AV608 in IBS is associated with improved mood and pain ratings and activity of emotional arousal related brain regions. This suggests that further exploration of NK1R antagonists is warranted in visceral pain disorders, particularly in patients with comorbid anxiety symptoms.

  6. Volume transmission of substance P in striatum induced by intraplantar formalin injection attenuates nociceptive responses via activation of the neurokinin 1 receptor. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoki; Izumi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Takumi; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro


    To clarify a role of substance P (SP) in an endogenous pain control mechanism involving the rat striatum, striatal SP release was measured over time by microdialysis following intraplantar injection of 0.4% formalin. A slow-onset but significant increase of SP and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in the contralateral striatum were observed following the second phase of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors. Moreover, 60 min after formalin injection, preprotachykinin-A, the SP mRNA, and the immediate early gene cFOS were upregulated in the contralateral striatum. Continuous infusion of SP into the striatum by reverse microdialysis attenuated formalin-induced second phase, but not the first phase, nociceptive behaviors, and hind paw mechanical allodynia. Moreover, these anti-nociceptive effects of SP were completely inhibited by co-treatment with the NK1R antagonist CP96345. Acute microinjection of SP, however, at a dose that was similar to the total dose of SP continuously infused into the striatum, did not affect formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors. These data indicate that striatal NK1R activation leads to pain suppression rather than facilitation. Furthermore, volume transmission of SP in the striatum appears to be indispensable in the mechanism of pain control. Modulation of striatal NK1Rs could prove to be a useful method of inducing analgesia.

  7. Upregulation of neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the lungs of patients with sarcoidosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Terence M


    Substance P (SP) is a proinflammatory neuropeptide that is secreted by sensory nerves and inflammatory cells. Increased levels of SP are found in sarcoid bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. SP acts by binding to the neurokinin-1 receptor and increases secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in many cell types. We sought to determine neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis compared with normal controls. Neurokinin-1 receptor messenger RNA and protein expression were below the limits of detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers (n = 9) or patients with stage 1 or 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 10), but were detected in 1\\/9 bronchoalveolar lavage cells of controls compared with 8\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.012) and 2\\/9 biopsies of controls compared with 9\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry localized upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression to bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and sarcoid granulomas. The patient in whom neurokinin-1 receptor was not detected was taking corticosteroids. Incubation of the type II alveolar and bronchial epithelial cell lines A549 and SK-LU 1 with dexamethasone downregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression. Upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis may potentiate substance P-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in patients with sarcoidosis.

  8. Abnormalities in substance P neurokinin-1 receptor binding in key brainstem nuclei in sudden infant death syndrome related to prematurity and sex. (United States)

    Bright, Fiona M; Vink, Robert; Byard, Roger W; Duncan, Jhodie R; Krous, Henry F; Paterson, David S


    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia. Abnormalities in SP neurotransmission may therefore result in autonomic dysfunction during sleep and contribute to SIDS deaths. [125I] Bolton Hunter SP autoradiography was used to map the distribution and density of the SP, NK1R to 13 specific nuclei intimately related to cardiorespiratory function and autonomic control in the human infant medulla of 55 SIDS and 21 control (non-SIDS) infants. Compared to controls, SIDS cases exhibited a differential, abnormal developmental profile of the SP/NK1R system in the medulla. Furthermore the study revealed significantly decreased NK1R binding within key medullary nuclei in SIDS cases, principally in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and all three subdivisions of the inferior portion of the olivo-cerebellar complex; the principal inferior olivary complex (PIO), medial accessory olive (MAO) and dorsal accessory olive (DAO). Altered NK1R binding was significantly influenced by prematurity and male sex, which may explain the increased risk of SIDS in premature and male infants. Abnormal NK1R binding in these medullary nuclei may contribute to the defective interaction of critical medullary mechanisms with cerebellar sites, resulting in an inability of a SIDS infant to illicit appropriate respiratory and

  9. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

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    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  10. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S


    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. ( Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Identification of a Novel Substance P–Neurokinin-1 Receptor MicroRNA-221-5p Inflammatory Network in Human Colonic Epithelial CellsSummary

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    Kai Fang


    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Substance P (SP, a neuropeptide member of the tachykinin family, plays a critical role in colitis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We examined whether SP modulates expression of microRNAs in human colonic epithelial cells. Methods: We performed microRNA profiling analysis of SP-stimulated human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing neurokinin-1 receptor (NCM460-NK-1R. Targets of SP-regulated microRNAs were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Functions of miRNAs were tested in NCM460-NK-1R cells and the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS models of colitis. Results: SP stimulated differential expression of 29 microRNAs, including miR-221-5p, the highest up-regulated miR (by 12.6-fold upon SP stimulation. Bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analyses identified interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R mRNA as a direct target of miR-221-5p in NCM460 cells. Accordingly, SP exposure of NCM460-NK-1R cells increased IL-6R mRNA expression, and overexpression of miR-221-5p reduced IL-6R expression. Nuclear factor κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition decreased SP-induced miR-221-5p expression. MiR-221-5p expression was increased in both TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and in colonic biopsy samples from ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease patients compared with controls. In mice, intracolonic administration of a miR-221-5p chemical inhibitor exacerbated TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis and increased colonic tumor necrosis factor-α, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (Cxcl10, and collagen, type II, α 1 (Col2α1 mRNA expression. In situ hybridization in TNBS- and DSS-exposed colons revealed increased miR-221-5p expression primarily in colonocytes. Conclusions: Our results reveal a novel NK-1R-miR-221-5p-IL-6R network that protects from colitis. The use of miR-221-5p mimics may be a promising approach for colitis

  12. Connection Between the Striatal Neurokinin-1 Receptor and Nitric Oxide Formation During Methamphetamine Exposure (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Wenjing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.


    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used club drug that produces neural damage in the brain including the loss of some neurons. The METH-induced striatal neuronal loss was attenuated by pre-treatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist WIN-51,708 in mice. We have observed using a histological method the internalization of the neurokinin-1 receptor into endosomes in the striatal somatostatin/NPY/nitric oxide synthase interneurons. To investigate the role of this interneuron in the striatal cell death induced by METH, we assessed by immunohistochemistry the number of striatal nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons in the presence of METH at 8 and 16 hours after systemic injection of a bolus of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.). We found the number of striatal nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons unchanged at these time points after METH. In a separate experiment we measured the levels of striatal 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) by HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography) as an indirect index of nitric oxide synthesis. METH increased the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in the striatum and this increase was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist. These observations suggest a causal relationship between the neurokinin-1 receptor and the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase that warrants further investigation. PMID:18991860

  13. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L


    To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...

  14. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Svendgaard, Niels-Aage; Edvinsson, Lars


    was injected intracisternally 30 minutes and 24 hours after the induction of SAH. Two days after SAH induction, the basilar arteries were harvested, and contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-I, an ETA- and ETB-receptor agonist) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (a 5-hydroxytryptamine- I1 [5-HT1]-receptor agonist......) were investigated using sensitive myographs. To determine whether NKIR inhibition had an influence on local CBF after post-SAH, a quantitative autoradiographic technique was used. After SAH, the vascular receptor phenotype was changed in cerebral arteries through upregulation of contractile ET, and 5......-HT1B receptors, while regional and total CBF were markedly reduced. Treatment with the selective NK1R inhibitor L-822429 prevented both the receptor upregulation and the reduction in regional and global CBF. CONCLUSIONS: The data reveal the coregulation of vascular receptor changes and blood flow...

  15. A randomized, placebo controlled, double masked phase IB study evaluating the safety and antiviral activity of aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in HIV-1 infected adults.

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    Pablo Tebas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R antagonists have anti-HIV activity in monocyte-derived macrophages, decrease CCR5 expression and improve natural killer cell function ex vivo. Aprepitant is a NK1R antagonist approved by FDA as an antiemetic. METHODS: We conducted a phase IB randomized, placebo controlled, double masked study to evaluate the safety, antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics and immune-modulatory effects of aprepitant in HIV-infected adults not receiving antiretroviral therapy, with CD4+ cell count ≥350 cells/mm(3 and plasma viral load ≥2,000 copies/ml. Subjects were stratified by viral load (< vs. ≥20,000 copies/ml and randomized within each stratum to receive aprepitant at 125 mg QD(Low, or 250 mg QD(High, or placebo(PL for 14 days, and followed for 42 days. RESULTS: Thirty subjects were randomized and 27 completed treatment (9, 8, 10 subjects in 125 (Low, 250 (High, and PL groups. 63% were male; 37% white; mean (SD age 43 (9.3 years. Geometric mean baseline viral load (copies/ml for Low, High, and PL was 15,709, 33,013, and 19,450, respectively. Mean (95%CI change in log10 viral load at day 14 for Low, High, and PL was -0.02(-0.24,+0.20, -0.05(-0.21,+0.10, and +0.04(-0.08,+0.16, respectively. The number of subjects with AEs was 4(44.4%, 5(62.5%, and 1(10% for Low, High, and PL. No Grade 4 AEs occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events of aprepitant were more common in the treated groups. At the dose used in this two-week phase IB study, aprepitant showed biological activity, but no significant antiviral activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00428519.

  16. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice


    Zhu, Judy; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.


    In a previous study we showed that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptors attenuated the methamphetamine-induced toxicity of the striatal dopamine terminals. In the present study we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptors on the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons. To that end, we administered a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) to male mice. METH induced the apoptosis (TUNEL) of approximately 20% of striatal neurons. This percentage of M...

  17. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice (United States)

    Zhu, Judy; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.


    In a previous study we showed that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptors attenuated the methamphetamine-induced toxicity of the striatal dopamine terminals. In the present study we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptors on the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons. To that end, we administered a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) to male mice. METH induced the apoptosis (TUNEL) of approximately 20% of striatal neurons. This percentage of METH-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by either a single injection of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist WIN-51,708 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or the ablation of the striatal interneurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptors (cholinergic and somatostatin) with the selective neurotoxin [Sar9,Met(O2)11] substance P-saporin. Next we assessed the levels of striatal 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) by HPLC and immunohistochemistry. METH increased the levels of striatal 3-NT and this increase was attenuated by pretreatment with WIN-51,708. Our data support the hypothesis that METH-induced striatal apoptosis occurs via a mechanism involving the neurokinin-1 receptors and the activation of nitric oxide synthesis. Our findings are relevant for the treatment of METH abuse and may be relevant to certain neurological disorders involving the dopaminergic circuitry of the basal ganglia. PMID:19682209

  18. Design and synthesis of a novel, achiral class of highly potent and selective, orally active neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bös, Michael; Stadler, Heinz; Schnider, Patrick; Hunkeler, Walter; Godel, Thierry; Galley, Guido; Ballard, Theresa M; Higgins, Guy A; Poli, Sonia M; Sleight, Andrew J


    The discovery of a novel, achiral pyridine class of potent and orally active neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonists is described. The evaluation of this class is briefly outlined, leading to the identification of netupitant 21 and befetupitant 29, two new proprietary chemical entities with high affinity and excellent CNS penetration.

  19. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

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    Pia Steensland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  20. Phase III trial of casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Apornwirat, Wichit; Shaharyar, Ahmed


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this phase III trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of regimens containing casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the first cycle in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemo...

  1. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

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    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis NCT00888225

  2. Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B; Pudovkina, O; van der Hart, MGC; Simon, M; Heilbronner, U; Michaelis, T; Watanabe, T; Frahm, J; Fuchs, E

    Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds. Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Methods: Animals

  3. Synergistic effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism in rodent models of somatic and visceral pain. (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Tyler, Karl; Pietra, Claudio; Bee, Lucy A; Dickenson, Anthony


    Synergistic activity has been observed between serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-mediated responses. This study investigated the efficacy of a 5-HT3 antagonist, palonosetron, and a NK1 antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination in rodent models of somatic and visceral colonic hypersensitivity. In a rat model of experimental neuropathic pain, somatic hypersensitivity was quantified by the number of ipsilateral paw withdrawals to a von Frey filament (6g). Electrophysiologic responses were recorded in the dorsal horn neurons after mechanical or thermal stimuli. Acute colonic hypersensitivity was induced experimentally in rats by infusing dilute acetic acid (0.6%) directly into the colon. Colonic sensitivity was assessed by a visceromotor behavioral response quantified as the number of abdominal contractions in response to graded isobaric pressures (0-60 mm Hg) of colorectal distension. Palonosetron or netupitant was administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. When dosed alone, both significantly reduced somatic sensitivity, decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation, and caused significant (P netupitant at doses that were ineffective alone significantly reduced both somatic and visceral sensitivity and decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation. In summary, the combination of palonosetron with a NK1 receptor antagonist showed synergistic analgesic activity in rodent models of somatic and visceral hypersensitivity, and may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  4. Blockage of the neurokinin 1 receptor and capsaicin-induced ablation of the enteric afferent nerves protect SCID mice against T-cell-induced chronic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Kristensen, Nanna Ny


    , we examined antagonists for the high-affinity neurokinin 1 (NK-1) SP receptor and the TRPV1 receptor agonist capsaicin in a T-cell transfer model for chronic colitis. METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced in SCID mice by injection of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. The importance of NK-1 signaling and TRPV1...... expressing afferent nerves for disease development was studied in recipient SCID mice systemically treated with either high-affinity NK-1 receptor antagonists or neurotoxic doses of capsaicin. In addition, we studied the colitis-inducing effect of NK-1 receptor deleted CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. RESULTS...

  5. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors increases the excitability of guinea pig dorsal root ganglion cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulin; Pietra, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; de Groat, William C


    The suppression of overactive bladder symptoms in patients and overactive bladder reflexes in animal models by neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonists raises the possibility that these drugs target sensory neurons. This mechanism was evaluated by examining the interactions between a specific NK-1 agonist, [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P (Sar-Met-SP), and a potent NK-1 antagonist, netupitant (NTP), on small size (20-30 μm) dissociated L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from female guinea pigs. Current-clamp recording revealed that Sar-Met-SP (1 μM) elicited membrane depolarization (average 8.05 ± 1.38 mV) in 27% (18 of 65) of DRG neurons. In 74% of the remaining neurons (35 of 47) Sar-Met-SP decreased the rheobase for action potential (AP) generation and increased the response to a suprathreshold stimulus (3 times rheobase) without changing the membrane potential. Sar-Met-SP also induced changes in the action potential (AP) wave form, including 1) an increase in overshoot (average 5 mV, n = 35 neurons), 2) a prolongation of AP duration (from 4.64 to 5.29 ms, n = 34), and 3) a reduction in the maximal rate of AP repolarization. NTP (200 nM) reversed the Sar-Met-SP-induced changes. Ca(2+) imaging showed that application of Sar-Met-SP (1 μM) decreased the tachyphylaxis induced by repeated application of capsaicin (0.5 μM), an effect blocked by pretreatment with NTP (200 nM). These results raise the possibility that activation of NK-1 receptors in primary sensory neurons plays a role in the generation of overactive bladder and that block of NK-1 receptors in these neurons may contribute to efficacy of NK-1 antagonists in the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  6. Efficacy of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant in preventing nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy. (United States)

    Hesketh, Paul J; Schnadig, Ian D; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Modiano, Manuel R; Jordan, Karin; Arora, Sujata; Powers, Dan; Aapro, Matti


    Rolapitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, provided effective protection against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in a randomized, double-blind phase 3 trial of patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimen. The current analysis explored the efficacy and safety of rolapitant in preventing CINV in a subgroup of patients receiving carboplatin. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive oral rolapitant (180 mg) or a placebo 1 to 2 hours before chemotherapy administration; all patients received oral granisetron (2 mg) on days 1 to 3 and oral dexamethasone (20 mg) on day 1. A post hoc analysis examined the subgroup of patients receiving carboplatin in cycle 1. The efficacy endpoints were as follows: complete response (CR), no emesis, no nausea, no significant nausea, complete protection, time to first emesis or use of rescue medication, and no impact on daily life. In the subgroup administered carboplatin-based chemotherapy (n = 401), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the rolapitant group versus the control group achieved a CR in the overall phase (0-120 hours; 80.2% vs 64.6%; P 24-120 hours; 82.3% vs 65.6%; P < .001) after chemotherapy administration. Superior responses were also observed by the measures of no emesis, no nausea, and complete protection in the overall and delayed phases and by the time to first emesis or use of rescue medication. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar for the rolapitant and control groups. Rolapitant provided superior CINV protection to patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy in comparison with the control. These results support rolapitant use as part of the antiemetic regimen in carboplatin-treated patients. Cancer 2016;122:2418-2425. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  7. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea: the role of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Bošnjak, Snežana M; Gralla, Richard J; Schwartzberg, Lee


    Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK 1 RAs when combined with 5-HT 3 RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-metoclopramide were demonstrated to be non-inferior to aprepitant and aprepitant-dexamethasone, respectively, for the control of delayed nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin), and are now recognized in the guidelines. The potential impact of the new NK 1 RAs rolapitant and netupitant (oral fixed combination with palonosetron, as NEPA) in CIN prophylaxis is discussed. While the clinical significance of the effect on nausea of the rolapitant-granisetron-dexamethasone combination after cisplatin is not conclusive, rolapitant addition showed no improvement in nausea prophylaxis after AC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). NEPA was superior to palonosetron in the control of nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin). Moreover, the efficacy of NEPA in nausea control was maintained over multiple cycles of HEC/MEC. Recently, NK 1 RAs have been challenged by olanzapine, with olanzapine showing superior efficacy in nausea prevention after HEC. Fixed antiemetic combinations (such as NEPA) or new antiemetics with a long half-life that may be given once per chemotherapy cycle (rolapitant or NEPA) may improve patient compliance with antiemetic treatment.

  8. Role of neurokinin 1 receptors in dextran sulfate-induced colitis: studies with gene-deleted mice and the selective receptor antagonist netupitant. (United States)

    Szitter, István; Pintér, Erika; Perkecz, Anikó; Kemény, Agnes; Kun, József; Kereskai, László; Pietra, Claudio; Quinn, John P; Zimmer, Andreas; Berger, Alexandra; Paige, Christopher J; Helyes, Zsuzsanna


    The function of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor was investigated in the DSS-induced mouse colitis model using NK1 receptor-deficient mice and the selective antagonist netupitant. Colitis was induced by oral administration of 20 mg/ml DSS solution for 7 days in C57BL/6 and Tacr1 KO animals (n = 5-7). During the induction, one-half of the C57BL/6 and Tacr1 KO group received one daily dose of 6 mg/kg netupitant, administered intraperitoneally, the other half of the group received saline, respectively. Disease activity index (DAI), on the basis of stool consistency, blood and weight loss, was determined over 7 days. Histological evaluation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, cytokine concentrations and receptor expression analysis were performed on the colon samples. NK1 receptors are up-regulated in the colon in response to DSS treatment. DSS increased DAI, histopathological scores, BLC, sICAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-16 and JE in wildtype mice, which were significantly reduced in NK1 receptor-deficient ones. NK1 receptor antagonism with netupitant significantly diminished DAI, inflammatory histopathological alterations, BLC, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-16 in wildtype mice, but not in the NK1-deficient ones. MPO was similarly elevated and netupitant significantly decreased its activity in both groups. NK1 receptor antagonism could be beneficial for colitis via inhibiting different inflammatory mechanisms.

  9. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarson Kenneth E


    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  10. Mapping Substance P Binding Sites on the Neurokinin-1 Receptor Using Genetic Incorporation of a Photoreactive Amino Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Park, Minyoung; Huber, Thomas


    that the binding site for SP includes multiple domains in the N-terminal (Nt) segment and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) of NK1. To map precisely the NK1 residues that interact with SP, we applied a novel receptor-based targeted photocross-linking approach. We used amber codon suppression to introduce...

  11. Peripheral substance P and neurokinin-1 receptors have a role in inflammatory and neuropathic orofacial pain models. (United States)

    Teodoro, Fernanda C; Tronco Júnior, Marcos F; Zampronio, Aleksander R; Martini, Alessandra C; Rae, Giles A; Chichorro, Juliana G


    There is accumulating evidence that substance P released from peripheral sensory neurons participates in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In this study it was investigated the ability of substance P to induce orofacial nociception and thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as the role of NK1 receptors on models of orofacial inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Substance P injected into the upper lip at 1, 10 and 100 μg/50 μL failed to induce nociceptive behavior. Also, substance P (0.1-10 μg/50 μL) injected into the upper lip did not evoke orofacial cold hyperalgesia and when injected at 1 μg/50 μL did not induce mechanical hyperalgesia. However, substance P at this latter dose induced orofacial heat hyperalgesia, which was reduced by the pre-treatment of rats with a non-peptide NK1 receptor antagonist (SR140333B, 3mg/kg). Systemic treatment with SR140333B (3 mg/kg) also reduced carrageenan-induced heat hyperalgesia, but did not exert any influence on carrageenan-induced cold hyperalgesia. Blockade of NK1 receptors with SR140333B also reduced by about 50% both phases of the formalin response evaluated in the orofacial region. Moreover, heat, but not cold or mechanical, hyperalgesia induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve, a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, was abolished by pretreatment with SR140333B. Considering that substance P was peripherally injected (i.e. upper lip) and the NK1 antagonist used lacks the ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier, our results demonstrate that the peripheral SP/NK1 system participates in the heat hyperalgesia associated with inflammation or nerve injury and in the persistent pain evoked by formalin in the orofacial region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of Pronetupitant, a prodrug of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist Netupitant. (United States)

    Ruzza, Chiara; Rizzi, Anna; Malfacini, Davide; Molinari, Stefano; Giuliano, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; Pietra, Claudio; Calo', Girolamo


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of Pronetupitant, a novel compound designed to act as prodrug of the NK1 antagonist Netupitant. In receptor binding experiments Pronetupitant displayed high selectivity for the NK1 receptor. In a calcium mobilization assay performed on CHONK1 cells Pronetupitant (100 nM, 15 min preincubation) behaved as an NK1 antagonist more potent than Netupitant (pK(B) 8.72 and 7.54, respectively). In the guinea pig ileum bioassay Pronetupitant antagonized the contractile effect of SP showing a similar potency as Netupitant (pK(B)≈9). Similar results were obtained with 5 min preincubation time while at 2 min only Pronetupitant produced significant effects. In vivo in mice the intrathecal injection of 0.1 nmol SP elicited the typical scratching, biting and licking (SBL) nociceptive response. This effect of SP was dose dependently (0.1-10 mg/kg) antagonized by Pronetupitant given intravenously 2 h before the peptide. Superimposable results were obtained using Netupitant. Pharmacokinetic studies performed in rats demonstrate that Pronetupitant, after i.v. administration, is quickly (few minutes) and completely converted to Netupitant. Collectively the present results indicated that Pronetupitant acts in vitro as selective NK1 antagonist more potent than Netupitant. However based on the short half-life measured for Pronetupitant in rats, the in vivo action of Pronetupitant can be entirely interpreted as due to its conversion to Netupitant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of repeated dosing of netupitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, in treating overactive bladder. (United States)

    Haab, F; Braticevici, B; Krivoborodov, G; Palmas, M; Zufferli Russo, M; Pietra, C


    NK-1 receptors in sensory nerves, the spinal cord and bladder smooth muscle participate in complex sensory mechanisms that regulate bladder activity. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of a new NK-1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, in patients with OAB. This was a phase II, multicenter, double-blind study in which adults with OAB symptoms >6 months were randomized to receive 1 of 3 doses of netupitant (50, 100, 200 mg) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change from baseline in average number of daily micturitions at week 8. Urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence (UUI), and urgency episodes were also assessed. The primary efficacy endpoint was similar in the treatment groups (-13.85 for placebo to -16.17 in the netupitant 200 mg group) with no statistically significant differences between netupitant and placebo. The same was true for most secondary endpoints although a significant difference for improvement in UUI episodes and a trend for the greatest decrease in urgency episodes were seen in the netupitant 100 mg group. Netupitant was well tolerated with most treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) being mild. While the overall incidence of AEs increased with netupitant dose, there was no evidence for this dose dependency based on relationship to treatment, intensity, or time to onset. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of netupitant versus placebo in decreasing OAB symptoms, despite a trend favoring netupitant 100 mg. There were no safety concerns with daily administration of netupitant over 8 weeks. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinical pharmacology of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. (United States)

    Rapoport, Bernardo; Smit, Teresa


    Five NK-1 RA formulations are commercially available to treat the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) occurring between days 2-5 post chemotherapy (aprepitant oral capsule and suspension, fosaprepitant intravenous infusion, netupitant/palonosetron capsules and rolapitant tablet) but no direct comparative studies have been conducted to determine their relative clinical utility. Areas covered: Information on pharmacology and safety of the NK-1 RAs derived from PubMed showed that all bind the NK-1 receptor with high affinity and selectivity. There is substantial variation in the disposition and time course in the body of NK-1 RAs because of the differential effects of hepatic metabolism. Unlike netupitant and rolapitant, aprepitant is metabolized extensively by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Aprepitant and netupitant also both inhibit CYP3A4. Consequently, aprepitant not only has a much shorter elimination half-life than netupitant and rolapitant but also a more prolific drug interaction profile. All of the NK-1 RAs are efficacious and safe, and are suitable for use in a range of different patient populations, including those with mild or moderate hepatic or renal impairment. Expert opinion: While discovery of NK-1 RAs represents a major breakthrough in CINV control, further work is needed to improve control of chemotherapy-induced nausea.

  15. Biological and Pharmacological Aspects of the NK1-Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Garcia-Recio


    Full Text Available The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R is the main receptor for the tachykinin family of peptides. Substance P (SP is the major mammalian ligand and the one with the highest affinity. SP is associated with multiple processes: hematopoiesis, wound healing, microvasculature permeability, neurogenic inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, and cell survival. It is also considered a mitogen, and it has been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tachykinins and their receptors are widely expressed in various human systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, and immune system. Particularly, NK-1R is found in the nervous system and in peripheral tissues and are involved in cellular responses such as pain transmission, endocrine and paracrine secretion, vasodilation, and modulation of cell proliferation. It also acts as a neuromodulator contributing to brain homeostasis and to sensory neuronal transmission associated with depression, stress, anxiety, and emesis. NK-1R and SP are present in brain regions involved in the vomiting reflex (the nucleus tractus solitarius and the area postrema. This anatomical localization has led to the successful clinical development of antagonists against NK-1R in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. The first of these antagonists, aprepitant (oral administration and fosaprepitant (intravenous administration, are prescribed for high and moderate emesis.

  16. Efficacy and safety of casopitant mesylate, a neurokinin 1 (NK1)-receptor antagonist, in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven M; Rolski, Janusz; Strausz, Janos


    control, n=266 single-dose oral casopitant mesylate, n=269 3-day intravenous and oral casopitant mesylate). Safety was reported in 802 patients who received either placebo or study medication. This study is registered with, NCT00431236. FINDINGS: Significantly more patients in each......-drug antiemetic regimen of ondansetron, dexamethasone, and the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist casopitant mesylate was able to prevent acute and delayed CINV events in patients naive to chemotherapy with a malignant solid tumour who were scheduled to receive cisplatin-based HEC regimens. METHODS: The study...... was done between Nov 6, 2006, and Oct 9, 2007, in 77 participating centres in 22 countries. All 810 patients enrolled in the trial received dexamethasone and ondansetron. Patients were randomly assigned to also receive placebo (n=269), single oral dose of casopitant mesylate (150 mg oral, n=271), or 3-day...

  17. Perseveration by NK1R-/- ('knockout') mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test. (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Young, Jared W; Stanford, S Clare


    The underlying cause(s) of abnormalities expressed by patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have yet to be delineated. One factor that has been associated with increased vulnerability to ADHD is polymorphism(s) of TACR1, which is the human equivalent of the rodent NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptor gene (Nk1r). We have reported previously that genetically altered mice, lacking functional NK1R (NK1R-/-), express locomotor hyperactivity, which was blunted by the first-line treatment for ADHD, methylphenidate. Here, we compared the effects of this psychostimulant (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on the behaviour of NK1R-/- mice and their wild types in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test, which emulates procedures used to study attention and response control in ADHD patients. Methylphenidate increased total trials (a measure of 'productivity') completed by wild types, but not by NK1R-/- mice. Conversely, this drug reduced perseveration by NK1R-/- mice, but not by wild types. Other drug-induced changes in key behaviours were not genotype dependent, especially at the highest dose: for example, % omissions (an index of inattentiveness) was increased, whereas % false alarms and % premature responses (measures of impulsivity) declined in both genotypes, indicating reduced overall response. These findings are discussed in the context of the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. Moreover, they lead to several testable proposals. First, methylphenidate does not improve attention in a subgroup of ADHD patients with a functional deficit of TACR1. Second, these patients do not express excessive false alarms when compared with other groups of subjects, but they do express excessive perseveration, which would be ameliorated by methylphenidate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Olanzapine-Based Triple Regimens Versus Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist-Based Triple Regimens in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Associated with Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Network Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghan; Zhang, Yaxiong; Chen, Gang; Hong, Shaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Fang, Wenfeng; Luo, Fan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhan, Jianhua; Xue, Cong; Hou, Xue; Zhou, Ting; Ma, Shuxiang; Gao, Fangfang; Huang, Yan; Chen, Likun; Zhou, Ningning; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li


    The current antiemetic prophylaxis for patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) included the olanzapine-based triplet and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs)-based triplet. However, which one shows better antiemetic effect remained unclear. We systematically reviewed 43 trials, involving 16,609 patients with HEC, which compared the following antiemetics at therapeutic dose range for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: olanzapine, aprepitant, casopitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant. The main outcomes were the proportion of patients who achieved no nausea, complete response (CR), and drug-related adverse events. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. Olanzapine-based triple regimens showed significantly better no-nausea rate in overall phase and delayed phase than aprepitant-based triplet (odds ratios 3.18, 3.00, respectively), casopitant-based triplet (3.78, 4.12, respectively), fosaprepitant-based triplet (3.08, 4.10, respectively), rolapitant-based triplet (3.45, 3.20, respectively), and conventional duplex regimens (4.66, 4.38, respectively). CRs of olanzapine-based triplet were roughly equal to different NK-1RAs-based triplet but better than the conventional duplet. Moreover, no significant drug-related adverse events were observed in olanzapine-based triple regimens when compared with NK-1RAs-based triple regimens and duplex regimens. Additionally, the costs of olanzapine-based regimens were obviously much lower than the NK-1RA-based regimens. Olanzapine-based triplet stood out in terms of nausea control and drug price but represented no significant difference of CRs in comparison with NK-1RAs-based triplet. Olanzapine-based triple regimens should be an optional antiemetic choice for patients with HEC, especially those suffering from delayed phase nausea. According to the results of this study, olanzapine-based triple antiemetic regimens were superior in both overall and delayed

  19. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Contributes to the Early Phase of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever via Stimulation of Peripheral Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein Expression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Pakai


    Full Text Available Neurokinin (NK signaling is involved in various inflammatory processes. A common manifestation of systemic inflammation is fever, which is usually induced in animal models with the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. A role for the NK1 receptor was shown in LPS-induced fever, but the underlying mechanisms of how the NK1 receptor contributes to febrile response, especially in the early phase, have remained unknown. We administered LPS (120 µg/kg, intraperitoneally to mice with the Tacr1 gene, i.e., the gene encoding the NK1 receptor, either present (Tacr1+/+ or absent (Tacr1−/− and measured their thermoregulatory responses, serum cytokine levels, tissue cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin (PG E2 concentration. We found that the LPS-induced febrile response was attenuated in Tacr1−/− compared to their Tacr1+/+ littermates starting from 40 min postinfusion. The febrigenic effect of intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 was not suppressed in the Tacr1−/− mice. Serum concentration of pyrogenic cytokines did not differ between Tacr1−/− and Tacr1+/+ at 40 min post-LPS infusion. Administration of LPS resulted in amplification of COX-2 mRNA expression in the lungs, liver, and brain of the mice, which was statistically indistinguishable between the genotypes. In contrast, the LPS-induced augmentation of COX-2 protein expression was attenuated in the lungs and tended to be suppressed in the liver of Tacr1−/− mice compared with Tacr1+/+ mice. The Tacr1+/+ mice responded to LPS with a significant surge of PGE2 production in the lungs, whereas Tacr1−/− mice did not. In conclusion, the NK1 receptor is necessary for normal fever genesis. Our results suggest that the NK1 receptor contributes to the early phase of LPS-induced fever by enhancing COX-2 protein expression in the periphery. These findings advance the understanding of the crosstalk between NK signaling and the “cytokine-COX-2

  20. The efficacy of a hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose bioresorbable membrane that reduces postoperative adhesions is increased by the intra-operative co-administration of a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist in a rat model. (United States)

    Lim, Rizal; Stucchi, Arthur F; Morrill, Jonathan M; Reed, Karen L; Lynch, Ryan; Becker, James M


    Bioresorbable membranes composed of hyaluronic acid and carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) are the most effective method to prevent intra-abdominal adhesions; however, their efficacy may be limited to the site of application. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the intraperitoneal administration of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK-1RA) reduces adhesions; however, the co-administration of HA/CMC plus an NK-1RA has not been studied. Adhesions were induced in rats by creating ischemic buttons on the peritoneum. Rats received NK-1RA, HA/CMC, HA/CMC+NK-1RA or saline intraperitoneally at surgery. The HA/CMC was applied either bilaterally over all ischemic buttons or unilaterally over half the ischemic buttons. Animals were sacrificed and adhesions quantified at 7 days. Peritoneal fluid was collected at 24 hours to measure peritoneal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity using a bioassay. The bilateral placement of HA/CMC alone reduced adhesions by 62% (P CMC+ NK-1RA decreased adhesions by 86% (P CMC or NK-1RA alone. Unilateral application of HA/CMC resulted in a 41% decrease (P CMC+NK-1RA reduced adhesions by nearly 75% (P CMC application compared with HA/CMC + saline, and by 45% (P CMC and the NK-1RA alone as well as HA/CMC+NK-1RA increased peritoneal tPA activity by 124%, 432%, and 192%, respectively (P CMC plus NK-1RA not only increases the efficacy of the membrane at the site of application, but significantly reduces adhesions formation at distal unprotected sites. This combination may represent an emerging concept in more effective adhesion prevention throughout the peritoneum. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

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    Jahn, Franziska, E-mail: [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Riesner, Anica [Department of Gastroenterology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jahn, Patrick [Nursing Research Unit, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jordan, Karin [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany)


    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  2. Substance P downregulates expression of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) by human mast cells. (United States)

    McCary, Christine; Tancowny, Brian P; Catalli, Adriana; Grammer, Leslie C; Harris, Kathleen E; Schleimer, Robert P; Kulka, Marianna


    The effect of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) on human mast cell (MC) phenotype is poorly understood. In this study, SP effects on human MC expression of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) were characterized. SP downregulated expression of FcepsilonRI mRNA and protein by approximately 50% and in a concentration dependent manner, the effect was partially mediated by engagement of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and resulted in reduced mast cell activation. Sensitization of MC with IgE prior to SP exposure protected MC from SP-mediated FcepsilonRI downregulation. SP release may inhibit MC responses to allergens and these results may have implications in neuroinflammatiion and stress. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Substance P downregulates expression of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) by human mast cells (United States)

    McCary, Christine; Tancowny, Brian P.; Catalli, Adriana; Grammer, Leslie C.; Harris, Kathleen E.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kulka, Marianna


    The effect of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) on human mast cell (MC) phenotype is poorly understood. In this study, SP effects on human MC expression of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) were characterized. SP downregulated expression of FcεRI mRNA and protein by approximately 50% and in a concentration dependent manner, the effect was partially mediated by engagement of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and resulted in reduced mast cell activation. Sensitization of MC with IgE prior to SP exposure protected MC from SP-mediated FcεRI downregulation. SP release may inhibit MC responses to allergens and these results may have implications in neuroinflammatiion and stress. PMID:20117843

  4. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ. (United States)

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik


    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  5. The nuclear receptor NR4A1 induces a form of cell death dependent on autophagy in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Bouzas-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The control of cell death is a biological process essential for proper development, and for preventing devastating pathologies like cancer and neurodegeneration. On the other hand, autophagy regulation is essential for protein and organelle degradation, and its dysfunction is associated with overlapping pathologies like cancer and neurodegeneration, but also for microbial infection and aging. In the present report we show that two evolutionarily unrelated receptors--Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK(1R, a G-protein coupled receptor, and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R, a tyrosine kinase receptor--both induce non-apoptotic cell death with autophagic features and requiring the activity of the autophagic core machinery proteins PI3K-III, Beclin-1 and Atg7. Remarkably, this form of cell death occurs in apoptosis-competent cells. The signal transduction pathways engaged by these receptors both converged on the activation of the nuclear receptor NR4A1, which has previously been shown to play a critical role in some paradigms of apoptosis and in NK(1R-induced cell death. The activity of NR4A1 was necessary for IGF1R-induced cell death, as well as for a canonical model of cell death by autophagy induced by the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that NR4A1 is a general modulator of this kind of cell death. During cell death by autophagy, NR4A1 was transcriptionally competent, even though a fraction of it was present in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, NR4A1 interacts with the tumor suppressor p53 but not with Beclin-1 complex. Therefore the mechanism to promote cell death by autophagy might involve regulation of gene expression, as well as protein interactions. Understanding the molecular basis of autophagy and cell death mediation by NR4A1, should provide novel insights and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Novel neurokinin-1 antagonists as antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. (United States)

    Reddy, G Kesava; Gralla, Richard J; Hesketh, Paul J


    Despite significant advances in supportive care in oncology, many patients with cancer still experience chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Historically, there were only 3 neurotransmitter receptors (dopamine D2, cannabinoid- 1, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3) that were the known targets for antiemetic therapy. Major advances in the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis were seen with the introduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists, which include palonosetron, ondansetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, and granisetron. However, recently, selective inhibitors of substance P have shown promising activity in the management of CINV in patients with cancer. Substance P mediates a number of biologic effects by binding to a specific neuroreceptor, neurokinin-1 (NK-1). Among the NK-1 receptor antagonists, aprepitant has been approved for the treatment of CINV. Currently, several other NK-1 receptor antagonists, including casopitant, vestipitant, netupitant, and SCH619734, are undergoing clinical evaluation for the prevention of CINV in patients with a variety of malignancies. The clinical potential of these novel NK-1 receptor antagonists and their respective ongoing clinical trials for the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis are discussed briefly herein.

  7. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P (United States)

    Bowman, Shanna L.; Soohoo, Amanda L.; Shiwarski, Daniel J.; Schulz, Stefan; Pradhan, Amynah A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.


    SUMMARY How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP), a neuropep-tide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R) receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the muopioid receptor (MOR) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC) activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeo-static interaction between the pain and analgesic systems. PMID:25801029

  8. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi


    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Changes in glutamate receptor subunits within the medulla in goats after section of the carotid sinus nerves (United States)

    Miller, Justin Robert; Neumueller, Suzanne; Muere, Clarissa; Olesiak, Samantha; Pan, Lawrence; Bukowy, John D.; Daghistany, Asem O.; Hodges, Matthew R.


    The mechanisms which contribute to the time-dependent recovery of resting ventilation and the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex after carotid body denervation (CBD) are poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that there are time-dependent changes in the expression of specific AMPA, NMDA, and/or neurokinin-1 (NK1R) receptors within respiratory-related brain stem nuclei acutely or chronically after CBD in adult goats. Brain stem tissues were collected acutely (5 days) or chronically (30 days) after sham or bilateral CBD, immunostained with antibodies targeting AMPA (GluA1 or GluA2), NMDA (GluN1), or NK-1 receptors, and optical density (OD) compared. Physiological measurement confirmed categorization of each group and showed ventilatory effects consistent with bilateral CBD (Miller et al. J Appl Physiol 115: 1088–1098, 2013). Acutely after CBD, GluA1 OD was unchanged or slightly increased, but GluA2 and GluN1 OD were reduced 15–30% within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and in other medullary respiratory nuclei. Chronically after CBD, GluA1 was reduced (P < 0.05) within the caudal NTS and in other nuclei, but there was significant recovery of GluA2 and GluN1 OD. NK1 OD was not significantly different from control after CBD. We conclude that the initial decrease in GluA2 and GluN1 after CBD likely contributes to hypoventilation and the reduced CO2 chemoreflex. The partial recovery of ventilation and the CO2 chemoreflex after CBD parallel a time-dependent return of these receptors to near control levels but likely depend upon additional initiating and maintenance factors for neuroplasticity. PMID:24790015

  10. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M


    Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons. ...

  11. Neurokinin-1 inhibitors in the prevention of nausea and vomiting from highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a network meta-analysis. (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar


    A network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of neurokinin 1 (NK-1) inhibitors in the prophylaxis of highly emetogenic chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting has been conducted. Eligible studies included randomized trials evaluating aprepitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant (NEPA), casopitant and rolapitant containing regimens in the setting of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Primary outcomes of interest include complete response (CR) and rate of no significant nausea. After preclusion of ineligible studies, 19 studies were included in the final analysis. The majority of the regimens containing NK-1 inhibitors (including NEPA, aprepitant/palonosetron (palono)/dexamethasone (dexa), casopitant/granisetron (grani) or ondansetron (ondan)/dexa, aprepitant/ondan/dexa) are better than regimens not containing them (palono/dexa, ondan/dexa, grani/dexa) in terms of achieving a CR in the overall phase. Moreover, casopitant/grani or ondan/dexa and aprepitant/grani or ondan/dexa are better than rolapitant/ondan or grani/dexa in terms of CR achievement [odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.14-2.23, and OR 1.28, 95% CrI 1.01-1.59, respectively]. Taking into consideration the limitations of cross-trial comparisons, regimens containing neurokinin inhibitors are associated with higher CR rates than regimens not containing them. Moreover, casopitant and aprepitant regimens seem to be more effective than rolapitant regimens.

  12. Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meshki

    Full Text Available U373MG astrocytoma cells endogenously express the full-length neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R. Substance P (SP, the natural ligand for NK1R, triggers rapid and transient membrane blebbing and we report that these morphological changes have different dynamics and intracellular signaling as compared to the changes that we have previously described in HEK293-NK1R cells. In both cell lines, the SP-induced morphological changes are Gq-independent, and they require the Rho, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK signaling pathway. Using confocal microscopy we have demonstrated that tubulin is phosphorylated subsequent to cell stimulation with SP and that tubulin accumulates inside the blebs. Colchicine, a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, blocked SP-induced blebbing in U373MG but not in HEK293-NK1R cells. Although p21-activated kinase (PAK is expressed in both cell lines, SP induced rapid phosphorylation of PAK in U373MG, but failed to phosphorylate PAK in HEK293-NK1R cells. The cell-permeable Rho inhibitor C3 transferase inhibited SP-induced PAK phosphorylation, but the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 had no effect on PAK phosphorylation, suggesting that Rho activates PAK in a ROCK-independent manner. Our study demonstrates that SP triggers rapid changes in cell morphology mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms in U373MG versus HEK293-NK1R cells.

  13. Sex differences in formalin-evoked primary afferent release of substance P. (United States)

    Nazarian, A; Tenayuca, J M; Almasarweh, F; Armendariz, A; Are, D


    Sex differences in pain have been well documented; however, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. The present study examined whether sex differences exist in the functioning of primary afferent fibres by assessing formalin-evoked release of substance P by way of neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) internalization. The study also investigated whether the observed effects would be oestradiol-sensitive. Intact and gonadectomized male and female rats were given intraplantar formalin and then euthanized either 5 or 30 min later, representing phase 1 or 2 of the formalin response, respectively. In a subsequent experiment, ovariectomized females received oestradiol prior to formalin administration. Lastly, formalin-evoked NK1r internalization was assessed across the female oestrous cycle. Intraplantar formalin evoked significant NK1r internalization, during phase 1 and 2, in both males and females. During phase 1, no differences in NK1r internalization were detected between males or females, regardless of the gonadal status. In contrast, during phase 2, intact females exhibited greater NK1r internalization than intact males. Moreover, ovariectomy reduced NK1r internalization as compared to intact females, whereas castration had no effect as compared to intact males. Oestradiol supplementation in ovariectomized females increased NK1r internalization to levels observed in intact females. Formalin-evoked NK1r internalization did not differ across the oestrous cycle. These findings suggest that oestradiol mediates sex differences in formalin-evoked substance P release, which may contribute to a differential development of central sensitization and pain behaviours in males and females. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  14. Substance P is a mechanoresponsive, autocrine regulator of human tenocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvig J Backman

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesised that substance P (SP may be produced by primary fibroblastic tendon cells (tenocytes, and that this production, together with the widespread distribution of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1 R in tendon tissue, could play an important role in the development of tendinopathy, a condition of chronic tendon pain and thickening. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of endogenous SP production and the expression of NK-1 R by human tenocytes. Because tendinopathy is related to overload, and because the predominant tissue pathology (tendinosis underlying early tendinopathy is characterized by tenocyte hypercellularity, the production of SP in response to loading/strain and the effects of exogenously administered SP on tenocyte proliferation were also studied. A cell culture model of primary human tendon cells was used. The vast majority of tendon cells were immunopositive for the tenocyte/fibroblast markers tenomodulin and vimentin, and immunocytochemical counterstaining revealed that positive immunoreactions for SP and NK-1 R were seen in a majority of these cells. Gene expression analyses showed that mechanical loading (strain of tendon cell cultures using the FlexCell© technique significantly increased the mRNA levels of SP, whereas the expression of NK-1 R mRNA decreased in loaded as compared to unloaded tendon cells. Reduced NK-1 R protein was also observed, using Western blot, after exogenously administered SP at a concentration of 10⁻⁷ M. SP exposure furthermore resulted in increased cell metabolism, increased cell viability, and increased cell proliferation, all of which were found to be specifically mediated via the NK-1 R; this in turn involving a common mitogenic cell signalling pathway, namely phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study indicates that SP, produced by tenocytes in response to mechanical loading, may regulate proliferation through an autocrine loop involving the NK-1 R.

  15. Role of neurokinin type 1 receptor in nociception at the periphery and the spinal level in the rat. (United States)

    Gautam, M; Prasoon, P; Kumar, R; Reeta, K H; Kaler, S; Ray, S B


    Noxious stimuli activate small to medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Intense noxious stimuli result in the release of substance P (SP) from the central terminals of these neurons. It binds to the neurokinin type 1 receptor (NK1r) and sensitises the dorsal horn neurons. SP is also released from the peripheral terminals leading to neurogenic inflammation. However, their individual contribution at spinal and peripheral levels to postincisional nociception has not been delineated as yet. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered different doses (3-100 μg) of an NK1r antagonist (L760735) by intrathecal (i.t.) route before hind paw incision. On the basis of its antinociceptive effect on guarding behaviour, the 30 μg dose was selected for further study. In different sets of animals, this was administered i.t. (postemptive) and intrawound (i.w.). Finally, in another group, drug (30 μg) was administered through both i.t and i.w. routes. The antinociceptive effect was assessed and compared. Expression of SP was examined in the spinal cord. Intrawound concentration of SP and inflammatory mediators was also evaluated. Postemptive i.t. administration significantly attenuated guarding and allodynia. Guarding was alone decreased after i.w. drug treatment. Combined drug administration further attenuated all nociceptive parameters, more so after postemptive treatment. Expression of SP in the spinal cord decreased post incision but increased in the paw tissue. Inflammatory mediators like the nerve growth factor also increased after incision. In conclusion, SP acting through the NK1r appears to be an important mediator of nociception, more so at the spinal level. These findings could have clinical relevance.

  16. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud


    for the surface immobilization of membrane proteins was developed using the prototypic seven transmembrane neurokinin-1 receptor. The receptor was expressed as a biotinylated protein in mammalian cells. Membranes from cell homogenates were selectively immobilized on glass surfaces covered with streptavidin. TIRF...... measurements showed that a fluorescent agonist binds to the receptor on the sensor surface with similar affinity as to the receptor in live cells. This approach offers the possibility to investigate minute amounts of membrane protein in an active form and in its native environment without purification....

  17. Are biological actions of neurokinin A in the adult brain mediated by a cross-talk between the NK1 and NK2 receptors? (United States)

    Tauer, Ulrike; Zhao, Yi; Hunt, Steven P; Culman, Juraj


    Mice lacking the NK(1) receptor (NK(1)R-/- mice) and selective, high-affinity, non-peptide, NK(1), NK(2) and NK(3) receptor antagonists were used to identify the tachykinin receptor subtype(s) mediating the central responses induced by neurokinin A (NKA). The peptides, substance P (SP), NKA and senktide and the antagonists were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) through an implanted cannula. NKA (50 pmol) was as potent as SP (50 pmol) in inducing grooming behaviour (face washing and hind limb grooming) in wild-type mice, but both peptides failed to induce behavioural responses in NK(1)R-/- mice. In wild-type mice, the NK(1) receptor antagonist, RP 67580 (2 nmol), effectively inhibited grooming behaviour elicited by SP, but was inactive against grooming induced by NKA, which in turn was abolished after pre-treatment with the selective NK(2) receptor agonist, SR 48968 (2 nmol). Unlike NKA, the selective NK(2) receptor agonists, (β Ala(8)) NKA 4-10 and (NLeu(10)) NKA 4-10, injected ICV at doses of 50 or 100 pmol did not elicit any behavioural response in wild-type mice. The NK(3) receptor antagonist, SR 142801, inhibited behaviours induced by the NK(3) receptor agonist, senktide, but did not alter behavioural responses to either SP or NKA in wild-type mice. The present findings demonstrate that central biological actions of SP and senktide are mediated by activation of NK(1) and NK(3) receptors, respectively. Our results also indicate that NK(1) receptors are essential for generating central actions induced by NKA, which are most probably mediated by a cross-talk between the NK(1) and NK(2) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct Mechanisms Mediating Methamphetamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Dopamine Terminal Damage Share the Neuropeptide Substance P in the Striatum of Mice (United States)



    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant that induces damage to the dopamine terminals and the apoptosis of some neurons of the striatum. Our laboratory demonstrated using either a single bolus dose (30 mg/kg) or a binge (10 mg/kg 4× at 2-h intervals) of METH that pharmacological blockade of the substance P receptor (neurokinin-1) attenuates METH-induced damage to both the presynaptic dopamine terminals and the apoptosis of some neurons of the striatum. To determine the phenotype of striatal neuron ablated by METH, we combined TUNEL (Terminal Deoxyncleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) with immunofluorescence for selective markers of projection and interneurons. METH induces the loss of approximately 20% of the projection neurons. The cholinergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-parvalbumin interneurons sustain losses of 30% and 50%, respectively. The somatostatin/neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) interneurons are not impacted by METH. To investigate the mechanism by which substance P mediates METH-induced damage in this part of the brain, we ablated the striatal interneurons that express the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) with the selective neurotoxin substance P-SAP. Ablation of the NK-1R-expressing interneurons prevented METH-induced apoptosis in the striatum but was without effect on depletion of dopamine terminal markers. We propose that substance P mediates the apoptosis of some striatal neurons via the intrastriatal activation of nitric oxide synthesis. In contrast, substance P may mediate damage of the dopamine terminals via an extrastriatal mechanism involving the substantia nigra and cortical glutamate release. PMID:17105911

  19. Substance P accelerates hypercellularity and angiogenesis in tendon tissue and enhances paratendinitis in response to Achilles tendon overuse in a tendinopathy model. (United States)

    Andersson, Gustav; Backman, Ludvig J; Scott, Alexander; Lorentzon, Ronny; Forsgren, Sture; Danielson, Patrik


    Tenocytes produce substance P (SP), and its receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)) is expressed throughout the tendon tissue, especially in patients with tendinopathy and tissue changes (tendinosis) including hypercellularity and vascular proliferation. Considering the known effects of SP, one might ask whether SP contributes to these changes. To test whether development of tendinosis-like changes (hypercellularity and angiogenesis) is accelerated during a 1-week course of exercise with local administration of SP in an established Achilles tendinopathy model. Rabbits were subjected to a protocol of Achilles tendon overuse for 1 week, in conjunction with SP injections in the paratenon. Exercised control animals received NaCl injections or no injections, and unexercised, uninjected controls were also used. Tenocyte number and vascular density, as well as paratendinous inflammation, were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect NK-1R were conducted. Results There was a significant increase in tenocyte number in the SP-injected and NaCl-injected groups compared with both unexercised and exercised, uninjected controls. Tendon blood vessels increased in number in the SP-injected group compared with unexercised controls, a finding not seen in NaCl-injected controls or in uninjected, exercised animals. Paratendinous inflammation was more pronounced in the SP-injected group than in the NaCl controls. NK-1R was detected in blood vessel walls, nerves, inflammatory cells and tenocytes. SP accelerated the development of tendinosis-like changes in the rabbit Achilles tendon, which supports theories of a potential role of SP in tendinosis development; a fact of clinical interest since SP effects can be effectively blocked. The angiogenic response to SP injections seems related to paratendinitis.

  20. Ketamine suppresses the substance P-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 by human U373MG glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Kumakura, Seiichiro; Murakami, Taisuke; Someya, Akimasa; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaoka, Isao


    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine on the SP-induced activation of a human astrocytoma cell line, U373MG, which expresses high levels of NK-1R. The results from our experiments indicated that ketamine suppressed the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by the U373MG cells. Furthermore, ketamine inhibited the SP-induced activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, these observations suggest that ketamine may suppress the SP-induced activation (IL-6 and IL-8 production) of U373MG cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (namely ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB), thereby exerting anti‑inflammatory effects. Thus, ketamine may modulate SP-induced inflammatory responses by NK-1R‑expressing cells through the suppression of signaling molecules (such as ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB).

  1. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of single-dose fosaprepitant regimen for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio L


    Full Text Available Luigi Celio, Francesca Ricchini, Filippo De BraudMedical Oncology Unit 1, Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a crucial factor in ensuring that patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy can get the full benefit of therapy. Current antiemetic guidelines recommend that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R antagonist aprepitant should be used as part of a combination regimen with dexamethasone and a serotonin receptor antagonist for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC. Fosaprepitant is a water-soluble N-phosphoryl derivative of aprepitant that, when infused, is rapidly metabolized back to an active aprepitant. The existing literature in PubMed about fosaprepitant was screened and selected in order to address the emerging data from two randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of a single-dose fosaprepitant regimen. These phase III trials demonstrated that fosaprepitant given as a single intravenous dose of 150 mg was either noninferior to the conventional 3-day aprepitant or significantly superior to placebo for the prevention of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin. In both trials, fosaprepitant was well tolerated although more frequent infusion-site adverse events were observed with fosaprepitant. The new dosage regimen of fosaprepitant, therefore, would be an option for CINV control in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The clinical efficacy is consistent with the findings from a time-on-target, positron-emission tomography study evaluating the NK-1R occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS over 5 days after a single-dose infusion of 150 mg fosaprepitant in healthy participants. The single-dose regimen is capable of blocking more than 90% of the NK-1Rs in the CNS for at least 48 hours after infusion, which is sufficient

  2. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti


    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  3. Mechanisms of μ-opioid receptor inhibition of NMDA receptor-induced substance P release in the rat spinal cord. (United States)

    Chen, Wenling; Ennes, Helena S; McRoberts, James A; Marvizón, Juan Carlos


    The interaction between NMDA receptors and μ-opioid receptors in primary afferent terminals was studied by using NMDA to induce substance P release, measured as neurokinin 1 receptor internalization. In rat spinal cord slices, the μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine, DAMGO and endomorphin-2 inhibited NMDA-induced substance P release, whereas the antagonist CTAP right-shifted the concentration response of DAMGO. In vivo, substance P release induced by intrathecal NMDA after priming with BDNF was inhibited by DAMGO. ω-Conotoxins MVIIC and GVIA inhibited about half of the NMDA-induced substance P release, showing that it was partially mediated by the opening of voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels. In contrast, DAMGO or ω-conotoxins did not inhibit capsaicin-induced substance P release. In cultured DRG neurons, DAMGO but not ω-conotoxin inhibited NMDA-induced increases in intracellular calcium, indicating that μ-opioid receptors can inhibit NMDA receptor function by mechanisms other than inactivation of Cav channels. Moreover, DAMGO decreased the ω-conotoxin-insensitive component of the substance P release. Potent inhibition by ifenprodil showed that these NMDA receptors have the NR2B subunit. Activators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) induced substance P release and this was decreased by the NMDA receptor blocker MK-801 and by DAMGO. Conversely, inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and PKA, but not of protein kinase C, decreased NMDA-induced substance P release. Hence, these NMDA receptors are positively modulated by the adenylyl cyclase-PKA pathway, which is inhibited by μ-opioid receptors. In conclusion, μ-opioid receptors inhibit NMDA receptor-induced substance P release through Cav channel inactivation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: a New Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase, the peptide substance P (SP—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert An antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis, and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  5. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)


    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1347 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 0.0 95% ... ...CBRC-CJAC-01-1347 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-17-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 0.0 99% ... ...CBRC-CFAM-17-0007 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-05-0033 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 1e-162 70% ... ...CBRC-DRER-05-0033 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 0.0 97% ... ...CBRC-HSAP-02-0025 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-06-0117 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 0.0 94% ... ...CBRC-MMUS-06-0117 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 2e-15 23% ... ...CBRC-CREM-01-0183 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 1e-145 65% ... ...CBRC-TNIG-22-0001 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0155 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 1e-130 62% ... ...CBRC-FRUB-02-0155 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1218 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] sp|Q5DUB3|NK1R_CANFA Substance-P receptor (SPR) (NK-1 receptor) (NK-1R) (Tachykinin receptor 1) emb|CAI58656.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis familiaris] NP_001012637.1 3e-30 84% ... ...CBRC-FCAT-01-1218 ref|NP_001012637.1| tachykinin receptor 1 [Canis lupus familiaris

  15. [Preventive and therapeutic effects of xiaobanxia fuling decoction on cisplatin-induced pica rats]. (United States)

    Zang, Chun-bao; Ma, Hu; Bai, Yu-ju


    To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Xiaobanxia Fuling Decoction (XBFD) on cisplatin-induced pica rats and to study its mechanism. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 7 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the high-, middle-, and low-dose XBFD groups (at the daily dose of 30, 15, and 7. 5 g/kg, respectively), the aprepitant (at the daily dose of 13 mg/kg), and pure Chinese medicine group (at the daily dose of XBFD 15 g/kg), 6 in each group. On the 3rd day of this study, 3 mg/kg cisplatin was intraperitoneally injected to rats except the blank control group and the model group to establish the pica rat model. The consumptions of kaolin, food, and the general situation of rats were observed. The protein and mRNA expressions of neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in both the medulla oblongata and the gastric antrum were measured by immunohistochemical assay and Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR respectively on the sixth day of this study. On the third, fourth, and fifth day of this study, the consumption of kaolin of rats significantly increased when compared with the blank control group (Ppica in rats. Its effect might be correlated with decreasing expressions of NK, R in the medulla oblongata and the gastric antrum.

  16. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom


    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  17. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  18. Pharmacological mechanisms of 5-HT₃ and tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonism to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S


    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing consequences of cytotoxic chemotherapies. Nausea and vomiting can be acute (0-24h) or delayed (24-72 h) after chemotherapy administration. The introduction of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists in the 90s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis. These receptor antagonists exhibited similar control on acute emesis but had no effect on delayed emesis. These findings led to the hypothesis that serotonin plays a central role in the mechanism of acute emesis but a lesser role in the pathogenesis of delayed emesis. In contrast, delayed emesis has been largely associated with the activation of neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptors by substance P. However, in 2003, a new 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was introduced into the market; unlike first generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, palonosetron was found to be effective in preventing both acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Recent mechanistic studies have shown that palonosetron, in contrast to first generation receptor antagonists, exhibits allosteric binding to the 5-HT(3) receptor, positive cooperativity, persistent inhibition of receptor function after the drug is removed and triggers 5-HT(3) receptor internalization. Further, in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT(3) receptor. It appears that the crossroads of acute and delayed emeses include interactions among the 5-HT(3) and NK(1) receptor neurotransmitter pathways and that inhibitions of these interactions lend the possibility of improved treatment that encompasses both acute and delayed emeses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral muscle fiber and nerve influences by TNF-alpha in response to unilateral muscle overuse - studies on TNF receptor expressions. (United States)

    Renström, Lina; Stål, Per; Song, Yafeng; Forsgren, Sture


    TNF-alpha is suggested to be involved in muscle damage and muscle inflammation (myositis). In order to evaluate whether TNF-alpha is involved in the myositis that occurs in response to muscle overuse, the aim was to examine the expression patterns of TNF receptors in this condition. A rabbit muscle overuse model leading to myositis in the soleus muscle was used. The expression patterns of the two TNF receptors Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 2 (TNFR2) were investigated. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence were utilized. Immunostainings for desmin, NK-1R and CD31 were made in parallel. Immunoreactions (IR) for TNF receptors were clearly observed in white blood cells, fibroblasts and vessel walls, and most interestingly also in muscle fibers and nerve fascicles in the myositis muscles. There were very restricted reactions for these in the muscles of controls. The upregulation of TNF receptors was for all types of structures seen for both the experimental side and the contralateral nonexperimental side. TNF receptor expressing muscle fibers were present in myositis muscles. They can be related to attempts for reparation/regeneration, as evidenced from results of parallel stainings. Necrotic muscle fibers displayed TNFR1 mRNA and TNFR2 immunoreaction (IR) in the invading white blood cells. In myositis muscles, TNFR1 IR was observed in both axons and Schwann cells while TNFR2 IR was observed in Schwann cells. Such observations were very rarely made for control animals. The findings suggest that there is a pronounced involvement of TNF-alpha in the developing myositis process. Attempts for reparation of the muscle tissue seem to occur via both TNFR1 and TNFR2. As the myositis process also occurs in the nonexperimental side and as TNF receptors are confined to nerve fascicles bilaterally it can be asked whether TNF-alpha is involved in the spreading of the myositis process to the contralateral side via the

  20. N-acetyl-l-tryptophan, but not N-acetyl-d-tryptophan, rescues neuronal cell death in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Sirianni, Ana C; Jiang, Jiying; Zeng, Jiang; Mao, Lilly L; Zhou, Shuanhu; Sugarbaker, Peter; Zhang, Xinmu; Li, Wei; Friedlander, Robert M; Wang, Xin


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss. Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and proteasomal dysfunction are all responsible for ALS pathogenesis. N-acetyl-tryptophan has been identified as an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and therefore is a potential neuroprotective agent. By quantifying cell death, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-l-tryptophan (L-NAT) and N-acetyl-DL-tryptophan are neuroprotective in NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and/or primary motor neurons, while their isomer N-acetyl-d-tryptophan has no protective effect. These findings are consistent with energy minimization and molecular modeling analysis, confirming that L-NAT generates the most stable complex with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and/or dot blots) and mitochondrial dysfunction by effectively inhibiting the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF from mitochondria into the cytoplasm and activation of apoptotic pathways, including the activation of caspase-1, -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction through restoring chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activity. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which L-NAT offers neuroprotection in models of ALS and suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS. We demonstrate that L-NAT (N-acetyl-l-tryptophan), but not D-NAT, rescues NSC-34 cells and primary motor neurons from cell death. L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β, and caspase-1 activation, the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF, and the activation of caspase -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction. The data suggest the potential of L-NAT as a novel therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AIF, apoptosis-inducing factor. © 2015

  1. Mechanisms and latest clinical studies of new NK1 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: Rolapitant and NEPA (netupitant/palonosetron). (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S


    Many patients undergoing moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy experience chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and report reduced daily functioning, despite prophylaxis with antiemetic drugs. While modern antiemetics have largely alleviated acute emesis, management of nausea and delayed emesis remains particularly challenging. We briefly review the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CINV and the clinical impact of current antiemetics, i.e., the serotonin subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists (RAs) and neurokinin-1 (NK1)RAs, before summarizing recent data from clinical trials of new agents. The new antiemetics reviewed include the two most recently approved drugs, the NK1RA rolapitant and the fixed-dose combination product, NEPA, which is composed of the NK1RA netupitant and the 5-HT3RA palonosetron. Phase 3 studies demonstrate improved control of CINV in the delayed and overall phases when rolapitant is added to a standard 5-HT3RA regimen. Phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials with NEPA demonstrate improved control of CINV in the acute, delayed, and overall phases vs. 5-HT3RA regimens. These data suggest that delayed emesis can be substantially reduced via combined 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor neurotransmitter pathway inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of PAR2 receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee joint (United States)

    Russell, FA; Schuelert, N; Veldhoen, VE; Hollenberg, MD; McDougall, JJ


    Background and Purpose The PAR2 receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR2 activation in the rat knee joint. Experimental Approach PAR2 in rat knee joint dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells at L3-L5, retrogradely labelled with Fluoro-gold (FG) were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Electrophysiological recordings from knee joint nerve fibres in urethane anaesthetized Wistar rats assessed the effects of stimulating joint PAR2 with its activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (1–100 nmol·100 μL−1, via close intra-arterial injection). Fibre firing rate was recorded during joint rotations before and 15 min after administration of PAR2 activating peptide or control peptide. Leukocyte kinetics in the synovial vasculature upon PAR2 activation were followed by intravital microscopy for 60 min after perfusion of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or control peptide. Roles for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors in the PAR2 responses were assessed using the selective antagonists, SB366791 and RP67580 respectively. Key Results PAR2 were expressed in 59 ± 5% of FG-positive DRG cells; 100 nmol 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 increased joint fibre firing rate during normal and noxious rotation, maximal at 3 min (normal; 110 ± 43%, noxious; 90 ± 31%). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 also significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion over 60 min. All these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with SB366791 and RP67580 (P knee joint via TRPV1- and NK1-dependent mechanisms involving both PAR2-mediated neuronal sensitization and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:22849826

  3. Increased GABA(A receptor ε-subunit expression on ventral respiratory column neurons protects breathing during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith B Hengen

    Full Text Available GABAergic signaling is essential for proper respiratory function. Potentiation of this signaling with allosteric modulators such as anesthetics, barbiturates, and neurosteroids can lead to respiratory arrest. Paradoxically, pregnant animals continue to breathe normally despite nearly 100-fold increases in circulating neurosteroids. ε subunit-containing GABA(ARs are insensitive to positive allosteric modulation, thus we hypothesized that pregnant rats increase ε subunit-containing GABA(AR expression on brainstem neurons of the ventral respiratory column (VRC. In vivo, pregnancy rendered respiratory motor output insensitive to otherwise lethal doses of pentobarbital, a barbiturate previously used to categorize the ε subunit. Using electrode array recordings in vitro, we demonstrated that putative respiratory neurons of the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC were also rendered insensitive to the effects of pentobarbital during pregnancy, but unit activity in the VRC was rapidly inhibited by the GABA(AR agonist, muscimol. VRC unit activity from virgin and post-partum females was potently inhibited by both pentobarbital and muscimol. Brainstem ε subunit mRNA and protein levels were increased in pregnant rats, and GABA(AR ε subunit expression co-localized with a marker of rhythm generating neurons (neurokinin 1 receptors in the preBötC. These data support the hypothesis that pregnancy renders respiratory motor output and respiratory neuron activity insensitive to barbiturates, most likely via increased ε subunit-containing GABA(AR expression on respiratory rhythm-generating neurons. Increased ε subunit expression may be critical to preserve respiratory function (and life despite increased neurosteroid levels during pregnancy.

  4. Effect of netupitant, a highly selective NK₁ receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, erythromycin, and dexamethasone. (United States)

    Lanzarotti, Corinna; Rossi, Giorgia


    Netupitant is a new highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist being studied for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In vitro studies suggest that netupitant inhibits the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Because netupitant may be used with a variety of drugs, which may be substrates of CYP3A4, two studies were designed to establish the potential risk for drug-drug interaction with three different CYP3A4 substrates: midazolam, erythromycin, and dexamethasone. Both trials were three-period crossover studies performed in healthy subjects. In the first study, 20 subjects received netupitant and either midazolam or erythromycin. In the second study, 25 subjects received netupitant and dexamethasone. Serial blood samples were collected over the course of the two studies and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for all analytes. Netupitant, by inhibiting the CYP3A4, increased the C max and AUCinf of midazolam by 40 and 144 %, respectively, and the C max and AUCinf of erythromycin by 30 %. Netupitant was shown to increase the exposure to dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner with the mean increase in AUC and C max by 72 and 11 %, respectively, on day 1 and by 138 and 75 %, respectively, on day 4 when co-administered with 300 mg of netupitant. The results of these studies suggest that netupitant is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and therefore, co-administration with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 may require dose adjustments. Treatments were well tolerated in both studies.

  5. Investigating racial disparities in use of NK1 receptor antagonists to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer. (United States)

    Check, Devon K; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Basch, Ethan M; Zullig, Leah L; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B


    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a major concern for cancer patients and, if uncontrolled, can seriously compromise quality of life (QOL) and other treatment outcomes. Because of the expense of antiemetic medications used to prevent CINV (particularly oral medications filled through Medicare Part D), disparities in their use may exist. We used 2006-2012 SEER-Medicare data to evaluate the use of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1s), a potent class of antiemetics, among black and white women initiating highly emetogenic chemotherapy for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. We used modified Poisson regression to assess the relationship between race and (1) any NK1 use, (2) oral NK1 (aprepitant) use, and (3) intravenous NK1 (fosaprepitant) use. We report adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The study included 1130 women. We observed racial disparities in use of any NK1 (aRR: 0.68, 95 % CI 0.51-0.91) and in use of oral aprepitant specifically (aRR: 0.54, 95 % CI 0.35-0.83). We did not observe disparities in intravenous fosaprepitant use. After controlling for variables related to socioeconomic status, disparities in NK1 and aprepitant use were reduced but not eliminated. We found racial disparities in women's use of oral NK1s for the prevention of CINV. These disparities may be partly explained by racial differences in socioeconomic status, which may translate into differential ability to afford the medication.

  6. Expression of proliferative markers in ameloblastomas and malignant odontogenic tumors. (United States)

    Otero, D; Lourenço, S Q C; Ruiz-Ávila, I; Bravo, M; Sousa, T; de Faria, P A S; González-Moles, M A


    To compare the proliferative activity in ameloblastoma and malignant odontogenic tumors, as assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining and determine whether expression of substance P (SP) and NK-1 receptor (NK-1R) is related to cell proliferation in these tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate protein expression in 44 benign and malignant odontogenic tumors from 39 patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-SP, anti-NK-1R, and anti-Ki-67 monoclonal antibodies, and the clinical and pathological data of the patients with odontogenic tumor were evaluated. Expression of Ki-67 in malignant odontogenic tumors was significantly higher than in ameloblastomas (P tumors, expression of SP and NK-1R was positively correlated with higher expression of Ki-67. These findings show that the expression level of Ki-67 in ameloblastomas was positively correlated with the rate of growth of odontogenic tumors. Overexpression of NK-1R complex in malignant odontogenic tumors could be part of the trigger stimulus that results in higher proliferative activity of the tumor. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Effect of netupitant, a highly selective NK₁ receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of palonosetron and impact of the fixed dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron when coadministered with ketoconazole, rifampicin, and oral contraceptives. (United States)

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Rossi, Giorgia; Henriksson, Anders; Kammerer, Klaus Peter; Timmer, Wolfgang


    Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs) are commonly coadministered with a 5-HT3 RA such as palonosetron to prevent nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Netupitant, a new highly selective NK1 RA, is both a substrate for and a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. Three studies were designed to evaluate the potential drug-drug interaction of netupitant with palonosetron and of the fixed dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron, NEPA, with an inhibitor (ketoconazole), an inducer (rifampicin) and a substrate (oral contraceptives) of CYP3A4. Study 1 was a three-way crossover in 18 healthy subjects receiving netupitant alone, palonosetron alone, and the combination of both antiemetics. Studies 2 and 3 were two-way crossover trials where healthy subjects received NEPA (the fixed dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron). In study 2, 36 subjects received NEPA alone (day 1) and in combination with ketoconazole or rifampicin. In study 3, 24 healthy women received ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel alone or in combination with NEPA (day 1). There were no significant pharmacokinetic interactions between netupitant and palonosetron. Ketoconazole increased netupitant area under curve (AUC) by 140 % and C max by 25 %. Rifampicin decreased netupitant AUC by 83 % and C max by 62 %. NEPA did not significantly affect exposure to ethinylestradiol, while systemic exposure to levonorgestrel increased by 40 %, but this was not considered clinically relevant. There were no clinically relevant interactions between netupitant and palonosetron, or between NEPA and oral contraceptives. The coadministration of NEPA with inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 may require dose adjustments. Treatments were well tolerated.

  8. Efficacy benefit of an NK1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA) in patients receiving carboplatin: supportive evidence with NEPA (a fixed combination of the NK1 RA, netupitant, and palonosetron) and aprepitant regimens. (United States)

    Jordan, Karin; Gralla, Richard; Rizzi, Giada; Kashef, Kimia


    Antiemetic guideline recommendations are inconsistent as to whether a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1 RA) should be administered with a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5HT3) RA + dexamethasone (DEX) in patients receiving carboplatin. Patients receiving cisplatin routinely receive an NK1 RA-containing regimen with a resulting 14-22 % benefit in no emesis rates over a 5-HT3 RA/DEX control. Recent studies suggest a similar benefit in patients receiving carboplatin. NEPA is the first fixed antiemetic combination agent and comprises the highly selective NK1 RA, netupitant, and pharmacologically distinct 5-HT3 RA, palonosetron (PALO). This paper presents the efficacy of NEPA in the subset of patients receiving carboplatin in a phase 3 trial (NCT01376297), in the context of aprepitant (APR) data in the carboplatin setting. One hundred ninety-six patients (47 % of all study patients: n = 145 NEPA + DEX; n = 51 APR + PALO + DEX) received carboplatin in a multinational, double-blind, randomized phase 3 study. Complete response (CR: no emesis/rescue) and no significant nausea (NSN: score ≤25 on 100 mm visual analog scale) rates were calculated. Cycle 1-4 overall (0-120 h) CR rates were similar for NEPA (80, 91, 92, and 93 %) and APR (82, 88, 88, and 90 %). Overall NSN rates were also similar (NEPA 84-96 %; APR 82-90 %). Response rates for NEPA and APR regimens were similar and consistent with prior studies evaluating the contribution of adding NK1 RAs in patients receiving carboplatin. Considering such evidence, guideline groups/practitioners should consider giving a NK1 RA antiemetic triplet in patients receiving carboplatin.

  9. Tachykinins Stimulate a Subset of Mouse Taste Cells (United States)

    Grant, Jeff


    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1). These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like) and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor) cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor) cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods. PMID:22363709

  10. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  11. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.


    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty

  12. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current clinical practice employs the use of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as biomarkers to appropriately select patients that would benefit from targeted therapy against these major molecular pathways of the disease. This study aims at ...

  13. Pharmacologic attenuation of pelvic pain in a murine model of interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Anthony J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin, and IC/PBS symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. Similar to IC/PBS patients, pseudorabies virus (PRV infection in mice induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with bladder lamina propria mast cell accumulation and pelvic pain. We evaluated several drugs to determine the effectiveness of reducing PRV-induced pelvic pain. Methods Neurogenic cystitis was induced by the injection of Bartha's strain of PRV into the abductor caudalis dorsalis tail base muscle of female C57BL/6 mice. Therapeutic modulation of pelvic pain was assessed daily for five days using von Frey filament stimulation to the pelvic region to quantify tactile allodynia. Results Significant reduction of PRV-induced pelvic pain was observed for animals treated with antagonists of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R and histamine receptors. In contrast, the H1R antagonist hydroxyzine, proton pump inhibitors, a histamine receptor 3 agonist, and gabapentin had little or no effect on PRV-induced pelvic pain. Conclusion These data demonstrate that bladder-associated pelvic pain is attenuated by antagonists of NK1R and H2R. Therefore, NK1R and H2Rrepresent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC/PBS and potentially other chronic pain conditions.

  14. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor. G Ravikumar N B Vijayaprakash. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 748-755. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Acetylcholine receptor antibody (United States)

    ... page: // Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  16. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of

  17. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce their intr......The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce...... their intracellular response. The overall goal of this thesis was to improve the understanding of class I cytokine receptor activation and regulation at an atomic level. Two members of the class I cytokine receptor family, the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), and the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) have...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  18. GABA receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  19. Drug: D09651 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09651 Drug Orvepitant maleate (USAN) C31H35F7N4O2. C4H4O4 744.2758 744.6962 D09651.gif Treatment of depress...ion, anxiety and insomnia tachykinin receptor 1 / neurokinin-1 antagonist [HSA:6869

  20. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with cisplatin therapy: randomized, double-blind study protocol--EASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven; Chua, Daniel; Maru, Anish


    Addition of aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), to an ondansetron and dexamethasone regimen improves prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV), particularly during the delayed phase (DP; 25 to 120 hours). Therefore, recommended antiemetic regimens include multi...

  1. [Nuclear receptors PPARalpha]. (United States)

    Soska, V


    Mechanism of the fibrates action is mediated by nuclear PPARalpha receptors (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor). These receptors regulate a number of genes that are involved both in lipids and lipoproteins metabolism and other mediators (e.g. inflammatory mediatores). Due to PPARalpha activation by fibrates, triglycerides and small dense LDL concentration is decreased, HDL cholesterol is increased and both inflammation and prothrombotic status are reduced. These effects are very important in patients with metabolic syndrom.

  2. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart


    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  3. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    five structural and functional domains, which are discussed here. (Figure 1). Figure 1. Structure of lipophorin receptor. 3 Vitellogenesis: The process by which the yolk is formed and accumulated in the ovum as a source of nutrients for the egg development. Vitellogenin and lipophorin are the major yolk pro- tein precursors in ...

  4. Muscarinic receptor oligomerization. (United States)

    Marsango, Sara; Ward, Richard J; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Milligan, Graeme


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing number of studies has supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors belong to class A of the GPCR family. Each muscarinic receptor subtype has its own particular distribution throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the central nervous system, muscarinic receptors regulate several sensory, cognitive, and motor functions while, in the peripheral nervous system, they are involved in the regulation of heart rate, stimulation of glandular secretion and smooth muscle contraction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have long been used as a model for the study of GPCR structure and function and to address aspects of GPCR dimerization using a broad range of approaches. In this review, the prevailing knowledge regarding the quaternary arrangement for the various muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been summarized by discussing work ranging from initial results obtained using more traditional biochemical approaches to those generated with more modern biophysical techniques. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe


    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  6. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea


    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA.......g., IC(50) = 300 microM for (2R,4S)-4-methyl-AA (5d)]. The two unsaturated analogs (S)- (7a) and (R)-(E)-Delta(4)-5-methyl-AA (7b) turned out to be a weak AMPA receptor agonist and a weak mixed NMDA/AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively....

  7. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian


    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... polyamines are known to modulate the function of these receptors in vivo. In this study, recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine-based ligands are given, particularly focusing on the use of solid-phase synthesis (SPS) as a tool for the facile generation of libraries of polyamine toxin...

  8. Receptors for anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsikson, N A; Chupakhin, O N [I. Ya. Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Morzherin, Yu Yu; Matern, A I [B N Yeltsin Urals State Technical University - UPI (Russian Federation)


    The published data on receptors for anions with different geometry are generalised. Special attention is given to the analysis of binding abilities of organic ligands. Structural features of complex-forming agents and their properties are considered.

  9. Somatostatin receptor skintigrafi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karin; Nielsen, Jørn Theil; Rehling, Michael


    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is a very valuable imaging technique for visualisation of a diversity of neuroendocrine tumours. The sensitivity for localisation of carcinoid tumours is high, but somewhat lower for other neuroendocrine tumours. The methodology, multiple clinical aspects...

  10. Muscarinic receptor oligomerization


    Marsango, Sara; Ward, Richard J.; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Milligan, Graeme


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing number of studies has supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of GPCR oligomerization...

  11. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators. (United States)

    De Bosscher, Karolien


    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics of Taste Receptors (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.


    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  13. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview. (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang


    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates. (United States)

    McPartland, J M; Agraval, J; Gleeson, D; Heasman, K; Glass, M


    Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The presence of cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates has been controversial, due to conflicting evidence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using expanded search parameters. Evidence presented in the literature varied in validity, ranging from crude in vivo behavioural assays to robust in silico ortholog discovery. No research existed for several clades of invertebrates; we therefore tested for cannabinoid receptors in seven representative species, using tritiated ligand binding assays with [3H]CP55,940 displaced by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A. Specific binding of [3H]CP55,940 was found in neural membranes of Ciona intestinalis (Deuterstoma, a positive control), Lumbricusterrestris (Lophotrochozoa), and three ecdysozoans: Peripatoides novae-zealandiae (Onychophora), Jasus edwardi (Crustacea) and Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda); the potency of displacement by SR141716A was comparable to measurements on rat cerebellum. No specific binding was observed in Actinothoe albocincta (Cnidaria) or Tethya aurantium (Porifera). The phylogenetic distribution of cannabinoid receptors may address taxonomic questions; previous studies suggested that the loss of CB1 was a synapomorphy shared by ecdysozoans. Our discovery of cannabinoid receptors in some nematodes, onychophorans, and crustaceans does not contradict the Ecdysozoa hypothesis, but gives it no support. We hypothesize that cannabinoid receptors evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterians, with secondary loss occurring in insects and other clades. Conflicting data regarding Cnidarians precludes hypotheses regarding the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. No cannabinoid receptors are expressed in sponges, which probably diverged before the origin of the eumetazoan ancestor.

  15. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  16. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.


    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  17. Human presynaptic receptors. (United States)

    Schlicker, Eberhard; Feuerstein, Thomas


    Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release. Inhibitory autoreceptors represent a typical example of a negative feedback; they are tonically activated by the respective endogenous transmitter and/or are constitutively active. Autoreceptors also play a role under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. by limiting the massive noradrenaline release occurring during congestive heart failure. They can be used for therapeutic purposes; e.g., the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist mirtazapine is used as an antidepressant and the inverse histamine H3 receptor agonist pitolisant has been marketed as a new drug for the treatment of narcolepsy in 2016. Heteroreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which transmitters from adjacent neurons, locally formed mediators (e.g. endocannabinoids) or hormones (e.g. adrenaline) can inhibit or facilitate transmitter release; they may be subject to an endogenous tone. The constipating effect of the sympathetic nervous system or of the antihypertensive drug clonidine is related to the activation of inhibitory α2-adrenoceptors on postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. Part of the stimulating effect of adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system during stress is related to its facilitatory effect on noradrenaline release via β2-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234


    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D


    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors,...

  19. Solubilized benzodiazepine receptors for use in receptor assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Stegeman, M; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    In the development of non-radioactive receptor assays for benzodiazepines, employing fluorescent ligands, it was observed that the fluorescence measurements were hampered by the background fluorescence of the receptor preparation. This receptor preparation is a brain tissue homogenate in which the

  20. Metformin and insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded.

  1. Ginkgolides and glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaracz, Stanislav; Nakanishi, Koji; Jensen, Anders A.


    Ginkgolides from the Ginkgo biloba tree are diterpenes with a cage structure consisting of six five-membered rings and a unique tBu group. They exert a variety of biological properties. In addition to being antagonists of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR), it has recently been shown...

  2. Meeting report: nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne


    The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over...

  3. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal


    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...... the phenomenon of blockade of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] actions by AT2R antagonists and vice versa. Such mechanisms may comprise dimerization of the receptors or dimerization-independent mechanisms such as lack of specificity of the receptor ligands used in the experiments or involvement of the Ang-(1...

  4. Drug: D08988 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08988 Drug Rolapitant hydrochloride (USAN) C25H26F6N2O2. HCl. H2O 554.1771 554.952...ors Rhodopsin family Tachykinin / neurokinin tachykinin receptor 1 / neurokinin-1 receptor [HSA:6869] [KO:K04222] Rolap...itant D08988 Rolapitant hydrochloride (USAN) CAS: 914462-92-3 PubChem: 96025671 LigandBox: D08988

  5. Management of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: role of netupitant–palonosetron combination


    Janicki, Piotr


    Piotr K JanickiDepartment of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAPurpose: The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the recently published data (both original studies and reviews) on the oral medication NEPA, consisting of netupitant (a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist [NK1RA], 300 mg dose) and palonosetron (5-hydroxytryptamine [serotonin or 5HT] type 3 receptor ant...

  6. Drug: D06574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06574 Drug Casopitant mesylate (USAN) C30H35F7N4O2. CH4SO3 712.2529 712.719 D06574... ANTINAUSEANTS A04AD Other antiemetics A04AD13 Casopitant D06574 Casopitant mesylate (USAN) Target-based cla...kinin receptor 1 / neurokinin-1 receptor [HSA:6869] [KO:K04222] Casopitant [ATC:A04AD13] D06574 Caso

  7. [GABA receptors: structure and functions]. (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N


    Data on the structure, localization, physiology, and pharmacology of GABA receptors are reviewed. These receptors belong to cis-loop receptors and consist of 16 subunits in various combinations and occur in both central nervous system and peripheral organs. There are a great number of their allosteric modulators, agonists and antagonists. Activation of GABA receptors is accompanied by changes in the permeability of plasmatic membranes for chloride ions, which is followed by depolarization (presynaptic inhibition) or hyperpolarization (postsynaptic inhibition). GABA receptors contain some topographically different binding sites, intended for the interaction both with the main mediator (GABA) and with allosteric regulators such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, convulsants, ethanol, and neurosteroids.

  8. Levamisole receptors: a second awakening (United States)

    Martin, Richard J.; Robertson, Alan P.; Buxton, Samuel K.; Beech, Robin N.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric


    Levamisole and pyrantel are old (1965) but useful anthelmintics that selectively activate nematode acetylcholine ion-channel receptors; they are used to treat roundworm infections in humans and animals. Interest in their actions has surged, giving rise to new knowledge and technical advances, including an ability to reconstitute receptors that reveal more details of modes of action/resistance. We now know that the receptors are plastic and may form diverse species-dependent subtypes of receptor with different sensitivities to individual cholinergic anthelmintics. Understanding the biology of the levamisole receptors is expected to inform other studies on anthelmintics (ivermectin and emodepside) that act on ion-channels. PMID:22607692

  9. Structural biology of GABAB receptor. (United States)

    Frangaj, Aurel; Fan, Qing R


    Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates slow and prolonged inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as a constitutive heterodimer composed of the GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. Each subunit contains three domains; the extracellular Venus flytrap module, seven-helix transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail. In recent years, the three-dimensional structures of GABAB receptor extracellular and intracellular domains have been elucidated. These structures reveal the molecular basis of ligand recognition, receptor heterodimerization and receptor activation. Here we provide a brief review of the GABAB receptor structures, with an emphasis on describing the different ligand-bound states of the receptor. We will also compare these with the known structures of related GPCRs to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of activation and regulation in the GABAB system, as well as GPCR dimers in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary analysis of functional divergence among chemokine receptors, decoy receptors and viral receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi eDaiyasu


    Full Text Available Chemokine receptors (CKRs function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologues with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback-Leibler (KL information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand-binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors.

  11. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin


    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  12. Pattern recognition receptors: an update. (United States)

    Goutagny, Nadege; Fitzgerald, Katherine A


    The vertebrate immune system consists of two inter-related components, the innate and adaptive responses, which are required for the resolution of infection. The innate immune response is critical for the immediate protection from infection and for marshalling the B- and T-cell responses of the adaptive response. A key component of the innate immune response is germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that detect pathogens. Several families of these pattern recognition receptors have now been described. Microbial recognition by these receptors triggers appropriate immune responses, including the direct uptake and killing of pathogens and/or initiation of intracellular signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of immune responsive transcriptional programs. Pattern recognition receptors include soluble receptors in serum (collectins), transmembrane receptors on cell surfaces or vacuolar membranes (C-type lectins and Toll-like receptors) or cytoplasmic sensors (NACHT-LRR proteins and RNA helicases). Roles for these pattern recognition receptor families are emerging in the susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and in acute and chronic conditions, such as sepsis, autoimmune disease and atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that the selective targeting of pattern recognition receptors and the pathways they trigger may be useful clinically. Progress towards therapeutics designed to target Toll-like receptor signaling is already well underway. This review will describe our current understanding of innate immune sensors and the mechanisms regulating their activity.

  13. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin


    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  14. [GABAC receptors: structure and functions]. (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N


    Data on the structure, localization, physiology and pharmacology of GABA(C) receptors are reviewed. Thece receptors belong to cys-loop receptors and consist of rho1-3 subunits representing pentamers with five subunits that form a chloride channel. They are found in both central nervous system and peripheral organs. The pentamer can be homomeric, consisting of five similar protomers (e.g., p1), or heteromeric (pseudo-homomeric), consisting of rho1 and rho2 subunits. Chloride channel function also depends on the GABA(C) receptor subunit composition. The activation of GABAc receptors is accompanied by a change in the permeability of plasmatic membranes for C1 ions, which is followed by depolarization (presynaptic inhibition) or hyperpolarization (postsynaptic inhibition). There are a great number of the allosteric modulators, agonists and antagonists of GABA(C) receptors.

  15. Astrocytic calcium signals induced by neuromodulators via functional metabotropic receptors in the ventral respiratory group of neonatal mice. (United States)

    Härtel, Kai; Schnell, Christian; Hülsmann, Swen


    A controlled, periodic exchange of air between lungs and atmosphere requires a neuronal rhythm generated by a network of neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the brainstem. Glial cells, e.g. astrocytes, have been shown to be supportive in stabilizing this neuronal activity in the central nervous system during development. In addition, a variety of neuromodulators including serotonin (5-HT), Substance P (SP), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulate respiratory neurons directly. If astrocytes in the VRG, like their neuronal neighbors, are also directly stimulated by neuromodulators, they might indirectly affect the respiratory neurons and consequently the respiratory rhythm. In the present study, we provide support for this concept by demonstrating expression of NK1-R, TRH-R, and 5-HT(2)-R in astrocytes of the VRG with immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we showed that the external application of the neuromodulators 5-HT, SP, and TRH activate calcium transients in VRG astrocytes. Consequently, we postulate that in the VRG of the neonatal mouse, neuromodulation by SP, TRH, and serotonin also involves astrocytic calcium signaling. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Uncompetitive antagonism of AMPA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Tikhonov, Denis B; Bølcho, Ulrik


    Philanthotoxins are uncompetitive antagonists of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors presumed to bind to the pore-forming region, but a detailed molecular mechanism for this interaction is missing. Here a small library of novel philanthotoxins was designed and synthesized using a solid-phase strategy. ...... polyamine toxins antagonize the AMPA receptor ion channel and provide the basis for rational development of uncompetitive antagonists of AMPA receptors....

  17. Dimerization of nuclear receptors. (United States)

    Germain, Pierre; Bourguet, William


    Multicellular organisms require specific intercellular communication to properly organize the complex body plan during embryogenesis and maintain its properties and functions during the entire life. While growth factors, neurotransmitters, and peptide hormones bind to membrane receptors, thereby inducing the activity of intracellular kinase cascades or the JAK-STAT signaling pathways, other small signaling compounds such as steroid hormones, certain vitamins, and metabolic intermediates enter, or are generated, within the target cells and bind to members of a large family of nuclear receptors (NRs). NRs are ligand-inducible transcription factors that control a plethora of biological phenomena, thus orchestrating complex events like development, organ homeostasis, immune function, and reproduction. NR-NR interactions are of major importance in these regulatory processes, as NRs regulate their target genes by binding to cognate DNA response elements essentially as homo- or heterodimers. A number of structural and functional studies have provided significant insights as to how combinatorial NRs rely on protein-protein contacts that discriminate geometric features of their DNA response elements, thereby allowing both binding site diversity and physiological specificity. Here, we will review our current understanding of NR-NR interactions and provide protocols for a number of experimental approaches that are useful for their study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Axonal GABAA receptors. (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M


    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  19. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  20. New horizons for lipoprotein receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Olav M.; Dagil, Robert; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt


    The lipoprotein receptor (LR) family constitutes a large group of structurally closely related receptors with broad ligand-binding specificity. Traditionally, ligand binding to LRs has been anticipated to involve merely the complement type repeat (CR)-domains omnipresent in the family. Recently...

  1. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, H.


    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  2. Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Pathogenesis, Incidence, and Current Management. (United States)

    Rapoport, Bernardo L


    Even when chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can be effectively controlled in the acute phase, it may still occur in the delayed phase. Identifying at-risk patients is complex and requires consideration of clinical, personal, demographic, and behavioral factors. Delayed CINV has a significant detrimental effect on patients' daily life and is responsible for significant healthcare resource utilization. Patients who do not experience acute CINV are not necessarily exempt from delayed CINV, and healthcare professionals have been shown to underestimate the incidence of delayed CINV. Failure to protect against CINV during the first cycle of chemotherapy is the most significant independent risk factor for delayed CINV during subsequent cycles. Addition of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to antiemetic prophylactic regimens involving a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid helps to ameliorate delayed CINV, particularly vomiting. Netupitant and rolapitant are second-generation neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists that provide effective prophylaxis against delayed chemotherapy-induced vomiting and also have an antinausea benefit. All of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists with the exception of rolapitant inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), and a reduced dose of dexamethasone (a CYP3A4 substrate) should be administered with aprepitant or netupitant; by contrast, this is not necessary with rolapitant. Here we review specific challenges associated with delayed CINV, its pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes relative to acute CINV, and its management within the larger context of overall CINV.

  3. Antiemetic therapy for non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. (United States)

    Inui, Naoki


    Although antiemetic management in cancer therapy has improved, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting remain common and troubling adverse events. Chemotherapeutic agents are classified based on their emetogenic effects, and appropriate antiemetics are recommended according to this categorization. Chemotherapy categorized as moderately emetogenic is associated with a wide spectrum of emetic risks. Combined anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimens have been recently reclassified as highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimen. This review focuses on antiemetic pharmacotherapy in patients receiving non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Combination therapy with a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor agonist, preferably palonosetron, and dexamethasone is the standard therapy in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, although triple therapy with add-on neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist is used as an alternative treatment strategy. Among moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens, carboplatin-containing chemotherapy has considerable emetic potential, particularly during the delayed phase. However, the additional of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to the standard antiemetic therapy prevents carboplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. For regimens including oxaliplatin, the benefit of adding neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist requires further clarification.

  4. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  5. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie


    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors...

  6. Heterotypic interactions between transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2


    Vogt, TM; Blackwell, AD; Giannetti, AM; Bjorkman, PJ; Enns, CA


    Cellular iron uptake in most tissues occurs via endocytosis of diferric transferrin (Tf) bound to the transferrin receptor (TfR). Recently, a second transferrin receptor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), has been identified and shown to play a critical role in iron metabolism. TfR2 is capable of Tf-mediated iron uptake and mutations in this gene result in a rare form of hereditary hemochromatosis unrelated to the hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE. Unlike TfR, TfR2 expression is not contro...

  7. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance? (United States)

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B


    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor.

  8. Stargazin Modulation of AMPA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana A. Shaikh


    Full Text Available Fast excitatory synaptic signaling in the mammalian brain is mediated by AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In neurons, AMPA receptors co-assemble with auxiliary proteins, such as stargazin, which can markedly alter receptor trafficking and gating. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to map distances between the full-length, functional AMPA receptor and stargazin expressed in HEK293 cells and to determine the ensemble structural changes in the receptor due to stargazin. In addition, we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the structural and conformational distribution of the receptor and how this distribution is affected by stargazin. Our nanopositioning data place stargazin below the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain, where it is well poised to act as a scaffold to facilitate the long-range conformational selection observations seen in single-molecule experiments. These data support a model of stargazin acting to stabilize or select conformational states that favor activation.

  9. Lysophospholipid receptors in drug discovery. (United States)

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Chun, Jerold


    Lysophospholipids (LPs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are bioactive lipids that transduce signals through their specific cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-6, S1P1-5, LPI1, and LysoPS1-3, respectively. These LPs and their receptors have been implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, fibrosis, pain, cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, bone formation, fertility, organismal development, and other effects on most organ systems. Advances in the LP receptor field have enabled the development of novel small molecules targeting LP receptors for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), an S1P receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. This success is currently being followed by multiple, mechanistically related compounds targeting S1P receptor subtypes, which are in various stages of clinical development. In addition, an LPA1 antagonist, BMS-986020 (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is in Phase 2 clinical development for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as a distinct compound, SAR100842 (Sanofi) for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and related fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes the current state of drug discovery in the LP receptor field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear receptors outside the nucleus: extranuclear signalling by steroid receptors (United States)

    Levin, Ellis R.; Hammes, Stephen R.


    Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation. Mounting evidence indicates that most steroid receptors in fact exist in extranuclear cellular pools, including at the plasma membrane. This latter pool, when engaged by a steroid ligand, rapidly activates signals that affect various aspects of cellular biology. Research into the mechanisms of signalling instigated by extranuclear steroid receptor pools and how this extranuclear signalling is integrated with responses elicited by nuclear receptor pools provides novel understanding of steroid hormone signalling and its roles in health and disease. PMID:27729652

  11. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors. (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D


    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine-5'-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein-coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud-expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities.

  12. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234 (United States)

    Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D


    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud–expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities. PMID:19571230

  13. Endogenous substance P production in the Achilles tendon increases with loading in an in vivo model of tendinopathy-peptidergic elevation preceding tendinosis-like tissue changes. (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Wennstig, G; Forsgren, S; Danielson, P


    To quantify the intratendinous levels of substance P (SP) at different stages of overload in an established model for Achilles tendinopathy (rabbit). Also, to study the distribution of the SP-receptor, the NK-1R, and the source of SP, in the tendon. Animals were subjected to the overuse protocol for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. One additional group served as unexercised controls. Immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were performed. EIA revealed increased SP-levels in the Achilles tendon of the exercised limb in all the experimental groups as compared to in the controls (statistically significant; p=0.01). A similar trend in the unexercised Achilles tendon was observed but was not statistically significant (p=0.14). IHC and in ISH illustrated reactions of both SP and NK-1R mainly in blood vessel walls, but the receptor was also found on tenocytes. Achilles tendon SP-levels are elevated already after 1 week of loading. This shows that increased SP-production precedes tendinosis, as tendinosis-like changes occur only after a minimum of 3 weeks of exercise, as shown in a recent study using this model. We propose that central neuronal mechanism may be involved as similar trends were observed in the contralateral Achilles tendon.

  14. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking. (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C


    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Steroid receptors in osteoblasts. (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Sato, B; Matsumoto, K; Ono, K


    Using the whole-cell incubation system at 37 degrees C, the specific bindings for 3H-dexamethasone, 3H-estradiol-17 beta, 3H-dihydrotestosterone and 3H-R5020 were measured in the purified, putative osteoblasts isolated from fetal rat calvaria by collagenase digestion. More than 90% of the purified cells contained intense alkaline phosphatase activity. The specific binding for 3H-dexamethasone with high affinity and low capacity was demonstrated in the isolated osteoblasts. Most of the binding was found in the nuclear fraction, indicating nucler binding of the 3H-dexamethasone-receptor complex. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for 3H-dexamethasone was estimated to be 3.3 x 10(-9)M and the number of binding sites was calculated to be 65 fmol/ml (4 x 10(6) cells) or 9,750 binding sites per cell. High salt: sucrose gradient analysis of nuclear extracts revealed a radioactive 4.0 S peak. These results indicate that the purified osteoblasts are among the target cells for glucocorticoids. On the other hand, the specific bindings for 3H-estradiol-17 beta and 3H-dihydrotestosterone were not detectable in the isolated osteoblasts, which suggests that estrogens and androgens act on osteoblasts only indirectly.

  16. Quantitative receptor radioautography in the study of receptor-receptor interactions in the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fior-Chadi D.R.


    Full Text Available The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS in the dorsomedial medulla comprises a wide range of neuropeptides and biogenic amines. Several of them are related to mechanisms of central blood pressure control. Angiotensin II (Ang II, neuropeptide Y (NPY and noradrenaline (NA are found in the NTS cells, as well as their receptors. Based on this observation we have evaluated the modulatory effect of these peptide receptors on a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. Using quantitative receptor radioautography, we observed that NPY and Ang II receptors decreased the affinity of a2-adrenoceptors for their agonists in the NTS of the rat. Cardiovascular experiments agreed with the in vitro data. Coinjection of a threshold dose of Ang II or of the NPY agonists together with an ED50 dose of adrenergic agonists such as NA, adrenaline and clonidine counteracted the depressor effect produced by the a2-agonist in the NTS. The results provide evidence for the existence of an antagonistic interaction between Ang II at1 receptors and NPY receptor subtypes with the a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. This receptor interaction may reduce the transduction over the a2-adrenoceptors which can be important in central cardiovascular regulation and in the development of hypertension

  17. Allosteric modulation of chemoattractant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Cesta


    Full Text Available Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related GPCR. Emerging evidence indicates that the signalling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the endogenous agonist and modulate the receptor signalling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities.

  18. Sialic Acid Receptors of Viruses. (United States)

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Herrler, Georg; Klenk, Hans Dieter


    Sialic acid linked to glycoproteins and gangliosides is used by many viruses as a receptor for cell entry. These viruses include important human and animal pathogens, such as influenza, parainfluenza, mumps, corona, noro, rota, and DNA tumor viruses. Attachment to sialic acid is mediated by receptor binding proteins that are constituents of viral envelopes or exposed at the surface of non-enveloped viruses. Some of these viruses are also equipped with a neuraminidase or a sialyl-O-acetyl-esterase. These receptor-destroying enzymes promote virus release from infected cells and neutralize sialic acid-containing soluble proteins interfering with cell surface binding of the virus. Variations in the receptor specificity are important determinants for host range, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses.

  19. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  20. Insulin receptor signaling in cones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajala, Ammaji; Dighe, Radhika; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rajala, Raju V S


    .... To date there are no studies on the insulin receptor signaling in cones; however, mRNA levels of IR signaling proteins are significantly higher in cone-dominant neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl...

  1. History of retinoic acid receptors. (United States)

    Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann


    The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, α, β and ɣ. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease.

  2. Receptor antibodies as novel therapeutics for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussar, Siegfried; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Kahn, C Ronald


    Antibodies to receptors can block or mimic hormone action. Taking advantage of receptor isoforms, co-receptors, and other receptor modulating proteins, antibodies and other designer ligands can enhance tissue specificity and provide new approaches to the therapy of diabetes and other diseases....

  3. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark A.


    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  4. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  5. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang. (United States)

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J


    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear Receptors, RXR & the Big Bang (United States)

    Evans, Ronald M.; Mangelsdorf, David J.


    Summary Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D and thyroid hormone, and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors, and in particular of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the “Big Bang” of molecular endocrinology. This review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multi-cellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  7. Prognostic Value of Estrogen Receptor alpha and Progesterone Receptor Conversion in Distant Breast Cancer Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; Moelans, Cathy B.; Meijer, S. L.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van Gils, Carla H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.


    BACKGROUND: Changes in the receptor profile of primary breast cancers to their metastases (receptor conversion) have been described for the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of receptor conversion for ER alpha and

  8. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P


    in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine...... receptor is, to our knowledge, the first cloned insect G protein-coupled receptor that appears to be fully specific for tyramine....

  9. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M


    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  10. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor. (United States)

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko


    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. Copyright © 2016 by U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  11. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact (United States)


    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  12. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  13. Emerging GLP-1 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina


    Introduction: Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have become available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents exploit the physiological effects of GLP-1, which is able to address several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1R agonists...

  14. Osteopontin interaction with integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Eva

    Osteopontin is a negatively charged and unstructured protein that is found in many types of tissue in humans. Osteopontin can interact with many different types of cells via interaction with integrins, which are a particular class of receptors expressed on the cellular surface. Via contact...... with integrins, osteopontin can affect cellular behaviour in both normal and disease-related contexts....

  15. Chemokine receptors in allergic diseases. (United States)

    Castan, L; Magnan, A; Bouchaud, G


    Under homeostatic conditions, as well as in various diseases, leukocyte migration is a crucial issue for the immune system that is mainly organized through the activation of bone marrow-derived cells in various tissues. Immune cell trafficking is orchestrated by a family of small proteins called chemokines. Leukocytes express cell-surface receptors that bind to chemokines and trigger transendothelial migration. Most allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, food allergies, and atopic dermatitis, are generally classified by the tissue rather than the type of inflammation, making the chemokine/chemokine receptor system a key point of the immune response. Moreover, because small antagonists can easily block such receptors, various molecules have been developed to suppress the recruitment of immune cells during allergic reactions, representing potential new drugs for allergies. We review the chemokines and chemokine receptors that are important in asthma, food allergies, and atopic dermatitis and their respectively developed antagonists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B


    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  17. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  18. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio


    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions a...

  19. Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems. (United States)

    Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M


    The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters

  20. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors (United States)

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  1. Roles of xenobiotic receptors in vascular pathophysiology. (United States)

    Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Zihui; Luo, Xiaoqin


    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), 2 closely related and liver-enriched members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nonnuclear receptor transcription factor (TF), are major receptors/TFs regulating the expression of genes for the clearance and detoxification of xenobiotics. They are hence defined as "xenobiotic receptors". Recent studies have demonstrated that PXR, CAR and AhR also regulate the expression of key proteins involved in endobiotic responses such as the metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and bile acid, and inflammatory processes. It is suggested that the functions of PXR, CAR and AhR may be closely implicated in the pathogeneses of metabolic vascular diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, atherogenesis, and hypertension. Therefore, manipulation of the activities of these receptors may provide novel strategies for the treatment of vascular diseases. Here, we review the pathophysiological roles of PXR, CAR and AhR in the vascular system.

  2. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C


    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  3. The substance P/NK-1 receptor system: NK-1 receptor antagonists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in cancer. SP promotes the proliferation of tumour cells, angiogenesis and the migration of tumour cells. We review the involvement of SP, the NK-1 receptor and NK-1 receptor antagonists in cancer. Tumour cells overexpress NK-1 receptors, ...

  4. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B. R.; Korte, S. M.; Buwalda, B.; La Fleur, S. E.; Bohus, B.; Luiten, P. G.


    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  5. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, BRK; Korte, SM; Buwalda, B; la Fleur, SE; Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  6. Angiotensin receptors in the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, L.J.; Voors, AA; Buikema, H; van Gilst, WH


    The angiotensin II receptors mediate the effects of the renin-angiotensin system, which has an important role in cardiovascular (patho)physiology. Four types of angiotensin receptors are known, of which the type 1 (AT,) and the type 2 (AT(2)) receptors are the most important. Stimulation of the AT,

  7. The brain mineralocorticoid receptor and stress resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heegde, Freija; De Rijk, Roel H.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.

    Stress exposure activates the HPA-axis and results in the release of corticosteroids which bind to two receptor types in the brain: the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While the role of the GR in stress reactivity has been extensively studied, the MR has

  8. Muscarinic receptors and drugs in cardiovascular medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Doods, H. N.


    The parasympathetic system and its associated muscarinic receptors have been the subject of a renaissance of interest for the following two main reasons: (1) the association of endothelial muscarinic receptors and the nitric oxide (NO) pathway; (2) the discovery of several muscarinic receptor

  9. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Glycoprotein hormone receptor; gonadotropin receptor; Labeo rohita; luteinizing hormone receptor; mariner transposon; PCR cloning. Abstract. A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Almer M.; Szegezdi, Eva; Reis, Carlos R.; Tur, Vicente; Quax, Wim J.; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M


    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anticancer drug that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells by interacting with death receptors DR4 and DR5. TRAIL can also bind to decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, and osteoprotegerin receptor) that

  11. Sensing intracellular pathogens-NOD-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, Svend T.; Burwell, Timothy; Bertin, John; Coyle, Anthony J.


    The innate immune system uses different molecules that sense pathogen associated molecular patterns. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-1-like receptors (RLRs) and the NOD-like receptors (NLRs). The NLRs, consisting of more than 20 related family members, are present in the cytosol and

  12. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, L.D.C.


    The routine pathological work-up of breast cancer includes the evaluation of the estrogen receptor (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which reveals biological information about the tumour as well as provides predictive biomarkers regarding hormonal

  13. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M


    , more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  14. Interaction proteomics reveals brain region-specific AMPA receptor complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, N.; Pandya, N.J.; Koopmans, F.T.W.; Castelo-Szekelv, V.; van der Schors, R.C.; Smit, A.B.; Li, K.W.


    Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is mediated by glutamate acting on postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Recent studies have revealed a substantial number of AMPA receptor auxiliary proteins, which potentially contribute to the regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking, subcellular receptor

  15. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands (United States)


    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands. PMID:24900254

  16. Soluble Extracellular Domain of Death Receptor 5 Inhibits TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Disrupting Receptor-Receptor Interactions. (United States)

    Vunnam, Nagamani; Lo, Chih Hung; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Sachs, Jonathan N


    Dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signaling is a key feature of various inflammatory disorders. Current treatments for TNF-related diseases function either by sequestering ligand or blocking ligand-receptor interactions, which can cause dangerous side effects by inhibiting the receptors that are not involved in the disease condition. Thus, alternate strategies that target receptor-receptor interactions are needed. We hypothesized that the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of long isoform of death receptor 5 (DR5) could block endogenous receptor assembly, mimicking the biological effect of decoy receptors that lack the death domain to trigger apoptosis. Using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies, we demonstrated that soluble ECD disrupts endogenous DR5-DR5 interactions. Cell viability assays were used to demonstrate the complete inhibition of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by the ECD, although TRAIL is still able to bind to the receptor. Importantly, we used mutagenesis to prove that the inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD predominantly comes from the disruption of DR5 oligomerization and not ligand sequestration. Inhibition of death receptor activation should have important therapeutic applications in diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. More generally, this approach should be generalized to enable the inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling mechanisms that are associated in a wide range of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sigma 1 receptor modulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling: potentiation of opioid transduction independent from receptor binding. (United States)

    Kim, Felix J; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Burgman, Maxim; Neilan, Claire; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Pasternak, Gavril W


    sigma Ligands modulate opioid actions in vivo, with agonists diminishing morphine analgesia and antagonists enhancing the response. Using human BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells that natively express opioid receptors and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells transfected with a cloned mu opioid receptor, we now demonstrate a similar modulation of opioid function, as assessed by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP gamma S) binding, by sigma(1) receptors. sigma Ligands do not compete opioid receptor binding. Administered alone, neither sigma agonists nor antagonists significantly stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Yet sigma receptor selective antagonists, but not agonists, shifted the EC(50) of opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding by 3- to 10-fold to the left. This enhanced potency was seen without a change in the efficacy of the opioid, as assessed by the maximal stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. sigma(1) Receptors physically associate with mu opioid receptors, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation studies in transfected HEK cells, implying a direct interaction between the proteins. Thus, sigma receptors modulate opioid transduction without influencing opioid receptor binding. RNA interference knockdown of sigma(1) in BE(2)-C cells also potentiated mu opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. These modulatory actions are not limited to mu and delta opioid receptors. In mouse brain membrane preparations, sigma(1)-selective antagonists also potentiated both opioid receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, suggesting a broader role for sigma receptors in modulating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.

  18. [The insuline receptor: structure and function]. (United States)

    De Meyts, P


    About 35 years after the first in vitro studies of the insulin receptor, considerable progress has been accomplished in the structural biology of the insulin-receptor interaction, and of the receptor tyrosine kinase family in general. This brief review attempts to assemble the various pieces of the puzzle, despite the lack of a detailed crystallographic structure of the insulin-receptor complex, and to establish a model that explains the mechanism of receptor activation, its negative cooperativity, and the triggering of intracellular signalling pathways.

  19. Receptor-Heteromer Investigation Technology and its application using BRET


    Johnstone, Elizabeth K. M.; Pfleger, Kevin D.G.


    Receptor heteromerization has the potential to alter every facet of receptor functioning, leading to new pharmacological profiles with increased signaling diversity and regulation from that of the monomeric receptor, or indeed receptor homomer. An understanding of the molecular consequences of receptor heteromerization will provide new insights into the physiology and pathology mediated by receptors, expanding the possibilities for pharmacological discovery. Particularly advantageous approach...

  20. Differences in the interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with receptor from normal, denervated and myasthenic human muscle.


    Lefvert, A. K.


    The interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with different kinds of human skeletal muscle receptor was investigated. The reaction of most receptor antibodies was strongest with receptor from a patient with myasthenia gravis and with receptor from denervated muscle. Results obtained with these receptors were well correlated. The binding of most receptor antibodies to receptor from functionally normal muscle was much weaker and also qualitatively different. In a few patients with moder...

  1. Regulation of AMPA receptor lateral movements (United States)

    Borgdorff, Aren J.; Choquet, Daniel


    An essential feature in the modulation of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is rapid changes in the number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors at post-synaptic sites on neurons. Regulation of receptor endo- and exocytosis has been shown to be involved in this process. Whether regulated lateral diffusion of receptors in the plasma membrane also participates in receptor exchange to and from post-synaptic sites remains unknown. We analysed the lateral mobility of native AMPA receptors containing the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in rat cultured hippocampal neurons, using single-particle tracking and video microscopy. Here we show that AMPA receptors alternate within seconds between rapid diffusive and stationary behaviour. During maturation of neurons, stationary periods increase in frequency and length, often in spatial correlation with synaptic sites. Raising intracellular calcium, a central element in synaptic plasticity, triggers rapid receptor immobilization and local accumulation on the neuronal surface. We suggest that calcium influx prevents AMPA receptors from diffusing, and that lateral receptor diffusion to and from synaptic sites acts in the rapid and controlled regulation of receptor numbers at synapses.

  2. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products. (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong


    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  3. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang


    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  4. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Zwicker, David; Brenner, Michael P


    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information-theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor...

  5. Molecular determinants of NMDA receptor internalization. (United States)

    Roche, K W; Standley, S; McCallum, J; Dune Ly, C; Ehlers, M D; Wenthold, R J


    Although synaptic AMPA receptors have been shown to rapidly internalize, synaptic NMDA receptors are reported to be static. It is not certain whether NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites is an inherent property of the receptor, or is due to stabilization by scaffolding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that NMDA receptors are internalized in both heterologous cells and neurons, and we define an internalization motif, YEKL, on the distal C-terminus of NR2B. In addition, we show that the synaptic protein PSD-95 inhibits NR2B-mediated internalization, and that deletion of the PDZ-binding domain of NR2B increases internalization in neurons. This suggests an involvement for PSD-95 in NMDA receptor regulation and an explanation for NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites.

  6. Taste Receptors: Regulators of Sinonasal Innate Immunity (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Lee, Robert J.


    Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of extraoral taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity. This review will focus on the function of bitter and sweet taste receptors in the human airway, with particular emphasis on T2R38, a bitter taste receptor found in sinonasal ciliated cells, and the bitter and sweet receptors found on specialized sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells. The importance of these novel taste receptor‐immune circuits in the human airway and their clinical relevance in airway disease will also be reviewed. PMID:27819057

  7. Neurosteroid regulation of GABAA receptors (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl S.; Shen, Hui; Gong, Qi Hua; Zhou, Xiangping


    Neurosteroids, such as the progesterone metabolite 3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one (THP or [allo]pregnanolone), function as potent positive modulators of the GABAA receptor (GABAR) when acutely administered. However, fluctuations in the circulating levels of this steroid at puberty, across endogenous ovarian cycles, during pregnancy or following chronic stress produce periods of prolonged exposure and withdrawal, where changes in GABAR subunit composition may occur as compensatory responses to sustained levels of inhibition. A number of laboratories have demonstrated that both chronic administration of THP as well as its withdrawal transiently increase expression of the α4 subunit of the GABAR in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in in vitro neuronal systems. Receptors containing this subunit are insensitive to benzodiazepine (BDZ) modulation and display faster deactivation kinetics, which studies suggest underlie hyperexcitability states. Similar increases in α4 expression are triggered by withdrawal from other GABA-modulatory compounds, such as ethanol and BDZ, suggesting a common mechanism. Other studies have reported puberty or estrous cycle-associated increases in δ-GABAR, the most sensitive target of these steroids which underlies a tonic inhibitory current. In the studies reported here, the effect of steroids on inhibition, which influence anxiety state and seizure susceptibility, depend not only on the subunit composition of the receptor but also on the direction of Cl- current generated by these target receptors. The effect of neurosteroids on GABAR function thus results in behavioral outcomes relevant for pubertal mood swings, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and catamenial epilepsy, which are due to fluctuations in endogenous steroids. PMID:17512983

  8. Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors (United States)


    benzaldehyde, will then be expressed and functionally characterized in Sf9 insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. a. Construction and...Preferential expression of the Drosophila rutabaga gene in mushroom bodies, neural centers for learning in insects . Neuron 9, 619-627. Helfand, S. L...containing G-protein linked receptor that couples a novel odorant binding domain consisting of the 1-15 moiety (and perhaps part of the adrenaline

  9. A new family of insect tyramine receptors. (United States)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klaerke, Dan A; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P


    The Drosophila Genome Project database contains a gene, CG7431, annotated to be an "unclassifiable biogenic amine receptor." We have cloned this gene and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. After testing various ligands for G protein-coupled receptors, we found that the receptor was specifically activated by tyramine (EC(50), 5x10(-7)M) and that it showed no cross-reactivity with beta-phenylethylamine, octopamine, dopa, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, tryptamine, serotonin, histamine, and a library of 20 Drosophila neuropeptides (all tested in concentrations up to 10(-5) or 10(-4)M). The receptor was also expressed in Xenopus oocytes, where it was, again, specifically activated by tyramine with an EC(50) of 3x10(-7)M. Northern blots showed that the receptor is already expressed in 8-hour-old embryos and that it continues to be expressed in all subsequent developmental stages. Adult flies express the receptor both in the head and body (thorax/abdomen) parts. In addition to the Drosophila tyramine receptor gene, CG7431, we found another closely related Drosophila gene, CG16766, that probably also codes for a tyramine receptor. Furthermore, we annotated similar tyramine-like receptor genes in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine receptor is, to our knowledge, the first cloned insect G protein-coupled receptor that appears to be fully specific for tyramine.

  10. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor... Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signa...l transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. Authors

  11. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU


    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  12. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Huso; Puchades, Maja


    , and schizophrenia and in the deposition of phosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease. HCAR1 could serve to ameliorate these conditions and might also act through downstream mechanisms other than cAMP. Lactate exits cells through monocarboxylate transporters in an equilibrating manner and through astrocyte......We have proposed that lactate is a “volume transmitter” in the brain and underpinned this by showing that the lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81, also known as HCA1 or HCAR1), which promotes lipid storage in adipocytes, is also active in the mammalian brain. This includes...... the cerebral neocortex and the hippocampus, where it can be stimulated by physiological concentrations of lactate and by the HCAR1 agonist 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate to reduce cAMP levels. Cerebral HCAR1 is concentrated on the postsynaptic membranes of excitatory synapses and also is enriched at the blood...

  13. Effect of nonpersistent pesticides on estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Zoechling, Alfred; Gerster, Petra; Ivanova, Margarita M; Teng, Yun; Klinge, Carolyn M; Schildberger, Barbara; Gartner, Michael; Jungbauer, Alois


    Nonpersistent pesticides are considered less harmful for the environment, but their impact as endocrine disruptors has not been fully explored. The pesticide Switch was applied to grape vines, and the maximum residue concentration of its active ingredients was quantified. The transactivation potential of the pesticides Acorit, Frupica, Steward, Reldan, Switch, Cantus, Teldor, and Scala and their active compounds (hexythiazox, mepanipyrim, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, boscalid, fenhexamid, and pyrimethanil) were tested on human estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in vitro. Relative binding affinities of the pure pesticide constituents for AR and their effect on human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines were evaluated. Residue concentrations of Switch's ingredients were below maximum residue limits. Fludioxonil and fenhexamid were ERα agonists (EC50 -values of 3.7 and 9.0 μM, respectively) and had time-dependent effects on endogenous ERα-target gene expression (cyclin D1, progesterone receptor, and nuclear respiratory factor 1) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Fludioxonil, mepanipyrim, cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, and chlorpyrifos-methyl were AhR-agonists (EC50 s of 0.42, 0.77, 1.4, 4.6, and 5.1 μM, respectively). Weak AR binding was shown for chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, and fludioxonil. Assuming a total uptake which does not take metabolism and clearance rates into account, our in vitro evidence suggests that pesticides could activate pathways affecting hormonal balance, even within permitted limits, thus potentially acting as endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Eismann


    Full Text Available The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures.

  15. Characterization of astrocytic and neuronal benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.


    Primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons express benzodiazepine receptors. Neuronal benzodiazepine receptors were of high-affinity, K{sub D} values were 7.5-43 nM and the densities of receptors (B{sub max}) were 924-4131 fmol/mg protein. Astrocytes posses a high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor, K{sub D} values were 6.6-13 nM. The B{sub max} values were 6,033-12,000 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological profile of the neuronal benzodiazepine receptor was that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor, where clonazepam has a high-affinity and Ro 5-4864 (4{prime}-chlorodiazepam) has a low-affinity. Whereas astrocytic benzoidazepine receptor was characteristic of the so called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, which shows a high-affinity towards Ro 5-4863, and a low-affinity towards clonazepam. The astrocytic benzodiazepine receptors was functionally correlated with voltage dependent calcium channels, since dihydropyridines and benzodiazepines interacted with ({sup 3}H) diazepam and ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine receptors with the same rank order of potency, showing a statistically significant correlation. No such correlation was observed in neurons.

  16. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars M; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe


    enigmatic. Here, we have identified the Drosophila gene (CG10823) coding for the SIFamide receptor. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the receptor is only activated by Drosophila SIFamide (EC(50), 2x10(-8)M) and not by a library of 32 other insect neuropeptides and eight biogenic amines....... Database searches revealed SIFamide receptor orthologues in the genomes from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the silkworm Bombyx mori, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the honey bee Apis mellifera. An alignment of the five insect SIFamide or SIFamide-like receptors showed, again......, an impressive sequence conservation (67-77% amino acid sequence identities between the seven-transmembrane areas; 82-87% sequence similarities). The identification of well-conserved SIFamide receptor orthologues in all other insects with a sequenced genome, suggests that the SIFamide/receptor couple must have...

  17. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert


    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  18. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg


    basolateral P2X receptors stimulate ion secretion via an increase of [Ca2+]i. In absorptive epithelia like the renal tubule P2X receptor stimulation mediates the inhibition of NaCl, Mg2+ and water transport in the thick ascending limb and the distal convoluted tubule, respectively. The underlying signaling......P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...... pathways that inhibit epithelial absorption are currently not well understood. Epithelial P2X7 receptors show pronounced up-regulation during varies diseased states highlighting a role of purinergic signaling in epithelial pathophysiology. Importantly, functional effects of epithelial P2X receptors cover...

  19. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl


    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  20. Nuclear Receptors in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A.; Carrillo-Córdova, Luis D.; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C.; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum


    Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in important aspects of hepatic physiology and pathophysiology. There are about 48 nuclear receptors in the human. These nuclear receptors are regulators of many hepatic processes including hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, bile acid homeostasis, drug detoxification, inflammation, regeneration, fibrosis, and tumor formation. Some of these receptors are sensitive to the levels of molecules that control lipid metabolism including fatty acids, oxysterols, and lipophilic molecules. These receptors direct such molecules to the transcriptional networks and may play roles in the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the involvement of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may offer targets for the development of new treatments for this liver disease. PMID:22187655

  1. Nuclear Receptors in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. López-Velázquez


    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in important aspects of hepatic physiology and pathophysiology. There are about 48 nuclear receptors in the human. These nuclear receptors are regulators of many hepatic processes including hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, bile acid homeostasis, drug detoxification, inflammation, regeneration, fibrosis, and tumor formation. Some of these receptors are sensitive to the levels of molecules that control lipid metabolism including fatty acids, oxysterols, and lipophilic molecules. These receptors direct such molecules to the transcriptional networks and may play roles in the pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the involvement of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may offer targets for the development of new treatments for this liver disease.

  2. Serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonists attenuate rotavirus diarrhoea. (United States)

    Kordasti, S; Sjövall, H; Lundgren, O; Svensson, L


    The mechanisms underlying intestinal secretion in rotavirus diarrhoea remain to be established. We previously reported that rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the enteric nervous system. We now report that antagonists for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor, but not antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor or the muscarinic receptor, attenuate rotavirus induced diarrhoea. Neurotransmitter antagonists were administered to wild-type or neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice infected with homologous (EDIM) or heterologous (RRV) rotavirus. While RRV infected mice had diarrhoea for 3.3 (0.2) days (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-3.56), the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist (granisetron) and the VIP receptor antagonist (4Cl-D-Phe(6),Leu(17))-VIP both reduced the total number of days of RRV induced diarrhoea to 2.1 (0.3) (95% CI 1.31-2.9) (protavirus. On the other hand, rotavirus diarrhoea was not attenuated in the neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice. Our results suggest that the neurotransmitters serotonin and VIP are involved in rotavirus diarrhoea; observations that could imply new principles for treatment of this disease with significant global impact.

  3. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products


    Chunyan Yang; Qianrong Li; Yong Li


    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the ext...

  4. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.


    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  5. Effect of purification followed by solubilization of receptor material on quantitative receptor assays for anticholinergic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smisterova, J.; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    In order to optimize quantitative receptor assays for anticholinergics, the different receptor preparations resulting from the purification and the solubilization of the P2 pellet From the calf striatum were evaluated. The dissociation constants for two chemically different anticholinergics, the

  6. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  7. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy. (United States)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun


    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects.

  8. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  9. Regulation of AMPA receptors in spinal nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qing


    Full Text Available Abstract The functional properties of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cerebellum, have been well studied in vitro and in vivo. The AMPA receptors present a unique characteristic in the mechanisms of subunit regulation during LTP (long-term potentiation and LTD (long-term depression, which are involved in the trafficking, altered composition and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits. Accumulated data have demonstrated that spinal AMPA receptors play a critical role in the mechanism of both acute and persistent pain. However, less is known about the biochemical regulation of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord in response to painful stimuli. Recent studies have shown that some important regulatory processes, such as the trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit, subunit compositional changes, phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits, and their interaction with partner proteins may contribute to spinal nociceptive transmission. Of all these regulation processes, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits is the most important since it may trigger or affect other cellular processes. Therefore, these study results may suggest an effective strategy in developing novel analgesics targeting AMPA receptor subunit regulation that may be useful in treating persistent and chronic pain without unacceptable side effects in the clinics.

  10. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha eRamachandrappa


    Full Text Available The five melanocortin receptors named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behaviour as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. The discovery of MRAPs as a novel accessory factor to the melanocortin receptors provides further insight into the regulation of these important GPCRs.

  11. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors


    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut


    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5...

  12. Diffusion barriers constrain receptors at synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Renner

    Full Text Available The flux of neurotransmitter receptors in and out of synapses depends on receptor interaction with scaffolding molecules. However, the crowd of transmembrane proteins and the rich cytoskeletal environment may constitute obstacles to the diffusion of receptors within the synapse. To address this question, we studied the membrane diffusion of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(AR subunits clustered (γ2 or not (α5 at inhibitory synapses in rat hippocampal dissociated neurons. Relative to the extrasynaptic region, γ2 and α5 showed reduced diffusion and increased confinement at both inhibitory and excitatory synapses but they dwelled for a short time at excitatory synapses. In contrast, γ2 was ~3-fold more confined and dwelled ~3-fold longer in inhibitory synapses than α5, indicating faster synaptic escape of α5. Furthermore, using a gephyrin dominant-negative approach, we showed that the increased residency time of γ2 at inhibitory synapses was due to receptor-scaffold interactions. As shown for GABA(AR, the excitatory glutamate receptor 2 subunit (GluA2 of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR had lower mobility in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses but a higher residency time at excitatory synapses. Therefore barriers impose significant diffusion constraints onto receptors at synapses where they accumulate or not. Our data further reveal that the confinement and the dwell time but not the diffusion coefficient report on the synapse specific sorting, trapping and accumulation of receptors.

  13. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcriptome Reveals Unidentified Neuroendocrine Pathways (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Yamamoto, Sachie; Žitňan, Dušan; Watanabe, Ken; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Satake, Honoo; Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kataoka, Hiroshi


    Neuropeptides are an important class of molecules involved in diverse aspects of metazoan development and homeostasis. Insects are ideal model systems to investigate neuropeptide functions, and the major focus of insect neuropeptide research in the last decade has been on the identification of their receptors. Despite these vigorous efforts, receptors for some key neuropeptides in insect development such as prothoracicotropic hormone, eclosion hormone and allatotropin (AT), remain undefined. In this paper, we report the comprehensive cloning of neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and systematic analyses of their expression. Based on the expression patterns of orphan receptors, we identified the long-sought receptor for AT, which is thought to stimulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpora allata (CA). Surprisingly, however, the AT receptor was not highly expressed in the CA, but instead was predominantly transcribed in the corpora cardiaca (CC), an organ adjacent to the CA. Indeed, by using a reverse-physiological approach, we purified and characterized novel allatoregulatory peptides produced in AT receptor-expressing CC cells, which may indirectly mediate AT activity on the CA. All of the above findings confirm the effectiveness of a systematic analysis of the receptor transcriptome, not only in characterizing orphan receptors, but also in identifying novel players and hidden mechanisms in important biological processes. This work illustrates how using a combinatorial approach employing bioinformatic, molecular, biochemical and physiological methods can help solve recalcitrant problems in neuropeptide research. PMID:18725956

  14. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfactory receptors in the mouse septal organ. (United States)

    Kaluza, Jan F; Gussing, Fredrik; Bohm, Staffan; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Jörg


    In this study we have identified a repertoire of chemosensory receptors expressed in the septal organ (SO). The results suggest that septal organ neurons are specified to express receptor genes belonging to class II olfactory receptors that are also expressed in the main olfactory epithelium. We found no evidence for the expression of members from the vomeronasal receptor gene families. In the SO, no topography analogous to the receptor expression zones of the main olfactory epithelium was evident. The majority of identified receptors corresponds to genes with restricted expression in the medial and lateral zones of the main olfactory epithelium. This coincides with the expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) throughout the SO, which is considered as a marker for the medial-lateral zones. In contrast, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, a characteristic marker for the dorsal zone, was lacking in the SO. Most of the receptor types were found to be expressed in rather few SO neurons; as an exception, the receptor mOR244-3 was observed in a very high proportion of cells. Although a very high fraction of SO neurons expressed mOR244-3, we found no evidence for the coexpression of different receptors in individual cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.; Foekens, J.A. (Sandoz Research Institute Berne, (Switzerland))


    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.

  17. Postsynaptic GABAB receptors enhance extrasynaptic GABAA receptor function in dentate gyrus granule cells. (United States)

    Tao, Wucheng; Higgs, Matthew H; Spain, William J; Ransom, Christopher B


    Ambient GABA in the brain tonically activates extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, and activity-dependent changes in ambient GABA concentration can also activate GABA(B) receptors. To investigate an interaction between postsynaptic GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptors, we recorded GABA(A) currents elicited by exogenous GABA (10 μm) from dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) in adult rat hippocampal slices. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (20 μm) enhanced GABA(A) currents. This enhancement was blocked by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845 and intracellular solutions containing the GTP analog GDP-β-s, indicating that baclofen was acting on postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Modulation of GABA(A) currents by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors was not observed in CA1 pyramidal cells or layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons. Baclofen reduced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) but did not alter sIPSC amplitude or kinetics. Thus, GABA(A) receptors activated at synapses were not modulated by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, tonic GABA currents and currents activated by the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit-selective agonist THIP (10 μm) were potentiated by baclofen. Our data indicate that postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors enhance the function of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, including δ subunit-containing receptors that mediate tonic inhibition in DGGCs. The modulation of GABA(A) receptor function by postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors is a newly identified mechanism that will influence the inhibitory tone of DGGCs when GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptors are both activated.

  18. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors


    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia; Úsuga Perilla, Xiomara


    La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT), receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes induci...

  19. The endocrinology of taste receptors (United States)

    Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M.


    Levels of obesity have reached epidemic proportions on a global scale, which has led to considerable increases in health problems and increased risk of several diseases, including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. People with obesity consume more food than is needed to maintain an ideal body weight, despite the discrimination that accompanies being overweight and the wealth of available information that overconsumption is detrimental to health. The relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake throughout an individual’s lifetime is far more complicated than previously thought. An improved comprehension of the relationships between taste, palatability, taste receptors and hedonic responses to food might lead to increased understanding of the biological underpinnings of energy acquisition, as well as why humans sometimes eat more than is needed and more than we know is healthy. This Review discusses the role of taste receptors in the tongue, gut, pancreas and brain and their hormonal involvement in taste perception, as well as the relationship between taste perception, overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:25707779

  20. Autophagy and the (prorenin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Jean Binger


    Full Text Available The (prorenin receptor (PRR is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS; a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, the identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the renin-angiotensin system and blood pressure. Deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure, eventuating in animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cases, deletion of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (prorenin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

  1. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in cancer. (United States)

    Yu, Lumeng J; Wall, Brian A; Wangari-Talbot, Janet; Chen, Suzie


    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are widely known for their roles in synaptic signaling. However, accumulating evidence suggests roles of mGluRs in human malignancies in addition to synaptic transmission. Somatic cell homeostasis presents intriguing possibilities of mGluRs and glutamate signaling as novel targets for human cancers. More recently, aberrant glutamate signaling has been shown to participate in the transformation and maintenance of various cancer types, including glioma, melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, indicating that genes encoding mGluRs, GRMs, can function as oncogenes. Here, we provide a review on the interactions of mGluRs and their ligand, glutamate, in processes that promote the growth of tumors of neuronal and non-neuronal origins. Further, we discuss the evolution of riluzole, a glutamate release inhibitor approved for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but now fashioned as an mGluR1 inhibitor for melanoma therapy and as a radio-sensitizer for tumors that have metastasized to the brain. With the success of riluzole, it is not far-fetched to believe that other drugs that may act directly or indirectly on other mGluRs can be beneficial for multiple applications. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Androgen receptor drives cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Mirochnik

    Full Text Available The accepted androgen receptor (AR role is to promote proliferation and survival of prostate epithelium and thus prostate cancer progression. While growth-inhibitory, tumor-suppressive AR effects have also been documented, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we for the first time link AR anti-cancer action with cell senescence in vitro and in vivo. First, AR-driven senescence was p53-independent. Instead, AR induced p21, which subsequently reduced ΔN isoform of p63. Second, AR activation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and thereby suppressed Rb phosphorylation. Both pathways were critical for senescence as was proven by p21 and Rb knock-down and by quenching ROS with N-Acetyl cysteine and p63 silencing also mimicked AR-induced senescence. The two pathways engaged in a cross-talk, likely via PML tumor suppressor, whose localization to senescence-associated chromatin foci was increased by AR activation. All these pathways contributed to growth arrest, which resolved in senescence due to concomitant lack of p53 and high mTOR activity. This is the first demonstration of senescence response caused by a nuclear hormone receptor.

  3. Cannabinoid receptors in the kidney. (United States)

    Hryciw, Deanne H; McAinch, Andrew J


    The endocannabinoid system modulates cell signaling targets that are essential for energy homeostasis. Endocannabinoids bind to G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system and periphery, including the kidney. Modulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2 activity in the kidney in diabetes and obesity has been identified as potential therapeutic target to reduce albuminuria and renal fibrosis. This review will highlight the results of recent studies that have identified a role for CB1 and CB2 in normal and pathological renal conditions. CB1 and CB2 have been reported to play key roles in renal function and dysfunction. Recent studies have determined that antagonism of CB1 and agonism of CB2 in diabetic nephropathy and obesity associated kidney disease can reduce albuminuria, potentially by acting on both the glomeruli and tubules. Emerging studies have also identified a role for CB1 in renal diseases associated with fibrosis, with CB1 upregulated in multiple models of human nephropathies. Emerging studies using isolated cells, rodent models, and human studies have identified a critical role for the endocannabinoid system in renal function and disease. Thus, therapeutics that modulate the activity of CB1 and CB2 in renal disease could become clinically relevant.

  4. From anion receptors to transporters. (United States)

    Gale, Philip A


    Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers. In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H(+) and Cl(-). We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes. We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro

  5. The substance P/NK-1 receptor system: NK-1 receptor antagonists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 27, 2015 ... This overexpression suggests the possibility of specific treatment against tumour cells using. NK-1 receptor ... NK-1 receptor may be a promising target in the treatment of cancer; NK-1 receptor antagonists could act as specific drugs against tumour cells; ... agents and stem cell research). Thus, it remains ...

  6. The G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P


    GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C G protein-coupled receptor, that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L-lysine...

  7. A novel fluorescent receptor assay : Based upon receptors embedded in labeled liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viel, Gerhard Theodoor


    Receptor proteins play an essential role in life. All organisms, from bacteria to plants, animals and human beings use receptors for their response to (external) signals. By definition, a receptor is a (macro) molecule which is able to recognize a distinct chemical entity (e.g. a hormone or

  8. Changes in Inhibitory Control of Circular Smooth Muscle During Coilitis in the Rat (United States)


    non cholinergic xiv NKl NO NOS cNOS eNOS iNOS nNOS PGE PGF2 alpha PMN SP TNBS TTX VIP Neurokinin 1 (receptor) Neurokinin 2 (receptor) Neurokiuin A...during inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare inhibitory mechanisms of normal (CONTROL) with inflamed animals . Male Sprague-Dawley rats...particular laboratory animals . It is for these often unrecognized species that this paper as well as research itself has progressed as far as it has today

  9. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus


    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways. To el...

  10. Neurosteroids and GABA-A receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingde eWang


    Full Text Available Neurosteroids represent a class of endogenous steroids that are synthesized in the brain, the adrenals and the gonads and have potent and selective effects on the GABAA-receptor. 3α-hydroxy A-ring reduced metabolites of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone and testosterone are positive modulators of GABAA-receptor in a non-genomic manner. Allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one, 5α-androstane-3α, 17α-diol (Adiol and 3α5α-tetrahydrodeoxy-corticosterone (3α5α-THDOC enhance the GABA mediated Cl− currents acting on a site (or sites distinct from the GABA, benzodiazepine, barbiturate and picrotoxin binding sites. 3α5α-P and 3α5α-THDOC potentiate synaptic GABAA-receptor function and activate delta-subunit containing extrasynaptic receptors that mediate tonic currents. On the contrary, 3β-OH pregnanesteroids and pregnenolone sulfate (PS are GABAA-receptor antagonists and induce activation-dependent inhibition of the receptor. The activities of neurosteroid are dependent on brain regions and types of neurons. In addition to the slow genomic action of the parent steroids, the non-genomic and rapid actions of neurosteroids play a significant role in the GABAA-receptor function and shift in mood and memory function. This review describes molecular mechanisms underlying neurosteroid action on the GABAA receptor, mood changes and cognitive functions.

  11. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K


    'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Receptor assays occupy a particular position in the methods used in bioanalysis, as they do not exploit the physico-chemical properties of the analyte. These assays make use of the property of the analyte to bind to the specific binding site (receptor) and to competitively replace a labelled ligand

  13. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described.......A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described....

  14. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming


    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  15. The P2X7 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Torben Madsen; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye


    from an increase in bone resorption and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta and has been shown to not only mediate the inflammatory response but also to strongly stimulate bone degradation. The purinergic P2X7 receptor is central in the processing...... receptor in immune-mediated bone loss and -osteoporosis....

  16. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    Integrins are heterodimeric (αβ) cell surface receptors that are potential therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Despite the existence of structural data for all parts of integrins, the structure of the complete integrin receptor is still not available. We have used available structural d...

  17. Enantioselective Transport by a Steroidal Guanidinium Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Blackburn, Adrian G.; Breccia, Perla; Davis, Anthony P.; Mendoza, Javier de; Padrón-Carrillo, José M.; Prados, Pilar; Riedner, Jens; Vries, Johannes G. de


    The cationic steroidal receptors 9 and 11 have been synthesized from cholic acid 3. Receptor 9 extracts N-acetyl-α-amino acids from aqueous media into chloroform with enantioselectivities (L:D) of 7-10:1. The lipophilic variant 11 has been employed for the enantioselective transport of

  18. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer (United States)


    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  19. Receptors, G proteins, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollmann, Markus W.; Strumper, Danja; Herroeder, Susanne; Durieux, Marcel E.


    Membrane receptors coupling to intracellular G proteins (G protein-coupled receptors) form one of the major classes of membrane signaling proteins. They are of great importance to the practice of anesthesiology because they are involved in many systems of relevance to the specialty (cardiovascular

  20. Structural Mapping of Adenosine Receptor Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespers, Willem; Schiedel, Anke C; Heitman, Laura H


    The four adenosine receptors (ARs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with exceptional foundations for structure-based ligand design. The vast amount of mutagenesis data, accumulated in the literature since the 1990s, has been recently supplemente...

  1. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))


    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  2. Polymorphisms in human muscarinic receptor subtype genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Teitsma, Christine A.


    A wide range of polymorphisms have been reported in muscarinic receptor subtype genes, mostly in M₁ and M₂ and, to a lesser extent, M₃ receptors. Most studies linking such genetic variability to phenotype have been performed for brain functions, but a more limited amount of information is also

  3. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors (United States)

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S


    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit PMID:24611685

  4. Nuclear receptors in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. (United States)

    Ozgyin, Lilla; Erdős, Edina; Bojcsuk, Dóra; Balint, Balint L


    Nuclear Receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that translate information about the lipid environment into specific genetic programs, a property that renders them good candidates to be mediators of rapid adaptation changes of a species. Lipid-based morphogens, endocrine hormones, fatty acids and xenobiotics might act through this class of transcription factors making them regulators able to fine-tune physiological processes. Here we review the basic concepts and current knowledge on the process whereby small molecules act through nuclear receptors and contribute to transgenerational changes. Several molecules shown to cause transgenerational changes like phthalates, BPA, nicotine, tributylin bind and activate nuclear receptors like ERs, androgen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors or PPARγ. A specific subset of observations involving nuclear receptors has focused on the effects of environmental stress or maternal behaviour on the development of transgenerational traits. While these effects do not involve environmental ligands, they change the expression levels of Estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors of the second generation and consequently initiate an altered genetic program in the second generation. In this review we summarize the available literature about the role of nuclear receptors in transgenerational inheritance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of gonadotropin receptor gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); R. Kraaij (Robert); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)


    textabstractThe receptors for the gonadotropins differ from the other G protein-coupled receptors by having a large extracellular hormone-binding domain, encoded by nine or ten exons. Alternative splicing of the large pre-mRNA of approximately 100 kb can result in mRNA species that encode truncated

  6. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice (United States)

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis....

  7. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.


    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  8. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  9. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David


    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  10. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics. (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki


    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  11. Current Research on Opioid Receptor Function (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Chao, Dongman; Lazarus, Lawrence H.; Xia, Ying


    The use of opioid analgesics has a long history in clinical settings, although the comprehensive action of opioid receptors is still less understood. Nonetheless, recent studies have generated fresh insights into opioid receptor-mediated functions and their underlying mechanisms. Three major opioid receptors (μ-opioid receptor, MOR; δ-opioid receptor, DOR; and κ-opioid receptor, KOR) have been cloned in many species. Each opioid receptor is functionally sub-classified into several pharmacological subtypes, although, specific gene corresponding each of these receptor subtypes is still unidentified as only a single gene has been isolated for each opioid receptor. In addition to pain modulation and addiction, opioid receptors are widely involved in various physiological and pathophysiological activities, including the regulation of membrane ionic homeostasis, cell proliferation, emotional response, epileptic seizures, immune function, feeding, obesity, respiratory and cardiovascular control as well as some neurodegenerative disorders. In some species, they play an essential role in hibernation. One of the most exciting findings of the past decade is the opioid-receptor, especially DOR, mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection. The up-regulation of DOR expression and DOR activation increase the neuronal tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic stress. The DOR signal triggers (depending on stress duration and severity) different mechanisms at multiple levels to preserve neuronal survival, including the stabilization of homeostasis and increased pro-survival signaling (e.g., PKC-ERK-Bcl 2) and anti-oxidative capacity. In the heart, PKC and KATP channels are involved in the opioid receptor-mediated cardioprotection. The DOR-mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection have the potential to significantly alter the clinical pharmacology in terms of prevention and treatment of life-threatening conditions like stroke and myocardial infarction. The main purpose of this article

  12. ETA-receptor antagonists or allosteric modulators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Mey, Jo G R; Compeer, Matthijs G; Lemkens, Pieter


    The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects. In resista......The paracrine signaling peptide endothelin-1 (ET1) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic pain. It acts on class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) but displays atypical pharmacology. It binds tightly to ET receptor type A (ET(A)) and causes long-lasting effects......(A) and that ERAs and the physiological antagonist allosterically reduce ET(A) functions. Combining the two-state model and the two-domain model of GPCR function and considering receptor activation beyond agonist binding might lead to better anti-endothelinergic drugs. Future studies could lead to compounds...

  13. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... simple competitive agonism or antagonism by ligands interacting with the orthosteric binding site of the receptor to incorporate concepts of allosteric agonism, allosteric modulation, signaling bias, constitutive activity, and inverse agonism. Herein, we consider how evolving concepts of GPCR...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia. (United States)

    Pensler, J M; Silverman, B L; Sanghavi, J; Goolsby, C; Speck, G; Brizio-Molteni, L; Molteni, A


    The etiology of gynecomastia is unknown. There seems to be no increased incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia; however, patients with Klinefelter syndrome exhibit an increased incidence of malignancy. The authors reviewed the results of 34 patients with gynecomastia diagnosed in adolescence who, following initial evaluation, had a mastectomy. The estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed in these patients. Three of the patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. These three patients exhibited elevated amounts of estrogen and progesterone receptors. None of the patients who were not diagnosed with this syndrome demonstrated significant elevation of their estrogen or progesterone receptors. The presence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with Klinefelter syndrome provides a potential mechanism by which these patients may develop breast neoplasms. The absence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia may serve to clarify why these patients' disease rarely degenerates into malignancy.

  15. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard


    current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest...... that the binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...

  16. The AT2 Receptor and Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquitino, Veronica Valero; Danyel, Leon Alexander; Steckelings, Ulrike M.


    This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed by a rev......This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed...... by a review of the existing literature addressing the role of the AT2 receptor in a wide range of disorders, in which acute or chronic inflammation is an essential contributor to the pathology. These disorders comprise cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases.Taken as a whole...

  17. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more. (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Kuntz, Steven G; Sternberg, Paul W


    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity, an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and, in particular, we focus on their function as Wnt receptors.

  18. Sigma-2 receptor ligands QSAR model dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rescifina


    Full Text Available The data have been obtained from the Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligands Database (S2RSLDB and refined according to the QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of 548 Sigma-2 (σ2 receptor ligands selective over Sigma-1 (σ1 receptor. The development of the QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together. Data here reported include the regression for σ2 receptor pKi QSAR models. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the σ2 receptor pKi values of the FDA approved drugs that are herewith included.

  19. Frontal affinity chromatography in characterizing immobilized receptors. (United States)

    Calleri, E; Temporini, C; Massolini, G


    The state-of-the-art in frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) applied to receptor of pharmaceutical interest is here reported. This review will first discuss the principles of FAC for ligand characterization (K(d) determination) and for screening studies, and will examine the different strategies that have been followed for the immobilization of a broad range of receptors (cytosolic and membrane receptors). Several reported applications will then be presented demonstrating that FAC is an interesting tool enabling convenient and efficient screening in the identification of new potential ligands. Moreover new applications of FAC including dual binding site assay, receptor subtype characterization, and multi-receptor binding experiments will be underlined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc


    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses (United States)

    Lee, Allen A.; Owyang, Chung


    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28672790

  2. Novel receptors for bacterial protein toxins. (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Aktories, Klaus


    While bacterial effectors are often directly introduced into eukaryotic target cells by various types of injection machines, toxins enter the cytosol of host cells from endosomal compartments or after retrograde transport via Golgi from the ER. A first crucial step of toxin-host interaction is receptor binding. Using optimized protocols and new methods novel toxin receptors have been identified, including metalloprotease ADAM 10 for Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, laminin receptor Lu/BCAM for Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor CNF1, lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) for Clostridium difficile transferase CDT and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich


    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  4. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E


    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Specification of the cholesterol interaction with the oxytocin receptor using a chimeric receptor approach. (United States)

    Wiegand, Volker; Gimpl, Gerald


    The oxytocin receptor specifically requires cholesterol to maintain and stabilize its high-affinity agonist binding. Here, we applied a receptor chimeric approach to coarsely localize the cholesterol binding domain of the oxytocin receptor. During these studies, we identified the specific dependence on cholesterol as a common property of the oxytocin-vasopressin receptor family. We asked whether the oxytocin receptor maintains or loses its cholesterol dependence when parts of the receptor are exchanged by the corresponding fragments of the cholecystokinin receptor that does not show a specific cholesterol dependence. One of the chimeric receptors revealed full oxytocin binding activity, was capable of signal transduction, and its cholesterol dependence was nearly indistinguishable from that of the oxytocin receptor itself. The data suggest that at least the C-terminal segments of the oxytocin receptor including transmembrane domains 6 and 7 do not participate in cholesterol binding. Thus, the binding sites for the modulator cholesterol and for the agonist oxytocin are therefore most likely colocalized in the N-terminal segment of the oxytocin receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide


    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  7. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge


    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  8. Receptor Quaternary Organization Explains G Protein-Coupled Receptor Family Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Felce


    Full Text Available The organization of Rhodopsin-family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs at the cell surface is controversial. Support both for and against the existence of dimers has been obtained in studies of mostly individual receptors. Here, we use a large-scale comparative study to examine the stoichiometric signatures of 60 receptors expressed by a single human cell line. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer- and single-molecule microscopy-based assays, we found that a relatively small fraction of Rhodopsin-family GPCRs behaved as dimers and that these receptors otherwise appear to be monomeric. Overall, the analysis predicted that fewer than 20% of ∼700 Rhodopsin-family receptors form dimers. The clustered distribution of the dimers in our sample and a striking correlation between receptor organization and GPCR family size that we also uncover each suggest that receptor stoichiometry might have profoundly influenced GPCR expansion and diversification.

  9. Functionally biased signalling properties of 7TM receptors - opportunities for drug development for the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, B; Holliday, N; Madsen, A N


    UNLABELLED: The ghrelin receptor is a 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor involved in a variety of physiological functions including growth hormone secretion, increased food intake and fat accumulation as well as modulation of reward and cognitive functions. Because of its important role in metabolism...... and energy expenditure, the ghrelin receptor has become an important therapeutic target for drug design and the development of anti-obesity compounds. However, none of the compounds developed so far have been approved for commercial use. Interestingly, the ghrelin receptor is able to signal through several...... review, we have described how ligands and mutations in the 7TM receptor may bias the receptors to favour either one G-protein over another or to promote G-protein independent signalling pathways rather than G-protein-dependent pathways. For the ghrelin receptor, both agonist and inverse agonists have...

  10. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors (United States)

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G


    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  11. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi


    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  12. Membrane topology of insulin receptors reconstituted into lipid vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen; Christiansen, K.; Carlsen, Jens


    Anatomy, insulin receptors, membrane reconstitution, electron microscopy, quaternary structure, immunogold labeling......Anatomy, insulin receptors, membrane reconstitution, electron microscopy, quaternary structure, immunogold labeling...

  13. Orexin-1 receptor-cannabinoid CB1 receptor heterodimerization results in both ligand-dependent and -independent coordinated alterations of receptor localization and function. (United States)

    Ellis, James; Pediani, John D; Canals, Meritxell; Milasta, Sandra; Milligan, Graeme


    Following inducible expression in HEK293 cells, the human orexin-1 receptor was targeted to the cell surface but became internalized following exposure to the peptide agonist orexin A. By contrast, constitutive expression of the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor resulted in a predominantly punctate, intracellular distribution pattern consistent with spontaneous, agonist-independent internalization. Expression of the orexin-1 receptor in the presence of the CB1 receptor resulted in both receptors displaying the spontaneous internalization phenotype. Single cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging indicated the two receptors were present as heterodimers/oligomers in intracellular vesicles. Addition of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR-141716A to cells expressing only the CB1 receptor resulted in re-localization of the receptor to the cell surface. Although SR-141716A has no significant affinity for the orexin-1 receptor, in cells co-expressing the CB1 receptor, the orexin-1 receptor was also re-localized to the cell surface by treatment with SR-141716A. Treatment of cells co-expressing the orexin-1 and CB1 receptors with the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-674042 also resulted in re-localization of both receptors to the cell surface. Treatment with SR-141716A resulted in decreased potency of orexin A to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 only in cells co-expressing the two receptors. Treatment with SB-674042 also reduced the potency of a CB1 receptor agonist to phosphorylate ERK1/2 only when the two receptors were co-expressed. These studies introduce an entirely novel pharmacological paradigm, whereby ligands modulate the function of receptors for which they have no significant inherent affinity by acting as regulators of receptor heterodimers.

  14. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, I.J.


    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  15. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils. (United States)

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf


    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Sex hormone receptors in breast cancer. (United States)

    D'Abreo, Nina; Hindenburg, Alexander A


    The dependency of certain breast cancers on estrogen is undeniably one of the most important observations in oncology. Since this early observation, there has been a tremendous effort to define the precise roles of the estrogen receptor (ER) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Estrogen signaling pathways can also be exploited as effective targets for cancer treatment. Both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent receptor activation pathways have been successfully blocked by hormonal therapies including selective ER modulators such as tamoxifen, by blocking and accelerating the degradation of ER (fulvestrant), and by depleting tissue levels of estrogen (aromatase inhibitors). Because of the immense prognostic and predictive value of the ER and PR receptor, accurately defining hormone dependency is also of paramount importance. Despite this avalanche of discovery and development resulting in improved outcome for the patient, resistance to these therapies, both intrinsic and acquired, is well known. Uncovering the various mechanisms of resistance has deepened scientific understanding of posttranslational modifications of these receptors, as well as their cross talk with other receptor families such as the HER-2/neu receptor. The recent discovery that orphan estrogen-related receptors may also play an important role in breast cancer is just starting to be appreciated. A clear understanding of the historical perspective and the intricacies of ER structure and function is required to improve current therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Particle aggregation during receptor-mediated endocytosis (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of particles is driven by large binding energy between ligands on particles and receptors on a membrane, which compensates for the membrane bending energy and for the cost due to the mixing entropy of receptors. While the receptor-mediated endocytosis of individual particle is well understood, much less is known about the joint entry of multiple particles. Here, we demonstrate that the endocytosis of multiple particles leads to a kinetically driven entropic attraction, which may cause the aggregation of particles observed in experiments. During the endocytosis particles absorb nearby receptors and thus produce regions, which are depleted of receptors. When such depleted regions start overlapping, the corresponding particles experience osmotic-like attractive entropic force. If the attractive force between particles is large enough to overcome the repulsive interaction due to membrane bending, then particles tend to aggregate provided that they are sufficiently close, such that they are not completely engulfed before they come in contact. We discuss the necessary conditions for the aggregation of cylindrical particles during receptor-mediated endocytosis and comment on the generalization to spherical particles.

  18. Action mechanisms of Liver X Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbi, Chiara; Warner, Margaret [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Åke, E-mail: [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum S-141 86 (Sweden)


    Highlights: • LXRα and LXRβ are ligand-activated nuclear receptors. • They share oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, RXR. • LXRs regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, CNS and immune functions, and water transport. - Abstract: The two Liver X Receptors, LXRα and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. They share more than 78% homology in amino acid sequence, a common profile of oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, Retinoid X Receptor. LXRs play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways: lipid metabolism, in particular in preventing cellular cholesterol accumulation; glucose homeostasis; inflammation; central nervous system functions and water transport. As with all nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of LXR is the result of an orchestration of numerous cellular factors including ligand bioavailability, presence of corepressors and coactivators and cellular context i.e., what other pathways are activated in the cell at the time the receptor recognizes its ligand. In this mini-review we summarize the factors regulating the transcriptional activity and the mechanisms of action of these two receptors.

  19. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail:; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)


    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  20. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman


    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  1. Orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling cascades. (United States)

    Kukkonen, J P; Leonard, C S


    Orexin (hypocretin) peptides and their two known G-protein-coupled receptors play essential roles in sleep-wake control and powerfully influence other systems regulating appetite/metabolism, stress and reward. Consequently, drugs that influence signalling by these receptors may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. It is therefore critical to understand how these receptors operate, the nature of the signalling cascades they engage and their physiological targets. In this review, we evaluate what is currently known about orexin receptor signalling cascades, while a sister review (Leonard & Kukkonen, this issue) focuses on tissue-specific responses. The evidence suggests that orexin receptor signalling is multifaceted and is substantially more diverse than originally thought. Indeed, orexin receptors are able to couple to members of at least three G-protein families and possibly other proteins, through which they regulate non-selective cation channels, phospholipases, adenylyl cyclase, and protein and lipid kinases. In the central nervous system, orexin receptors produce neuroexcitation by postsynaptic depolarization via activation of non-selective cation channels, inhibition of K⁺ channels and activation of Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchange, but they also can stimulate the release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic actions and modulate synaptic plasticity. Ca²⁺ signalling is also prominently influenced by these receptors, both via the classical phospholipase C-Ca²⁺ release pathway and via Ca²⁺ influx, mediated by several pathways. Upon longer-lasting stimulation, plastic effects are observed in some cell types, while others, especially cancer cells, are stimulated to die. Thus, orexin receptor signals appear highly tunable, depending on the milieu in which they are operating. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. N-glycosylation of the β2 adrenergic receptor regulates receptor function by modulating dimerization. (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Zhou, Mang; Huang, Wei; Yang, Huaiyu


    N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, it remains unknown how N-glycosylation affects GPCR signaling. β2 adrenergic receptor (β2 AR) has three N-glycosylation sites: Asn6, Asn15 at the N-terminus, and Asn187 at the second extracellular loop (ECL2). Here, we show that deletion of the N-glycan did not affect receptor expression and ligand binding. Deletion of the N-glycan at the N-terminus rather than Asn187 showed decreased effects on isoproterenol-promoted G-protein-dependent signaling, β-arrestin2 recruitment, and receptor internalization. Both N6Q and N15Q showed decreased receptor dimerization, while N187Q did not influence receptor dimerization. As decreased β2 AR homodimer accompanied with reduced efficiency for receptor function, we proposed that the N-glycosylation of β2 AR regulated receptor function by influencing receptor dimerization. To verify this hypothesis, we further paid attention to the residues at the dimerization interface. Studies of Lys60 and Glu338, two residues at the receptor dimerization interface, exhibited that the K60A/E338A showed decreased β2 AR dimerization and its effects on receptor signaling were similar to N6Q and N15Q, which further supported the importance of receptor dimerization for receptor function. This work provides new insights into the relationship among glycosylation, dimerization, and function of GPCRs. Peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F, EC; endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase A (Endo-A, EC © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya


    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  4. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A


    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 281...... of patients, receptor positive cases fared better than negative cases in all situations. Investigation of the prognostic power revealed that classification based on IHA allowed better discrimination of patients than classification based on the DCC method. The reason for this difference might be because...

  5. Nicotinic receptors, memory, and hippocampus. (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J


    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate the neurobiological processes underlying hippocampal learning and memory. In addition, nicotine's ability to desensitize and upregulate certain nAChRs may alter hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Numerous studies have examined the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning, as well as the roles of low- and high-affinity nAChRs in mediating nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These studies suggested that while acute nicotine generally acts as a cognitive enhancer for hippocampus-dependent learning, withdrawal from chronic nicotine results in deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that low- and high-affinity nAChRs functionally differ in their involvement in nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning. In the present chapter, we reviewed studies using systemic or local injections of acute or chronic nicotine, nAChR subunit agonists or antagonists; genetically modified mice; and molecular biological techniques to characterize the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning.

  6. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg


    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  7. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Bird


    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  8. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Julie Ladeby; Blaabjerg, Morten; Bogetofte Thomasen, Helle


    differentiated an immortalized, forebrain-derived stem cell line in the presence or absence of glutamate and with addition of either the group I mGluR agonist DHPG or the selective antagonists; MPEP (mGluR5) and LY367385 (mGluR1). Characterization of differentiated cells revealed that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were...... present on the cells. Addition of glutamate to the growth medium significantly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell death, resulting in increased cell numbers. In the presence of glutamate, selective activation of group I mGluRs reduced gliogenesis, whereas selective inhibition of group I m...... is, however, needed to realise their therapeutic potential. Glutamate and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) affect proliferation and survival of rodent NSCs both during embryonic and postnatal development. To investigate the role of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) on human NSCs, we...

  9. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors. (United States)

    Bird, Steve; Tafalla, Carolina


    Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  10. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.


    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  11. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J. (UWA); (St. Vincent); (Queensland)


    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  12. Structure of Leptin Receptor Related with Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toleikis, Zigmantas

    The hormone leptin is central to obesity, but the molecular processes underlying the activation of the leptin receptor are unknown. To further the understanding of the system, an atomic resolution structure of this cytokine type I receptor in the unbound inactive form and in the activated bound...... form is a necessity. Here, the solution state structures of two of the seven extracellular domains of the receptor are presented: the D2 and the D5CA domains. The latter is a double-mutant (C604A, C613A). The function of the D2 domain is unknown, but data indicate that it increases the signaling...... of the receptor, while the D5 domain is the central leptin-binding domain, implicated in the first steps of activation. Both domains are characterized by a fibronectin type III fold and both contain a conserved WSXWS motif (X represents an unconserved amino acid residue), a distinct feature of the cytokine...

  13. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  14. Measuring receptor recycling in polarized MDCK cells. (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Apodaca, Gerard


    Recycling of proteins such as channels, pumps, and receptors is critical for epithelial cell function. In this chapter we present a method to measure receptor recycling in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using an iodinated ligand. We describe a technique to iodinate transferrin (Tf), we discuss how (125)I-Tf can be used to label a cohort of endocytosed Tf receptor, and then we provide methods to measure the rate of recycling of the (125)I-Tf-receptor complex. We also show how this approach, which is easily adaptable to other proteins, can be used to simultaneously measure the normally small amount of (125)I-Tf transcytosis and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cardioprotective effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.N.A. van den; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Frohlich, G.M.; Deinum, J.; Hausenloy, D.J.; Riksen, N.P.


    Despite state-of-the-art reperfusion therapy, morbidity and mortality remain significant in patients with an acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, novel strategies to limit myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are urgently needed. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are attractive

  16. Steroid hormone receptors in male breast diseases. (United States)

    Pacheco, M M; Oshima, C F; Lopes, M P; Widman, A; Franco, E L; Brentani, M M


    Estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen (AR) receptors were assayed in tumor samples from 8 cases of male breast cancer (MBC) and 20 cases of male gynecomastia. Seven out of eight (87.5%) male tumor samples had positive ER assays with values ranging from 12 to 180 fmol/mg protein. Of the seven ER positive cases of MBC, six, had positive PR activity with high titers. Positive GR and AR values were also detected in 75% of MBC cases. Concentrations of all four receptors were significantly correlated with each other. With gynecomastic tissue, the proportion of receptor-positive patients was 20% ER, 20% PR, 20% AR, and 45% GR. Except for GR, steroid receptor values for MBC individuals were significantly higher than those of gynecomastia patients.

  17. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim


    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  18. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia


    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new...... insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...... shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart


    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  20. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  1. Fluctuation correlation models for receptor immobilization (United States)

    Fourcade, B.


    Nanoscale dynamics with cycles of receptor diffusion and immobilization by cell-external-or-internal factors is a key process in living cell adhesion phenomena at the origin of a plethora of signal transduction pathways. Motivated by modern correlation microscopy approaches, the receptor correlation functions in physical models based on diffusion-influenced reaction is studied. Using analytical and stochastic modeling, this paper focuses on the hybrid regime where diffusion and reaction are not truly separable. The time receptor autocorrelation functions are shown to be indexed by different time scales and their asymptotic expansions are given. Stochastic simulations show that this analysis can be extended to situations with a small number of molecules. It is also demonstrated that this analysis applies when receptor immobilization is coupled to environmental noise.

  2. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David


    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  3. Gαs signalling of the CB1 receptor and the influence of receptor number. (United States)

    Finlay, David B; Cawston, Erin E; Grimsey, Natasha L; Hunter, Morag R; Korde, Anisha; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Glass, Michelle


    CB1 receptor signalling is canonically mediated through inhibitory Gαi proteins, but occurs through other G proteins under some circumstances, Gαs being the most characterized secondary pathway. Determinants of this signalling switch identified to date include Gαi blockade, CB1 /D2 receptor co-stimulation, CB1 agonist class and cell background. Hence, we examined the effects of receptor number and different ligands on CB1 receptor signalling. CB1 receptors were expressed in HEK cells at different levels, and signalling characterized for cAMP by real-time BRET biosensor -CAMYEL - and for phospho-ERK by AlphaScreen. Homogenate and whole cell radioligand binding assays were performed to characterize AM6544, a novel irreversible CB1 receptor antagonist. In HEK cells expressing high levels of CB1 receptors, agonist treatment stimulated cAMP, a response not known to be mediated by receptor number. Δ(9) -THC and BAY59-3074 increased cAMP only in high-expressing cells pretreated with pertussis toxin, and agonists demonstrated more diverse signalling profiles in the stimulatory pathway than the canonical inhibitory pathway. Pharmacological CB1 receptor knockdown and Gαi 1 supplementation restored canonical Gαi signalling to high-expressing cells. Constitutive signalling in both low- and high-expressing cells was Gαi -mediated. CB1 receptor coupling to opposing G proteins is determined by both receptor and G protein expression levels, which underpins a mechanism for non-canonical signalling in a fashion consistent with Gαs signalling. CB1 receptors mediate opposite consequences in endpoints such as tumour viability depending on expression levels; our results may help to explain such effects at the level of G protein coupling. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects (United States)


    Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects Jonathan D. Bohbot and Joseph C. Dickens* Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Plant Sciences...Germany Guenter Gisselmann, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany *Correspondence: Joseph C. Dickens, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory...Building 007, Room 030, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. e-mail: Insect olfactory receptors (ORs

  5. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer . The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer . During

  6. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function


    Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Yoshikatsu; Sekine, Keisuke; Fukuda, Toru; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Krust, Andrée; Yamada, Takashi; NAKAMICHI, YUKO; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya


    Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into estrogen, with the consequent activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling. Thus, the role of androgen receptor (AR) in perinatal...

  7. Structure of a Streptococcal Adhesin Carbohydrate Receptor (United States)


    from the cell wall polysac- dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Strepto- charide of S. sanguis HI is: a-L-Rhap-( 1--2)-a-i-Rhap- coccus sanguis ...8217H) correlation experi- Streptococctzs sanguis , Actinomyces uiscosis, and Actinomyces ments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages act as ad-sequence of the glycosyl residues was determined by a hesin receptors have been studied in detail to date. S. sanguis This investigation

  8. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  9. Increased Accuracy of Ligand Sensing by Receptor Internalization and Lateral Receptor Diffusion (United States)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Endres, Robert


    Many types of cells can sense external ligand concentrations with cell-surface receptors at extremely high accuracy. Interestingly, ligand-bound receptors are often internalized, a process also known as receptor-mediated endocytosis. While internalization is involved in a vast number of important functions for the life of a cell, it was recently also suggested to increase the accuracy of sensing ligand as overcounting of the same ligand molecules is reduced. A similar role may be played by receptor diffusion om the cell membrane. Fast, lateral receptor diffusion is known to be relevant in neurotransmission initiated by release of neurotransmitter glutamate in the synaptic cleft between neurons. By binding ligand and removal by diffusion from the region of release of the neurotransmitter, diffusing receptors can be reasonably expected to reduce the local overcounting of the same ligand molecules in the region of signaling. By extending simple ligand-receptor models to out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that both receptor internalization and lateral diffusion increase the accuracy with which cells can measure ligand concentrations in the external environment. We confirm this with our model and give quantitative predictions for experimental parameters values. We give quantitative predictions, which compare favorably to experimental data of real receptors.

  10. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C.; Teichmann, Anke


    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may......, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked...

  11. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa


    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker of depre......Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...... an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  12. Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli. (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie


    L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, such as GMP and IMP, elicit the "umami" taste, also known as the fifth taste. This review will highlight recent advancements in our understanding of umami taste receptors and their downstream signaling effectors in taste receptor cells. Several G protein-coupled receptors that bind umami stimuli have been identified in taste buds, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, truncated and brain forms of mGluR4 and mGluR1, brain mGluR2, and brain mGluR3. Further, ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in taste cells and may play a role in glutamate transduction or signaling between taste cells and/or nerve fibers. Knockout of T1R1 or T1R3 reduces, but does not eliminate, responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that multiple receptors contribute to umami taste. The signaling effectors downstream of umami G protein-coupled receptors involve Gbetagamma activation of PLCbeta2 to elicit Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of a cation channel, TRPM5. In fungiform and palatal taste buds, T1R1/T1R3 is co-expressed with Galpha gustducin and transducin, but the Galpha proteins involved in circumvallate taste buds have not been identified. In most taste fields, however, cAMP antagonizes responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that the Galpha subunit serves to modulate umami taste sensitivity.

  13. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline G. Huey


    Full Text Available Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  14. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.


    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  15. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands. (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G


    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  16. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection (United States)

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter


    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection. While the CNS contains principally the MC3 and MC4 receptor subtypes, there is conflicting data as to which receptor mediates erection. Although the MC4R is emerging as the principle effector of MC induced erection, the role of the MC3R is poorly understood. Manipulation of each receptor subtype with newly synthesized receptor specific agonists and antagonists, as well as knockout mice, has elucidated their individual contributions. Novel data from our laboratories suggests that antagonism of forebrain MC3R may enhance melanocortin-induced erections. Furthermore, melanocortin agents may interact with better-studied systems such as oxytocinergic pathways at the hypothalamic, brainstem or spinal level. Current therapies for erectile dysfunction target end organ vascular tissue. Manipulation of MC receptors may provide an alternative, centrally mediated therapeutic approach for erectile and other sexual dysfunctions. The non-specific “superpotent” MC agonist, PT-141, which is the carboxylate derivative of MT-II, has reached phase II human trials. Through their centrally mediated activity, melanocortin agonists have potential to treat erectile dysfunction as well as possible applications to the unmet medical needs of decreased sexual motivation and loss of libido. PMID:17584130

  17. ROR-Family Receptor Tyrosine Kinases. (United States)

    Stricker, Sigmar; Rauschenberger, Verena; Schambony, Alexandra


    ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling. In line with their diverse repertoire of signaling functions, ROR receptors are involved in the regulation of multiple processes in embryonic development such as development of the axial and paraxial mesoderm, the nervous system and the neural crest, the axial and appendicular skeleton, and the kidney. In humans, mutations in the ROR2 gene cause two distinct developmental syndromes, recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS; MIM 268310) and dominant brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1; MIM 113000). In Robinow syndrome patients and animal models, the development of multiple organs is affected, whereas BDB1 results only in shortening of the distal phalanges of fingers and toes, reflecting the diversity of functions and signaling activities of ROR-family RTKs. In this chapter, we give an overview on ROR receptor structure and function. We discuss their signaling functions and role in vertebrate embryonic development with a focus on those developmental processes that are affected by mutations in the ROR2 gene in human patients. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal ions and human sperm mannose receptors. (United States)

    Benoff, S; Cooper, G W; Centola, G M; Jacob, A; Hershlag, A; Hurley, I R


    Zinc and lead concentrations were measured in seminal plasma from fertile donors, infertile men with varicocoele and men undergoing work-ups for in vitro fertilization. Ejaculated spermatozoa from these subjects were incubated in vitro with various metal ions and/or dibromoethane and dibromochloropropane. Mannose receptor expression was correlated with metal and toxicant levels. Sperm distributions of potassium channels were compared with lead ions and calcium channels with zinc ions. Mannose receptor expression by capacitated spermatozoa increased linearly with seminal plasma zinc levels, and correlated inversely with lead levels. Cobalt had no effect on mannose receptor expression, but nickel had a concentration-dependent biphasic effect. Mannose receptor expression was not affected by dibromoethane and dibromochloropropane if the cholesterol content of the sperm membrane was high, but mannose receptor expression was decreased in low cholesterol spermatozoa by exposures below estimated permissive exposure limits. Potassium channels and lead ions co-localized over the entire head of human spermatozoa, while both calcium channels and zinc ions were confined to the equatorial segment of the head. Mannose receptor expression on the external surface of the human sperm plasma membrane is a biomarker for the effects of transition and heavy metals and organic toxicants on sperm fertility potential.

  19. Receptor-mediated signalling at plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eFaulkner


    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD generate continuity between plant cells via the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and plasma membrane (PM, allowing movement of different classes of molecules between cells. Proteomic data indicates that the PD PM hosts many receptors and receptor kinases, as well as lipid raft and tetraspanin enriched microdomain associated proteins, suggesting the hypothesis that the PD PM is specialised with respect to both composition and function. PD-located receptor proteins and receptor kinases are responsible for perception of microbe associated molecular patterns at PD and initiate signalling that mediates changes to PD flux. In addition, developmentally relevant receptor kinases have different interactions dependent upon whether located at the PD PM or the cellular PM. The implications of these findings are that receptor-mediated signalling in PD membranes differs from that in the cellular PM and, in light the identification of PD-located proteins associated with membrane microdomains and the role of membrane microdomains in analogous signalling processes in animals, suggests that the PD PM contains specialised signalling platforms.

  20. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S


    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  1. Rolapitant for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (United States)

    Navari, Rudolph M


    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a significant clinical issue which affects patient's quality of life and treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents 5-HT3, receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK-1 receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. A second NK-1 receptor antagonist netupitant was approved for use in October 2014. Phase III clinical trials of an additional NK-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant have been completed, and the data have been submitted for regulatory approval. A description of rolapitant and its role in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting will be presented, along with a comparison of the other neurolinin-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant and netupitant.

  2. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eAllouche


    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  3. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells. (United States)

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu


    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  4. Molecular modeling of the human serotonin(1A) receptor : role of membrane cholesterol in ligand binding of the receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paila, Yamuna Devi; Tiwari, Shrish; Sengupta, Durba; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha


    Serotonin(1A) receptors are important neurotransmitter receptors and belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although it is an important drug target, the crystal structure of the serotonin(1A) receptor has not been solved yet. Earlier homology models of the serotonin(1A)

  5. Development and validation of fluorescent receptor assays based on the human recombinant estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de boer, T; Otjens, D; Muntendam, A; Meulman, E; van Oostijen, M; Ensing, K


    This article describes the development and validation of two fluorescent receptor assays for the hRec-estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta. As a labelled ligand an autofluorescent phyto-estrogen (coumestrol) has been used. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the nuclear receptor family, a

  6. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in unique VLDL receptor, LDL receptor, and LRP triple-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espirito Santo, S.M.S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Goudriaan, J.R.; Bensadoun, A.; Bovenschen, N.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van


    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) are the three main apolipoprotein E-recognizing endocytic receptors involved in the clearance of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins from plasma.

  7. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55* (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria


    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  8. Anti-opioid receptor antibody recognition of a binding site on brain and leukocyte opioid receptors. (United States)

    Carr, D J; DeCosta, B R; Kim, C H; Jacobson, A E; Bost, K L; Rice, K C; Blalock, J E


    Opioid receptors reportedly exist on neuronal tissue of central and peripheral origin as well as on cells of the immune system. Previously, an opioid receptor has been purified from the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line, NG108-15 cells. In an effort to compare these results with opioid receptors isolated from primary neuronal tissue, we employed a methodology based on the molecular recognition theory to develop a monoclonal antibody which was used to isolate and biochemically characterize murine brain opioid receptors. We herein report the purification of an opioid receptor from mouse brain with a molecular weight of 65,000 daltons (range was 62-70 kD under reducing conditions) using a monoclonal antibody to an (the) opioid receptor. In situ labeling experiments with the delta-class selective opioid receptor affinity ligand, cis-(+)-3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate (SUPERFIT) of brain membrane confirmed these observations. Moreover, SUPERFIT, when coupled to the binding site, could block the recognition of the receptor by the monoclonal antibody. However, the selective, mu-class opioid receptor affinity reagent, 2-(p-ethoxybenzyl)-1-N,N-diethylaminoethyl-5-isothiocyanatobenz imidazole was ineffective at masking the binding site from recognition by the monoclonal antibody. Likewise, opioid-like receptors were purified from murine leukocytes which migrated at a molecular weight of 58,000 daltons under nonreducing conditions and 70,000 daltons under reducing conditions. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified receptor is shown to specifically bind the delta-class-selective opioid ligand, cis-(+)-3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate as well as the endogenous opioid peptides, beta-endorphin and [Met]-enkephalin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The Insect Ortholog of the Human Orphan Cytokine Receptor CRLF3 Is a Neuroprotective Erythropoietin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hahn


    Full Text Available The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo mediates various cell homeostatic responses to environmental challenges and pathological insults. While stimulation of vertebrate erythrocyte production is mediated by homodimeric “classical” Epo receptors, alternative receptors are involved in neuroprotection. However, their identity remains enigmatic due to complex cytokine ligand and receptor interactions and conflicting experimental results. Besides the classical Epo receptor, the family of type I cytokine receptors also includes the poorly characterized orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3 present in vertebrates including human and various insect species. By making use of the more simple genetic makeup of insect model systems, we studied whether CRLF3 is a neuroprotective Epo receptor in animals. We identified a single ortholog of CRLF3 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, and established protocols for primary neuronal cell cultures from Tribolium brains and efficient in vitro RNA interference. Recombinant human Epo as well as the non-erythropoietic Epo splice variant EV-3 increased the survival of serum-deprived brain neurons, confirming the previously described neuroprotective effect of Epo in insects. Moreover, Epo completely prevented hypoxia-induced apoptotic cell death of primary neuronal cultures. Knockdown of CRLF3 expression by RNA interference with two different double stranded RNA (dsRNA fragments abolished the neuroprotective effect of Epo, indicating that CRLF3 is a crucial component of the insect Epo-responsive receptor. This suggests that a common urbilaterian ancestor of the orphan human and insect cytokine receptor CRLF3 served as a neuroprotective receptor for an Epo-like cytokine. Our work also suggests that vertebrate CRLF3, like its insect ortholog, might represent a tissue protection-mediating receptor.

  10. Role of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 as a lactoferrin receptor. (United States)

    Takayama, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Reiji; Uchida, Ryo; Tajima, Atsushi; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako


    Lactoferrin exerts its biological activities by interacting with receptors on target cells, including LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1/CD91), intelectin-1 (omentin-1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects mediated by these receptors are not sufficient to fully explain the many functions of lactoferrin. C-X-C-motif cytokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). Lactoferrin was found to be as capable as SDF-1 in blocking infection by an HIV variant that uses CXCR4 as a co-receptor (X4-tropic HIV), suggesting that lactoferrin interacts with CXCR4. We addressed whether CXCR4 acts as a lactoferrin receptor using HaCaT human keratinocytes and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. We found that bovine lactoferrin interacted with CXCR4-containing lipoparticles, and that this interaction was not antagonized by SDF-1. In addition, activation of Akt in response to lactoferrin was abrogated by AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of CXCR4, or by a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that CXCR4 functions as a lactoferrin receptor able to mediate activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Lactoferrin stimulation mimicked many aspects of SDF-1-induced CXCR4 activity, including receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Cycloheximide chase assays indicated that turnover of CXCR4 was accelerated in response to lactoferrin. These results indicate that CXCR4 is a potent lactoferrin receptor that mediates lactoferrin-induced activation of Akt signaling.

  11. BRET biosensor analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana eSiddiqui


    Full Text Available Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET is an improved version of earlier resonance energy transfer technologies used for the analysis of biomolecular protein interaction. BRET analysis can be applied to many transmembrane receptor classes, however the majority of the early published literature on BRET has focused on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR research. In contrast, there is limited scientific literature using BRET to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activity. This limited investigation is surprising as RTKs often employ dimerization as a key factor in their activation, as well as being important therapeutic targets in medicine, especially in the cases of cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative and respiratory conditions. In this review, we consider an array of studies pertinent to RTKs and other non-GPCR receptor protein-protein signaling interactions; more specifically we discuss receptor-protein interactions involved in the transmission of signaling communication. We have provided an overview of functional BRET studies associated with the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK super family involving: neurotrophic receptors (e.g. tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR; insulinotropic receptors (e.g. insulin receptor (IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR and growth factor receptors (e.g. ErbB receptors including the EGFR, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. In addition, we review BRET-mediated studies of other tyrosine kinase-associated receptors including cytokine receptors, i.e. leptin receptor (OB-R and the growth hormone receptor (GHR. It is clear even from the relatively sparse experimental RTK BRET evidence that there is tremendous potential for this technological application for the functional investigation of RTK biology.

  12. Regulation and binding of pregnane X receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Liuh-Yow; Ghosh, Jagadish C; Chen, J Don


    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in liver and intestine. PXR coordinates hepatic responses to prevent liver injury induced by environmental toxins. PXR activates cytochrome P450 3A4 gene expression upon binding to rifampicin (Rif) and clotrimazole (CTZ) by recruiting transcriptional coactivators. It remains unclear whether and how PXR regulates gene expression in the absence of ligand. In this study, we analyzed interactions between PXR and the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and determined the role of SMRT in regulating PXR activity. We show that SMRT interacts with PXR in glutathione S-transferase pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and mammalian two-hybrid assays. The interaction is mediated through the ligand-binding domain of PXR and the SMRTs' nuclear receptor-interacting domain 2. The PXR-SMRT interaction is sensitive to species-specific ligands, and Rif causes an exchange of the corepressor SMRT with the p160 coactivator known as receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3). Deletion of the PXR's activation function 2 helix enhances SMRT binding and abolishes ligand-dependent dissociation of SMRT. Coexpression of PXR with SMRT results in colocalization at discrete nuclear foci. Finally, transient transfection assays show that overexpression of SMRT inhibits PXR's transactivation of the Cyp3A4 promoter, whereas silencing of SMRT enhances the reporter expression. Taken together, our results suggest that the corepressor SMRT may bind to and regulate the transcriptional activity of PXR.

  13. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.


    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  14. Cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Schulz, Sybille; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; de Bruin, Kora; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan


    The cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) alters rewarding properties and intake of food and drugs. Additionally, striatal dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability has been implicated in reward function. This study shows that chronic treatment of rats with rimonabant (1.0 and

  15. A CSF-1 Receptor Phosphotyrosine 559 Signaling Pathway Regulates Receptor Ubiquitination and Tyrosine Phosphorylation* (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Da; Cai, Yunfei; Yu, Wenfeng; Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E. Richard


    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation involves ligand-induced receptor dimerization and transphosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-induced CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination were studied in mouse macrophages. Phosphorylation of CSF-1R Tyr-559, required for the binding of Src family kinases (SFKs), was both necessary and sufficient for these responses and for c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation and all three responses were inhibited by SFK inhibitors. In c-Cbl-deficient macrophages, CSF-1R ubiquitination and tyrosine phosphorylation were substantially inhibited. Reconstitution with wild-type, but not ubiquitin ligase-defective C381A c-Cbl rescued these responses, while expression of C381A c-Cbl in wild-type macrophages suppressed them. Analysis of site-directed mutations in the CSF-1R further suggests that activated c-Cbl-mediated CSF-1R ubiquitination is required for a conformational change in the major kinase domain that allows amplification of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and full receptor activation. Thus the results indicate that CSF-1-mediated receptor dimerization leads to a Tyr-559/SFK/c-Cbl pathway resulting in receptor ubiquitination that permits full receptor tyrosine phosphorylation of this class III RTK in macrophages. PMID:21041311

  16. The WSXWS motif in cytokine receptors is a molecular switch involved in receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; Knudsen, Maiken J.; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt


    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is activated by binding of prolactin in a 2:1 complex, but the activation mechanism is poorly understood. PRLR has a conserved WSXWS motif generic to cytokine class I receptors. We have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the membrane...

  17. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Hassager, C; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    To investigate the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor (ER) genes in relation to biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum osteocalcin and urinary collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps), and to study ER genotypes in relation to serum lipoproteins, blood...

  18. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric (Michigan-Med); (Van Andel)


    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  19. Epidermal-growth-factor receptors generate Ras.GTP more efficiently than insulin receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterop, A.P.R.M.; Medema, R.H.; Zon, G.C.M. van der; Bos, J.L.; Möller, W.; Maassen, J.A.


    Activation of the Ras proto-oncogene contributes in general to mitogenic activation of cells. We show here that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates Ras.GTP formation very efficiently in a variety of cell lines expressing endogenous EGF receptors only. Maximal activation of the receptor converts

  20. All three LDL receptor homology regions of the LDL receptor-related protein bind multiple ligands. (United States)

    Croy, Johnny E; Shin, William D; Knauer, Mary F; Knauer, Daniel J; Komives, Elizabeth A


    The three complete human LDL receptor homology regions of the LDL receptor-related protein (sLRP2, sLRP3, and sLRP4) have been expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168 with constitutive coexpression of the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Each sLRP was purified to homogeneity after deglycosylation using a combination of anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of each fragment at purified yields of several milligrams per liter. Despite the large number of disulfide linkages and glycosylation sites in each LDL receptor homology region (sLRP), all were shown to be competent for binding to several LRP1 ligands. Each sLRP also bound human RAP, which is thought to be a generalized receptor antagonist, in solution-binding experiments. As expected, sLRP2 bound the receptor-binding domain of alpha(2)-macroglobulin (residues 1304-1451). All three sLRPs bound human apolipoprotein-enriched beta very low density lipoprotein, the canonical ligand for this receptor. All three sLRPs also bound lactoferrin and thrombin-protease nexin 1 complexes. Only sLRP4 bound thrombin-antithrombin III complexes. The results show that binding-competent LDL receptor homology regions (sLRPs) can be produced in high yield in P. pastoris and readily purified. Each sLRP has binding sites for multiple ligands, but not all ligand binding could be competed by RAP.

  1. Biased signaling of G protein-coupled receptors - From a chemokine receptor CCR7 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Astrid Sissel; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Hjortø, Gertrud M


    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and their associated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) work in a concerted manner to govern immune cell positioning in time and space. Promiscuity of both ligands and receptors, but also biased signaling within the chemokine system, adds to the complexity of how...

  2. Receptors as microprocessors: pharmacological nuance on metabotropic glutamate receptors 1alpha. (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry


    G protein-coupled receptors have revealed themselves to be complex information-processing units that may be exploited for subtle therapeutic signaling effects. Thus, ligands may not only turn receptors on and off, but may also select from their repertoire of signaling effects to further refine drug response.

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta-receptors and porcine muscarinic receptors. (United States)

    Chung, F Z; Lentes, K U; Gocayne, J; Fitzgerald, M; Robinson, D; Kerlavage, A R; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C


    Two cDNA clones, lambda-CLFV-108 and lambda-CLFV-119, encoding for the beta-adrenergic receptor, have been isolated from a human brain stem cDNA library. One human genomic clone, LCV-517 (20 kb), was characterized by restriction mapping and partial sequencing. The human brain beta-receptor consists of 413 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 46480. The gene contains three potential glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites. The beta-receptor expressed in human brain was homology with rodent (88%) and avian (52%) beta-receptors and with porcine muscarinic cholinergic receptors (31%), supporting our proposal [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 272 276] that adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are structurally related. This represents the first cloning of a neurotransmitter receptor gene from human brain.

  4. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus


    , the glucagon receptor, and the receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1 and PTHR2). The dysregulation of several family B1 receptors is involved in diseases, such as diabetes, chronic inflammation, and osteoporosis which underlines the pathophysiological importance of this GPCR subfamily. In spite of this......, investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality...... in family B1 GPCRs. One example of the functional effects of GPCR oligomerization is the facilitation of allosterism including cooperativity in ligand binding to GPCRs. Here, we review the currently available data on family B1 GPCR homo- and heteromerization, mainly based on BRET investigations. Furthermore...

  5. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))


    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  6. Neuroactive Steroids: Receptor Interactions and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kald Beshir Tuem


    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids (NASs are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs. NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors. Among these, NSs (especially allopregnanolone have high potency and extensive GABA-A receptors and hence demonstrate anticonvulsant, anesthetic, central cytoprotectant, and baroreflex inhibitory effects. NSs are also involved in mood and learning via serotonin and anti-nociceptive activity via T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, they are modulators of mitochondrial function, synaptic plasticity, or regulators of apoptosis, which have a role in neuroprotective via voltage-dependent anion channels receptors. For proper functioning, NASs need to be in their normal level, whereas excess and deficiency may lead to abnormalities. When they are below the normal, NSs could have a part in development of depression, neuro-inflammation, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, stress and attention deficit disorder could occur during excessive level. Overall, NASs are very important molecules with major neuropsychiatric activity.

  7. Cellular receptors for human enterovirus species A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorihiro eNishimura


    Full Text Available Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A is one of the four species of HEV in the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 and enterovirus 71 (EV71 are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Some other types of HEV-A are commonly associated with herpangina. Although HFMD and herpangina due to HEV-A are common febrile diseases among infants and children, EV71 can cause various neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis and fatal encephalitis.Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, were identified as functional receptors for EV71 and CVA16. In in vitro infection experiments using the prototype HEV-A strains, PSGL-1 and SCARB2 could be responsible for the specific receptors for EV71 and CVA16. However, the involvement of both receptors in the in vitro and in vivo infections of clinical isolates of HEV-A has not been clarified yet. To elucidate a diverse array of the clinical outcome of HEV-A-associated diseases, the identification and characterization of HEV-A receptors may provide useful information in understanding the HEV-A pathogenesis at a molecular level.

  8. Receptors: How low can you go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H Steven


    The EGF receptor plays a key role in many cancers, where it is often overabundant or overactive. Anti-EGF receptor therapies have proven useful in treating some cancers, but their effectiveness is limited because tumors commonly become resistant. To develop better therapies, it would be helpful to know which EGF receptor signals drive the growth of tumors. This should be predictable from the percentage of occupied receptors on the tumor cells, but this cannot be measured directly. It should also be possible to infer the level of occupancy by measuring the amount of ligand either made by the tumor itself or available from the surrounding environment. However, locally produced ligands are consumed as fast as they are produced (DeWitt et al., 2001) and only low levels – of the magnitude of picomoles – are found in extracellular fluids accessible by tumors, such as the blood (Chien et al., 1997). This lack of information on either the level of occupied receptors or available ligands within tumors is a critical knowledge gap in identifying the signaling events that drive their growth.

  9. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.


    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  10. Roles of transferrin receptors in erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Masuda, Taro; Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Ohmori, Katsuyuki; Koeffler, H Phillip; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi


    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis, which is mainly provided by macrophages and the intestines in a transferrin (Tf)-bound form. Bone marrow erythroblasts incorporate Tf through endocytosis, which is mediated by transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Recently, human TFR1, aside from its role as a Tf receptor, was also found to be a receptor for the H-subunit of ferritin (FTH). In humans, hematopoietic erythroid precursor cells express high levels of TFR1 and specifically take up the FTH homopolymer (H-ferritin). H-ferritin inhibits the formation of burst forming unit-erythroid colonies in vitro. TFR2, which is also a Tf receptor, is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and erythroid precursor cells. In the liver, TFR2 forms a complex with HFE, a hereditary hemochromatosis-associated protein, and acts as an iron sensor. In mice, hepatocyte-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene has been shown to cause systemic iron-overload with decreased expression of hepcidin, the central regulator of iron homeostasis. In erythroid cells, TFR2 forms a complex with the erythropoietin receptor and facilitates its trafficking to the cell membrane. Moreover, hematopoietic cell-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene causes microcytic erythrocytosis in mice. This review focuses on the molecular evolution and functions of these TFRs and their ligands.

  11. Calcitonin receptor expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Cappagli, Virginia; Potes, Catarina Soares; Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Elisei, Rossella; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Wookey, Peter J; Soares, Paula


    Calcitonin expression is a well-established marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); yet the role of calcitonin receptor (CTR), its seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, remains to be established in C-cells derived thyroid tumors. The aim of this work was to investigate CTR expression in MTC and to correlate such expression with clinicopathological features in order to evaluate its possible role as a prognostic indicator of disease aggressiveness and outcome. Calcitonin receptor expression was analyzed in a series of 75 MTCs by immunohistochemistry, and by qPCR mRNA quantification in specimens from four patients. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the correlation between CTR expression and the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of patients and tumors. Calcitonin receptor expression was detected in 62 out of 75 samples (82.7%), whereas 13 of the 75 samples (17.3%) were completely negative. CTR expression was significantly associated with expression of cytoplasmatic phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 and osteopontin, as well as with wild type RET/RAS genes and absence of tumor stroma, suggesting that CTR expression do not associate with clinicopathological signs of worse prognosis. Calcitonin receptor expression appears to be associated in MTC with more differentiated status of the neoplastic cells.

  12. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)


    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  13. Genetic variants of dopamine D2 receptor impact heterodimerization with dopamine D1 receptor. (United States)

    Błasiak, Ewa; Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta


    The human dopamine D2 receptor gene has three polymorphic variants that alter its amino acid sequence: alanine substitution by valine in position 96 (V96A), proline substitution by serine in position 310 (P310S) and serine substitution by cysteine in position 311 (S311C). Their functional role has never been the object of extensive studies, even though there is some evidence that their occurrence correlates with schizophrenia. The HEK293 cell line was transfected with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (or genetic variants of the D2 receptor), coupled to fluorescent proteins which allowed us to measure the extent of dimerization of these receptors, using a highly advanced biophysical approach (FLIM-FRET). Additionally, Fluoro-4 AM was used to examine changes in the level of calcium release after ligand stimulation of cells expressing different combinations of dopamine receptors. Using FLIM-FRET experiments we have shown that in HEK 293 expressing dopamine receptors, polymorphic mutations in the D2 receptor play a role in dimmer formation with the dopamine D1 receptor. The association level of dopamine receptors is affected by ligand administration, with variable effects depending on polymorphic variant of the D2 dopamine receptor. We have found that the level of heteromer formation is reflected by calcium ion release after ligand stimulation and have observed variations of this effect dependent on the polymorphic variant and the ligand. The data presented in this paper support the hypothesis on the role of calcium signaling regulated by the D1-D2 heteromer which may be of relevance for schizophrenia etiology. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The presented purification procedure for the muscarinic receptor from calf striatum includes the extraction of lipids with hexane in the first step and the removal of 39% of non-receptor proteins with 2 M NaCl in the second step. The simplicity of such an approach to the purification of the receptor

  15. Multiple autophosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor receptor are essential for receptor kinase activity and internalization. Contrasting significance of tyrosine 992 in the native and truncated receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorkin, A; Helin, K; Waters, C M


    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor autophosphorylation sites in the regulation of receptor functions has been studied using cells transfected with mutant EGF receptors. Simultaneous point mutation of 4 tyrosines (Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, Y1173) to phenylalanine, as well as removal of ...

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling and Behavior (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Bruchas, Michael R.


    Opioid receptors have been targeted for the treatment of pain and related disorders for thousands of years, and remain the most widely used analgesics in the clinic. Mu (μ), kappa (κ), and delta (δ) opioid receptors represent the originally classified receptor subtypes, with opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) being the least characterized. All four receptors are G-protein coupled, and activate inhibitory G-proteins. These receptors form homo- and hetereodimeric complexes, signal to kinase cascades, and scaffold a variety of proteins. In this review, we discuss classical mechanisms and developments in understanding opioid tolerance, opioid receptor signaling, and highlight advances in opioid molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and human genetics. We put into context how opioid receptor signaling leads to the modulation of behavior with the potential for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we conclude that there is a continued need for more translational work on opioid receptors in vivo. PMID:22020140

  17. Brain CB2 Receptors: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Roche


    Full Text Available Although previously thought of as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, it is now accepted that the CB2 receptor is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, astrocytes and subpopulations of neurons. Expression of the CB2 receptor in the brain is significantly lower than that of the CB1 receptor. Conflicting findings have been reported on the neurological effects of pharmacological agents targeting the CB2 receptor under normal conditions. Under inflammatory conditions, CB2 receptor expression in the brain is enhanced and CB2 receptor agonists exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings have prompted research into the CB2 receptor as a possible target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammatory alterations are also associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and polymorphisms in the CB2 gene have been reported in depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review will examine the evidence to date for a role of brain CB2 receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding. (United States)

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H


    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  19. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  20. The Leptin Receptor Complex: Heavier Than Expected? (United States)

    Wauman, Joris; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan


    Under normal physiological conditions, leptin and the leptin receptor (ObR) regulate the body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. However, this adipocyte-derived hormone also directs peripheral processes, including immunity, reproduction, and bone metabolism. Leptin, therefore, can act as a metabolic switch connecting the body’s nutritional status to high energy consuming processes. We provide an extensive overview of current structural insights on the leptin–ObR interface and ObR activation, coupling to signaling pathways and their negative regulation, and leptin functioning under normal and pathophysiological conditions (obesity, autoimmunity, cancer, … ). We also discuss possible cross-talk with other receptor systems on the receptor (extracellular) and signaling cascade (intracellular) levels. PMID:28270795

  1. Pattern recognition receptors in HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis B. Geijtenbeek


    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, Langerhans cells (LCs and macrophages are innate immune cells that reside in genital and intestinal mucosal tissues susceptible to HIV-1 infection. These innate cells play distinct roles in initiation of HIV-1 infection and induction of anti-viral immunity. DCs are potent migratory cells that capture HIV-1 and transfer virus to CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes, whereas LCs have a protective anti-viral function, and macrophages function as viral reservoirs since they produce viruses over prolonged times. These differences are due to the different immune functions of these cells partly dependent on the expression of specific pattern recognition receptors. Expression of Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and cell-specific machinery for antigen uptake and processing strongly influence the outcome of virus interactions.

  2. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor of blood platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletscher, A.; Affolter, H. (Hopital Cantonal Geneve (Switzerland))


    Blood platelets show specific, high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine, /sup 3/H-ketanserin and /sup 3/H-D-Lysergic acid diethylamide. 5-HT-antagonists are considerably more potent than agonists regarding both the displacement of specifically bound /sup 3/H-ketanserin and the shape change reaction mediated by the 5-HT-receptor. The latter depends on a rise of free intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The binding site for /sup 3/H-ketanserin and the site at which the 5-HT-induced shape change is triggered show the characteristics of a 5-HT/sub 2/-receptor whose intracellular mediator seems to be Ca/sup 2 +/. The 5-HT-/sub 2/-receptor of platelets may be used as a partial model for that in neurons; however, it remains to be elucidated whether Ca/sup 2 +/ is a mediator of the latter.

  3. NMDA receptor activity in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen E Lakhan


    Full Text Available N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms.

  4. Molecular piracy of chemokine receptors by herpesviruses. (United States)

    Murphy, P M


    To succeed as a biological entity, viruses must exploit normal cellular functions and elude the host immune system; they often do so by molecular mimicry. One way that mimicry may occur is when viruses copy and modify host genes. The best studied examples of this are the oncogenes of RNA retroviruses, but a growing number of examples are also known for DNA viruses. So far they all come from just two groups of DNA viruses, the herpesviruses and poxviruses, and the majority of examples are for genes whose products regulate immune responses, such as cytokines, cytokine receptors, and complement control proteins. This review will focus on human and herpesvirus receptors for chemokines, a family of leukocyte chemoattractant and activating factors that are thought to be important mediators of inflammation. Although the biological roles of the viral chemokine receptor homologues are currently unknown, their connection to specific sets of chemokines has suggested a number of possible functions.

  5. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken


    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also......, such as excitability, metabolism and inflammation. Recent publications predict effects of the lactate receptor on neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases in retina, where the retinal ganglion cells die, notably glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, may be linked to disturbed lactate homeostasis. Pilot studies...... reveal high GPR81 mRNA in retina and indicate GPR81 localization in Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, monocarboxylate transporters are expressed in retinal cells. We envision that lactate receptors and transporters could be useful future targets of novel therapeutic strategies to protect...

  6. Metabotropic Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Martin Connelly


    Full Text Available A large body of work now shows the importance of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in regulating CNS function. However, outside of pathological conditions, there is relatively little evidence that the magnitude of tonic inhibition is itself under regulation. Here we review the mechanisms by which tonic inhibition is known to be modulated, and outline the potential behavioural consequences of this modulation. Specifically, we address the ability of protein kinase A and C to phosphorylate the extrasynaptic receptors responsible for the tonic GABAA current, and how G-protein coupled receptors can regulate tonic inhibition through these effectors. We then speculate about the possible functional consequences of regulating the magnitude of the tonic GABAA current.

  7. Gastrin Receptor-Avid Peptide Conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Li, Ning (Baltimore, MD); Sieckman, Gary (Ashland, MO); Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann (Columbia, MO)


    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  8. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Sieckman, Gary; Smith, Charles J.; Gali, Hariprasad


    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a-moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  9. Gastrin receptor-avid peptide conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Timothy J.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Li, Ning; Sieckman, Gary; Higginbotham, Chrys-Ann


    A compound for use as a therapeutic or diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes a group capable of complexing a medically useful metal attached to a moiety which is capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor. A method for treating a subject having a neoplastic disease includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a radiopharmaceutical having a metal chelated with a chelating group attached to a moiety capable of binding to a gastrin releasing peptide receptor expressed on tumor cells with subsequent internalization inside of the cell. A method of forming a therapeutic or diagnostic compound includes reacting a metal synthon with a chelating group covalently linked with a moiety capable of binding a gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

  10. GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Singewald, Nicolas; Holst, Birgitte


    exhibits an antidepressant-like profile, as demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Recent reports indicate that the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor is an important target for zinc “transmission” (its activation modulates/induces diverse biochemical pathways involved in neuroprotection......). Preclinical studies provide evidence that zinc deficiency leads to depressive-like behavior related to down-regulation of the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor. Zinc binds to the GPR39 and triggers signals, leading to CRE-dependent gene transcription, resulting in increases in proteins such as brain......-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that plays a pivotal role in antidepressant action. Chronic administration of many antidepressants induces GPR39 up-regulation, which suggests that the Zn2+-sensing receptor may be considered as a new target for drug development in the field of depression....

  11. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Cheng


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease with classical traits of demyelination, axonal damage, and neurodegeneration. The migration of autoimmune T cells and macrophages from blood to central nervous system as well as the destruction of blood brain barrier are thought to be the major processes in the development of this disease. Chemokines, which are small peptide mediators, can attract pathogenic cells to the sites of inflammation. Each helper T cell subset expresses different chemokine receptors so as to exert their different functions in the pathogenesis of MS. Recently published results have shown that the levels of some chemokines and chemokine receptors are increased in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. This review describes the advanced researches on the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in the development of MS and discusses the potential therapy of this disease targeting the chemokine network.

  12. Histamine, histamine receptors and antihistamines: new concepts. (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Fachini Jardim; Maruta, Celina W; Machado Filho, Carlos d'Apparecida


    Drugs with antihistamine action are the most commonly prescribed medication in daily dermatologic practice, both to adults and children. This article addresses new concepts of the role of histamine receptors (H1 receptors) and discusses the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs. Second generation antihistamines differs from first generation because of their high specificity and affinity for peripheral H1-receptors. Second generation antihistamines are also less likely to produce sedation because they have less effect on the central nervous system. Although the efficacy of the various H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic patients is similar, even when comparing first- and second-generation drugs, these drugs are still very different in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology and toxic properties. Consequently, knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics is essential for a better medical care, especially that offered to pregnant women, children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities.

  13. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B


    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore...... to examine whether human bladder tumor cells express VDR. Tumor biopsies were obtained from 26 patients with TCC. Expression of VDR was examined by immunohistochemical experiments. All tumors expressed VDR. Biopsies from advanced disease contained more VDR positive cells than low stage disease (p ....05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...

  14. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology. (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir


    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  15. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  16. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova


    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  17. NMDA receptors mediate synaptic competition in culture.

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    Kevin She

    Full Text Available Activity through NMDA type glutamate receptors sculpts connectivity in the developing nervous system. This topic is typically studied in the visual system in vivo, where activity of inputs can be differentially regulated, but in which individual synapses are difficult to visualize and mechanisms governing synaptic competition can be difficult to ascertain. Here, we develop a model of NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic competition in dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons.GluN1 -/- (KO mouse hippocampal neurons lacking the essential NMDA receptor subunit were cultured alone or cultured in defined ratios with wild type (WT neurons. The absence of functional NMDA receptors did not alter neuron survival. Synapse development was assessed by immunofluorescence for postsynaptic PSD-95 family scaffold and apposed presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter VGlut1. Synapse density was specifically enhanced onto minority wild type neurons co-cultured with a majority of GluN1 -/- neighbour neurons, both relative to the GluN1 -/- neighbours and relative to sister pure wild type cultures. This form of synaptic competition was dependent on NMDA receptor activity and not conferred by the mere physical presence of GluN1. In contrast to these results in 10% WT and 90% KO co-cultures, synapse density did not differ by genotype in 50% WT and 50% KO co-cultures or in 90% WT and 10% KO co-cultures.The enhanced synaptic density onto NMDA receptor-competent neurons in minority coculture with GluN1 -/- neurons represents a cell culture paradigm for studying synaptic competition. Mechanisms involved may include a retrograde 'reward' signal generated by WT neurons, although in this paradigm there was no 'punishment' signal against GluN1 -/- neurons. Cell culture assays involving such defined circuits may help uncover the rules and mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic competition in the developing nervous system.

  18. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

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    David eStanley


    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati


    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  20. Structural basis for ligand recognition of incretin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Parthier, Christoph; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen


    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are homologous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Incretin receptor agonists stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells and are therefore promising agents...... analysis of the ECDs of incretin receptors and related GPCRs has shed new light on the process of ligand recognition and binding and provided a basis to disclose some of the mechanisms underlying receptor activation at high resolution....

  1. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah


    that communicate cellular signals initiated by hormones and neurotransmitters. Recently, based on tissue expression patterns of these receptors and the concept that they may elicit the production of a range of appetite- and hunger-regulating peptides, such nutrient sensing GPCRs are attracting considerable...... of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  2. Transmembrane Helical Domain of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor


    Shim, Joong-Youn


    Brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and belong to the rhodopsin-like subfamily. A homology model of the inactive state of the CB1 receptor was constructed using the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) as the template. We used 105 ns duration molecular-dynamics simulations of the CB1 receptor embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer to gain some insight into the structure and function of the CB1 receptor. As judged...

  3. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J


    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  4. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist. (United States)

    Johnston, Graham A R


    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  5. Cerebrovascular endothelin receptor upregulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars


    either by an embolus or by local thrombosis. Several studies have shown an involvement of the endothelin system in ischemic stroke. This review aims to examine the alterations of vascular endothelin receptor expression in ischemic stroke. Furthermore, studies of the intracellular signalling pathways...... leading to the enhanced expression of vascular endothelin receptors show that both protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) play important roles. The results from this work provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, and give a possible explanation...

  6. Receptores nicotínicos neuronales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Castellanos


    Full Text Available The strong behavioural and cognitive effects of nicotine have been known for centuries. Actually, the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily, specially which nicotinic  acetylcholine receptor, are extensively studied. The understanding of their harrnacology and physiology rnay help to understand sorne relevant brain processes(neurotransmítter regulation and nociceptionand rnany diseaseswhere these channels have been involved (rnyasthenia gravís, Parkinson, Alzheirner, schizophrenia. This review summarize some broad inforrnation on structure, classification and function of nicotinic receptors to understand their participation in sorne nervous systern process and the therapeutic possibilities ofthese rnolecules.

  7. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra


    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...

  8. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas


    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...... surrogate and homology modeling template for the nAChRs, the conformation of this loop is controlled by the ligand present in the binding pocket. As part of the development of a protocol for unbiased docking to the nAChRs, we here present the results of docking of ligands with known binding modes to an ACh...

  9. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors (United States)

    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut


    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5 μM GABA-induced inhibition of binding only in the cerebellar granule cell layer of rat brain sections. In all other regions studied, notably also in the hippocampal and thalamic areas, furosemide failed to antagonize GABA. Furosemide 1 mM decreased [35S]-TBPS binding only in a limited number of brain regions, but facilitation of the GABA-inhibition of the binding was much more widespread.In well-washed rat cerebellar, but not cerebrocortical, membranes, furosemide enhanced the [35S]-TBPS binding over basal level in the absence of added GABA. The GABAA antagonist, SR 95531, and the convulsant, Ro 5-4864, blocked this furosemide-induced increase. Both interactions with the furosemide enhancement are likely to be allosteric, since furosemide affected the binding of [3H]-SR 95531 and [3H]-Ro 5-4864 identically in the cerebellar and cerebrocortical membranes. Maximal GABA-antagonism induced by furosemide in cerebellar membranes was further increased by SR 95531 but not by Ro 5-4864, indicating additive antagonism only for SR 95531. In human cerebellar receptors, only GABA antagonism by furosemide, but not the enhancement without added GABA, was observed.In recombinant GABAA receptors, furosemide antagonism of GABA-inhibition of [35S]-TBPS binding depended only on the presence of α6 and β2/3 subunits, irrespective of the presence or absence of γ2 or δ subunits.In α6β3γ2 receptors, clozapine reversed the enhancement of [35S]-TBPS binding by furosemide in the absence

  10. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste


    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot


    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of t...

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Human Insulin Receptor that Activate Glucose Transport but not Insulin Receptor Kinase Activity (United States)

    Forsayeth, John R.; Caro, Jose F.; Sinha, Madhur K.; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldfine, Ira D.


    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  12. The astrocytic GABA(A)/benzodiazepine-like receptor: the Joker receptor for benzodiazepine-mimetic drugs? (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Zhao, Zhong; Chen, Ye


    Long-term use of benzodiazepines as hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxing drugs is jeopardized by adverse effects on memory, addictive properties, and development of tolerance. Major efforts have gone into developing 'benzodiazepine-like' drugs that are more selective in their therapeutic effect, have additional uses and/or lack the adverse effects of benzodiazepines. The reviewed prototype patent exemplifies such efforts. Newer drugs are thought to act selectively on one of the two neuronal benzodiazepine receptors, on the astrocytic mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor and/or on GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes displaying specific subunits. It is overlooked that astrocytes also express benzodiazepine receptors that enhance depolarization-mediated entry of Ca(2+) by interacting with membrane-associated GABA(A)-like receptors, mediating depolarization because of a high Cl(-) concentration within astrocytes. The resulting increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+), which stimulates glycogenolysis, is inhibited not only by the 'peripheral-type" benzodiazepine antagonist PK11195 but also by the 'neuronal' antagonist flumazenil. Increasing awareness of the role(s) of astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis and energy metabolism for CNS function suggests that activation of this receptor might contribute to both therapeutic and adverse effects of benzodiazepine-like drugs. This receptor should be kept in mind when developing and testing new drugs; in turn these drugs may help elucidating its functional role.

  13. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang; (Harvard-Med); (UMM-MED)


    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  14. Functional characterization of two melanocortin (MC receptors in lamprey showing orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawauchi Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melanocortin (MC receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey. Results We report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designated MCa and MCb, showed orthology to the MC1 and MC4 receptor subtypes, respectively. The molecular clock analysis suggested that lamprey MC receptor genes were not duplicated recently and diverged from each other more than 400 MYR ago. Expression and pharmacological characterization showed that the lamprey MCa receptor was able to bind and be activated by both lamprey and human MSH peptides. The lamprey MCa receptor had relatively high affinity for ACTH derived peptides similarly to the fish MC receptors. We found that both of the lamprey MC receptors were expressed in skin, while the MCb receptor was also found in liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study shows presence of MC receptors in agnathans indicating early signs of specific functions of melanocortin receptor subtypes.

  15. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS. (United States)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha


    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer (United States)


    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  17. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk. (United States)

    Sanni, Samra Joke; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Jorgensen, Rasmus; Lyngsø, Christina; Gammeltoft, Steen; Hansen, Jakob Lerche


    The angiotensin AT1 receptor is a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor, which mediates the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of angiotensin AT1 receptor may lead to impaired insulin signaling indicating crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind this crosstalk, we applied the BRET2 technique to monitor the effect of angiotensin II on the interaction between Rluc8 tagged insulin receptor and GFP2 tagged insulin receptor substrates 1, 4, 5 (IRS1, IRS4, IRS5) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (Shc). We demonstrate that angiotensin II reduces the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS1 and IRS4, respectively, while the interaction with Shc is unaffected, and this effect is dependent on Gαq activation. Activation of other Gαq-coupled 7TM receptors led to a similar reduction in insulin receptor and IRS4 interactions whereas Gαs- and Gαi-coupled 7TM receptors had no effect. Furthermore, we used a panel of kinase inhibitors to show that angiotensin II engages different pathways when regulating insulin receptor interactions with IRS1 and IRS4. Angiotensin II inhibited the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS1 through activation of ERK1/2, while the interaction between insulin receptor and IRS4 was partially inhibited through protein kinase C dependent mechanisms. We conclude that the crosstalk between angiotensin AT1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling shows a high degree of specificity, and involves Gαq protein, and activation of distinct kinases. Thus, the BRET2 technique can be used as a platform for studying molecular mechanisms of crosstalk between insulin receptor and 7TM receptors.

  18. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity. (United States)

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio


    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.A. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hegg, R. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baracat, E.C. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maranhão, R.C. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  20. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Pires


    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1 receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  1. Direct Interaction of GABAB Receptors with M2 Muscarinic Receptors Enhances Muscarinic Signaling


    Boyer, Stephanie B.; Clancy, Sinead M.; Terunuma, Miho; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Thomas, Steven M.; Moss, Stephen J.; Slesinger, Paul A.


    Down-regulation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) provides an important mechanism for reducing neurotransmitter signaling during sustained stimulation. Chronic stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2R) causes internalization of M2R and G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in neuronal PC12 cells, resulting in loss of function. Here, we show that co-expression of GABAB R2 receptors (GBR2) rescues both surface expression and function of M2R, including M2R-indu...

  2. Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors in rheumatic diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, William J


    The past 10 years have seen the description of families of receptors that drive proinflammatory cytokine production in infection and tissue injury. Two major classes have been examined in the context of inflammatory joint disease--the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). TLRs such as TLR2 and TLR4 are being implicated in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, lyme arthritis and osteoarthritis. Nalp3 has been identified as a key NLR for IL-1beta production and has been shown to have a particular role in gout. These findings present new therapeutic opportunities, possibly allowing for the replacement of biologics with small molecule inhibitors.

  3. Nuclear receptor corepressor-dependent repression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Nielsen, Curt A F; Neve, Søren


    delta-RXR alpha heterodimer bound to an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO)-type peroxisome-proliferator response element recruited a glutathione S-transferase-NCoR fusion protein in a ligand-independent manner. Contrasting with most other nuclear receptors, PPAR delta was found to interact equally well......The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) was isolated as a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system. NCoR interacted strongly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR delta, whereas interactions with the ligand-binding domains...

  4. Dioxin increases the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha at human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shaaima; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav


    Recent studies have shown that activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induced the recruitment of estrogen receptor- (ER ) to AHR-regulated genes and that AHR is recruited to ER -regulated genes. However, these findings were limited to a small number of well-characterized AHR- or ER -responsive...... regions bound by both AHR and ER . Conventional and sequential ChIPs confirmed the recruitment of AHR and ER to many of the identified regions. Transcription factor binding site analysis revealed an overrepresentation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor response elements in regions bound by both AHR and ER...

  5. Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids.


    Allenby, G; Bocquel, M T; Saunders, M.; Kazmer, S; Speck, J; Rosenberger, M.; Lovey, A; Kastner, P; Grippo, J F; Chambon, P


    The binding of endogenous retinoids and stereoisomers of retinoic acid (RA) to the retinoid nuclear receptors, RA receptor (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), was characterized using nucleosol preparations from transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Among several stereoisomers of RA tested, including 7-cis-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, 13-cis-, and all-trans-RA, only 9-cis-RA effectively competes with 9-cis-[3H]RA binding to the RXRs. Additionally, the endogenous retinoid trans-didehydro-RA (t-ddRA) d...

  6. Light microscope autoradiography of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes. (United States)

    Amenta, F


    Radioligand binding assay techniques associated with light microscope autoradiography were used for investigating the pharmacological profile and the micro anatomical localization of peripheral dopamine receptor subtypes. In systemic arteries, the predominant dopamine D1-like receptor belongs to the D5 (or D1B) subtype. It is located within smooth muscle of the tunica media. In pulmonary arteries, dopamine D1-like receptors have primarily an endothelial localization and belong to the dopamine D1 (or D1A) receptor subtype. Both systemic and pulmonary arteries express a dopamine D2-like receptor belonging to the D2 receptor subtype. It has a prejunctional localization in the majority of vascular beds investigated. In cerebral, coronary and mesenteric arteries, it has also an endothelial localization. In the heart, a dopamine D4 receptor was identified. It is expressed by atrial tissue and has a widespread distribution overall atrial musculature. The kidney expresses both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors. Renal dopamine D1-like receptors have a vascular and tubular localization. The majority of these sites belongs to the D5 receptor subtype. A smaller D1 receptor population has primarily a tubular localization. Renal dopamine D2-like receptors belong to the dopamine D3 subtype and in lesser amounts to the D2 and D4 receptor subtypes. Renal dopamine D3 receptor has to a greater extent a tubular localization, whereas the D4 receptor is located within glomerular arterioles. The above results suggest that radioligand binding assay and autoradiographic techniques, if performed in the presence of compounds displaying specific receptor subtype selectivity, may contribute to characterize, mainly from a quantitative point of view, peripheral dopamine receptors.

  7. Direct interactions between calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) regulate CGRP receptor signaling. (United States)

    Egea, Sophie C; Dickerson, Ian M


    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with multiple neuroendocrine roles, including vasodilation, migraine, and pain. The receptor for CGRP is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that requires three proteins for function. CGRP binds to a heterodimer composed of the GPCR calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP1), a single transmembrane protein required for pharmacological specificity and trafficking of the CLR/RAMP1 complex to the cell surface. In addition, the CLR/RAMP1 complex requires a third protein named CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) for signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that depletion of RCP from cells inhibits CLR signaling, and in vivo studies have demonstrated that expression of RCP correlates with CLR signaling and CGRP efficacy. It is not known whether RCP interacts directly with CLR to exert its effect. The current studies identified a direct interaction between RCP and an intracellular domain of CLR using yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation. When this interacting domain of CLR was expressed as a soluble fusion protein, it coimmunoprecipitated with RCP and inhibited signaling from endogenous CLR. Expression of this dominant-negative domain of CLR did not significantly inhibit trafficking of CLR to the cell surface, and thus RCP may not have a chaperone function for CLR. Instead, RCP may regulate CLR signaling in the cell membrane, and direct interaction between RCP and CLR is required for CLR activation. To date, RCP has been found to interact only with CLR and represents a novel neuroendocrine regulatory step in GPCR signaling.

  8. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema. (United States)

    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J. A.; Duff, G. W.


    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nineteen controls gave single blood samples. INTERVENTIONS--Daily skin dressing with betamethasone valerate (0.025%) and ichthammol paste and tubular dressings. END POINT--Resolution of or considerable improvement in skin lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations in blood samples taken on admission, at intervals subsequently, and on discharge. Clinical scores of disease activity were also made. Median concentrations on admission were significantly higher (770 U/ml) in the patients than the controls (300 U/ml). Concentrations fell significantly during treatment. In 25 assessments made at different times in 13 patients serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentration correlated significantly (R = 0.73) with clinical disease activity. CONCLUSIONS--Cellular immunopathogenic mechanisms contribute to atopic eczema. Immune activation can be measured in atopic eczema by measurements of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, and this should facilitate assessment of response to treatment. PMID:2568868

  9. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno


    Navigation of retinal projections towards their targets is regulated by guidance molecules and growth cone transduction mechanisms. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is expressed along the retino-thalamic pathway and exerts a modulatory action ...

  10. Quantification of receptor-mediated endocytosis. (United States)

    Wettey, Frank R; Jackson, Antony P


    This method allows measuring of the receptor-mediated internalization of 125I-labeled conalbumin, the chicken egg white isoform of transferrin. Kinetic data, i.e. the rate constant k(i) for the initial internalization process, can be extracted from the data by linear curve fitting using an In/Sur plot (intracellular label/cell surface label over time).

  11. Ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors in hornets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Pertsis, [No Value; Skutelsky, E; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, H


    This article traces the ontogenesis of peripheral electromagnetic receptors (PER) in the cuticle of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). in the abdominal cuticle of adult hornets, the PERs are densely distributed throughout, but there are even more than 30 at the margins of the segments. These

  12. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D


    of such compounds in vivo is highly dependent on α7 nAChR-interacting proteins, such as RIC-3 and lynx1, which modulate expression and function of the receptor. These regulatory proteins are often not expressed in in vitro models used to study α7 nAChR function, and it is not known to what extent they are involved...

  13. Genetic features of thyroid hormone receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    region of chromosome 3 and variable deletion in small cell lung cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 9258–9262. Duan Q. L., Du R., Lasky-Su J., Klanderman B. J., Partch A. B.,. Peters S. P. et al. 2012 A polymorphism in the thyroid hor- mone receptor gene is associated with bronchodilator response in asthmatics Duan.

  14. The receptor RAGE: Bridging inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Jochen


    Full Text Available Abstract The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a single transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is mainly expressed on immune cells, neurons, activated endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, bone forming cells, and a variety of cancer cells. RAGE is a multifunctional receptor that binds a broad repertoire of ligands and mediates responses to cell damage and stress conditions. It activates programs responsible for acute and chronic inflammation, and is implicated in a number of pathological diseases, including diabetic complications, stroke, atheriosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. The availability of Rage knockout mice has not only advanced our knowledge on signalling pathways within these pathophysiological conditions, but also on the functional importance of the receptor in processes of cancer. Here, we will summarize molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signalling contributes to the establishment of a pro-tumourigenic microenvironment. Moreover, we will review recent findings that provide genetic evidence for an important role of RAGE in bridging inflammation and cancer.

  15. Structure and function of the androgen receptor. (United States)

    Brinkmann, A O; Klaasen, P; Kuiper, G G; van der Korput, J A; Bolt, J; de Boer, W; Smit, A; Faber, P W; van Rooij, H C; Geurts van Kessel, A


    The androgen receptor in several species (human, rat, calf) is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 100-110 kDa. The steroid binding domain is confined to a region of 30 kDa, while the DNA-binding domain has the size of approx. 10 kDa. A 40 kDa fragment containing both the DNA and steroid binding domain displayed a higher DNA binding activity than did the intact 100 kDa molecule. cDNA encoding the major part of the human androgen receptor was isolated. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,277 bp but still lacks part of the 5'-coding sequence. Homology with the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor was about 80% in the DNA binding domain and 50% in the steroid binding domain. The present data provide evidence that the androgen receptor belongs to the superfamily of ligand responsive transcriptional regulators and consists of three distinct domains each with a specialized function.

  16. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection


    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter


    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection.

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijdonk, Leonarda Wilhelmina Antonia van


    The research in this thesis is aimed at the elucidation of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hippocampal neuroplasticity and functioning. To achieve this, we have developed a novel method to specifically knockdown GR in a discrete cell population of the mouse brain. In this thesis I

  18. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiuying Wang


    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

  19. Kidney Protection During Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Rolleman


    textabstractThe discovery of somatostatin and the cloning and characterisation of its five receptor subtypes have led to many intriguing developments in clinical nuclear medicine. It was found that somatostatin administration resulted in inhibition of hormonal overproduction syndromes [5], which

  20. Pushing estrogen receptor around in breast cancer. (United States)

    Lim, Elgene; Tarulli, Gerard; Portman, Neil; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Palmieri, Carlo


    The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments. Emerging data have shown that other SSRs may regulate the sites at which ER binds to DNA in ways that can powerfully suppress the oncogenic activity of ER in breast cancer. This includes the progesterone receptor (PR) that was recently shown to reprogram the ER DNA binding landscape towards genes associated with a favourable outcome. Another attractive candidate is the androgen receptor (AR), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and inhibits growth of the normal breast and ER-positive tumours when activated by ligand. These findings have led to the initiation of breast cancer clinical trials evaluating therapies that selectively harness the ability of SSRs to 'push' ER towards anti-tumorigenic activity. Our review will focus on the established and emerging clinical evidence for activating PR or AR in ER-positive breast cancer to inhibit the tumour growth-promoting functions of ER. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. From receptor balance to rational glucocorticoid therapy. (United States)

    de Kloet, E Ron


    Corticosteroids secreted as end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis act like a double-edged sword in the brain. The hormones coordinate appraisal processes and decision making during the initial phase of a stressful experience and promote subsequently cognitive performance underlying the management of stress adaptation. This action exerted by the steroids on the initiation and termination of the stress response is mediated by 2 related receptor systems: mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). The receptor types are unevenly distributed but colocalized in abundance in neurons of the limbic brain to enable these complementary hormone actions. This contribution starts from a historical perspective with the observation that phasic occupancy of GR during ultradian rhythmicity is needed to maintain responsiveness to corticosteroids. Then, during stress, initially MR activation enhances excitability of limbic networks that are engaged in appraisal and emotion regulation. Next, the rising hormone concentration occupies GR, resulting in reallocation of energy to limbic-cortical circuits with a role in behavioral adaptation and memory storage. Upon MR:GR imbalance, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs, which can enhance an individual's vulnerability. Imbalance is characteristic for chronic stress experience and depression but also occurs during exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids. Hence, glucocorticoid psychopathology may develop in susceptible individuals because of suppression of ultradian/circadian rhythmicity and depletion of endogenous corticosterone from brain MR. This knowledge generated from testing the balance hypothesis can be translated to a rational glucocorticoid therapy.

  2. Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Gene Polymorphism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the possibility of a significant relationship between chemokines and chemokine receptor genes polymorphisms and the spontaneous clearance or the persistence of HCV infection. Methods: A total of 96 hemodialysis (HD) patients infected with HCV were classified into two groups: G1 ...

  3. Gene transfer of MHC-restricted receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W. H. G.; Wolkers, Monika C.; Schumacher, Ton N. M.


    Adoptive therapy with allogeneic or tumor-specific T-cells has shown substantial clinical effects for several human tumors, but the widespread application of this strategy remains a daunting task. The antigen specificity of T-lymphocytes is solely determined by the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and

  4. Death receptors: Targets for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Zafar [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Shukla, Yogeshwer, E-mail: [Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)


    Apoptosis is the cell's intrinsic program to death, which plays an important role in physiologic growth control and homeostasis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptors (DRs), without any adverse effects. DRs are the members of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, known to be involved in apoptosis signaling, independent of p53 tumor-supressor gene. Selective triggering of DR-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells is a novel approach in cancer therapy. So far, the best characterized DRs are CD95 (Fas/Apo1), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Among these, TRAILR is emerging as most promising agent for cancer therapy, because it induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor and transformed cells without any toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL treatment in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy enhances TRAIL sensitivity or reverses TRAIL resistance by regulating downstream effectors. This review covers the current knowledge about the DRs, summarizes main signaling in DRs and also summarizes the preclinical approaches of these DRs in cancer therapy.

  5. Small-molecule AT2 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallberg, Mathias; Sumners, Colin; Steckelings, U Muscha


    The discovery of the first selective, small-molecule ATR receptor (AT2R) agonist compound 21 (C21) (8) that is now extensively studied in a large variety of in vitro and in vivo models is described. The sulfonylcarbamate derivative 8, encompassing a phenylthiofen scaffold is the drug-like agonist...

  6. Transcriptional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1ɑ, a well-known member of PGC-1 transcriptional coactivator's family, plays a key role in various metabolic pathways. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1ɑ in the transformation of muscle fiber type in Schizothorax prenanti. The expression of PGC-1ɑ was ...

  7. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt


    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  8. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  9. Conformational regulation of urokinase receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette C


    PA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized...

  10. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 5, 1995 ... Three IOW-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene mutations were previously shown to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in up to 90% of affected. Afrikaners. Association of each mutation with a single chromosomal background provided molecular genetic evidence that the proposed 'founder ...

  11. Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Helmut W.; Malinow, Roberto


    The ability to change behavior likely depends on the selective strengthening and weakening of brain synapses. The cellular models of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, can be expressed by the synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors

  12. LPA receptor signaling: pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology. (United States)

    Yung, Yun C; Stoddard, Nicole C; Chun, Jerold


    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small ubiquitous lipid found in vertebrate and nonvertebrate organisms that mediates diverse biological actions and demonstrates medicinal relevance. LPA's functional roles are driven by extracellular signaling through at least six 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are named LPA1-6 and signal through numerous effector pathways activated by heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gi/o, G12/13, Gq, and Gs LPA receptor-mediated effects have been described in numerous cell types and model systems, both in vitro and in vivo, through gain- and loss-of-function studies. These studies have revealed physiological and pathophysiological influences on virtually every organ system and developmental stage of an organism. These include the nervous, cardiovascular, reproductive, and pulmonary systems. Disturbances in normal LPA signaling may contribute to a range of diseases, including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, pain, cardiovascular disease, bone disorders, fibrosis, cancer, infertility, and obesity. These studies underscore the potential of LPA receptor subtypes and related signaling mechanisms to provide novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  14. Class I Cytokine Receptors: Structure and function in the Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard

    Class I cytokine receptors are involved in important biological functions of both physiological and pathological nature in mammals. However, the molecular details of the cross-membrane signal transduction through these receptors remain obscure. One of the major reasons for this is the lack...... ample material of high quality for structural studies with NMR spectroscopy of several class I cytokine receptor TMDs. Furthermore, the structure of a class I cytokine receptor TMD in DHPC micelles was solved with solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, since structural studies of intact proteins...... receptor. This integrative structure opens up for interpreting these receptors in their intact form and offers unique insights on the topology of single-pass transmembrane receptors with intrinsically disordered domains. Dimerization of the TMDs of class I cytokine receptors has been shown to be important...

  15. Membrane Trafficking of Death Receptors: Implications on Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Schneider-Brachert


    Full Text Available Death receptors were initially recognised as potent inducers of apoptotic cell death and soon ambitious attempts were made to exploit selective ignition of controlled cellular suicide as therapeutic strategy in malignant diseases. However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. Beyond activation of the apoptotic cascade, involvement in a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, proliferation and immune response was recognised. Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. A growing body of evidence points to an elegant spatiotemporal regulation of composition and assembly of the receptor-associated signalling complex. Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events.

  16. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor As Potential Target against Alzheimer's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aso, Ester; Ferrer, Isidro


    The CB2 receptor is one of the components of the endogenous cannabinoid system, a complex network of signaling molecules and receptors involved in the homeostatic control of several physiological functions...

  17. Bombesin and Neurotensin Receptor Targeting Using Radiolabeled Peptide Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Visser (Monique)


    textabstractSomatostatin receptor-targeting peptides are widely used for imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumor patients with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has resulted in symptomatic improvement, prolonged survival and

  18. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A


    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated...

  19. Synaptic Bistability Due to Nucleation and Evaporation of Receptor Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.


    We introduce a bistability mechanism for long-term synaptic plasticity based on switching between two metastable states that contain significantly different numbers of synaptic receptors. One state is characterized by a two-dimensional gas of mobile interacting receptors and is stabilized against clustering by a high nucleation barrier. The other state contains a receptor gas in equilibrium with a large cluster of immobile receptors, which is stabilized by the turnover rate of receptors into and out of the synapse. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by either an increase (potentiation) or a decrease (depotentiation) of the net receptor flux into the synapse. This changes the saturation level of the receptor gas and triggers nucleation or evaporation of receptor clusters. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  20. cAMP-Induced Desensitization of Surface cAMP Receptors in Dictyostelium : Different Second Messengers Mediate Receptor Phosphorylation, Loss of Ligand Binding, Degradation of Receptor, and Reduction of Receptor mRNA Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wang, Mei; Bominaar, Anthony A.; Devreotes, Peter N.; Schaap, Pauline

    Surface cAMP receptors on Dictyostelium cells are linked to several second messenger systems and mediate multiple physiological responses, including chemotaxis and differentiation. Activation of the receptor also triggers events which desensitize signal transduction. These events include the

  1. Carboxyl-terminal receptor domains control the differential dephosphorylation of somatostatin receptors by protein phosphatase 1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    Full Text Available We have recently identified protein phosphatase 1β (PP1β as G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR phosphatase for the sst2 somatostatin receptor using siRNA knockdown screening. By contrast, for the sst5 somatostatin receptor we identified protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ as GPCR phosphatase using the same approach. We have also shown that sst2 and sst5 receptors differ substantially in the temporal dynamics of their dephosphorylation and trafficking patterns. Whereas dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst2 receptor requires extended time periods of ∼30 min, dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst5 receptor is completed in less than 10 min. Here, we examined which receptor domains determine the selection of phosphatases for receptor dephosphorylation. We found that generation of tail-swap mutants between sst2 and sst5 was required and sufficient to reverse the patterns of dephosphorylation and trafficking of these two receptors. In fact, siRNA knockdown confirmed that the sst5 receptor carrying the sst2 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1β, whereas the sst2 receptor carrying the sst5 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1γ. Thus, the GPCR phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of individual somatostatin receptor subtypes is primarily determined by their different carboxyl-terminal receptor domains. This phosphatase specificity has in turn profound consequences for the dephosphorylation dynamics and trafficking patterns of GPCRs.

  2. Muscarinic receptor expression and receptor-mediated detrusor contraction: comparison of juvenile and adult porcine tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuest, Melinda; Eichhorn, Birgit; Braeter, Manfred; Strugala, Gerhard; Michel, Martin C.; Ravens, Ursula


    Urinary bladder function is known to mature during fetal and postnatal development, including changes in neurotransmitter regulation of detrusor contraction. However, only few experimental data are available about muscarinic receptor antagonist function in the urinary bladder from young animals. In

  3. Development of prolactin receptor antagonists with reduced pH-dependence of receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mathilde Johanne Kaas; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt; Bernichtein, Sophie


    Abstract The cytokine hormone prolactin has a vast number of diverse functions. Unfortunately, it also exhibits tumor growth promoting properties, which makes the development of prolactin receptor antagonists a priority. Prolactin binds to its cognate receptor with much lower affinity at low p....... From evaluation of known molecular structures of human prolactin, of the prolactin receptor and of different complexes of the two, three histidine residues in the hormone-receptor binding site 1 were selected for mutational studies. We analyzed 10 variants by circular dichroism spectroscopy, affinity...... antagonists were developed earlier and the histidine mutations were introduced within such background. The antagonistic properties were maintained and the high affinity at low pH conserved. The implications of these findings may open new areas of research in the field of prolactin cancer biology. Copyright...

  4. Expression of Novel Steroid/Receptors in Mammary Development: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Jeffrey


    ...) are expressed in the mammary gland and regulated during physiologic and pathologic events. The PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors which bind to fatty acids as ligands and control transcription of lipid metabolic genes...

  5. Insights into cellular signalling by G protein coupled receptor transactivation of cell surface protein kinase receptors. (United States)

    Chaplin, Rebecca; Thach, Lyna; Hollenberg, Morley D; Cao, Yingnan; Little, Peter J; Kamato, Danielle


    G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling is mediated by transactivation independent and transactivation dependent pathways. GPCRs transactivate protein tyrosine kinase receptors (PTKRs) and protein serine/threonine kinase receptors (PS/TKR). Since the initial observations of transactivation dependent signalling, there has been an effort to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomena. GPCR signalling has evolved to include biased signalling. Biased signalling, whereby selected ligands can activate the same GPCR that can generate multiple signals, but drive only a unique response. To date, there has been no focus on the ability of biased agonists to activate the PTKR and PS/TKR transactivation pathways differentially. As such, this represents a novel direction for future research. This review will discuss the main mechanisms of GPCR mediated receptor transactivation and the pathways involved in intracellular responses.

  6. Presynaptic control of nociceptor signalling: Differential influence of Mu Opioid and GABAergic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C Riley


    Full Text Available The relative contribution of pre- and postsynaptic controls to the flow of nociceptive information at the level of the spinal cord has been one of Ron Melzack's longstanding interests and a key issue in the formulation of the gate control theory. The authors review their own studies, in which they monitored internalization of the neurokinin-1 receptor to examine specifically the action of two classically inhibitory systems - mu opioid and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA - on noxious stimulus-evoked tachykinin signalling in the rat spinal cord. Evidence that opioids and GABAergic controls operate differently on the central consequences of any noxious stimulus-induced substance P release is provided. Whereas at least 80% of the tachykinin signalling remained intact after even the highest concentration of spinal morphine or D-Ala2, NMe-phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin administration, spinal administration of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen had a dramatic inhibitory effect. These findings are discussed in light of the disappointing clinical utility of baclofen and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists to combat pain.

  7. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail:; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)


    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Cyclothiazide binding to the GABAA receptor. (United States)

    Szárics, Eva; Simon, Agnes; Visy, Júlia; Simon-Trompler, Edit; Banka, Zoltán; Héja, László; Hársing, László Gábor; Blaskó, Gábor; Kardos, Julianna


    In order to explore the molecular interaction between cyclothiazide (CTZ) and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors, possibly underlying inhibition of GABAA receptor currents, [3H]-CTZ was synthesized. Binding of [3H]-CTZ to rat brain synaptic membranes could be observed only in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist (-)[1S,9R]-bicuculline methiodide (BMI) (EC(50,BMI)=500+/-80microM). GABA decreased [(3)H]-CTZ binding induced by the presence 300microM and 3mM BMI with IC(50,GABA) values of 300+/-50microM and 5.0+/-0.7mM, respectively. Binding of CTZ to [3H]-CTZ labeled sites was characterized by IC(50,CTZ) values of 0.16+/-0.03muM ([BMI]=300microM) and 7.0+/-0.5microM ([BMI]=3mM). Binding of the diastereomeric fraction [3H]-(3R,1'S,4'S,5'R+3S,1'R,4'R,5'S)-CTZ induced by 3mM BMI was quantitatively the more significant in cerebrocortical and hippocampal membranes. It was characterized by IC(50,CTZ)=80+/-15nM and IC(50,GABA)=13+/-3mcapital EM, Cyrillic. In the absence of BMI, CTZ (1mM) significantly decreased GABA-induced enhancement of [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. Our findings suggest that functional inhibition may occur through binding of CTZ to an allosteric site of GABAA receptors. This allosteric site is possibly emerged in the receptor conformation, stabilized by BMI binding.

  9. Personal receptor repertoires: olfaction as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olender Tsviya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on nucleotide diversity along completely sequenced human genomes has increased tremendously over the last few years. This makes it possible to reassess the diversity status of distinct receptor proteins in different human individuals. To this end, we focused on the complete inventory of human olfactory receptor coding regions as a model for personal receptor repertoires. Results By performing data-mining from public and private sources we scored genetic variations in 413 intact OR loci, for which one or more individuals had an intact open reading frame. Using 1000 Genomes Project haplotypes, we identified a total of 4069 full-length polypeptide variants encoded by these OR loci, average of ~10 per locus, constituting a lower limit for the effective human OR repertoire. Each individual is found to harbor as many as 600 OR allelic variants, ~50% higher than the locus count. Because OR neuronal expression is allelically excluded, this has direct effect on smell perception diversity of the species. We further identified 244 OR segregating pseudogenes (SPGs, loci showing both intact and pseudogene forms in the population, twenty-six of which are annotatively “resurrected” from a pseudogene status in the reference genome. Using a custom SNP microarray we validated 150 SPGs in a cohort of 468 individuals, with every individual genome averaging 36 disrupted sequence variations, 15 in homozygote form. Finally, we generated a multi-source compendium of 63 OR loci harboring deletion Copy Number Variations (CNVs. Our combined data suggest that 271 of the 413 intact OR loci (66% are affected by nonfunctional SNPs/indels and/or CNVs. Conclusions These results portray a case of unusually high genetic diversity, and suggest that individual humans have a highly personalized inventory of functional olfactory receptors, a conclusion that might apply to other receptor multigene families.

  10. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Burns, H.D.; Kuhar, M.J.; Snyder, S.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.


    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (, killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15.

  11. The expression of the ACTH receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.K. Elias


    Full Text Available Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH acting through a specific cell membrane receptor (ACTH-R. The ACTH-R is a member of the G protein superfamily-coupled receptors and belongs to the subfamily of melanocortin receptors. The ACTH-R is mainly expressed in the adrenocortical cells showing a restricted tissue specificity, although ACTH is recognized by the other four melanocortin receptors. The cloning of the ACTH-R was followed by the study of this gene in human diseases such as familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD and adrenocortical tumors. FGD is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, elevated plasma ACTH levels and preserved renin/aldosterone secretion. This disorder has been ascribed to an impaired adrenal responsiveness to ACTH due to a defective ACTH-R, a defect in intracellular signal transduction or an abnormality in adrenal cortical development. Mutations of the ACTH-R have been described in patients with FGD in segregation with the disease. The functional characterization of these mutations has been prevented by difficulties in expressing human ACTH-R in cells that lack endogenous melanocortin receptor activity. To overcome these difficulties we used Y6 cells, a mutant variant of the Y1 cell line, which possesses a non-expressed ACTH-R gene allowing the functional study without any background activity. Our results demonstrated that the several mutations of the ACTH-R found in FGD result in an impaired cAMP response or loss of sensitivity to ACTH stimulation. An ACTH-binding study showed an impairment of ligand binding with loss of the high affinity site in most of the mutations studied.

  12. Polyaza cryptand receptor selective for dihydrogen phosphate. (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor


    A hexaamine cage with pyridyl spacers was synthesized in good yield by a [2+3] Schiff-base condensation followed by sodium borohydride reduction. The protonation constants of the receptor as well as its association constants with Cl(-), NO(3)(-), AcO(-), ClO(4)(-), SO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), and H(2)AsO(4)(-) were determined by potentiometry at 298.2 +/- 0.1 K in H(2)O/MeOH (50:50 v/v) and at ionic strength 0.10 +/- 0.01 M in KTsO. These studies revealed that although dihydrogen phosphate is less charged than sulfate, it is still appreciably bound by the receptor at low pH, suggesting that the pyridyl nitrogen is accepting hydrogen bonds from dihydrogen phosphate. It is also shown that dihydrogen phosphate is capable of effectively competing with sulfate for the receptor at higher pH, being selective for hydrogen phosphate at pH about 7.0. (31)P NMR experiments supported these findings. The fact that the receptor shows such a marked preference for hydrogen phosphate based mainly in its hydrogen bond accepting/donating ability in a highly competitive medium such as water/methanol mixed solvent is quite remarkable. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction determinations of anion associations between H(6)pyr(6+) receptor and nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate are consistent with the existence of [(H(6)pyr)(NO(3))(3)(H(2)O)(3)](3+), [(H(6)pyr)(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and [(H(6)pyr)(HPO(4))(2)(H(2)PO(4))(H(2)O)(2)](+) cations. One nitrate anion is embedded into the H(6)pyr(6+) cage of the first supermolecule whereas in the second and third ones the anions are located in the periphery of the macrobicycle.

  13. The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution.


    Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Gouignard, Nadège; Ahier, Arnaud; Morel, Marion; Vicogne, Jérôme; Dissous, Colette


    International audience; BACKGROUND: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be hi...

  14. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor targeted radiopharmaceuticals: A concise update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J. E-mail:


    The gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptor is becoming an increasingly attractive target for development of new radiolabeled peptides with diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The attractiveness of the GRP receptor as a target is based upon the functional expression of GRP receptors in several tumors of neuroendocrine origin including prostate, breast, and small cell lung cancer. This concise review outlines some of the efforts currently underway to develop new GRP receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals by employing a variety of radiometal chelation systems.

  15. Narcolepsy: cholinergic receptor changes in an animal model. (United States)

    Boehme, R E; Baker, T L; Mefford, I N; Barchas, J D; Dement, W C; Ciaranello, R D


    An inbred colony of narcoleptic doberman pinschers has been analyzed for muscarinic receptor levels in 19 discrete brain regions. In comparison to age-matched controls, receptors were generally elevated in the brainstem and reduced in forebrain areas. No changes in receptor binding affinity were detected. The increased receptor levels found in the brainstem suggest that cholinoceptive neurons in this region are hypersensitive and may be involved in the initiation of cataplexy and other aspects of the narcolepsy syndrome.

  16. Insulin causes insulin-receptor internalization in human erythrocyte ghosts.


    Kelleher, R S; Murray, E F; Peterson, S W


    The effect of incubation with insulin on insulin-receptor internalization by erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. The number of surface insulin receptors decreased by 30-40% after incubation of ghosts with insulin. Total insulin-receptor binding to solubilized ghosts was the same in insulin-incubated and control ghosts, whereas insulin binding to an internal vesicular fraction was substantially increased in insulin-incubated ghosts. Our findings suggest that erythrocyte-ghost insulin receptor...

  17. Pharmacological Profiles of Oligomerized μ-Opioid Receptors


    Ing-Kang Ho; Cynthia Wei-Sheng Lee


    Opioids are widely prescribed pain relievers with multiple side effects and potential complications. They produce analgesia via G-protein-protein coupled receptors: μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and opioid receptor-like 1 receptors. Bivalent ligands targeted to the oligomerized opioid receptors might be the key to developing analgesics without undesired side effects and obtaining effective treatment for opioid addicts. In this review we will update the biological effects of μ-opioids on homo- or hetero-ol...

  18. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects? (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan


    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptorreceptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptorreceptor), δ-opioid receptorreceptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptors. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of particular multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Complement receptors in myeloid cell adhesion and phagocytosis


    Dustin, Michael L.


    Myeloid cells make extensive use of the complement system in the context of recruitment, phagocytosis and other effector functions. There are several types of complement receptors on myeloid cells including G-proteins coupled receptors for localizing the source of complement activation, and three sets of type I transmembrane proteins that link complement to phagocytosis-complement receptor 1, a single chain type I membrane protein with tandem complement regulatory repeats, complement receptor...

  20. Co-administration of delta- and mu-opioid receptor agonists promotes peripheral opioid receptor function


    Schramm, Cicely L.; Honda, Christopher N.


    Enhancement of peripheral opioid analgesia following tissue injury or inflammation in animal models is well-documented, but clinical results of peripheral opioid therapy remain inconsistent. Previous studies in the central nervous system have shown that co-administration of μ- and δ-opioid receptor agonists can enhance analgesic outcomes; however, less is known about the functional consequences of opioid receptor interactions in the periphery. The present study examines the effects of intrapl...

  1. Variability in beta-adrenergic receptor response in the vasculature: Role of receptor polymorphism. (United States)

    Wood, Alastair J j


    beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are important in determining vascular tone. Stimulation of beta(2)ARs in the vasculature produces vasodilatation, which acts to counteract the vasoconstriction produced by endogenous sympathetic agonists. Impaired vasodilatation occurs in human hypertension and in Blacks. It is now clear that receptor polymorphism may contribute to some of the variability seen in vascular response. beta(2)AR haplotypes determine the desensitization response to chronic agonist exposure in vivo and result in altered vasodilatory responses.

  2. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior


    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.


    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in t...

  3. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Kržan

    Full Text Available In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure.

  4. Role of formic receptors in soluble urokinase receptor-induced human vascular smooth muscle migration. (United States)

    Duru, Enrico A; Fu, Yuyang; Davies, Mark G


    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to urokinase is dependent on binding of the urokinase molecule to the urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) and cleavage of the receptor. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the soluble uPAR (suPAR) in VSMC migration. Human VSMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of suPAR. Inhibitors to G-protein signaling and kinase activation were used to study these pathways. Assays were performed for mitogen-activated protein kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor activation. suPAR induced concentration-dependent migration of VSMC, which was G protein-dependent and was blocked by Gαi and Gβγ inhibitors. Removal of the full uPAR molecule by incubation of the cells with a phospholipase did not interfere with this response. suPAR induced ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] activation in a Gαi/Gβγ-dependent manner, and interruption of these signaling pathways prevented suPAR-mediated migration. suPAR activity was independent of plasmin activity. suPAR did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor. Interruption of the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) but not high affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPR) prevented cell migration and activation in response to suPAR. suPAR increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, and this was dependent on the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) and ERK1/2. suPAR induces human smooth muscle cell activation and migration independent of the full uPAR through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor FPRL1, which is not linked to the plasminogen activation cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang


    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  6. Probing an artificial polypeptide receptor library using a series of novel histamine H3 receptor ligands. (United States)

    Bak, Andrzej; Daszykowski, Michal; Kaminski, Zbigniew; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Fraczyk, Justyna; Kolesinska, Beata; Ciosek, Patrycja; Polanski, Jaroslaw


    An artificial polypeptide receptor (APR) library was created by using the self-organization of N-lipidated peptides attached to cellulose via m-aminophenylamino-1,3,5-triazine. The response of the library was probed using a series of novel H3 receptor ligands. Since no guidelines on how to design an APRs selective vs certain receptor types exist, a diverse set of amino acids (Ala, Trp, Pro, Glu, His, Lys and Ser) were used and coupled with one of three gating fatty acids (palmitic, ricinoleic or capric). A competitive adsorption-desorption of an appropriate reporter dye was used for the indirect visualization of the interactions of guests with particular receptors. The resulted library response to individual inhibitors was then arranged in a matrix, preprocessed and analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) method. The most important conclusion obtained from the PCA analysis is that the library differentiates the probed compounds according to the lipophilicity of the gating unit. The PC3 with a dominant absolute contribution of the receptors containing Glu allowed for the best separation of the ligands with respect to their activity. This conclusion is in agreement with the fact that Glu 206 is a genuine ligand counterpart in the natural histamine receptor.

  7. Linking Functional Domains of the Human Insulin Receptor with the Bacterial Aspartate Receptor (United States)

    Ellis, Leland; Morgan, David O.; Koshland, Daniel E.; Clauser, Eric; Moe, Gregory R.; Bollag, Gideon; Roth, Richard A.; Rutter, William J.


    A hybrid receptor has been constructed that is composed of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor. This hybrid protein can be expressed in rodent (CHO) cells and displays several functional features comparable to wild-type insulin receptor. It is localized to the cell surface, binds insulin with high affinity, forms oligomers, and is recognized by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. Although most of the expressed protein accumulates as a 180-kDa proreceptor, some processed 135-kDa receptor can be detected on the cell surface by covalent cross-linking. Expression of the hybrid receptor inhibits the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by CHO cells. Thus, this hybrid is partially functional and can be processed; however, it is incapable of native transmembrane signaling. The results indicate that the intact domains of different types of receptors can retain some of the native features in a hybrid molecule but specific requirements will need to be satisfied for transmembrane signaling.

  8. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia


    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT, receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes inducibles por ácido retinoico y receptores tipo Nod y NALP, que reconocen patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos (PMAM. Gracias a esta capacidad de discriminación, adquirida evolutivamente por la inmunidad innata, se ha aceptado tradicionalmente que los procesos autoinmunes no están relacionados con esta sino con la inmunidad adquirida. Sin embargo, varios estudios han demostrado que esa teoría no es totalmente cierta y que algunos mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata participan en la generación de las enfermedades autoinmunes o en la potenciación de su fisiopatología. En esta revisión se estudia la contribución de la inmunidad innata a la autoinmunidad con énfasis en el papel de los receptores tipo Toll.

  9. Addressing the value of novel therapies in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Lee


    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a troubling side effect of cancer treatment and is often poorly controlled. As a consequence, CINV is associated with substantially increased costs of care and significant interference with patients' lives. Inadequate control over CINV results from factors that include failure to provide guideline-adherent prophylactic medication and limitations in available therapies. Newer serotonin receptor antagonists, such as palonosetron, and addition of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists to treatment have significantly decreased both acute and delayed CINV. A fixed-dose combination of palonosetron and a new NK-1 receptor, netupitant, is significantly superior to palonosetron alone and has small, but consistent, numerical advantages over aprepitant plus palonosetron for prevention of CINV. The combination of a serotonin receptor antagonist plus an NK-1 receptor antagonist has been shown to be cost-effective for prevention of CINV and the availability of a fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron may enhance this benefit.

  10. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  11. Molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the histamine H4 receptor. (United States)

    Leurs, Rob; Chazot, Paul L; Shenton, Fiona C; Lim, Herman D; de Esch, Iwan J P


    The elucidation of the human genome has had a major impact on histamine receptor research. The identification of the human H4 receptor by several groups has been instrumental for a new appreciation of the role of histamine in the modulation of immune function. In this review, we summarize the historical developments and the molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the H4 receptor.

  12. The cholinergic system, sigma-1 receptors and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Ramakrishnan, Nisha K.; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Nijholt, Ingrid M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.


    This article provides an overview of present knowledge regarding the relationship between the cholinergic system and sigma-1 receptors, and discusses potential applications of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of memory deficits and cognitive disorders. Sigma-1 receptors, initially

  13. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.


    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of some vanilloid receptor agonists | Awad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vanilloid receptors 1 (VR 1), a group of transient receptor potential channels family was cloned in 1997. They were found to be a potential target for treatment of different acute and chronic pain disorder. Recently these receptors were reported to be involved in several pathological conditions. Objectives: The ...

  15. Wnt signaling through the Ror receptor in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrova, Iveta M; Malessy, Martijn J; Verhaagen, J.; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N

    The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are conserved tyrosine kinase receptors that play roles in a variety of cellular processes that pattern tissues and organs during vertebrate and invertebrate development. Ror signaling is required for skeleton and neuronal development

  16. Structure-Function Studies on the Prolactin Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxholm, Gitte Wolfsberg

    information on the intracellular domains (ICDs) of these receptors. The overall aim of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of cytokine receptor signaling through structure-function studies on the prolactin receptor (PRLR). The primary focus of this thesis was to structurally characterize...

  17. Family C 7TM receptor dimerization and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Sheikh, Søren P; Hansen, Jakob Lerche


    to be fully defined. This review presents the biochemical support for family C 7TM receptor dimerization and discusses its importance for receptor biosynthesis, surface expression, ligand binding and activation, since lessons learnt here may well be applicable to the whole superfamily of 7TM receptors....

  18. Biased and g protein-independent signaling of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Larsen, Olav; Thiele, Stefanie


    Biased signaling or functional selectivity occurs when a 7TM-receptor preferentially activates one of several available pathways. It can be divided into three distinct forms: ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue or cell bias, where it is mediated by different ligands (on the same receptor), dif...

  19. Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines investigated were steroid receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell lines BT-20 and ...

  20. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...