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Sample records for neuroimaging witnessed remarkable

  1. Looking inside the brain the power of neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...

  2. Celebrity witnessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Frello, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with emotional address in the narrative modality of celebrity witnessing in the marketing of development aid. We analyse Danish celebrity narratives of global caring, drawing on Luc Boltanski’s work on a ‘politics of pity’, Lilie Chouliaraki’s notion of the ‘aspirational...... the spectator in alternative ways, thus creating space for alternative types of emotional engagement. The analysis demonstrates that the narrative modality of celebrity witnessing is more flexible than what is usually presumed, since it enables different completions and can be pried open for articulations...

  3. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    discipline that permits them to testify to an opinion that will aid a judge or jury in resolving a question that is beyond the understanding or competence of laypersons. An expert witness is an expert who makes his or her knowledge available to a court (a tribunal or any other forum where formal rules of evidence apply) to help ...

  4. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  5. Use of Imaging in Children With Witnessed Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, John D; Hertz, Stephanie K; Steiner, R Daryl; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2017-03-13

    Physicians are occasionally asked to evaluate children who are reported to have been victims of witnessed abuse, but who have no injuries noted on examination. The rate of injury in these patients is presently unknown. This is important because abuse allegations are brought for both altruistic and other reasons. This study compares the use of skeletal survey and neuroimaging in well-appearing and clearly injured children reported to be victims of witnessed child abuse. Retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examination of Siblings to Recognize Abuse cohort of children referred to a child abuse pediatrician with concerns for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented to a medical provider with a history of witnessed child abuse including shaking. Rates of radiographically evident injuries are noted among children with and without injuries noted on physical examination. Among 2890 children evaluated by a child abuse pediatrician, 90 children (3.1%) presented with a history of witnessed abuse. Among these, 51 children (57%) had injuries noted on physical examination; 9 (29%) of 31 skeletal surveys and 9 (35%) of 26 neuroimaging studies revealed injuries. Of 39 children (43%) with witnessed abuse and normal examination, 3 (10%) of 30 skeletal surveys and 2 (8%) of 25 neuroimaging studies revealed an injury. A significant minority of children evaluated for allegations of witnessed abuse will have occult injuries identified radiographically. Absence of injury on examination should not deter physicians from obtaining otherwise indicated skeletal surveys and neuroimaging in children reported to have experienced witnessed abuse.

  6. Paediatric Neuroimaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric Neuroimaging Quiz Case. S Afr J Rad. 2015;19(2); Art. #873, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i2.873. Copyright: © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons. Attribution License. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  7. Concluding Remarks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a great honor and pleasure to offer the concluding remarks for this issue of the Rwanda Journal of Medicine and. Health Sciences. The inaugural Global Innovations in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research, and Practice conference held in Kigali earlier this year, and the resulting journal issue dedicated to nursing ...

  8. Concluding remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1996-04-01

    This section contains the concluding remarks of the workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment. Technical issues such as spatial variability of rock properties, rock mass strength, measurement of loads, evaluation of long-term seal performance, and integration of data into design were discussed. Programmatic issues such as development of a coherent and consistent design methodology and implementation of that methodology were also reiterated.

  9. Witnessing the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    the journalists into witnesses. It compares the manager's strategy to other cases of effective witnessing in courtrooms and in science. It concludes that the manager's persuasiveness is derived from his ability to articulate a series of pointed contrasts between the attractive working life within the firm......Abstract: The paper explores the phenomenon of witnessing the future through a case study of how a Scandinavian new economy firm managed to persuade a number of business journalists that it was "the future". It describes the procedures and rhetorical strategies that the manager deployed to turn...... and the problematic work life elsewhere. Finally, it notes that the manager's strategy enacts a timeworld characterised by dramatic epochal changes, which is radically different from the more stable and knowable time-world that is enacted in ordinary scientific discourses. Key words: actor-network theory, witnessing...

  10. Witnessing Irreducible Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wan; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-08-25

    The Hilbert space dimension of a quantum system is the most basic quantifier of its information content. Lower bounds on the dimension can be certified in a device-independent way, based only on observed statistics. We highlight that some such "dimension witnesses" capture only the presence of systems of some dimension, which in a sense is trivial, not the capacity of performing information processing on them, which is the point of experimental efforts to control high-dimensional systems. In order to capture this aspect, we introduce the notion of irreducible dimension of a quantum behavior. This dimension can be certified, and we provide a witness for irreducible dimension four.

  11. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  12. Neuroimaging of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454

  13. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  14. Fibonacci - Protagonist or Witness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Leonardo Fibonacci (ca. 1170 - after 1240) during his boyhood went to Bejaïa, learned about the Hindu-Arabic numerals there, and continued to collect information about their use during travels to the Arabic world. He then wrote the Liber abbaci, which with half a century’s delay inspired......, of course, that Fibonacci learned about Arabic (and Byzantine) commercial arithmetic, and that he presented it in his book. He is thus a witness (with a degree of reliability which has to be determined) of the commercial mathematics thriving in the commercially developed parts of the Mediterranean world...... with Arabic non-scholarly traditions, at least until ca. 1350 within an open space, apparently concentrated around the Iberian region....

  15. ETHIOPIAN WITNESS PROTECTION SYSTEM: COMPARATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    law enforcement or judicial authorities in the maintenance of justice.12. 2.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Witness protection first came to prominence in the United State of America to dismantle Mafia style criminal organizations.13 Before its formal establishment by act, witness protection system started to protect people.

  16. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  17. Cardiopulmonary bypass in Jehovah's Witnesses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galement les transfusions ... Jehovah's witnesses for religious reasons do not allow heterologous or some forms of autologous blood ... tolerance and frequent respiratory tract infections since birth. Investigations including 2-D colour doppler echo< ...

  18. Let's not, and say we would: imagined and actual responses to witnessing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jennifer Randall; Wilson, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We compared imagined versus actual affective and behavioral responses to witnessing a homophobic slur. Participants (N = 72) witnessed a confederate using a homophobic slur, imagined the same scenario, or were not exposed to the slur. Those who imagined hearing the slur reported significantly higher levels of negative affect than those who actually witnessed the slur, and nearly one half of them reported that they would confront the slur, whereas no participants who actually heard the slur confronted it. These findings reveal a discrepancy between imagined and real responses to homophobic remarks, and they have implications for the likelihood that heterosexuals will actually confront homophobic remarks.

  19. Bearing witness: midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Warland, Jane

    2013-09-01

    Traumatic birth is a phenomenon that has been identified in women's birthing experiences, yet there has been no primary research conducted into midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. Traumatic stress from witnessing and working with traumatised clients has been identified in other caring professionals such as nurses, social workers and emergency department personnel. This includes evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatisation and compassion fatigue. A distinct gap in the literature about midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth and the effects of working with potentially traumatised women formed the basis for this research. A descriptive qualitative study was used to explore midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. The aim of this research was to enable midwives to describe their experiences and to determine if they are at risk of negative psychological sequalae similar to those in other caring professions. Ten currently or previously Registered Midwives with varying amounts of experience were interviewed, and transcripts of those interviews formed the raw data for the study. The data were independently thematically analysed by the two authors to identify common themes used to describe the experience of witnessing traumatic birth. 'Stuck between two philosophies', 'What could I have done differently', and 'Feeling for the woman', emerged as the main themes from the research. The participants described their emotional distress from feeling 'stuck' between wishing they could practice according to their midwifery philosophy, and the reality of working within a medical model of care. Feelings of responsibility for women and babies' outcomes, and repeatedly questioning what they could have done differently to prevent a traumatic birth was also reported. Feeling for the woman emerged as a major factor in midwives' experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. As far as we can determine this

  20. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  1. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  2. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste ePoline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

  4. Interactive Information Visualization in Neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...

  5. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  6. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data.

  7. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  8. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarbicki, Gniewomir [Insitute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudzicdzka 5, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  10. 15 CFR 904.252 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the witness, or any other action deemed appropriate by the Judge. (f) Testimony in a foreign language. If a witness is expected to testify in a language other than the English language, the party... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses. 904.252 Section 904.252...

  11. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.

  12. Seven remarkable days

    CERN Multimedia

    This has been a truly remarkable seven days for CERN. Things have moved so fast that it has sometimes been hard to separate fact from fiction – all the more so since facts have often seemed too good to be true. It’s been a week of many firsts. Monday was the first time we’ve had two captured beams in the LHC. It’s the first time the LHC has functioned as a particle accelerator, boosting particles to the highest beam energy so far achieved at CERN. And it’s been a week in which we’ve seen the highest energy proton-proton collisions ever produced at CERN: our last hadron collider, the SPS was a proton-antiproton collider, a technically simpler machine than the LHC. This week’s successes are all the more remarkable precisely because of the complexity of the LHC. Unlike the SPS collider, it is two accelerators not one, making the job of commissioning nearly twice as difficult. I’d like to express my heartfelt thanks and congra...

  13. Artificial photosynthesis: closing remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2017-06-02

    This paper derives from my closing remarks lecture at the 198th Faraday Discussion meeting on Artificial Photosynthesis, Kyoto, Japan, February 28-March 2. The meeting had sessions on biological approaches and fundamental processes, molecular catalysts, inorganic assembly catalysts, and integration of systems for demonstrating realistic devices. The field has had much progress since the previous Faraday Discussion on Artificial Photosynthesis in Edinburgh, UK, in 2011. This paper is a personal account of recent discussions and developments in the field, as reflected in and discussed during the meeting. First it discusses the general directions of artificial photosynthesis and some considerations for a future solar fuels technology. Then it comments on some scientific directions in the area of the meeting.

  14. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-30

    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative coherence witness for finite dimensional states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huizhong; Lin, Anni; He, Siying; Hu, Xueyuan

    2017-12-01

    We define the stringent coherence witness as an observable whose mean value vanishes for all incoherent states but nonzero for some coherent states. Such witnesses are proved to exist for any finite-dimension states. Not only is the witness efficient in testing whether a state is coherent, but also its mean value can quantitatively reveal the amount of coherence. For an unknown state, the modulus of the mean value of a normalized witness provides a tight lower bound to the l1-norm of coherence. When we have some previous knowledge of a state, the optimal witness which has the maximal mean value is derived. It is proved that for any finite dimension state, the mean value of the optimal witness, which we call the witnessed coherence, equals the l1-norm of coherence. In the case that the witness is fixed and the incoherent operations are allowed, the maximal mean value can reach the witnessed coherence if and only if certain relations between the fixed witness and the initial state are satisfied. Our results provide a way to directly measure the coherence in arbitrary finite dimension states and an operational interpretation of the l1-norm of coherence.

  16. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Semiconductor physics at WIT and Trinity College

    OpenAIRE

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2006-01-01

    A WIT research group that studies the physics of semiconductors is coordinated by Dr. Cormac O’Raifeartaigh of the School of Science. Experimental research is carried out at the electron spin resonance (ESR) laboratory at Trinity College Dublin (TCD) in collaboration with Dr. Robert Barklie of TCD. Research data are analysed at WIT with theoretical support provided by Dr. Mohammad Alhourani and Mr. Frank Leonard. The group has participated in research projects funded by WIT (BEHEST Programme)...

  18. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.

  19. Neural Responses to Witnessing Peer Rejection after Being Socially Excluded: fMRI as a Window into Adolescents' Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in…

  20. Ethiopian witness protection system: comparative analysis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Witnesses are the eyes and the ears of justice.” They assist the court in deciding the guilt or otherwise of the accused person. They are crucial in a criminal proceeding; from reporting of crime to its trial. The evidence by a witness is crucial for the ...

  1. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  2. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F; Rodriguez-Takeuchi, Sara Y

    2015-10-01

    To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9-65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ=1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ=0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ=0.24). Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  4. The making of expert witness: the valuers' perspective | Babawale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of the expert witness in the process of justice administration. As the saying goes, not all 'experts' make good 'expert witness' as there is more to being an 'expert witness' than there is to being an 'expert'. That is, being an 'expert witness' does not necessarily connote that the witness is an expert ...

  5. Expert witness testimony in ophthalmology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Friedman, Remy; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants in ophthalmology malpractice litigation. Correlational and descriptive study; analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database was searched for ophthalmologist expert witness testimony from January 2006 to June 2014. Physician demographic data were used as the main outcome measures, including length of experience, scholarly impact (as measured by the h-index), practice setting, and fellowship training status and were obtained from state medical licensing board sites and online medical facility and practice sites. H-indices were obtained from the Scopus database. Defendant and plaintiff expert witnesses had comparable mean years of experience (32.9 and 35.7, respectively) (P = .12) and scholarly impact (h-index = 8.6 and 8.3, respectively) (P = .42). Cases tended to resolve on the side of the expert witness with the higher h-index (P = .04). Significantly higher proportions of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (P < .05) and underwent fellowship training (P < .001). Ophthalmologist expert witnesses testifying for both plaintiffs and defendants had over 30 years of experience and high scholarly impact. Practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs were statistically less likely to work in an academic setting and have subspecialty training. Scholarly impact of expert witnesses appeared to affect trial outcomes. Surgical societies should stringently police for appropriate expert witness testimony given by both plaintiff and defense experts in malpractice litigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  7. Neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarath, L

    2001-10-01

    To review recent neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour, including criminality, psychopathy, sexual offending, aggression, and violence. Using OVID software, Psycinfo and Medline were searched for studies undertaken in the last 15 years. A brief outline of each technology is followed by a survey of published reports from refereed journals. Where indicated, critical appraisal is offered. Converging evidence from multiple studies of structure and function indicates that abnormal prefrontal (and probably subcortical) circuitry are very likely involved in antisocial behaviour. Clinicians should be aware of emerging findings from biological studies of antisociality. Future neuroimaging and other biologically based work, especially when combined with psychosocial initiatives, should yield fruit in attempts to better understand, treat, and prevent such socially devastating and destructive behaviour.

  8. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    of the application of neuroimaging findings to guide multidisciplinary collaboration in a randomized controlled trial on integrated home care for stroke patients. This approach may be termed double-objectivism. Results: 1. In classical neurology CNS is a dual system of ANS and Cortex. The new neuroeconomic...... understanding is that of a reciprocal balance of interacting Limbic System (L(x)) and Neocortex (NC). This favours integrated homecare as relaxation of LS at home (BP declines 5 mmHg) in itself improves cognitive integration to the benefit of rehabilitation i.e. reduced risk of ‘death or disability’ for stroke...... is basal knowledge for collaborative self-management. 3. Values of an integrative logic are derived as patience to both positivist prediction and client-centered implementation. Conclusion: Modern neuroimaging presents a positivistic guidance towards modern values of multidisciplinary collaboration...

  9. Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Chavez, Robert S; Grazioplene, Rachael; Jung, Rex E

    2010-12-25

    Many studies of creative cognition with a neuroimaging component now exist; what do they say about where and how creativity arises in the brain? We reviewed 45 brain-imaging studies of creative cognition. We found little clear evidence of overlap in their results. Nearly as many different tests were used as there were studies; this test diversity makes it impossible to interpret the different findings across studies with any confidence. Our conclusion is that creativity research would benefit from psychometrically informed revision, and the addition of neuroimaging methods designed to provide greater spatial localization of function. Without such revision in the behavioral measures and study designs, it is hard to see the benefit of imaging. We set out eight suggestions in a manifesto for taking creativity research forward. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR 1603.212 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE... be paid or offered to the witness by the party requesting the subpoena at the time the subpoena is...

  11. The Griffiths Question Map: A Forensic Tool For Expert Witnesses' Assessments of Witnesses and Victims' Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodier, Olivier; Denault, Vincent

    2017-02-27

    Expert witnesses are sometimes asked to assess the reliability of young witnesses and victims' statements because of their high susceptibility to memory biases. This technical note aims to highlight the relevance of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM) as a professional forensic tool to improve expert witnesses' assessments of young witnesses and victims' testimonies. To do so, this innovative question type assessment grid was used to proceed to an in-depth analysis of the interview of an alleged 13-year-old victim of a sexual assault and two rapes. Overall, the GQM stressed how the interview was mainly conducted in an inappropriate manner. The results are examined with regard to scientific knowledge on young witnesses and victims' memory. Finally, it is argued that expert witnesses in inquisitorial systems might use the GQM while encountering difficulties to fulfill the legal standards for expert evidence in adversarial systems because of the lack of studies regarding its reliability. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  13. Modest Witness(ing) and Lively Stories: Paying Attention to Matters of Concern in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy; Hamm, Catherine; Iorio, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the role of early childhood education within these uncertain times of human induced climate change. It draws from feminism and environmental humanities to experiment with different ways of becoming-with the world. By bringing together Donna Haraway's figure of the Modest Witness and Deborah Bird Rose's notion of witnessing,…

  14. Editorial - a remark you made

    OpenAIRE

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2007-01-01

    ”A remark you made” is the title of a wonderful tune by the famous jazz-rock group “Weather Report”, issued on the influential “Heavy weather” LP some 30 years ago. In an age where planning and rationalizing is the main issue in most contexts, whether it’s a matter of studying, teaching, doing research or using a diet, “A remark you made” is a symbol of attending to the unplanned, unforeseen and often, unwanted. In most accounts on cognitive development one is overtly focused on the manageabl...

  15. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.

  16. Expert witness testimony in urology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaryo, Peter L; Svider, Peter F; Jackson-Rosario, Imani; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the credentials of urologists choosing to testify as expert witnesses. As health care reform has become an increasingly important topic in national debate, medical malpractice and related issues have come to the forefront of topics for discussion by the medical community. Physicians are often recruited to testify as expert witnesses in malpractice cases. Defining what constitutes an expert in this setting has been an area of controversy. The Westlaw legal database was searched for medical malpractice litigation. Data regarding number of years of experience and practice setting were obtained for urologists using private practice and hospital listings, academic faculty profiles, and state medical licensing databases. Scholarly impact, as measured by the h-index, was calculated by the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses were found to have slightly more years of experience vs defendant expert witnesses (35.7 vs 32.2 years, P = .01), but had a lower h-index (6.8 vs 10.2, P = .03), were less likely to practice in the academic setting (39% vs 60%, P = .001), and were more likely to testify multiple times. Urologists testifying for plaintiffs and defendants both had over 30 years of experience on average, with those in the latter having slightly less experience. Defendant witnesses, however, had greater scholarly impact and were more likely to practice in an academic setting. Organizations such as the American Urological Association may wish to re-evaluate guidelines on expert witness testimony, particularly regarding those who testify frequently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Child Witness in the Courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantell, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, children have increasingly served as witnesses in the criminal, civil, and family courts; currently, >100 000 children appear in court each year. This statement updates the 1992 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement "The Child as a Witness" and the subsequent 1999 "The Child in Court: A Subject Review." It also builds on existing AAP policy on adverse life events affecting children and resources developed to understand and address childhood trauma. The purpose of this policy statement is to provide background information on some of the legal issues involving children testifying in court, including the accuracy and psychological impact of child testimony; to provide suggestions for how pediatricians can support patients who will testify in court; and to make recommendations for policy improvements to minimize the adverse psychological consequences for child witnesses. These recommendations are, for the most part, based on studies on the psychological and physiologic consequences of children witnessing and experiencing violence, as well as appearing in court, that have emerged since the previous AAP publications on the subject. The goal is to reduce the secondary traumatization of and long-term consequences for children providing testimony about violence they have experienced or witnessed. This statement primarily addresses children appearing in court as victims of physical or sexual abuse or as witnesses of violent acts; most of the scientific literature addresses these specific situations. It may apply, in certain situations, to children required to provide testimony in custody disputes, child welfare proceedings, or immigration court. It does not address children appearing in court as offenders or as part of juvenile justice proceedings. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Neural responses to witnessing peer rejection after being socially excluded: fMRI as a window into adolescents' emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-09-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in witnessing peer acceptance and rejection - specifically when these witnessed events occur in the immediate aftermath of a firsthand experience with rejection. During an fMRI scan, 23 adolescents underwent a simulated experience of firsthand peer rejection. Then, immediately following this experience they watched as another adolescent was ostensibly first accepted and then rejected. Findings indicated that in the immediate aftermath of being rejected by peers, adolescents displayed neural activity consistent with distress when they saw another peer being accepted, and neural activity consistent with emotion regulation and mentalizing (e.g. perspective-taking) processes when they saw another peer being rejected. Furthermore, individuals displaying a heightened sensitivity to firsthand rejection were more likely to show neural activity consistent with distress when observing a peer being accepted. Findings are discussed in terms of how witnessing others being accepted or rejected relates to adolescents' interpretations of both firsthand and observed experiences with peers. In addition, the potential impact that witnessed events might have on the broader perpetuation of bullying at this age is also considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neural responses to witnessing peer rejection after being socially excluded: fMRI as a window into adolescents’ emotional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in witnessing peer acceptance and rejection—specifically when these witnessed events occur in the immediate aftermath of a firsthand experience with rejection. During an fMRI scan, twenty-three adolescents underwent a simulated experience of firsthand peer rejection. Then, immediately following this experience they watched as another adolescent was ostensibly first accepted and then rejected. Findings indicated that in the immediate aftermath of being rejected by peers, adolescents displayed neural activity consistent with distress when they saw another peer being accepted, and neural activity consistent with emotion regulation and mentalizing (e.g., perspective-taking) processes when they saw another peer being rejected. Furthermore, individuals displaying a heightened sensitivity to firsthand rejection were more likely to show neural activity consistent with distress when observing a peer being accepted. Findings are discussed in terms of how witnessing others being accepted or rejected relates to adolescents’ interpretations of both firsthand and observed experiences with peers. Additionally, the potential impact that witnessed events might have on the broader perpetuation of bullying at this age is also considered. PMID:24033579

  20. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  1. Rhetorical Witnessing: Recognizing Genocide in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.; Wolf, Rudiger Escobar

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the rhetorical dimensions of witnessing. We concentrate, in particular, on two groups: 1) university students at the University of San Carlos, Quetzaltenango, whose murals are dramatic reminders of the massacres that resulted in the deaths of over 200,000 indigenous people in the 1980s and early 90s and of the corrupt…

  2. On Witness-Discernibility of Elementary Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnebo, Ø; Muller, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of discussions about the nature of ‘identical particles’ and the status of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Quantum Mechanics, a novel kind of physical discernibility has recently been proposed, which we call witness-discernibility. We inquire into how

  3. Cardiopulmonary bypass in Jehovah's Witnesses | Frimpong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept heterologous blood transfusion for religious reasons. Autologous transfusions are also rejected if there is no continuous contact between the circulation and the autologous blood. There is, therefore , the need to adopt methods which will avoid transfusion of heterologous blood in elective ...

  4. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  5. Why WITS? Why not a way beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: WITS appraisal is a common parameter in cephalometrics to assess maxillo-mandibular skeletal relationship as an adjunct to angle ANB. The high variability of the WITS appraisal is attributable to difficulties or inaccuracies in identifying the occlusal plane or variations due to tooth eruption, dental development or treatment changes by vertical movement of incisors, molars, or both. Aim: An extracranial reference line common to both denture bases, instead of the occlusal plane is proposed to assess antero-posterior jaw relationships. Materials and Methods: A true vertical obtained by plumb line was recorded, while taking the cephalogram for 40 subjects. A line drawn perpendicular to this true vertical gave a stable and reproducible extracranial true horizontal (HOR reference line. The linear distance between perpendiculars from points A and B was measured as an adjunct to angle ANB. Result: The Pearson′s product moment correlation coefficient calculated for the entire sample indicated higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.8712 for the linear measurements on HOR (AH-BH with respect to the angle ANB when compared with the WITS readings (AO-BO (r = 0.549. Conclusion: The horizontal appraisal method proposed eliminates the demerits of the occlusal plane and has the merits of simplicity and accuracy in comparison to WITS appraisal.

  6. Narcissistic dimensions of expert witness practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Simon, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The authors review narcissism as it relates to expert witness practice. The review addresses stable versus unstable narcissism, normal confidence, perspective taking, the effect of flattery, the will to win, mirror transference, narcissistic excitement, narcissistic rage, narcissistic injury, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The article closes with recommendations for resisting narcissistic pitfalls and achieving the egoless state.

  7. 14 CFR 13.121 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witness fees. 13.121 Section 13.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Formal Fact-Finding Investigation Under an Order of Investigation § 13...

  8. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  9. [Neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2006-11-01

    I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the

  10. Remarks on the clump theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    Further details are provided of a soon-to-be published dialog (Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)) which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence.

  11. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  12. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  13. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  14. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  15. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  16. 5 CFR 1201.32 - Witnesses; right to representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses; right to representation. 1201.32 Section 1201.32 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... § 1201.32 Witnesses; right to representation. Witnesses have the right to be represented when testifying...

  17. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  19. Editorial - a remark you made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ”A remark you made” is the title of a wonderful tune by the famous jazz-rock group “Weather Report”, issued on the influential “Heavy weather” LP some 30 years ago. In an age where planning and rationalizing is the main issue in most contexts, whether it’s a matter of studying, teaching, doing research or using a diet, “A remark you made” is a symbol of attending to the unplanned, unforeseen and often, unwanted. In most accounts on cognitive development one is overtly focused on the manageable, on the predictable and expected, and not so attentive to the opposite. “A remark you made” makes us think again and reconsider what might be of value, in what we otherwise might neglect. A remark made by Terry Anderson at a conference last year (2006 was rather telling. Anderson is the renown distance educator from Athabasca University, Alberta Canada, and editor of our fellow e-journal “The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning”. I recite it here totally from my own memory, and I have never approached him to have it verified, falsified or commented. That doesn’t matter in this context. Standing on the podium, he lowered his voice and asked if any Danes were present in the room. There weren’t! Then he explained that his argument might be presented differently with Danes present: “You see – Danes seem to think that learning alone is no longer possible!” That remark caused quite a good laugh, not the least because any comment – good or bad – about fellow Scandinavians generally is considered to be a good joke. But it was also a comment on how not only distance education, or open and flexible learning, but learning theory in general is driven by the sociocultural learning theory, - and according to Anderson, particularly so in Denmark! Our first contribution in this issue is about the theory of media theory developed by one of our editors: Lars Qvortrup. Lars is now the rector of the Danish

  20. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  1. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  2. Witnessing peer rejection during early adolescence: neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Dapretto, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have begun to reveal the neural bases of empathy; however, this research has focused on empathy for physical pain, rather than empathy for negative social experiences. Moreover, this work has not examined adolescents who may frequently witness and empathize with others that experience negative social experiences such as peer rejection. Here, we examined neural activity among early adolescents observing social exclusion compared to observing inclusion, and how this activity related to both trait empathy and subsequent prosocial behavior. Participants were scanned while they observed an individual whom they believed was being socially excluded. At least one day prior to the scan they reported their trait empathy, and following the scan they wrote emails to the excluded victim that were rated for prosocial behavior (e.g., helping, comforting). Observing exclusion compared to inclusion activated regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex), particularly among highly empathic individuals. Additionally, individuals who displayed more activity in affective, pain-related regions during observed exclusion compared to inclusion subsequently wrote more prosocial emails to excluded victims. Overall findings suggest that when early adolescents witness social exclusion in their daily lives, some may actually 'feel the pain' of the victims and act more prosocially toward them as a result. © 2010 Psychology Press

  3. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical neuroimaging data...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...

  4. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... attempt to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...

  5. Visualization and unsupervised predictive clustering of high-dimensional multimodal neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Soares, Jair C; Hasan, Khader M

    2014-10-30

    Neuroimaging machine learning studies have largely utilized supervised algorithms - meaning they require both neuroimaging scan data and corresponding target variables (e.g. healthy vs. diseased) to be successfully 'trained' for a prediction task. Noticeably, this approach may not be optimal or possible when the global structure of the data is not well known and the researcher does not have an a priori model to fit the data. We set out to investigate the utility of an unsupervised machine learning technique; t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t-SNE) in identifying 'unseen' sample population patterns that may exist in high-dimensional neuroimaging data. Multimodal neuroimaging scans from 92 healthy subjects were pre-processed using atlas-based methods, integrated and input into the t-SNE algorithm. Patterns and clusters discovered by the algorithm were visualized using a 2D scatter plot and further analyzed using the K-means clustering algorithm. t-SNE was evaluated against classical principal component analysis. Remarkably, based on unlabelled multimodal scan data, t-SNE separated study subjects into two very distinct clusters which corresponded to subjects' gender labels (cluster silhouette index value=0.79). The resulting clusters were used to develop an unsupervised minimum distance clustering model which identified 93.5% of subjects' gender. Notably, from a neuropsychiatric perspective this method may allow discovery of data-driven disease phenotypes or sub-types of treatment responders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  7. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for central neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The family physician in the witness box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1983-08-01

    The doctor appearing in court must learn a new language and be prepared to deal with the legal profession, which is quite different from his own. Adequate preparation for a court case can make it less confusing; this article gives guidelines for doctors occasionally called to give evidence, or who are accused of malpractice. Doctors called as witnesses must consult with lawyers early, to determine exactly what information the court wants and the form a report should take. Physicians should carefully study and summarize all their evidence in non-technical language before a court appearance. By learning some legal language, they can also understand and adequately answer lawyers' questions. A physician accused of negligence must make no admissions before the case and have no contact with the plaintiff other than to formally acknowledge the charge. The Canadian Medical Protective Association should be contacted as soon as possible.

  9. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  10. Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard

    2017-12-01

    Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.

  11. The Experience of Nurses with Hospitalised Jehovah's Witness Clients.

    OpenAIRE

    RAZÍMOVÁ, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with experience of nurses with hospitalized clients of Jehovah's Witnesses, subjective feelings of nurses, their opinions and peculiarities in the treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses. It is very likely that most nurses will meet with them when practicing their job. Jehova's Witnesses do not accept blood products in their treatment because of their beliefs. Given the trend in modern nursing is to apply multicultural approach, it is useful to know the specifics of care for these ...

  12. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  13. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  15. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, S J A; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J N; Elzinga, B M; van der Wee, N J A

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. Even though research into the neurobiological basis of resilience is still in its early stages, these insights can have important implications for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Neuroimaging studies contribute to our knowledge of intra-individual variability in resilience and the development of posttraumatic symptoms or other stress-related disorders. This review provides an overview of neuroimaging findings related to resilience. Structural, resting-state, and task-related neuroimaging results associated with resilience are discussed. There are a limited number of studies available and neuroimaging research of resilience is still in its infancy. The available studies point at brain circuitries involved in stress and emotion regulation, with more efficient processing and regulation associated with resilience.

  16. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  17. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  19. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  20. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  2. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  3. 14 CFR 305.6 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of witnesses. 305.6 Section 305.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN INFORMAL NONPUBLIC INVESTIGATIONS § 305.6 Appearance of witnesses...

  4. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearance of witnesses... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party wishing to procure the appearance at the hearing of any person having personal or expert knowledge of the...

  5. 45 CFR 681.20 - Can witnesses be subpoenaed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can witnesses be subpoenaed? 681.20 Section 681.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.20 Can witnesses be subpoenaed? (a) A...

  6. 45 CFR 681.28 - How is witness testimony presented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is witness testimony presented? 681.28 Section 681.28 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.28 How is witness testimony...

  7. 22 CFR 903.10 - Access to witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... given access to witnesses employed by the foreign affairs agencies. In the event that the agency of the... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Access to witnesses. 903.10 Section 903.10 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD INITIATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF CASES § 903.10 Access to...

  8. Management of Adult Jehovah's Witness Patients with Acute Bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; Levi, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Because of the firm refusal of transfusion of blood and blood components by Jehovah's Witnesses, the management of Jehovah's Witness patients with severe bleeding is often complicated by medical, ethical, and legal concerns. Because of a rapidly growing and worldwide membership, physicians working

  9. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  10. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analysed and the data length. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  11. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  12. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M Plis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  13. On small sample experiments in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubject...... will generalise to a larger population. In this contribution we address this issue using a Bayesian framework, derive confidence intervals forsmall samples experiments, and discuss the issue of the prior.......Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubjects...

  14. Neuroimaging Endpoints in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.

  15. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  16. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular, the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but its use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analyzed, and the data length.

  17. Humour: some theoretical and clinical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meghnagi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The model used by Freud to explain the secret of laughter in response to wit is one of energy release. And yet, although his starting point was a reductionistic interpretation dominated by the concepts of censure and the bypassing of censure through unconscious desire and the need for release of accumulated tension in the organism, Freud was able to go beyond the limits imposed by his own definition in his analysis of his carefully collected Jewish jokes and so provide us with an analytical model valid for both literature and art. In the wake of Freud‟s writings and of research carried out by Kris and Gombrich, the author sets out to demonstrate how there is a third form of logic involved in wit and humour, in addition to the primary and secondary process, which relates them to literature and art.

  18. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D. Bigler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.

  19. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  20. Neuroimaging of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.

  1. Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aine, C J; Bockholt, H J; Bustillo, J R; Cañive, J M; Caprihan, A; Gasparovic, C; Hanlon, F M; Houck, J M; Jung, R E; Lauriello, J; Liu, J; Mayer, A R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Posse, S; Stephen, J M; Turner, J A; Clark, V P; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).

  2. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  3. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  4. Neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation for translational neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Anna; Savli, Markus; Comasco, Erika; Moser, Ulrike; Novak, Klaus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2013-10-01

    From a neuroimaging point of view, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders represents a unique source of information to probe results gained in functional, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in vivo. However, the implementation has, up to now, been restricted by the heterogeneity of the data reported in DBS studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a comprehensive and standardized database of currently used DBS targets in selected psychiatric disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)) to enable topological comparisons between neuroimaging results and stimulation areas. A systematic literature research was performed and all peer-reviewed publications until the year 2012 were included. Literature research yielded a total of 84 peer-reviewed studies including about 296 psychiatric patients. The individual stimulation data of 37 of these studies meeting the inclusion criteria which included a total of 202 patients (63 OCD, 89 TRD, 50 GTS) was translated into MNI stereotactic space with respect to AC origin in order to identify key targets. The created database can be used to compare DBS target areas in MNI stereotactic coordinates with: 1) activation patterns in functional brain imaging (fMRI, phfMRI, PET, MET, EEG); 2) brain connectivity data (e.g., MR-based DTI/tractography, functional and effective connectivity); 3) quantitative molecular distribution data (e.g., neuroreceptor PET, post-mortem neuroreceptor mapping); 4) structural data (e.g., VBM for neuroplastic changes). Vice versa, the structural, functional and molecular data may provide a rationale to define new DBS targets and adjust/fine-tune currently used targets in DBS based on this overview in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, the availability of DBS data in stereotactic space may facilitate the investigation and interpretation of treatment effects and side effect of DBS by

  5. Traumatic symptomatology in children who witness marital violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, J; Yates, J K

    2001-01-01

    For many years, research has demonstrated the devastating effects of violence upon children, particularly in the form of direct physical and sexual abuse. What has only recently come to into focus are the potential effects of witnessing violence upon children. This area of vicarious victimization seems of particular import given the fact that so many youngsters are known to witness violent acts within their own households. This paper shall review the psychological effects which may be effected upon children as a result of witnessing marital violence. Relevant research issues concerning the potential roles of moderating and mediating variables will also be discussed.

  6. 33 CFR 403.10 - Hearings; witnesses; affidavits. [Rule 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; affidavits. (a) The witnesses at the hearings shall be examined viva voce, but the Board may, at any time... subject matter in question, and any objection to the admission of evidence shall be noted by the member...

  7. Identifying Witness Accounts from Social Media Using Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Truelove

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the use of image category classification to distinguish images posted to social media that are Witness Accounts of an event. Only images depicting observations of the event, captured by micro-bloggers at the event, are considered Witness Accounts. Identifying Witness Accounts from social media is important for services such as news, marketing and emergency response. Automated image category classification is essential due to the large number of images on social media and interest in identifying witnesses in near real time. This paper begins research of this emerging problem with an established procedure, using a bag-of-words method to create a vocabulary of visual words and classifier trained to categorize the encoded images. In order to test the procedure, a set of images were collected for case study events, Australian Football League matches, from Twitter. Evaluation shows an overall accuracy of 90% and precision and recall for both classes exceeding 83%.

  8. Liver transplantation in Jehovah's Witnesses: two cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Ju-Young; Jee, Hyeon Sook; Koo, Bon-Sung; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Gaabsoo

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is especially challenging in patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses because their religious beliefs prohibit the receipt of blood products. We present two cases of living donor liver transplantation performed in adult Jehovah's Witnesses in South Korea without the use of blood products. In the first case, preoperative erythropoiesisstimulation therapy increased hemoglobin levels from 8.1 to 13.1 g/dl after 9 weeks. In the second case, hemoglobin levels increased from 7.4 t...

  9. Witnessing traumatic events causes severe behavioral impairments in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Witnessing a traumatic event but not directly experiencing it can be psychologically quite damaging. In North America alone, ~30% of individuals who witness a traumatic event develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effects of direct trauma are evident, consequences of indirect or secondary trauma are often ignored. Also unclear is the role of social support in the consequences of these experiences. The social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters by a large Long–E...

  10. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  11. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  12. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough...... review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white...

  13. Early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao

    2002-04-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.

  14. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Littlejohns

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient (<25 nmol/L and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L were 0.76 (0.35-1.66 and 1.09 (0.76-1.55 compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19 and 1.12 (0.79-1.59 compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54 and 0.73 (0.47-1.95 compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  15. Progress of neuroimaging research on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-cheng LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which gives rise to senile dementia. High morbidity and poor efficacy of Alzheimer's disease have brought about much pressure to the aging society. However, based on early diagnosis, early clinical intervention may slow down the progression of disease and improve its prognosis. In this review, we attempt to introduce the progress of early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.006

  16. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  17. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C.; Crawford, Karen L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead. PMID:22470336

  18. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  19. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  2. Neuroimaging of Muscle Pain in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Niddam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.

  3. Integrating Theoretical Models with Functional Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone. In this review, we highlight examples of recent studies that utilize this combined approach to provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human cognition. The studies described here span domains of perception, attention, memory, categorization, and cognitive control, employing a variety of analytic and model-inspired approaches. Across these diverse studies, a common theme is that individually tailored, creative solutions are often needed to establish compelling links between multi-parameter models and complex sets of neural data. We conclude that future developments in model-based cognitive neuroscience will have great potential to advance our theoretical understanding and ability to model both low-level and high-level cognitive processes.

  4. Witnessing traumatic events causes severe behavioral impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2014-12-01

    Witnessing a traumatic event but not directly experiencing it can be psychologically quite damaging. In North America alone, ∼30% of individuals who witness a traumatic event develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effects of direct trauma are evident, consequences of indirect or secondary trauma are often ignored. Also unclear is the role of social support in the consequences of these experiences. The social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters by a large Long-Evans male rat (resident) towards a smaller Sprague-Dawley male rat (intruder), is considered a rodent model of PTSD. We have modified this model to create a trauma witness model (TWM) and have used our TWM model to also evaluate social support effects. Basically, when an intruder rat is placed into the home cage of a resident rat, it encounters an agonistic behavior resulting in intruder subordination. The socially defeated intruder is designated the SD rat. A second rat, the cage mate of the SD, is positioned to witness the event and is the trauma witnessing (TW) rat. Experiments were performed in two different experimental conditions. In one, the SD and TW rats were cagemates and acclimatized together. Then, one SD rat was subjected to three sessions of social defeat for 7 d. TW rat witnessed these events. After each social defeat exposure, the TW and SD rats were housed together. In the second, the TW and SD rats were housed separately starting after the first defeat. At the end of each protocol, depression-anxiety-like behavior and memory tests were conducted on the SD and TW rats, blood withdrawn and specific organs collected. Witnessing traumatic events led to depression- and anxiety-like behavior and produced memory deficits in TW rats associated with elevated corticosterone levels.

  5. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  6. Remarkable evolutionary conservation of SOX14 orthologues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PCR based approach was used to identify Sox14 of goat, cow and rat, while nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments and mapping were performed using information currently available in public database. Comparative sequence analysis revealed remarkable identity among Sox14 orthologues and helped us to ...

  7. Remarks on the extended characteristic uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, D.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2001-03-09

    Three remarks concerning the form and the range of validity of the state-extended characteristic uncertainty relations (URs) are presented. A more general definition of the uncertainty matrix for pure and mixed states is suggested. Some new URs are provided. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  8. Schizophrenia: What do we know from neuroimaging research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Zedlitz, A.M.E.E.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - A summary of the main neuroimaging findings in the field of schizophrenia will be given in order to get a better understanding of this disorder. Methods - The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using PubMed and the internet. Results - Neuroimaging research on

  9. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  10. Neuroimaging in contact sports: Determining brain fitness before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroimaging may also be carried out to assess for evidence of structural brain injury which may make a combatant more likely to express late-life neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. As such, neuroimaging plays a prognostic role and aids in the determination of whether the ...

  11. Expert Witness Participation in Civil and Criminal Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Sandeep K; Paul, Stephan R

    2017-03-01

    The interests of the public and both the medical and legal professions are best served when scientifically sound and unbiased expert witness testimony is readily available in civil and criminal proceedings. As members of the medical community, patient advocates, and private citizens, pediatricians have ethical and professional obligations to assist in the civil and criminal judicial processes. This technical report explains how the role of the expert witness differs in civil and criminal proceedings, legal and ethical standards for expert witnesses, and strategies that have been employed to deter unscientific and irresponsible testimony. A companion policy statement offers recommendations on advocacy, education, research, qualifications, standards, and ethical business practices all aimed at improving expert testimony. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. An Overview of Multimodal Neuroimaging Using Nanoprobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications.

  13. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  14. Diphtheric encephalitis and brain neuroimaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jen Chun; Rahmat, Kartini; Mumin, Nazimah Ab; Koh, Mia Tuang; Gan, Chin Seng; Ramli, Norlisah; Fong, Choong Yi

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of paediatric diphtheria complicated with encephalitis. A 6-year-old boy who did not receive his scheduled diptheria-tetanus-pertusis vaccination presented with one episode of generalised convulsive seizure. His illness was preceded by a 3day history of fever associated with enlarged exudative tonsils with a pseudomembrane. He was commenced on intravenous penicillin and oral erythromycin. However, he developed progressive encephalopathy with focal neurological deficit which required intubation on day 5 of illness. Throat swab polymerase chain reaction for diphtheria toxin A and B were positive and diphtheria antitoxin was given. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities over the anterior cingulate gyri, insular cortex and cerebellum. This is the first reported MRI finding of diphtheric encephalitis. Our report highlights the importance of neuroimaging in diagnosing diphtheric encephalitis particularly in cases with unremarkable cerebrospinal findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  16. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  17. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  18. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  19. Concluding Remarks on the Planetary Rings Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    In the past five years ring systems have been discovered around Uranus and Jupiter and a wealth of new data acquired about Saturn's rings. This vigorous observational program has been accompanied by renewed theoretical interest in ring systems. Although all of these topics have been addressed in papers at this first conference on planetary rings, these concluding remarks are focused on some of the key aspects of Saturn's rings about which more needs to be understood throu...

  20. Ethical and Legal Implications of the Methodological Crisis in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmeyer, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, particularly with respect to faulty brain-based models of human cognition, behavior, and personality. Specifically examined is whether such faulty models, when they are applied to neurological or psychiatric diseases, could put patients at risk, and whether this places special obligations on researchers using neuroimaging. In the legal domain, the actual use of neuroimaging as evidence in United States courtrooms is surveyed, followed by an examination of ways that the methodological problems may create challenges for the criminal justice system. Finally, the article reviews and promotes some promising ideas and initiatives from within the neuroimaging community for addressing the methodological problems.

  1. Targets and Witnesses: Middle School Students' Sexual Harassment Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…

  2. Exploring the relationship between victims and witnesses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Young people who are victims of, or witnesses to, aggression are at increased risk of developing a psychological disorder and behaving aggressively themselves. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of exposure to aggression in a sample of 1 770 students, aged 15–26 years recruited from technical ...

  3. Witnesses to Political Violence in Guatemala. Facts for Action #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Fred; Wunder, Haleh

    The sources of political violence against Guatemala's rural poor are traced in this document for high school global education classes. The paper summarizes "Witness to Political Violence in Guatemala: The Suppression of a Rural Development Movement" (Oxfam America's Impact Audit No. 2). The study was based on 115 respondents, both…

  4. Witness for the Innocent: Children's Literature and the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of treatment of the Vietnam war in children's literature. Found that there have not been a large number of books published on subject. Those dealing with subject witness the horrors of the war while treating the conflict as an isolated incident, without a past, and having only a tenuous relationship to our national…

  5. Children Who Witness Domestic Violence: A Review of Empirical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed…

  6. Wits University's response to HIV/AIDS: flagship programme or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS is a threat to the creation of human capital and development prospects in southern Africa and South Africa. The University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) is a well-regarded institution of higher education in Johannesburg. This paper outlines the university's qualified failure to implement its HIV/AIDS Policy through a ...

  7. Violations of human rights: health practitioners as witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2007-08-25

    For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity.

  8. Neuroimaging of resilience to stress: current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Steven J A; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Stein, Dan J; van der Wee, Nic J A

    2013-09-01

    Resilience is defined as a dynamic, multidimensional process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. The complex nature of this construct makes it a difficult topic to study in neuroimaging research; however, in this article, we propose ways to operationalize resilience. The limited amount of structural and functional neuroimaging studies specifically designed to examine resilience have mainly focused on investigating alterations in regions of the brain involved in emotion and stress regulation circuitry. In the future, neuroimaging of resilience is expected to benefit from functional and structural connectivity approaches and the use of novel imaging task paradigms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Some remarks on PM2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970, the General Physics Department of «Università degli Studi di Torino» has carried out a project research, on inorganic solid particulate matter. The special issue of Annals of Geophysics, published for Professor Giorgio Fiocco?s 70th birthday, gives us the possibility to make some important remarks on this topic, focusing on PM2.5. This has been possible using all the old and new experimental data of the measures made by the authors of this paper since 1970.

  11. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Matthias J; Woermann, Friedrich; Savic, Ivanka; Wandschneider, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by specific types of seizures, showing a lack of pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scanning. However, JME is associated with a particular personality profile, and behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested the possible involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction. The development of highly sensitive neuroimaging techniques has provided a means of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of JME. Positron emission tomography demonstrated metabolic and neurotransmitter changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reflecting the particular cognitive and behavioral profile of JME patients. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown evidence of thalamic dysfunction, which appears to be progressive. Such techniques provide evidence of multi-focal disease mechanisms, suggesting that JME is a frontal lobe variant of a multi-regional, thalamocortical 'network' epilepsy, rather than a generalized epilepsy syndrome. Quantitative MRI revealed significant abnormalities of cortical gray matter in medial frontal areas close to the supplementary motor area and diffusion abnormalities with increased functional coupling between the motor and prefrontal cognitive systems. This altered structural connectivity of the supplementary motor area provides an explanatory framework for the particular imaging findings, seizure type, and seizure-provoking mechanisms in JME. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  13. Event time analysis of longitudinal neuroimage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness and gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Oshmyansky, Alexander; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a potentially life-threatening condition which is usually diagnosed by MRI. We analyzed the signal changes of the thrombus over time and the role of diffusion-weighted/tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) in the diagnosis of CSVT. Clinical histories were reviewed for risk factors for CSVT, neurologic manifestation, and interval from onset of symptoms related to CSVT to the neuroimaging diagnosis. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated for the appearance of thrombi on T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI/DTI, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) images. Thirty-three children with CSVT were included in this study. Seventy-seven thrombi were found. Seventy-four thrombi could be identified on T1- or T2-weighted images (96 %), 72 thrombi were seen on DWI/DTI (94 %) and 68 on FLAIR (88 %). DWI showed restricted diffusion in 29 thrombi (40 %). Thrombi older than 1 day were more likely to have a T1-hyperintense signal (p = 0.002). No additional correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi was found. Intraparenchymal changes secondary to CSVT were seen in 11 children. MR sequences individually are not sensitive enough to provide the diagnosis. DWI/DTI does not provide complementary diagnostic value. Approximation of the age of the thrombus is difficult because of poor correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi.

  15. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  17. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  18. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  19. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  20. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  1. Chemical physics of electroactive materials: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself."It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline". It is thus reassuring to see how the application of rigorous chemical physics is leading to ingenious new solutions for both energy storage and harvesting, via, for example, nanoactuation, electrowetting, ionic materials and nanoplasmonics. In fact, the same language of chemical physics allows seamless transition between applications as diverse as mechano-electric energy generation, active moisture transport and plasmonic shutters - even the origins of life were addressed in the context of electro-autocatalysis!

  2. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  3. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  5. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex...

  6. Bayesian Spatial Point Process Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Timothy D.

    2017-01-01

    Talk given during the "Where’s Your Signal? Explicit Spatial Models to Improve Interpretability and Sensitivity of Neuroimaging Results" workshop at the 2012 Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) conference in in Beijing, 10-14 June.

  7. Neuroimaging Studies in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219

  8. Methodological review on functional neuroimaging using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Jeong [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Advance of neuroimaging technique has greatly influenced recent brain research field. Among various neuroimaging modalities, positron emission tomography has played a key role in molecular neuroimaging though functional MRI has taken over its role in the cognitive neuroscience. As the analysis technique for PET data is more sophisticated, the complexity of the method is more increasing. Despite the wide usage of the neuroimaging techniques, the assumption and limitation of procedures have not often been dealt with for the clinician and researchers, which might be critical for reliability and interpretation of the results. In the current paper, steps of voxel-based statistical analysis of PET including preprocessing, intensity normalization, spatial normalization, and partial volume correction will be revisited in terms of the principles and limitations. Additionally, new image analysis techniques such as surface-based PET analysis, correlational analysis and multimodal imaging by combining PET and DTI, PET and TMS or EEG will also be discussed.

  9. Modeling Latency and Shape Changes in Trial Based Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2011-01-01

    To overcome poor signal-to-noise ratios in neuroimaging, data sets are often acquired over repeated trials that form a three-way array of spacetimetrials. As neuroimaging data contain multiple inter-mixed signal components blind signal separation and decomposition methods are frequently invoked...... representation. We demonstrate how this alleviates degeneracy and helps to extract physiologically plausible components. The resulting convolutive multi-linear decomposition can model realistic trial variability as demonstrated in EEG and fMRI data....

  10. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced understanding biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Methods Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). Results 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Conclusion Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. PMID:25684554

  11. A Knowledge Representation and Reasoning System for Multimodal Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Coelho; Paulo Marques; Ricardo Magalhães; Nuno Sousa; José Neves; Victor Alves

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging analyses are of major interest for both research and clinical practice, enabling the combined evaluation of the structure and function of the human brain. These analyses generate large volumes of data and consequently increase the amount of possibly useful information. Indeed, BrainArchive was developed in order to organize, maintain and share this complex array of neuroimaging data. It stores all the information available for each participant/patient, being dynamic by...

  12. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    over time. Magnetic resonance imaging was included in 2009 with the scanning of 1070 6-to-9-year-old children. The second neuroimaging wave was initiated in April 2013 with a total of 4245 visiting the MRI suite and 4087 9-to-11-year-old children being scanned. The sequences included high...... first wave of neuroimaging, which highlights a diverse array of questions that can be addressed by merging the fields of developmental neuroscience and epidemiology....

  13. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. © 2011 Revista de Neurología

  14. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Neuroimaging in stroke and seizure as neurological emergencies (NISSAN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Nasar, Abu; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2008-01-01

    To report the current national utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department for the two most common neurological emergencies; stroke and seizure. Patients were identified using primary International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM codes from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). NHAMCS is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of care in emergency departments of hospitals in the United States. We analyzed the use of neuroimaging in patients presenting to the emergency department with seizure or stroke. About 60% of 1,190,219 patients with the diagnosis of stroke or seizure had neuroimaging performed emergently. Patients with any type of stroke were more likely to undergo neuroimaging compared to patients with seizure (78% vs. 37%, P emergency department among 100% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 79% with ischemic stroke, and 69% with intracerebral hemorrhage. In a nationally representative study, emergent neuroimaging appeared to be underutilized among patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. There is a need to increase the utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department in anticipation of new acute stroke treatments.

  16. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging

  17. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  18. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carrillo

    Full Text Available Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions. Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker, might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  19. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions). Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker), might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  20. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  1. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852.

  2. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  3. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  4. Neuroimaging-Verfahren in der Adipositasforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabisch S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In den vergangenen Jahren wurden neurologische Korrelate der Adipositas intensiv diskutiert und erforscht. Der Einsatz neuroradiologischer Verfahren eröffnet der Adipositasforschung neue methodische Ansatzpunkte. Hierbei gelten die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT und die Positronen-Emissionstomographie (PET als die vielversprechendsten. Aufgrund der großen Vielfalt von Einflussfaktoren für Gehirnentwicklung und -funktion müssen für aussagekräftige Neuroimaging-Studien strenge Teilnahmekriterien gelten. Die Zahl leistungsfähiger MRTund PET-Zentren wächst daher gerade in den Großstädten und Ballungszentren, wo gut charakterisierte Probandengruppen rekrutiert werden können. Das menschliche Gehirn empfängt und sendet sowohl homöostatische als auch hedonische Impulse zur Steuerung des Essverhaltens. Hunger und Appetit sind eigenständige Facetten des Essantriebs, die in verschiedenen Hirnarealen entstehen, aber einem gemeinsamen Kontrollzentrum unterstehen. Die verantwortlichen Areale sind bei Adipositas strukturell verändert und in ihrer Funktion beeinträchtigt; insbesondere lassen sich weitreichende Veränderungen im „Belohnungssystem“ erkennen. Frauen und Männer (sowohl normal- als auch übergewichtig scheinen unterschiedlich auf homöostatische und hedonische Sättigungsund Hungerreize zu reagieren. Die „Hungernetzwerke“ stehen unter dem Einfluss genetischer, biochemischer, hormoneller, neuronaler und anderer Faktoren. So stellen z. B. Ghrelin, Peptid YY und Leptin endokrinologische Signale aus dem Verdauungstrakt und dem Fettgewebe dar, die nicht nur Stoffwechselaktivität und Nährstoffverteilung steuern, sondern auch zentralnervöse Effekte haben. Diese Hormone sprechen als Kurz- oder Langzeitmodulatoren Hirnareale mit homöostatischer oder hedonischer Bedeutung an und beeinflussen so die Nahrungsbewertung und das Essverhalten. Die Erkenntnisse über das Zusammenspiel der Hirnregionen bei der Steuerung von Hunger, Appetit

  5. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review: Lack of neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest that hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Reliability of iWitness photogrammetry in maxillofacial application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengcheng; Song, Qinggao; He, Wei; Chen, Shang; Hong, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to test the accuracy and precision of iWitness photogrammetry for measuring the facial tissues of mannequin head. Under ideal circumstances, the 3D landmark coordinates were repeatedly obtained from a mannequin head using iWitness photogrammetric system with different parameters, to examine the precision of this system. The differences between the 3D data and their true distance values of mannequin head were computed. Operator error of 3D system in non-zoom and zoom status were 0.20 mm and 0.09 mm, and the difference was significant (P 0.05). Image captured error of 3D system was 0.283 mm, and there was no significant difference compared with the same group of images (P>0.05). Error of 3D systen with recalibration was 0.251 mm, and the difference was not statistically significant compared with image captured error (P>0.05). Good congruence was observed between means derived from the 3D photos and direct anthropometry, with difference ranging from -0.4 mm to +0.4 mm. This study provides further evidence of the high reliability of iWitness photogrammetry for several craniofacial measurements, including landmarks and inter-landmark distances. The evaluated system can be recommended for the evaluation and documentation of the facial surface.

  7. A panel of clinical and neuropathological features of cerebrovascular disease through the novel neuroimaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto Sousa; de Carvalho, Luiza de Amorim; Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Briand, Lucas; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The last decade has witnessed substantial progress in acquiring diagnostic biomarkers for the diagnostic workup of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Advanced neuroimaging methods not only provide a strategic contribution for the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but also help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms ultimately leading to small vessel disease (SVD) throughout its course. Objective: In this review, the novel imaging methods, both structural and metabolic, were summarized and their impact on the diagnostic workup of age-related CVD was analysed. Methods: An electronic search between January 2010 and 2017 was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and EMBASE. Results: The use of full functional multimodality in simultaneous Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Positron emission tomography (PET) may potentially improve the clinical characterization of VCI-VaD; for structural imaging, MRI at 3.0 T enables higher-resolution scanning with greater imaging matrices, thinner slices and more detail on the anatomical structure of vascular lesions. Conclusion: Although the importance of most of these techniques in the clinical setting has yet to be recognized, there is great expectancy in achieving earlier and more refined therapeutic interventions for the effective management of VCI-VaD. PMID:29354214

  8. On the importance of considering heterogeneity in witnesses' competence levels when reconstructing crimes from multiple witness testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Greving, Sven; Aßfalg, André; Musch, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    Aggregating information across multiple testimonies may improve crime reconstructions. However, different aggregation methods are available, and research on which method is best suited for aggregating multiple observations is lacking. Furthermore, little is known about how variance in the accuracy of individual testimonies impacts the performance of competing aggregation procedures. We investigated the superiority of aggregation-based crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies and whether this superiority varied as a function of the number of witnesses and the degree of heterogeneity in witnesses' ability to accurately report their observations. Moreover, we examined whether heterogeneity in competence levels differentially affected the relative accuracy of two aggregation procedures: a simple majority rule, which ignores individual differences, and the more complex general Condorcet model (Romney et al., Am Anthropol 88(2):313-338, 1986; Batchelder and Romney, Psychometrika 53(1):71-92, 1988), which takes into account differences in competence between individuals. 121 participants viewed a simulated crime and subsequently answered 128 true/false questions about the crime. We experimentally generated groups of witnesses with homogeneous or heterogeneous competences. Both the majority rule and the general Condorcet model provided more accurate reconstructions of the observed crime than individual testimonies. The superiority of aggregated crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies increased with an increasing number of witnesses. Crime reconstructions were most accurate when competences were heterogeneous and aggregation was based on the general Condorcet model. We argue that a formal aggregation should be considered more often when eyewitness testimonies have to be assessed and that the general Condorcet model provides a good framework for such aggregations.

  9. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  10. 25 CFR 115.611 - Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during a hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during... Restricting an IIM Account § 115.611 Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during a hearing? Yes, you or your guardian, as applicable, may question all opposing witnesses testifying during your...

  11. The end of a remarkable era

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    An important era in particle physics is coming to an end: the US Department of Energy announced on Monday that it will not fund an extension to Tevatron running beyond 2011. It is a poignant moment for particle physics as we prepare to bid farewell to a machine that has changed our view of the Universe, and played a significant role in paving the way for the new era that is opening up with the LHC.   The Tevatron has been at the high-energy frontier of particle physics for over a quarter of a century. That’s a remarkable achievement by any account, and the physics results are there to prove it. As well as bringing us the discovery of the top quark in 1995, the Tevatron’s experiments have provided vitally important precision measurements covering the full spectrum of Standard Model physics, not to mention hints of what may lie beyond. With several months of running still to come, it would be a foolish gambler who bet against further new physics emerging before the Teva...

  12. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  13. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  14. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejareh dar M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Ejareh dar, Richard AA Kanaan Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia Abstract: Conversion disorder (CD is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. Keywords: conversion disorder, neuroimaging, functional neurology, hysteria, mechanisms 

  15. Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.

  16. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  17. Blood transfusion in jehovah's witnesses, a dilemma in medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gutierrez-Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The provision of health services should be carried attached to the scientific and ethical principles of medicine. The negative to accept blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses, when indicated, determines a conflict and a challenge for physicians. We discuss concepts related to this complex situation, including: Freedom of religion and belief, patients’ rights, regulatory framework that applies to providers of health services and medical rights. Which should be taken into account in these situations to make an informed decision from the legal and ethical point of view.

  18. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  19. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  20. Efficient linear criterion for witnessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nonlocality under many-setting local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.

  1. First Afebrile Seizure in Children: Which Patients Require Emergent Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülser Esen Besli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intra-cranial pathology in children presenting to emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and to determine patients at high risk for abnormal neuroimaging. Methods: The medical files of 173 children who presented to the emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and underwent neuroimaging within 24 hours of presentation were retrospectively evaluated. We defined clinically emergent intracranial pathology as any lesion requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention. The relationship of age, seizure characteristics, predisposing conditions, presence of new-onset neurologic deficits, and baseline neurological status with neuroimaging findings were compared. Results: There were 103 males (59.5% and 70 females. The mean age was 80±60.4 months (1-204. Of the 173 children, 87 (50.3% had a computed tomography scan, 50 (28.9% had magnetic resonance imaging, and 36 (20.8% underwent both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Neuroimaging results were abnormal in 24.3% of patients whereas 5.2% had an emergent intracranial pathology. The conditions associated with abnormal neuroimaging were: 1 focal seizures, 2 new-onset neurological deficits 3 pre-existing neurological abnormalities, 4 predisposing conditions, and 5 being younger than 24 months of age. Conclusion: Planning emergency neuroimaging in children with a first afebrile seizure seems rational if the child is younger than 24 moths of age, has focal seizure(s, abnormal neurologic status prior seizure, new-onset neurological symptoms, or predisposing conditions.

  2. The voices of victims and witnesses of school bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Wet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a stronger demand from the South African public to reduce school violence than at present. The demand for safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. However, it appears from newspaper reports that some of the role players are not willing to listen to the victims of bullying. The aim of this article is to give a voice to some of the victims, as well as those witnessing school bullying. This article reports on findings from an investigation of the experiences of a group of Free State learners who were witnesses and victims of bullying. The research instrument was the Delaware Bullying Questionnaire. The first important conclusion from this study was that bullying was a serious problem in some Free State schools. Secondly, it was found that the respondents were more often the victims of male than of female bullies. Thirdly, the quantitative data indicated that the majority of victims were bullied by learners who were in the same grade as they were. The qualitative data, however, revealed that the bullying of Grade 8 learners by Grade 12 learners seems to be a fairly common occurrence. Finally, some comments and recommendations are made.

  3. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  4. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  5. Functional Neuroimaging of Appetite and Gut–Brain Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately, eating decisions are made in the brain, based on the integration
    of multiple neural and hormonal signals. Since the early 1990s the use of
    functional
    neuroimaging techniques has continued to increase. Their application
    in the study of the regulation of food intake and

  6. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  7. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  8. Neuroimaging in cerebral palsy - report from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Kr Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Only few Indian reports exist on neuroimaging abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) from India. We studied the clinico-radiological profile of 98 children diagnosed as CP at a tertiary centre in North India. Relevant investigations were carried out to determine the etiology. Among the 98 children studied, 80.5% were males and 22.2% were premature. History of birth asphyxia was present in 41.9%. Quadriplegic CP was seen in 77.5%, hemiplegic in 11.5%, and diplegic in 10.5%. Other abnormalities were microcephaly (60.5%), epilepsy (42%), visual abnormality (37%), and hearing abnormality (20%). Neuroimaging was abnormal in 94/98 (95.91%). Abnormalities were periventricular white matter abnormalities (34%), deep grey matter abnormalities (47.8%), malformations (11.7%), and miscellaneous lesions (6.4%). Neuroimaging findings did not relate to the presence of birth asphyxia, sex, epilepsy, gestation, type of CP, or microcephaly. Neuroimaging is helpful for etiological diagnosis, especially malformations.

  9. Attention to spoken word planning : Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  10. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...

  11. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  12. Spinocerebellar ataxia 17: Inconsistency between phenotype and neuroimage findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by the presence of cerebellar ataxia in combination with variable neurological symptoms. Here we report a Chinese SCA17 family which proband′s clinical manifestation was inconsistent with the neuroimage findings.

  13. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  14. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maxim...... thermal pain studies where "hot pain" and "cold pain" form the two groups....

  15. SHIWA workflow interoperability solutions for neuroimaging data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to

  16. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i...

  17. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  19. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  20. 25 years of neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which a precise cause has not yet been identified. Standard CT or MRI evaluation does not demonstrate gross structural nervous system changes in ALS, so conventional neuroimaging techniques have provided little insight into the pathophysiology of this disease. Advanced neuroimaging techniques—such as structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy—allow evaluation of alterations of the nervous system in ALS. These alterations include focal loss of grey and white matter and reductions in white matter tract integrity, as well as changes in neural networks and in the chemistry, metabolism and receptor distribution in the brain. Given their potential for investigation of both brain structure and function, advanced neuroimaging methods offer important opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and direct future treatment strategies in ALS. In this article, we review the contributions made by various advanced neuroimaging techniques to our understanding of the impact of ALS on different brain regions, and the potential role of such measures in biomarker development. PMID:23917850

  1. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers a selective literature review of neuroimaging in psychiatry, with the goal of offering a background and a summary of current trends. While not exhaustive, numerous publications are cited in an attempt to provide a reasonable cross-section of research activity in the field of brain imaging in psychiatry and how ...

  2. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case | Misser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-and-a-half-year-old male child was referred for neuroimaging under general anaesthesia for intractable seizures. A final diagnosis of probable tuberous sclerosis with associated left hippocampal sclerosis was made. Differential diagnosis of malformation of cortical development with hippocampal sclerosis (Type 3a) ...

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  4. Nonhuman Primate Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging in Drug Abuse Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354

  5. The witness indiscreet window: Primo Levi and surrealism after Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Basevi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primo Levi, renowned for his testimony of Nazi camp (If This Is a Man, 1947, published a collection of short stories entitled “Natural Tales”. He uses the surrealistic elements and plots to imagine the paradoxical consequences of human rationality. “Angelic Butterfly” relates to the theme of genetic experiments during Nazism and stands out for horror elements and drama. This tale’s re­lation to the post-Auschwitz reflection lies firstly in its structure which raises the question of the wit­ness; secondly, in the uncertain effect of the “imaginable” as it questions the fragile boundary be­tween real, possible and fantastic; thirdly in the narrative organization based on the connection of the ideas of trace, fragment and testimony. In my analysis I will expose how this text is marked by one of the most traumatic events of the twentieth century.

  6. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  7. Molecules as Drives and Witnesses of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B. M.

    2017-07-01

    The progress in understanding the role of molecules in star formation is discussed. After very brief introduction which we note in that no star formation would be possible without molecules at the dawn of the Universe and that molecules are important drivers and witnesses of star formation in the current epoch, we consider observational technologies and emphasize the prospective role of UV observations. Special attention is paid to possibilities of UV spectroscopy with coming space observatory Spektr-UF (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet; WSO-UV). Only one example (observations of CO-dark clouds) from vast scientific program of the WSO-UV is mentioned. Also very briefly disclosed is a model approach to study complex evolution of very young (prestellar) object focusing on chemical (molecular) evolution.

  8. Neuroimaging-use trends in nonacute pediatric headache before and after clinical practice parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Kayyali, Husam R; Alexander, John J; Simon, Steven D; Morriss, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in diagnostic neuroimaging-use rates in nonacute pediatric headache before and after publication of clinical practice guidelines. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of neuroimaging rates for 725 children and adolescents who were aged 3 to 18 years with nonacute headache and normal neurologic examination and were evaluated in a single pediatric neurology clinic during study years 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. Following recommendations of current practice parameters, patients with conditions that justify consideration for neuroimaging (eg, progressive headache, abnormal neurologic examination) were excluded from this analysis. We recorded the origin of any neuroimaging request at the time of the clinic visit and any abnormal neuroimaging findings that led to major clinical consequences. Overall, the mean rate of neuroimaging for patients with nonacute headache was 45%. Use rates remained steady during the 13-year study period (range: 41%-47%). The majority of neuroimaging studies were ordered originally by primary care providers. The proportion of neuroimaging studies that were ordered by primary care providers increased significantly from 1992 to 2004. In the evaluation of patients who had nonacute pediatric headache and were referred to a child neurology clinic, neuroimaging-use rates remained stable during the past decade. An increasing proportion of neuroimaging studies are ordered by primary care providers. The influence of evidence-based medicine on medical decision-making may be partly responsible for curbing increases in neuroimaging overuse. The perceived value of neuroimaging by physicians and consumers deserves ongoing study.

  9. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  10. Jehovah's Witnesses in the emergency department: what are their rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, S

    2005-12-01

    The Jehovah's Witnesses Society is best known to outsiders for its refusal of blood products, even when such a refusal may result in death. Since the introduction of the blood ban in 1945, Jehovah's Witness (JW) parents have fought for their rights to refuse blood on behalf of their children, based on religious beliefs and their right to raise children as they see fit. Adolescent JWs have also sought to refuse blood products based on their beliefs, regardless of the views of their parents. Adult JWs have fought to protect their autonomy when making both contemporaneous and advance treatment refusal. The refusal of blood products by JWs raises ethical and legal dilemmas that are not easily answered. Do an individual's rights (namely bodily control, right to privacy, right to decide about life/death issues, right to religious freedom) outweigh society's rights (namely the preservation of life, the prevention of suicide, the protection of innocent third parties, and the maintenance of the ethical integrity of the medical profession)? Does the right to choose outweigh the value of human life? For doctors, conflict occurs between the desire to respect patient autonomy and the need to provide good medical care. The Watchtower Society (the JW governing body) imposes a strict code of moral standards among its members, and it is unlikely that individual JWs are making truly autonomous decisions about blood transfusions. While young children and adolescents are protected by the courts and conscious adults are afforded autonomy, dilemmas still arise in the emergency situation. This article examines the rights of young children, adolescents, and adults, focusing in the latter half on adults in the emergency situation.

  11. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: insights from an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the “Trauma witness model” (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [15]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate th...

  12. Children's memory distortions following social contact with a co-witness: disentangling social and cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B; Guillaume, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether recalling an event with a co-witness influences children's recall. Individual 3-5-year-olds (n = 48) watched a film with a co-witness. Unbeknown to participants, the co-witness was watching an alternative version of the film. Afterwards both the co-witness and the participant answered questions about the film together (public recall), and the degree to which children conformed to the co-witness's alternative version of events was measured. Subsequently participants were questioned again individually (private recall). Children also completed false belief and inhibitory control tasks. By separating errors made in public and private, the results indicated that both social conformity (32% of errors) and memory distortion (68% of errors) played a role in co-witness influence. Inhibitory control predicted the likelihood of retracting errors in private, but only for children who failed (r = .66) rather than passed false belief tasks (r = -.10). The results suggest that children with a theory of mind conform in the company of the co-witness to avoid social embarrassment, while those a poor theory of mind conform on the basis of an inability to inhibit the co-witness's response. The findings contribute to our understanding of the motivations responsible for co-witness conformity across early childhood.

  13. Witness memory and alcohol: The effects of state-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber Compo, Nadja; Carol, Rolando N; Evans, Jacqueline R; Pimentel, Pamela; Holness, Howard; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Rose, Stefan; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-04-01

    Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition. They recalled a witnessed mock crime using open ended and cued recall formats. After a delay, witnesses intoxicated at both encoding and retrieval provided less accurate information than witnesses in sober or placebo groups at both times. There was no advantage of state-dependent memory but intoxicated witnesses were best when recalling immediately compared to 1 week later (sober, placebo, or reintoxicated). Findings have direct implications for the timing of intoxicated witnesses' interviews such that moderately intoxicated witnesses may not benefit from a sobering delay but rather, should be interviewed immediately. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comparison of plaintiff and defendant expert witness qualification in malpractice litigation in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Patel, Dharti; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly

    2013-05-01

    Malpractice litigation contributes to rising health care costs in the United States. The role of expert witness testimony has been controversial in the past, with medical professional societies issuing statements regarding ethical obligations of physicians. Our objectives were to examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants. Analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, New York) was searched for otolaryngologist expert witness testimony. Length of experience, practice setting, and subspecialty training information were obtained from hospital, practice, departmental, and state licensing board sites. Scholarly impact was assessed using calculation of the h-index from the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses had significantly less experience than those testifying for defendants (31.8 vs 35.4 years, P = .047) and lower scholarly impact (h = 6.3 vs 10, P = .045). A significantly higher proportion of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (49.3% vs 31.7%, P = .042). No differences were detected in postresidency fellowship training patterns. Upon comparison of otolaryngologist expert witnesses, practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs had statistically fewer years of experience, had a lower scholarly impact, and were less likely to work in an academic setting. Otolaryngologists who repeatedly served as expert witnesses were more likely to be testifying on behalf of plaintiffs than defendants. Professional societies need to frequently update guidelines on expert witness testimony and address the ethical obligations of practitioners.

  15. The Web Interface Template System (WITS), a software developer`s tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, L.J.; Lynam, M.; Muniz, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Financial Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    The Web Interface Template System (WITS) is a tool for software developers. WITS is a three-tiered, object-oriented system operating in a Client/Server environment. This tool can be used to create software applications that have a Web browser as the user interface and access a Sybase database. Development, modification, and implementation are greatly simplified because the developer can change and test definitions immediately, without writing or compiling any code. This document explains WITS functionality, the system structure and components of WITS, and how to obtain, install, and use the software system.

  16. Health professionals' perceptions regarding family witnessed resuscitation in adult critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashayreh, Ibrahim; Saifan, Ahmad; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    To deepen our understanding of the perceptions of health professionals regarding family witnessed resuscitation in Jordanian adult critical care settings. The issue of family witnessed resuscitation has developed dramatically in the last three decades. The traditional practice of excluding family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation had been questioned. Family witnessed resuscitation has been described as good practice by many researchers and health organisations. However, family witnessed resuscitation has been perceived by some practitioners to be unhealthy and harmful to the life-saving process. The literature showed that there are no policies or guidelines to allow or to prevent family witnessed resuscitation in Jordan. An exploratory qualitative design was adopted. A purposive sample of 31 health professionals from several disciplines was recruited over a period of six months. Individual semi-structured interviews were used. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. It was found that most healthcare professionals were against family witnessed resuscitation. They raised several concerns related to being verbally and physically attacked if they allowed family witnessed resuscitation. Almost all of the respondents expressed their fears of patients' family members' interfering in their work. Most of the participants in this study stated that family witnessed resuscitation is traumatic for family members. This was viewed as a barrier to allowing family witnessed resuscitation in Jordanian critical care settings. The study provides a unique understanding of Jordanian health professionals' perceptions regarding family witnessed resuscitation. They raised some views that contest some arguments in the broader literature. Further research with patients, family members, health professionals and policy makers is still required. This is the first study about family witnessed resuscitation in Jordan. Considering multi

  17. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...... discriminant, and the SVM, and conclude that the sensitivity map is a versatile and computationally efficient tool for visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging...

  18. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  19. A review of feature reduction techniques in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Tian, Tian Siva; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly being used in making relevant predictions and inferences on individual subjects neuroimaging scan data. Previous studies have mostly focused on categorical discrimination of patients and matched healthy controls and more recently, on prediction of individual continuous variables such as clinical scores or age. However, these studies are greatly hampered by the large number of predictor variables (voxels) and low observations (subjects) also known as the curse-of-dimensionality or small-n-large-p problem. As a result, feature reduction techniques such as feature subset selection and dimensionality reduction are used to remove redundant predictor variables and experimental noise, a process which mitigates the curse-of-dimensionality and small-n-large-p effects. Feature reduction is an essential step before training a machine learning model to avoid overfitting and therefore improving model prediction accuracy and generalization ability. In this review, we discuss feature reduction techniques used with machine learning in neuroimaging studies.

  20. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  1. Remembering the past: neuroimaging studies of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to find our way around an environment and to remember the events that occur within it are fundamental to normal functioning in daily life. Impairment of these abilities are among the first symptoms to be reported in patients with pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and anoxia that are linked to the hippocampus and other limbic structures. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the nature and neural bases of these memories. Findings from functional neuroimaging studies offer insights into the anatomy of memory and the presentation of memory impairments. In particular, neuroimaging is well placed to inform about the functionality of residual brain tissue, and the plasticity of memory anatomy in the context of hippocampal damage, and normal ageing.

  2. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  3. SchizConnect: Virtual Data Integration in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Tallis, Marcelo; Alpert, Kathryn; Keator, David B; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Konstantinidis, George; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Turner, Jessica A; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    In many scientific domains, including neuroimaging studies, there is a need to obtain increasingly larger cohorts to achieve the desired statistical power for discovery. However, the economics of imaging studies make it unlikely that any single study or consortia can achieve the desired sample sizes. What is needed is an architecture that can easily incorporate additional studies as they become available. We present such architecture based on a virtual data integration approach, where data remains at the original sources, and is retrieved and harmonized in response to user queries. This is in contrast to approaches that move the data to a central warehouse. We implemented our approach in the SchizConnect system that integrates data from three neuroimaging consortia on Schizophrenia: FBIRN's Human Imaging Database (HID), MRN's Collaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics System (COINS), and the NUSDAST project at XNAT Central. A portal providing harmonized access to these sources is publicly deployed at schizconnect.org.

  4. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Neuroimaging findings in acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Pipitone, Nicolò

    2009-02-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Early recognition is important because timely thiamine supplementation can reverse the clinical features of the disease. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the typical and atypical neuroimaging findings of the acute phase of the disease. Wernicke's encephalopathy is characterized by a quite distinct pattern of MR alterations, which include symmetrical alterations in the thalami, mamillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area, but atypical alterations may also been seen. A thorough knowledge of the neuroimaging findings of Wernicke's encephalopathy will assist in arriving at an early diagnosis, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  6. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  7. CATI: A Large Distributed Infrastructure for the Neuroimaging of Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.

  8. Post-stroke cognitive dysfunctions: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yuryevich Emelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging examinations were made in 65 patients (52 men and 13 women aged 65.6±10.1 years who had experienced ischemic stroke. Cognitive impairments (CI were heterogeneous; regulatory functions, attention, and counting were most significantly affected in moderate CI. In mild dementia, mainly poor attention and regulatory dysfunctions were added by clearly-cut impairments of memory, orientation, and visual-spatial function. Brain atrophy, white matter changes, and small focal gray matter damages along with focal post-stroke changes were revealed by neuroimaging in most patients. It was found that besides the volume and location of a damage focus, the signs of impaired integrated mental activity of the brain, regulatory dysfunctions in particular, should be a necessary condition for the verification of post-stroke CI.

  9. Family support liaison in the witnessed resuscitation: A phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzade, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Haririan, Hamidreza; Porter, Joanne E

    2017-09-01

    Family-witnessed resuscitation remains controversial among clinicians from implementation to practice and there are a number of countries, such as Iran, where that is considered a low priority. To explore the lived experience of resuscitation team members with the presence of the patient's family during resuscitation. The hermeneutic phenomenology. The emergency departments and critical care units of 6 tertiary hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. There were potentially 380 nurses and physicians working in the emergency departments and acute care settings of 6 tertiary hospitals in Tabriz. A purposive sample of these nurses and physicians was used to recruit participants who had at least 2 years of experience, had experienced an actual family witnessed resuscitation event, and wanted to participate. The sample size was determined according to data saturation. Data collection ended when the data were considered rich and varied enough to illuminate the phenomenon, and no new themes emerged following the interview of 12 nurses and 8 physicians. Semi-structured, face- to- face interviews were held with the participants over a period of 6 months (April 2015 to September 2015), and Van Manen's method of data analysis was adopted. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis, including 'Futile resuscitation', 'Family support liaison', and 'Influence on team's performance'. A further 9 sub-themes emerged under the 3 main themes, which included 'futile resuscitation in end-stage cancer patients', 'when a patient dies', 'young patients', 'care of the elderly', 'accountable person', 'family supporter', 'no influence', 'positive influence', and 'negative influence'. Participants noted both positive and negative experiences of having family members present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Welltrained and expert resuscitation team members are less likely to be stressed in the presence of family. A family support liaison would act to decrease family anxiety levels and to de

  10. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  11. Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-01-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, governments have waged a global campaign against terrorists groups in order to ensure national security. A crucial part of this campaign has been intelligence gathering with different methods of interrogation in order to extract allegedly necessary information from suspected terrorists. Similarly, it is not surprising that intelligence personnel have started recognizing that neuroimaging technologies—in particular, functional Magneti...

  12. Multiple Comparison Procedures for Neuroimaging Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ghosh, Debashis; Initiative, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neu...

  13. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  14. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  15. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokde, Arun

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  16. Extracting novel information from neuroimaging data using neural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotsis Dimitris A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We showcase three case studies that illustrate how neural fields can be useful in the analysis of neuroimaging data. In particular, we argue that neural fields allow one to: (i compare evidences for alternative hypotheses regarding neurobiological determinants of stimulus-specific response variability; (ii make inferences about between subject variability in cortical function and microstructure using non-invasive data and (iii estimate spatial parameters describing cortical sources, even without spatially resolved data.

  17. Neuroimaging and clinical predictors of fatigue in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kelvin L; Kotagal, Vikas; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is disabling in Parkinson disease. It is often associated with other non-motor symptoms, but little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. To investigate neuroimaging (using dopaminergic and cholinergic PET) and clinical factors associated with fatigue severity in PD. 133 PD subjects (96M/37F) completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Movement Disorders Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Hoehn-Yahr staging, validated scales for depression, anxiety, apathy, sleep, and cognition, and underwent [(11)C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate (PMP) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) monoaminergic PET imaging. We explored contributions to PD fatigue using separate regression models based either on neuroimaging parameters or clinicometric scales. In a neuroimaging regression model, neither striatal DTBZ uptake nor AChE PMP uptake were predictors of fatigue in PD. In a post-hoc neuroimaging regression model, stratifying the total cohort into mild vs. moderate-to-severe PD, striatal DTBZ uptake was a significant predictor of fatigue in mild but not moderate-to-severe PD. In a clinicometric regression model, higher Beck Depression Inventory-somatic subscore, higher levodopa dose equivalents and younger age were all significant predictors of fatigue in PD, but the MDS-UPDRS non-motor experiences of daily living score was the best predictor overall. Cholinergic uptake was not a predictor of fatigue in PD, but nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation predicted fatigue in mild disease. Total non-motor symptom burden, somatic affective symptoms, levodopa dose equivalents, and younger age were independent clinical predictors of fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  19. Neuroimaging correlates of aggression in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Aggression in schizophrenia is associated with poor treatment outcomes, hospital admissions, and stigmatization of patients. As such it represents an important public health issue. This article reviews recent neuroimaging studies of aggression in schizophrenia, focusing on PET/single photon emission computed tomography and MRI methods. The neuroimaging literature on aggression in schizophrenia is in a period of development. This is attributable in part to the heterogeneous nature and basis of that aggression. Radiological methods have consistently shown reduced activity in frontal and temporal regions. MRI brain volumetric studies have been less consistent, with some studies finding increased volumes of inferior frontal structures, and others finding reduced volumes in aggressive individuals with schizophrenia. Functional MRI studies have also had inconsistent results, with most finding reduced activity in inferior frontal and temporal regions, but some also finding increased activity in other regions. Some studies have made a distinction between types of aggression in schizophrenia in the context of antisocial traits, and this appears to be useful in understanding the neuroimaging literature. Frontal and temporal abnormalities appear to be a consistent feature of aggression in schizophrenia, but their precise nature likely differs because of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior.

  20. Propionic acidemia: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Jabbedari, Sayena; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presented with life-threatening ketoacidosis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. The patients diagnosed as having propionic acidemia in Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2002 and 2012 were include in our study. This disorder was confirmed by clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and neurometabolic assessment in the reference laboratory in Germany. Our study was conducted to define the sex, age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical findings, and neuroimaging manifestations in 10 patients with propionic acidemia. Seventy percent of patients were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In this study, only one patient had microcephaly at birth, but at detection time, 30% of patients had head circumference and weight below the 3rd percentile. The patients were followed for approximately 5 years and this follow-up showed that the patients with early diagnosis had a more favorable clinical response. Neuroimaging findings included brain atrophy, white matter and globus pallidus involvement. Finally we suggest that early diagnosis and treatment have an important role in the prevention of disease progression.

  1. Neuroimaging the Menstrual Cycle and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of gonadal hormone-related influences on human brain anatomy, function, and chemistry is scarce. The present review scrutinized organizational and functional neuroimaging correlates of the menstrual cycle and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Supportive evidence of cyclic short-term structural and functional brain plasticity in response to gonadal hormonal modulation is provided. The paucity of studies, sparsity and discordance of findings, and weaknesses in study design at present hinder the drawing of firm conclusions. Ideal study designs should comprise high-resolution multimodal neuroimaging (e.g., MRI, DTI, rs-fMRI, fMRI, PET), hormones, genetic, and behavioral longitudinal assessments of healthy women and PMDD patients at critical time points of the menstrual cycle phase (i.e., early follicular phase, late follicular phase, mid-luteal phase) in a counter-balanced setup. Studies integrating large-scale brain network structural, functional, and molecular neuroimaging, as well as treatment data, will deepen the understanding of neural state, disorder, and treatment markers.

  2. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of database management systems suitable for neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-06-01

    This study comprises a technical assessment of Database Management Systems (DBMS), which may be of use in the analysis of data obtained from human brain mapping procedures. Due to the large expansion of the neuroimaging field, the use of specialized database software to store and process neuroimages and their attached components is inevitable. The advent of multiple software products, a wealth of technical terms and a wide variety of other applications make the choice of a suitable program sometimes difficult. Through the inclusion of some basic and pertinent criteria (e.g., performance, ease of opening, standardization and portability), we present a descriptive comparison of 12 DBMSs currently available in the commercial and public domain. We have compared and tested three main architecture models which are currently available and assessed their potential applications for imaging purposes: relational, object-oriented, and hybrid. The findings of our study demonstrated that the Illustra software was the best suited for a neuroimaging environment because of its intrinsic ability to handle complex and large objects, such as 3D volumes or geometric structures.

  4. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory by...

  5. Witnesses stumbling down memory lane: The effects of alcohol intoxication, retention interval, and repeated interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica V; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Intoxicated eyewitnesses are often discredited by investigators and in court, but few studies have examined how alcohol affects witnesses' memory. The primary aim of the present study was to examine how intoxication (alcohol vs. control), retention interval (immediate vs. one week delay), and number of interviews (one vs. two interviews) affect witnesses' memory. The participants (N = 99) were randomly assigned to consume either orange juice or alcohol mixed with orange juice, and they all witnessed a filmed mock crime afterwards. The recall took place either (a) immediately and after a one week delay or (b) after a one week delay only. No main effect of alcohol was found on the quantity or quality of the witnesses' statements. Both intoxicated and sober witnesses recalled more details, and were more accurate, during immediate compared to delayed recall. For witnesses interviewed twice, an average of 30% new details were provided in the second compared to the first interview, and these were highly accurate. In sum, contrary to what one can expect, intoxicated witnesses with a low to moderate blood alcohol concentration (below 0.10%) were reliable witnesses.

  6. Women, Wit, and Witchcraft: The Burden of Stereotypes. Working Paper No. 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barbara

    This paper examines the negative stereotypes so long foisted on witty women and the move of contemporary witty women writers into a comic vision beyond the imposed connection of female wit to sly cleverness and witchcraft. To illustrate how the woman writer had to cope with a prejudice against and a fear of her wit, the paper considers three…

  7. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  8. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  9. Blood transfusion and the pregnant Jehovah's witness patient: avoiding a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonholz, D H

    1999-09-01

    The pregnant Jehovah's Witness patient's refusal of lifesaving transfusion creates a conflict for the physician. While legal steps may be initiated to address the problem, a medical approach stressing prophylaxis which anticipates and avoids the ethical dilemma of managing a hemorrhaging pregnant Jehovah's Witness is preferable.

  10. 45 CFR 681.19 - Are witness lists exchanged before the hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are witness lists exchanged before the hearing? 681.19 Section 681.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.19 Are witness...

  11. Child-Witnesses of Domestic Violence: The Evolution of a Counseling Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth Heather

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative research design was used to explore the processes by which four child-witnesses of domestic violence made meaning of their experiences in a counseling group. A specific aim of this study was to determine if there were stages of group development that occurred in the counseling group with four young child-witnesses of domestic…

  12. 26 CFR 301.7602-1 - Examination of books and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of books and witnesses. 301.7602-1... Examination and Inspection § 301.7602-1 Examination of books and witnesses. (a) In general. For the purpose of... officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service may examine any books, papers, records or other data...

  13. LRN, ERN:, & BERN @ Wireless Integrating the Sciences (WITS) Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Campbell, B.; Foody, M.; Klitsner, D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a call to action for a learning tool that would work to best teach Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM), the NASA Goddard team will partner with the inventor of Bop It!, an interactive game of verbs and following instructions; and Global Imagination, the developers of Magic Planet. In this paper Decision-making Orbital Health! (DOH!) will be described as a game derived from the basic functions necessary for Bop lt!, a familiar game. that will ask the educational audience to respond to changing commands to Bop It!, Twist It!, and Squeeze It! The success of the new version of the game, will be that the Earth will be making these commands from Dynamic Planet, and the crowd assembled can play wirelessly. Wireless Integrating The Sciences (WITS) Theatre : A balanced approach will describe how the communities local to Goddard and perhaps San Francisco will develop curriculum that helps kids teach kids with an engaging game and a STEM message. The performing arts will be employed to make it entertaining and appropriate to the size of the gathering, and the students educational level.

  14. Trauma and the state with Sigmund Freud as witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Elizabeth Ann

    Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers. As sociological as psychoanalytic in his responses, Freud's withering critique came just 2years after he avowed that "it is possible to foresee that the conscience of society will awake." That speech on the human right to mental health care affirmed Freud's alliance to the social democratic position and inspired the second generation of psychoanalysts to develop community-based clinics throughout Europe where treatment was free of cost, for war neurosis and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies of hosing of a witness beam in plasma based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Lance; An, Weiming; Xu, Xinlu; Mori, Warren

    2017-10-01

    A major challenge for the next generation of plasma wakefield acceleration is the preservation of emittance of the witness beam. The hosing instability is one source of emittance of the witness beam that occurs when the witness beam has a transverse offset. A general theory has been developed to describe hosing in the blow-out regime and has shown smaller growth than standard theories. However, these theories have not been rigorously tested with witness beams in the relativistic, non-adiabatic regime of interest to plasma wakefield acceleration. A modified theory using an expansion in azimuthal modes is discussed. This theory alongside 3D QuickPIC simulations are used to study perturbations to the wake structure from point charges with transverse displacements as well as witness beams optimized for beam loading. Work supported by NSF and DOE.

  16. To wait or not to wait? Improving results when interviewing intoxicated witnesses to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand Karlén, Malin; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Fahlke, Claudia; Granhag, Pär Anders; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Witnesses to violent crimes are often alcohol intoxicated, but few studies have investigated the impact of alcohol on witness reports. This study investigated how alcohol intoxication and time of interview affected reports of intimate partner violence (IPV). One hundred thirty six healthy men (N = 66) and women (N = 70) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.8g/kg for men, 0.75g/kg for women) (N = 70) or control group (N = 66), given juice. Participants consumed drinks in a laboratory setting before they witnessed an IPV scenario. Fifty percent of the intoxicated and sober participants were interviewed ten minutes after viewing the film and all participants were interviewed one week later. For the analyses, participants in the alcohol group were divided into two groups (moderately/highly intoxicated) based on their BAC-level. Ten minutes after viewing the event, highly (BAC = 0.08-0.15) intoxicated witnesses gave shorter, but as accurate, reports as moderately intoxicated/sober witnesses. All witnesses gave shorter and less accurate reports one week later compared to immediately after. However, an immediate interview increased completeness one week later. In general, time and high intoxication made witnesses give less detailed accounts of actions and verbal information, but not of objects. Highly intoxicated witnesses reported less actions and verbal information in all interviews, while information regarding objects was reported to a similar extent. At the present BAC-level, it is beneficial to conduct an immediate free recall interview with intoxicated witnesses to obtain a maximum amount of correct information and minimize the negative effect of time. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Data sharing and publishing in the field of neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breeze Janis L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing recognition of the importance of data sharing in the neurosciences, and in particular in the field of neuroimaging research, in order to best make use of the volumes of human subject data that have been acquired to date. However, a number of barriers, both practical and cultural, continue to impede the widespread practice of data sharing; these include: lack of standard infrastructure and tools for data sharing, uncertainty about how to organize and prepare the data for sharing, and researchers’ fears about unattributed data use or missed opportunities for publication. A further challenge is how the scientific community should best describe and/or reference shared data that is used in secondary analyses. Finally, issues of human research subject protections and the ethical use of such data are an ongoing source of concern for neuroimaging researchers. One crucial issue is how producers of shared data can and should be acknowledged and how this important component of science will benefit individuals in their academic careers. While we encourage the field to make use of these opportunities for data publishing, it is critical that standards for metadata, provenance, and other descriptors are used. This commentary outlines the efforts of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing to coordinate and establish such standards, as well as potential ways forward to relieve the issues that researchers who produce these massive, reusable community resources face when making the data rapidly and freely available to the public. Both the technical and human aspects of data sharing must be addressed if we are to go forward.

  18. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  19. High-Throughput Neuroimaging-Genetics Computational Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo D Dinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical and phenotypic data and meta-data. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI at University of Southern California (USC. INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize diverse suites of software tools and web-services. These pipeline workflows are represented as portable XML objects which transfer the execution instructions and user specifications from the client user machine to remote pipeline servers for distributed computing. Using Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s data, we provide several examples of translational applications using this infrastructure.

  20. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Shift Invariant Multi-linear Decomposition of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2008-01-01

    with a fixed time course that may vary across either trials or space in its overall intensity and latency. Its utility is demonstrated on simulated data as well as actual EEG, and fMRI data. We show how shift-invariant multilinear decompositions of multiway data can successfully cope with variable latencies...... in data derived from neural activity--a problem that has caused degenerate solutions especially in modeling neuroimaging data with instantaneous multilinear decompositions. Our algorithm is available for download at www.erpwavelab.org....

  2. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; JAFARI, Narjes; AHMAD ABADI, Farzad; JABBEHDARI, Sayena; Mohammad-Mahdi TAGHDIRI; Mohammad-Reza ALAEE; GHOFRANI, Mohammad; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; Habibeh NEJAD BIGLARI*

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Ahmad Abadi F, Jabbehdari S, Taghdiri MM, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonekaboni SH, Nejad Biglari H. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):58-61. ObjectivePropionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presente...

  3. Multimodal neuroimaging-informed clinical applications in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eO'Halloran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS. We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically-informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key grey matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability

  4. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2011-01-01

    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  5. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  6. Neuroimaging and other investigations in patients presenting with headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum W Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is very common. In the United Kingdom, it accounts for 4.4% of primary care consultations, 30% of referrals to neurology services and 0.5-0.8% of alert patients presenting to emergency departments. Primary headache disorders account for the majority of patients and most patients do not require investigation. Warning features (red flags in the history and on examination help target those who need investigation and what investigations are required. This article summarizes the typical presentations of the common secondary headaches and what neuroimaging and other investigations are appropriate for each headache type.

  7. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  8. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  9. Mapping pyrophilic percentages across the northeastern United States using witness trees, with focus on four national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa A. Thomas-Van Gundy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Charles V. Cogbill

    2015-01-01

    Witness trees provide information fundamental for restoration ecology, often serving as baselines for forest composition and structure. Furthermore, when categorized by fire relations, witness trees can shed light on past disturbance regimes. Kriging was applied to witness-tree point data to form a contiguous surface of pyrophilic percentage for four national forests...

  10. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  11. Hand Motion Detection in fNIRS Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Byrd, Dennis; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-04-15

    As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.

  12. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  13. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  14. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  15. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  16. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Managing acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand P. Jillella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a hyper-acute leukemia and presents with cytopenias and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Jehovah’s Witnesses with APL offer a unique challenge during induction by refusing transfusion and pose a difficult challenge in this curable disease. Our focus over the last 8 years has been decreasing early deaths in APL in both academic and community centers. As a result we have extensive experience in APL induction with a proven improvement in early deaths. Three patients with APL belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation were treated in our practice and published literature in treating Witnesses with APL was reviewed. It is highly imperative to prevent induction mortality in this patient population. The goal of treatment among the Witnesses is to prevent death during induction and subsequently cure them. We discuss the management and proactive measures to prevent induction mortality in this most curable blood cancer.

  18. Determinants of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Qirjako, Gentiana; Roshi, Enver; Brand, Helmut

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to assess the extent and the socioeconomic correlates of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in Albania, a country in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. 2797 students (93% of all students) at the Medical Faculty, Tirana, filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire in April-June 2009. Information on witnessed father-to-mother physical violence during childhood and/or adolescence and sociodemographic and socioeconomic data were collected. The association of witnessed parental violence with socioeconomic factors was assessed with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. 736 (26.7%) of students witnessed father-to-mother physical violence, and 36 (1.3%) reported 'very often' witnessing episodes. In multivariable-adjusted models, independent predictors of witnessed violence were: low family income [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-3.2], rural origin (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), father's lower education and unemployment (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 4.1-7.1 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.2, respectively) and mother's educational and employment advantage compared with the spouse (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8 and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8, respectively). Father's socioeconomic disadvantage and mother's socioeconomic empowerment were each independently related to increased risk for witnessed father-to-mother physical violence among university students in this transitional patriarchal society. Health professionals in post-communist Albania should be aware of the ways in which witnessed domestic violence influences physical and psychological health of young adults.

  19. Methodological issues in assessing psychological adjustment in child witnesses of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Caroline M; Oxtoby, Claire; Ogle, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes a growing number of methodological concerns emerging from research on child witnesses of intimate partner violence (IPV). A brief summary of various psychological, biological, and cognitive impairments associated with witnessing IPV is presented. Directions for future research in this area are explored with particular attention paid to experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs are evaluated. Suggested improvements include the use of multiple informants, behavioral observations, and prospective, longitudinal assessment.

  20. Witness response at acute onset of stroke: a qualitative theory-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; Mackintosh, Joan; White, Martin; Rodgers, Helen; Thomson, Richard G; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Ford, Gary A; Eccles, Martin P; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Delay in calling emergency medical services following stroke limits access to early treatment that can reduce disability. Emergency medical services contact is mostly initiated by stroke witnesses (often relatives), rather than stroke patients. This study explored appraisal and behavioural factors that are potentially important in influencing witness behaviour in response to stroke. Semi-structured interviews with 26 stroke witnesses were transcribed and theory-guided content analysed was undertaken based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (appraisal processes) and Theory Domains Framework (behavioural determinants). Response behaviours were often influenced by heuristics-guided appraisal (i.e. mental rules of thumb). Some witnesses described their responses to the situation as 'automatic' and 'instinctive', rather than products of deliberation. Potential behavioural influences included: environmental context and resources (e.g. time of day), social influence (e.g. prompts from patients) and beliefs about consequences (e.g. 999 accesses rapid help). Findings are based on retrospective accounts and need further verification in prospective studies. Witnesses play a key role in patient access to emergency medical services. Factors that potentially influence witnesses' responses to stroke were identified and could inform behavioural interventions and future research. Interventions might benefit from linking automatic/instinctive threat perceptions with deliberate appraisal of stroke symptoms, prompting action to call emergency medical services.

  1. Witness response at acute onset of stroke: a qualitative theory-guided study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan U Dombrowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delay in calling emergency medical services following stroke limits access to early treatment that can reduce disability. Emergency medical services contact is mostly initiated by stroke witnesses (often relatives, rather than stroke patients. This study explored appraisal and behavioural factors that are potentially important in influencing witness behaviour in response to stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Semi-structured interviews with 26 stroke witnesses were transcribed and theory-guided content analysed was undertaken based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (appraisal processes and Theory Domains Framework (behavioural determinants. Response behaviours were often influenced by heuristics-guided appraisal (i.e. mental rules of thumb. Some witnesses described their responses to the situation as 'automatic' and 'instinctive', rather than products of deliberation. Potential behavioural influences included: environmental context and resources (e.g. time of day, social influence (e.g. prompts from patients and beliefs about consequences (e.g. 999 accesses rapid help. Findings are based on retrospective accounts and need further verification in prospective studies. CONCLUSIONS: Witnesses play a key role in patient access to emergency medical services. Factors that potentially influence witnesses' responses to stroke were identified and could inform behavioural interventions and future research. Interventions might benefit from linking automatic/instinctive threat perceptions with deliberate appraisal of stroke symptoms, prompting action to call emergency medical services.

  2. I see so I feel: Coping with workplace violence among victims and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biru; Marchand, Alain; Guay, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious concern for workers' mental health and well-being in high risk work sectors. This study examined victims' and witnesses' experiences after exposure to workplace violence, and the types of help they used to cope with the violent event. Workers (n = 211) from five different work sectors participated in our study. Multiple mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect effects through psychological and work consequences on victims' versus witnesses' differential likelihood of using formal, paraformal and informal helping. Results showed that workplace violence has detrimental effects on both victims and witnesses. Direct victims were more negatively affected psychologically and at work than witnesses. The indirect effect through psychological difficulty after experiencing workplace violence was significant in predicting formal helping. The indirect effect through reduced work functioning in predicting paraformal helping was also significant. No significant indirect effect was found in predicting informal helping. Both victims and witnesses used multiple types of helping to cope with the violent event. This study has practical implications on management and clinical practices for better organizations of resources in helping victims and witnesses to cope with workplace violence.

  3. A Remarkable Recent Transition in the Solar Dynamo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Duhau, S.; Livingston, W.C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Potgieter, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the major aspects of the remarkable, fairly long lasting period(∼ 2005 to ∼ 2010) of low solar activity, that we will call the Transition. It is the transitionalstage between the Grand Maximum of the 20th century and a forthcoming (most probablyRegular) episode of solar activity. The

  4. Remark on an infinite semipositone problem with indefinite weight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 123, No. 1, February 2013, pp. 145–150. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Remark on an infinite semipositone problem with indefinite weight and falling zeros ... 1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences,. University of ... where 0 0 and c > 0 are constants, is a bounded domain ...

  5. Initial remarks on Sur la genèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Goshgarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available G. M. Goshgarian describes historical and theoretical context in whichAlthusser’s note On Genesis has been written. Goshgarian indicated theoreticalsources of althusserian remarks in the theme of genesis. He invokes – next to Marx– such names as Montaigne or Spinoza.

  6. Bounding the number of remarkable values via Jouanolou's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Chèze, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In this article we bound the number of remarkable values of a polynomial vector field. The proof is short and based on Jouanolou's theorem about rational first integrals of planar polynomial derivations. Our bound is given in term of the size of a Newton polygon associated to the vector field. We prove that this bound is almost reached.

  7. Bounding the number of remarkable values via Jouanolou's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèze, Guillaume

    2015-05-01

    In this article we bound the number of remarkable values of a polynomial vector field. The proof is short and based on Jouanolou's theorem about rational first integrals of planar polynomial derivations. Our bound is given in term of the size of a Newton polygon associated to the vector field. We prove that this bound is almost reached.

  8. Remarkable visual recovery after severe open globe injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewlin E. Chee

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions and importance: Poor presenting acuity is a known risk factor for poor visual outcome after open globe injury. We hypothesize this remarkable visual recovery could be attributable to the presence of a massive choroidal hemorrhage and limited intraocular hemorrhage elsewhere. In rare cases, vision can improve from the no light perception level after secondary vitreoretinal surgery.

  9. Discussant Remarks on Session: Statistical Aspects of Measuring the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    1999-04-02

    These remarks will briefly summarize what we learn from the talks in this session, and add some more areas in Internet Measurement that may provide challenges for statisticians. It will also point out some reasons why statisticians may be interested in working in this area.

  10. Some Remarks on Iterated Maps of Natural Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Some Remarks on Iterated Maps of Natural Numbers. Agnes M Herzberg M Ram Murty. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 1038-1046. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  12. Neural Correlates of Visual Perceptual Expertise: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience Using Functional Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Kok, Ellen M.; van Geel, Koos; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a useful approach to study the neural correlates of visual perceptual expertise. The purpose of this paper is to review the functional-neuroimaging methods that have been implemented in previous research in this context. First, we will discuss research questions typically addressed in visual expertise research. Second,…

  13. Clinical presentation and spectrum of neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltirovska Salamon, Aneta; Lichtenbelt, Klaske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481816X; Cowan, Frances M; Casaer, Alexandra; Dudink, Jeroen; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Paro-Panjan, Darja; Groenendaal, Floris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073282596; de Vries, Linda S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report on the neurological presentation and neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti. METHOD: The clinical and neurological course including neuroimaging and follow-up data of eight newborn infants with the neurological phenotype of incontinentia pigmenti were

  14. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Bagnis, Arianna; Viola, Marco; Tamietto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in the brain. In

  15. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Celeghin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in

  16. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with and without Psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Sone

    Full Text Available Psychosis is one of the most important psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, and its pathophysiology still remains unsolved. We aimed to explore the connectivity differences of structural neuroimaging between TLE with and without psychosis using a graph theoretical analysis, which is an emerging mathematical method to investigate network connections in the brain as a small-world system.We recruited 11 TLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS presenting psychosis or having a history of psychosis (TLE-P group. As controls, 15 TLE patients with unilateral HS without any history of psychotic episodes were also recruited (TLE-N group. For graph theoretical analysis, the normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. As secondary analyses, each group was compared to 14 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects.The hub node locations were found predominantly in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the TLE-N group, and mainly on the contralateral side in the TLE-P group. The TLE-P group showed significantly higher characteristic path length, transitivity, lower global efficiency, and resilience to random or targeted attack than those of the TLE-N group. The regional comparison in betweenness centrality revealed significantly decreased connectivity in the contralateral temporal lobe, ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral postcentral gyri in the TLE-P group. The healthy subjects showed well-balanced nodes/edges distributions, similar metrics to TLE-N group except for higher small-worldness/modularity/assortativity, and various differences of regional betweenness/clustering.In TLE with psychosis, graph theoretical analysis of structural imaging revealed disrupted connectivity in the contralateral hemisphere. The network metrics suggested that the existence of psychosis can bring vulnerability and decreased efficiency of the whole-brain network. The sharp differences in

  17. ROC surface assessment of the ANB angle and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance with a statistically derived 'gold standard': does normalizing measurements have any merit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, Hans L L; BeGole, Ellen A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Annemarie M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the ANB angle's and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance using an extended version of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, which renders ROC surfaces. These were calculated for both the conventional and normalized cephalometric tests (calculated by exchanging the patient's reference landmarks with those of the Procrustes superimposed sample mean shape).The required 'gold standard' was derived statistically, by applying generalized Procrustes superimposition (GPS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to the digitized landmarks, and ordering patients based upon their PC2 scores. Digitized landmarks of 200 lateral cephalograms (107 males, mean age: 12.8 years, SD: 2.2, 93 females, mean age: 13.2 years, SD: 1.7) were subjected to GPS and PCA. Upon calculating the conventional and normalized ANB and Wits values, ROC surfaces were constructed by varying not just the cephalometric test's cut-off value within each ROC curve, but also the gold standard cut-off value over different ROC curves in 220 steps between -2 and 2 standard deviations along PC2. The volume under the resulting ROC surfaces (VUS) served as a measure of overall diagnostic performance. The statistical significance of the volume differences was determined using permutation tests (1000 rounds, with replacement). The diagnostic performance of the conventional ANB and Wits was remarkably similar for both Class I/II (81.1 and 80.75% VUS, respectively, P > 0.05). Normalizing the measurements improved all VUS highly significantly (91 and 87.2 per cent, respectively, P Normalizing the measurements does seem to have some merit.

  18. Multimodal neuroimaging computing: a review of the applications in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging is increasingly used in neuroscience research, as it overcomes the limitations of individual modalities. One of the most important applications of multimodal neuroimaging is the provision of vital diagnostic data for neuropsychiatric disorders. Multimodal neuroimaging computing enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations in brain structure and function, and has reshaped how neuroscience research is carried out. Research in this area is growing exponentially, and so it is an appropriate time to review the current and future development of this emerging area. Hence, in this paper, we review the recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (MRI, PET) and electrophysiological (EEG, MEG) technologies, and their applications to the neuropsychiatric disorders. We also outline some future directions for multimodal neuroimaging where researchers will design more advanced methods and models for neuropsychiatric research.

  19. More education, less administration: reflections of neuroimagers' attitudes to ethics through the qualitative looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, A A; Tairyan, K; Federico, C; Glover, G H; Illes, J

    2012-12-01

    In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and virtue were key motivators for incorporating ethics into neuroimaging research. Managing incidental findings emerged as a predominant daily challenge for faculty, while student reports focused on the malleability of neuroimaging data and scientific integrity. The most frequently cited barrier was time and administrative burden associated with the ethics review process. Lack of scholarly training in ethics also emerged as a major barrier. Participants constructively offered remedies to these challenges: development and dissemination of best practices and standardized ethics review for minimally invasive neuroimaging protocols. Students in particular, urged changes to curricula to include early, focused training in ethics.

  20. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  1. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  2. Human Neuroimaging of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on human social behaviors. Here we review the findings to-date from investigations of the acute and chronic effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity underlying social cognitive processes using “pharmacological fMRI” and “imaging genetics”, respectively. PMID:22326707

  3. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2012-01-01

    visualization. Specifically we focus on the generation of summary maps of a nonlinear classifier, that reveal how the classifier works in different parts of the input domain. Each of the maps includes sign information, unlike earlier related methods. The sign information allows the researcher to assess in which......Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  4. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  5. Neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, G; Friberg, L; Jänig, W

    2004-01-01

    be recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. 5 In adult and paediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other focal neurological signs or symptoms, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with atypical headache patterns......, a history of seizures and/or focal neurological signs or symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated. 6 If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification [International Headache Society (IHS)], a positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission...... computerized tomography (SPECT) and scan will generally be of no further diagnostic value. 7 Nuclear medicine examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in subgroups of headache patients for diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe...

  6. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  7. Neuroimaging in stroke and non-stroke pusher patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Elaine Grespan Santos-Pontelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pusher behavior (PB is a disorder of postural control affecting patients with encephalic lesions. This study has aimed to identify the brain substrates that are critical for the occurrence of PB, to analyze the influence of the midline shift (MS and hemorrhagic stroke volume (HSV on the severity and prognosis of the PB. We identified 31 pusher patients of a neurological unit, mean age 67.4±11.89, 61.3% male. Additional neurological and functional examinations were assessed. Neuroimaging workup included measurement of the MS, the HSV in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the analysis of the vascular territory, etiology and side of the lesion. Lesions in the parietal region (p=0.041 and thalamus (p=0.001 were significantly more frequent in PB patients. Neither the MS nor the HSV were correlated with the PB severity or recovery time.

  8. Genetics and neuroimaging of attention and hypnotizability may elucidate placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and hypnosis. Because attention can modulate both cognitive and affective processes, genetic assays together with neuroimaging data have begun to elucidate individual differences. Findings from genetic assays of both attention and hypnotizability pave the way to answering questions such as how high hypnotizable individuals may differ from less-hypnotizable persons. These exploratory findings may extend to the identification of placebo responders.

  9. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Neuroimaging the various symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Following consensus on fronto-striato-thalamo-frontal dysfunction as the neuronal basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and increasing sub-classification of this clinical picture, neurobiological differentiation of the various obsessive symptoms is also attracting interest in neuroimaging research. Original papers studying the neurobiological correlates of the various dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder were listed by a systematic literature search. The "washing" factor seems to involve particular brain structures dealing with emotional control (mainly the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and insula), but the predominant areas in the "forbidden thoughts" factor are cognitive control brain regions (mainly basal ganglia and ACC), and in hoarding obsessions and compulsions they are decision-making areas (mainly ventro-medial parts of the OFC and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)). The results underline the neurobiological heterogeneity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder clinical picture, pointing the way for future research approaches.

  11. Preclinical PET Neuroimaging of [11C]Bexarotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Rotstein PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of retinoid X receptors (RXRs has been proposed as a therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We previously reported radiolabeling of a Food and Drug Administration-approved RXR agonist, bexarotene, by copper-mediated [11C]CO2 fixation and preliminary positron emission tomography (PET neuroimaging that demonstrated brain permeability in nonhuman primate with regional binding distribution consistent with RXRs. In this study, the brain uptake and saturability of [11C]bexarotene were studied in rats and nonhuman primates by PET imaging under baseline and greater target occupancy conditions. [11C]Bexarotene displays a high proportion of nonsaturable uptake in the brain and is unsuitable for RXR occupancy measurements in the central nervous system.

  12. Understanding other minds: linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, R; Carey, S; Kanwisher, N

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from developmental psychology suggests that understanding other minds constitutes a special domain of cognition with at least two components: an early-developing system for reasoning about goals, perceptions, and emotions, and a later-developing system for representing the contents of beliefs. Neuroimaging reinforces and elaborates upon this view by providing evidence that (a) domain-specific brain regions exist for representing belief contents, (b) these regions are apparently distinct from other regions engaged in reasoning about goals and actions (suggesting that the two developmental stages reflect the emergence of two distinct systems, rather than the elaboration of a single system), and (c) these regions are distinct from brain regions engaged in inhibitory control and in syntactic processing. The clear neural distinction between these processes is evidence that belief attribution is not dependent on either inhibitory control or syntax, but is subserved by a specialized neural system for theory of mind.

  13. A review of longitudinal electroconvulsive therapy: neuroimaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Christopher C; Gallegos, Patrick; Rediske, Nathan; Lemke, Nicholas T; Quinn, Davin K

    2014-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for a depressive episode but the mechanism of action and neural correlates of response are poorly understood. Different theories have suggested that anticonvulsant properties or neurotrophic effects are related to the unique mechanism of action of ECT. This review assessed longitudinal imaging investigations (both structural and functional) associated with ECT response published from 2002 to August 2013. We identified 26 investigations that used a variety of different imaging modalities and data analysis methods. Despite these methodological differences, we summarized the major findings of each investigation and identified common patterns that exist across multiple investigations. The ECT response is associated with decreased frontal perfusion, metabolism, and functional connectivity and increased volume and neuronal chemical metabolites. The general collective of longitudinal neuroimaging investigations support both the anticonvulsant and the neurotrophic effects of ECT. We propose a conceptual framework that integrates these seemingly contradictory hypotheses.

  14. A field evaluation of the Eye-Closure Interview with witnesses of serious crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Tredoux, Colin G; Nortje, Alicia; Kempen, Kate; Puljević, Cheneal; Labuschagne, Gérard N

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory research shows that eye-closure during memory retrieval improves both the amount and the factual accuracy of memory reports about witnessed events. Based on these findings, we developed the Eye-Closure Interview, and examined its feasibility (in terms of compliance with the instructions) and effectiveness (in terms of the quantity and quality of reported information) in eyewitness interviews conducted by the South African Police Service. Police interviewers from the Facial Identification Unit were randomly assigned to receive Eye-Closure Interview training or no training. We analyzed 95 interviews with witnesses of serious crimes (including robbery, rape, and murder), some of whom were instructed to close their eyes during salient parts of the interview. Witnesses in the control condition rarely spontaneously closed their eyes, but witnesses in the Eye-Closure Interview condition kept their eyes closed during 97% of their descriptions, suggesting that the Eye-Closure Interview would be easy to implement in a field setting. Although witnesses who closed their eyes did not remember more information overall, the information they provided was considered to be of significantly greater forensic relevance (as reflected in 2 independent blind assessments, 1 by a senior police expert and 1 by a senior researcher). Thus, based on the findings from this field study and from previous laboratory research, we conclude that implementation of the Eye-Closure Interview in witness interviews would help police interviewers to elicit more valuable information from witnesses, which could be relevant to the police investigation and/or in court. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K; Steffener, J; Turner, J A; Van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G A; Nichols, B N

    2013-11-15

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Integration of network topological and connectivity properties for neuroimaging classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Gao, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided an efficient and noninvasive way for exploring the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain. Quantitative measurement of abnormality of brain connectivity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), have also been widely reported, especially at a group level. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to the study of AD and MCI, i.e., to identify the individuals with AD/MCI from the healthy controls (HCs). However, most existing methods focus on using only a single property of a connectivity network, although multiple network properties, such as local connectivity and global topological properties, can potentially be used. In this paper, by employing multikernel based approach, we propose a novel connectivity based framework to integrate multiple properties of connectivity network for improving the classification performance. Specifically, two different types of kernels (i.e., vector-based kernel and graph kernel) are used to quantify two different yet complementary properties of the network, i.e., local connectivity and global topological properties. Then, multikernel learning (MKL) technique is adopted to fuse these heterogeneous kernels for neuroimaging classification. We test the performance of our proposed method on two different data sets. First, we test it on the functional connectivity networks of 12 MCI and 25 HC subjects. The results show that our method achieves significant performance improvement over those using only one type of network property. Specifically, our method achieves a classification accuracy of 91.9%, which is 10.8% better than those by single network-property-based methods. Then, we test our method for gender classification on a large set of functional connectivity networks with 133 infants scanned at birth, 1 year, and 2 years, also demonstrating very promising results.

  17. Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep. Citation: Dang

  18. Neuroimaging Findings in Pediatric Genetic Skeletal Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Poretti, Andrea; Benson, Jane E; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) are a heterogeneous group characterized by an intrinsic abnormality in growth and (re-)modeling of cartilage and bone. A large subgroup of GSDs has additional involvement of other structures/organs beside the skeleton, such as the central nervous system (CNS). CNS abnormalities have an important role in long-term prognosis of children with GSDs and should consequently not be missed. Sensitive and specific identification of CNS lesions while evaluating a child with a GSD requires a detailed knowledge of the possible associated CNS abnormalities. Here, we provide a pattern-recognition approach for neuroimaging findings in GSDs guided by the obvious skeletal manifestations of GSD. In particular, we summarize which CNS findings should be ruled out with each GSD. The diseases (n = 180) are classified based on the skeletal involvement (1. abnormal metaphysis or epiphysis, 2. abnormal size/number of bones, 3. abnormal shape of bones and joints, and 4. abnormal dynamic or structural changes). For each disease, skeletal involvement was defined in accordance with Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Morphological CNS involvement has been described based on extensive literature search. Selected examples will be shown based on prevalence of the diseases and significance of the CNS involvement. CNS involvement is common in GSDs. A wide spectrum of morphological abnormalities is associated with GSDs. Early diagnosis of CNS involvement is important in the management of children with GSDs. This pattern-recognition approach aims to assist and guide physicians in the diagnostic work-up of CNS involvement in children with GSDs and their management. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. In Vivo Neuroimaging of Exosomes Using Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzer, Oshra; Perets, Nisim; Angel, Ariel; Motiei, Menachem; Sadan, Tamar; Yadid, Gal; Offen, Daniel; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2017-11-28

    Exosomes are emerging as effective therapeutic tools for various pathologies. These extracellular vesicles can bypass biological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and can serve as powerful drug and gene therapy transporters. However, the progress of therapy development is impeded by several challenges, including insufficient data on exosome trafficking and biodistribution and the difficulty to image deep brain structures in vivo. Herein, we established a method for noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging and tracking of exosomes, based on glucose-coated gold nanoparticle (GNP) labeling and computed tomography imaging. Labeling of exosomes with the GNPs was achieved directly, as opposed to the typical and less efficient indirect labeling mode through parent cells. On the mechanistic level, we found that the glucose-coated GNPs were uptaken into MSC-derived exosomes via an active, energy-dependent mechanism that is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and involves endocytic proteins. Next, we determined optimal parameters of size and administration route; we demonstrated that 5 nm GNPs enabled improved exosome labeling and that intranasal, compared to intravenous, administration led to superior brain accumulation and thus enhanced in vivo neuroimaging. Furthermore, using a mouse model of focal brain ischemia, we noninvasively tracked intranasally administered GNP-labeled exosomes, which showed increased accumulation at the lesion site over 24 h, as compared to nonspecific migration and clearance from control brains over the same period. Thus, this exosome labeling technique can serve as a powerful diagnostic tool for various brain disorders and could potentially enhance exosome-based treatments for neuronal recovery.

  20. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  1. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD’s marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug’s other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of “ego-dissolution” and “altered meaning,” implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of “self” or “ego” and its processing of “meaning.” Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  2. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  3. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Mejino, Jose L V; Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T; Lee, Hyo Jong; Martone, Maryann E; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and re-use is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus). This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are "part of" which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a subpart of the middle frontal gyrus) to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?). In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuroanatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  4. What can functional neuroimaging tell the experimental psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard

    2005-02-01

    I argue here that functional neuroimaging data--which I restrict to the haemodynamic techniques of fMRI and PET--can inform psychological theorizing, provided one assumes a "systematic" function-structure mapping in the brain. In this case, imaging data simply comprise another dependent variable, along with behavioural data, that can be used to test competing theories. In particular, I distinguish two types of inference: function-to-structure deduction and structure-to-function induction. With the former inference, a qualitatively different pattern of activity over the brain under two experimental conditions implies at least one different function associated with changes in the independent variable. With the second type of inference, activity of the same brain region(s) under two conditions implies a common function, possibly not predicted a priori. I illustrate these inferences with imaging studies of recognition memory, short-term memory, and repetition priming. I then consider in greater detail what is meant by a "systematic" function-structure mapping and argue that, particularly for structure-to-function induction, this entails a one-to-one mapping between functional and structural units, although the structural unit may be a network of interacting regions and care must be taken over the appropriate level of functional/structural abstraction. Nonetheless, the assumption of a systematic function-structure mapping is a "working hypothesis" that, in common with other scientific fields, cannot be proved on independent grounds and is probably best evaluated by the success of the enterprise as a whole. I also consider statistical issues such as the definition of a qualitative difference and methodological issues such as the relationship between imaging and behavioural data. I finish by reviewing various objections to neuroimaging, including neophrenology, functionalism, and equipotentiality, and by observing some criticisms of current practice in the imaging

  5. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  6. Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A.; Elbert, Thomas; Sutton, Bradley P.; Heller, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the reasons for the contrast between the remarkable advances that hemodynamic and electromagnetic imaging of the human brain appear capable of delivering in clinical practice in psychology and their very limited penetration into practice to date. Both the heritages of the relevant technologies and the historical orientation of…

  7. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  8. Growth depression and recovery: the remarkable case of American slaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, R H

    1987-01-01

    Legislation designed to prevent slave smuggling after 1807 created an extra-ordinary set of documents identifying slaves transported in the coastwise trade by name, age, sex height and colour. Slaves fell below the first or second centile of modern height standards as children but recovered during and after adolescence to exceed the 25th centile as adults. This profile differs remarkably from other populations. Poor pre-natal care, early weaning, food supplements that were nutritionally poor and often contaminated, and a heavy disease load thwarted growth during childhood, but the diet improved substantially when young adolescents entered the labour force. The results show that humans have remarkable capacity for catch-up growth.

  9. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing intention to help and helping behaviour in witnesses of bullying in nursing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-León, Carmen; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Olmos, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    The role played by witnesses of bullying in nursing settings remains little studied, despite their potential relevance in explaining the onset and development of bullying. The objective of this study was to develop a model to account for witnesses' intention to help and helping behaviour in response to bullying in a nursing setting. Three hundred and thirty-seven witnesses completed self-report measures of variables predicting intention to help and helping behaviour. A full structural model was constructed using structural equation modelling. The intention to help victims was elicited by tension, group identity, support to peers' initiative to intervene and absence of fear of retaliation. However, engagement in helping behaviour was only predicted by the absence of fear of retaliation. This study shows that witnesses of bullying in nursing settings do not remain impassive, but their experienced discomfort and intention to help victims is not sufficient to predict helping behaviour. Fear of possible retaliation if intervening in favour of victims constitutes a crucial factor explaining witnesses' hesitation to help victims. Several implications for the implementation of policies directed at eradicating bullying in nursing settings are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Koh, Natalie; Day, Trevor K M; Hernández-Fernández, Moises; Kelley, Austin; Peterson, Daniel J; Rajan, Sabreena; Woelfer, Karl A; Wolf, Jonathan; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  12. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  13. Commentary: Applications of functional neuroimaging to civil litigation of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The current definition of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is in flux. Presently, there are at least three working definitions of this disorder in the United States, with no clear consensus. Functional neuroimaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), initially showed promise in their ability to improve the diagnostic credibility of MTBI. Over the past decade, that promise has not been fulfilled and there is a paucity of quality studies or standards for the application of functional neuroimaging to traumatic brain injury, particularly in litigation. The legal profession is ahead of the science in this matter. The emergence of neurolaw is driving a growing use of functional neuroimaging, as a sole imaging modality, used by lawyers in an attempt to prove MTBI at trial. The medical literature on functional neuroimaging and its applications to MTBI is weak scientifically, sparse in quality publications, lacking in well-designed controlled studies, and currently does not meet the complete standards of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., for introduction of scientific evidence at trial. At the present time, there is a clear lack of clinical correlation between functional neuroimaging of MTBI and behavioral, neuropsychological, or structural neuroimaging deficits. The use of SPECT or PET, without concurrent clinical correlation with structural neuroimaging (CT or MRI), is not recommended to be offered as evidence of MTBI in litigation.

  14. Simultaneous generation of drive and witness beam for collinear wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Doran, D. S.; Gai, W.

    2017-07-01

    Generating the drive and witness bunch for collinear wakefield acceleration (CWFA) requires precise control of the longitudinal bunch shape for each bunch as well as the controlling their separation. The emittance exchange (EEX) beamline and a transverse mask can be used to achieve all of these requirements. First, this EEX-based method can independently control the longitudinal bunch shape of each bunches so that the drive bunch is shaped to generate a high transformer ratio while witness bunch is shaped to suppress its energy spread. Second, the timing jitter between the drive and witness bunch poses a serious limitation to the CWFA scheme but the EEX-based method eliminates this since both bunches are generated at the same time and share the exactly same beamline so there are no relative errors. In this paper, we confirm the feasibility of this EEX-based method for simultaneous generation with simulation for CWFA in a dielectric structure.

  15. Ethical and medicolegal considerations in the obstetric care of a Jehovah's Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Cynthia; Gyamfi, Mavis M; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses comprise a unique obstetric population. Their refusal of blood stems from an interpretation of a literal translation of the Bible, and it is this belief that puts them at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality if hemorrhage occurs. Many Jehovah's Witnesses feel that accepting a blood transfusion will lead them to eternal damnation. A patient's self-determination, or autonomy, allows her to make decisions regarding her care. The decision to refuse blood or blood products has been upheld in court. This brings a new twist to the physician's obligation to "do no harm." When one undertakes the care of one of these patients, it is important to understand the ethical and medicolegal ramifications. The decision to be the primary caregivers can only be made once the physicians have decided they can let the patient die when all other options have been exhausted. This commentary discusses the ethical concerns and reviews the alternatives available to a Jehovah's Witness.

  16. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  17. The role of neuroimaging in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches--multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Young-Il; Chung, Hee-Jung; Suh, Eun-Sook; Lee, Kon-Hee; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang-Ook; Kim, Won-Seop; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neuroimaging and to estimate the prevalence of significant and treatable intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches. Neuroimaging studies are commonly performed in children and adolescent patients with headache because of increasing demands by parents and physicians, although objective data and studies to support this widespread practice are minimal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1562 (male 724, female 838) new patients presenting with recurrent headaches to 9 Pediatric Neurology Clinics of tertiary Hospitals. Data regarding age of onset, duration of symptoms before presentation, frequency, duration of each episode, intensity, location and quality of headache, associated neurologic symptoms and a comprehensive neurological examination were obtained for each patient. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, was used to classify headache types. Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 77.1% of the patients. Overall, 9.3% (112/1204) of the patients had abnormal findings from neuroimaging. The highest yield was in patients with an abnormal neurological examination wherein abnormal findings on neuroimaging were seen in 50.0% (9/18) of patients (P parent and physicians (10.1% [21/208]). Eleven patients underwent surgery based on neuroimaging results. There was no significant relation between abnormality on neuroimaging and age, sex, headache type, age of onset of headache, duration of symptoms before presentation, duration, frequency, location and intensity of headache (P > .05). Neuroimaging procedures in children and adolescents with headaches, although not always required, are very commonly performed. We suggest that more strict guidelines for rational use of neuroimaging are needed for pediatric headache patients. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  18. Oncological management of pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses: a two-institutional experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, T; Hasan, C; Kramm, C M; Janssen, G; Laws, H-J; Wessalowski, R; Bode, U; Göbel, U

    2004-04-01

    Aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of oncological treatment in pediatric patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and to describe the changing policy in performing transfusions and supportive care measures at two German pediatric cancer institutions. Over a period of 16 years 21 treatments according to the current cooperative protocols were performed in 14 children of Jehovah's Witnesses. Various hematological supportive care measures such as supplementation with iron, human erythropoietin, interleukin 11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and autologous or allogeneic stem cell rescue had been applied. For comparison matched pairs treated in our hospitals not belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and 50 pediatric and adult oncological patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses reviewed from the international literature were analyzed with respect to transfusions and outcome. So far, 9 of 14 children are surviving 16-195 months (median 26 months). During the primary therapy they received markedly less transfusions than the control cohort (-39,1% red blood cell transfusions and -37,5% platelet transfusions). The review of 50 reported cases showed that oncological therapy can also be successfully performed with a restricted transfusion regimen in children and particularly in adults. Pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses can be treated similarly to other patients. A restrictive transfusion policy and the broad application of hematopoietic supportive care measures may reduce transfusions. This treatment policy and a continuous collaboration with the Hospital Liaison Committee for Jehovah's Witnesses appears to create an oncological treatment situation with a high compliance of patients and parents where court orders may not be necessary. Copyright 2004 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  19. Knowledge of the 911 Good Samaritan Law and 911-calling behavior of overdose witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Andrea; Kunins, Hillary V; Huxley-Reicher, Zina; Siegler, Anne

    2017-10-03

    Overdose deaths tripled between 1999 and 2014. Most fatal overdoses are witnessed, offering an opportunity for bystanders to call 911. However, fear of arrest may prevent them from calling authorities. Many states have passed 911 Good Samaritan laws that protects the 911 caller and overdose victim from prosecution for drug possession. Little is known, however, about whether the law affects 911-calling behavior of overdose witnesses. We investigated the relationship between knowledge of a 911 Good Samaritan Law (GSL) and 911-calling behavior of study participants trained in opioid overdose rescue. We enrolled 351 individuals (n = 351) trained in overdose rescue and educated about the New York State GSL in a prospective longitudinal study. Trained researchers conducted baseline, three, six and 12-month follow-up surveys with study participants to assess participant knowledge of the GSL and responses to witnessed overdoses. At the twelve-month follow-up, participants had witnessed 326 overdoses. In the overdose events where the participant had correct knowledge of the GSL at the time of the event, the odds of a bystander calling 911 were over three times greater than when the witness had incorrect knowledge of the GSL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.4-7.5). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, race of the witness and overdose setting (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI, 1.4-9.4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an association between knowledge of the GSL and 911-calling behavior. Legislation that protects overdose responders along with public awareness of the law may be an effective strategy to increase rates of 911-calling in response to overdose events and decrease overdose-related mortality.

  20. Witnesses to hunger: participation through photovoice to ensure the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.

  1. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-01-01

    Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage...

  2. The impossibility of bearing witness: wartime rape and the promise of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    Testimonies of wartime sexual violence contribute to the recognition of rape as a serious human rights violation. Although acknowledgement and justice are imperative to ending silence and impunity, this article critiques some commonly held therapeutic assumptions about disclosure through examining the way so-called "unspeakable" events are communicated through legal discourse. In this article, the author explores the inherent limitations of language for bearing witness to wartime rape, specifically focusing on international war crimes tribunals. The author argues that trials contribute to the impossibility of bearing witness through both the appropriation of trauma and the failure of law to accommodate traumatic experiences.

  3. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  4. Attorneys' requests for complete tax records from opposing expert witnesses: some approaches to the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Simon, Robert I; Simpson, Skip

    2006-01-01

    As part of an impeachment attempt on cross-examination of opposing expert witnesses in trial or deposition, the cross-examining attorney may request the complete tax records of the expert. It is widely believed that expert witnesses may be expected to express opinions that favor the parties who engage them and who pay their fees. Theoretically, the purpose of this request is an attempt to paint the expert as a "hired gun" whose major source of income is forensic work. The different issues, statutes, and case law citations that bear on requests for tax records are reviewed, and the strategies for coping with this tactic are suggested.

  5. Deposition dos and don'ts: strategies for the expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2012-12-01

    The deposition is an important stage in the legal process, which poses special challenges for the deponent. This article reviews those challenges from the standpoint of the expert witness, addressing the stages of the deposition, the deposing attorney's strategies, the role and goals of the expert witness serving as the deponent, the approach to answering the attorney's questions, strategies for clarifying or reframing those questions, and the approaches to reviewing the deposition after the transcript has been printed. The article emphasizes tricks and traps used by the deposing attorney and how to avoid them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. REMARKS ON INTENSIFIERS AND INTENSIFICATION IN ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to briefly illustrate and assess the main uses of intensifiers and intensification in English and Romanian, trying to hint at the complexity of the phenomenon in the two languages, while sketchily suggesting ways to improve the teaching and learning activities in Romanian schools, as well as much of the activity of translators in this country. The authors’s illustrative treatment tackles the broader sphere of intensification, not only such intensifiers as very, terribly, awfully, really, definitely, kind of. The main subsections of the paper deal, respectively, with semantic aspects, word formation, syntactic aspects, stylistic issues, and a few remarks on usage.

  7. Concluding remarks: Faraday Discussion on chemistry in the urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jose L

    2016-07-18

    This article summarises the Concluding remarks from the Faraday Discussion on Chemistry in the Urban Atmosphere. The following themes are addressed: (a) new results that inform our understanding of the evolving sources and composition of the urban atmosphere ("News"); (b) results that identify gaps in our understanding that necessitate further work ("Gaps"); (c) the emerging instrumentation revolution and some of the challenges that it brings; (d) the structural issues of insufficient support for the analysis of field campaigns; and (e) some important areas that were missing from this Faraday Discussion and that should receive an increasing focus in the future.

  8. Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Correlates of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. Although aggressive acts can have numerous causes, research about the underlying neurobiology of violence and aggression in schizophrenia can lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior and can assist in developing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and discuss some of the neurobiological correlates of aggression and violence. The focus will be on schizophrenia, and the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies that have directly investigated brain functioning and/or structure in aggressive and violent samples will be discussed as well as other domains that might predispose to aggression and violence such as deficits in responding to the emotional expressions of others, impulsivity, and psychopathological symptoms. Finally gender differences regarding aggression and violence are discussed. In this context several methodological and conceptional issues that limited the comparison of these studies will be addressed.

  9. Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2017-12-21

    The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias.

  11. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honce, Justin Morris

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of gray matter atrophy. Gray matter demyelination (both focal and diffuse) and gray matter atrophy are found in the very earliest stages of multiple sclerosis and are progressive over time. Accumulation of gray matter damage has substantial impact on the lives of multiple sclerosis patients; a growing body of the literature demonstrates correlations between gray matter pathology and various measures of both clinical disability and cognitive impairment. The effect of disease modifying therapies on the rate accumulation of gray matter pathology in MS has been investigated. This review focuses on the neuroimaging of gray matter pathology in MS, the effect of the accumulation of gray matter pathology on clinical and cognitive disability, and the effect of disease-modifying agents on various measures of gray matter damage. PMID:23878736

  12. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  13. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Barnes, Josephine; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Brewer, James; Clegg, Shona; Dale, Anders M; Carmichael, Owen; Ching, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Desikan, Rahul S; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fjell, Anders M; Fletcher, Evan; Fox, Nick C; Gunter, Jeff; Gutman, Boris A; Holland, Dominic; Hua, Xue; Insel, Philip; Kantarci, Kejal; Killiany, Ron J; Krueger, Gunnar; Leung, Kelvin K; Mackin, Scott; Maillard, Pauline; Malone, Ian B; Mattsson, Niklas; McEvoy, Linda; Modat, Marc; Mueller, Susanne; Nosheny, Rachel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schuff, Norbert; Senjem, Matthew L; Simonson, Alix; Thompson, Paul M; Rettmann, Dan; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Walhovd, Kristine; Zhao, Yansong; Zuk, Samantha; Weiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is now in its 10th year. The primary objective of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) core of ADNI has been to improve methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. We review the contributions of the MRI core from present and past cycles of ADNI (ADNI-1, -Grand Opportunity and -2). We also review plans for the future-ADNI-3. Contributions of the MRI core include creating standardized acquisition protocols and quality control methods; examining the effect of technical features of image acquisition and analysis on outcome metrics; deriving sample size estimates for future trials based on those outcomes; and piloting the potential utility of MR perfusion, diffusion, and functional connectivity measures in multicenter clinical trials. Over the past decade the MRI core of ADNI has fulfilled its mandate of improving methods for clinical trials in AD and will continue to do so in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  16. Cerebral Microbleeds: A Review of Clinical, Genetic and Neuroimaging Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Yates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using 11C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography (PET.The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage – particularly in the setting of anticoagulation – and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future.

  17. Cognitive and neuroimaging predictors of instrumental activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Julian, Laura; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Reed, Bruce R.; Mungas, Dan; Wetzel, Margaret; Chui, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Impaired ability to conduct daily activities is a diagnostic criterion for dementia and a determinant of healthcare services utilization and caregiver burden. What predicts decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is not well understood. This study examined measures of episodic memory, executive function, and MRI brain volumes in relation to baseline IADLs and as predictors of rate of IADL change. Participants were 124 elderly persons with cognitive function between normal and moderate dementia both with and without significant small vessel cerebrovascular disease. Random effects modeling showed that baseline memory and executive function (EXEC) were associated with baseline IADL scores, but only EXEC was independently associated with rate of change in IADLs. Whereas hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes were significantly associated with baseline IADL scores, only hippocampal volume was associated with IADL change. In a model including cognitive and neuroimaging predictors, only EXEC independently predicted rate of decline in IADL scores. These findings indicate that greater executive dysfunction at initial assessment is associated with more rapid decline in IADLs. Perhaps executive function is particularly important with respect to maintaining IADLs. Alternatively, executive dysfunction may be a sentinel event indicating widespread cortical involvement and poor prognosis. PMID:17521485

  18. A Review of Neuroimaging Findings in Repetitive Brain Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K.; Lin, Alexander P.; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J.; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D.; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at post-mortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically-confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma versus those who go on to develop CTE. PMID:25904047

  19. Neuroimaging predictors of AED resistance in new-onset epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The best prognostic factors in early-onset epilepsies are the response to the first antiepileptic drug (AED) trial, age at seizure onset, number of seizures prior to treatment, and the presence of a lesion or abnormal neurologic examination. However, early and adequate response to AED is most likely an epiphenomenon reflecting the nature of underlying epileptogenicity, which may be defined as a complex interaction of underlying pathology, genetics, and environment. Patients with the same type of epileptogenic lesion, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, may have a varying response to AED. Modern neuroimaging, in particular quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be helpful to better understand this complex interaction of factors leading to refractoriness. Patients who respond well to AEDs have no or minor MRI abnormalities, and among those with underlying lesions there is an inverse correlation between outcome and the extent of MRI-defined neuronal damage outside the main lesion, which may be undetectable by visual analyses of routine MRI. The extent of neuronal damage appears to be related to the severity of initial precipitating injuries, probably interacts with genetic factors, and may progress over time when seizures are uncontrolled. The presence and extent of abnormalities detected by quantitative MRI may also be helpful to guide AED withdrawal in those patients who are seizure free for >2 years. Combined MRI measures may have potential clinical value for predicting AED response in near future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Neurobiological narratives: Experiences of mood disorder through the lens of neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists, healthcare providers, policymakers and patients are awaiting in anticipation the application of biomedical technologies such as functional neuroimaging for the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. The potential efficacy of such applications is controversial, a...

  1. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding their under...

  2. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD...

  3. Responsible Reporting : Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into

  4. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  5. Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian K C; Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, a range of different neuroimaging tools have been used to study human auditory attention, spanning from classic event-related potential studies using electroencephalography to modern multimodal imaging approaches (e.g., combining anatomical information based on magnetic resonance imaging with magneto- and electroencephalography). This review begins by exploring the different strengths and limitations inherent to different neuroimaging methods, and then outlines some common behavioral paradigms that have been adopted to study auditory attention. We argue that in order to design a neuroimaging experiment that produces interpretable, unambiguous results, the experimenter must not only have a deep appreciation of the imaging technique employed, but also a sophisticated understanding of perception and behavior. Only with the proper caveats in mind can one begin to infer how the cortex supports a human in solving the "cocktail party" problem. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology in cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Lars; Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the path......Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding...... treatments Trigeminofacial reflexes, the nociceptive flexion reflex, and evoked potentials have been used in TACs to explore the functional state of brainstem and spinal structures involved in pain processing, contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these primary headaches....

  7. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Maas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

  8. Practical remarks on the heart rate and saturation measurement methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, M.; Kubal, S.; Piotrowski, P.; Staniec, K.

    2017-05-01

    A surface reflection-based method for measuring heart rate and saturation has been introduced as one having a significant advantage over legacy methods in that it lends itself for use in special applications such as those where a person’s mobility is of prime importance (e.g. during a miner’s work) and excluding the use of traditional clips. Then, a complete ATmega1281-based microcontroller platform has been described for performing computational tasks of signal processing and wireless transmission. In the next section remarks have been provided regarding the basic signal processing rules beginning with raw voltage samples of converted optical signals, their acquisition, storage and smoothing. This chapter ends with practical remarks demonstrating an exponential dependence between the minimum measurable heart rate and the readout resolution at different sampling frequencies for different cases of averaging depth (in bits). The following section is devoted strictly to the heart rate and hemoglobin oxygenation (saturation) measurement with the use of the presented platform, referenced to measurements obtained with a stationary certified pulsoxymeter.

  9. Alcohol Intoxicated Witnesses: Perception of Aggression and Guilt in Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand Karlén, Malin; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Fahlke, Claudia; Granhag, Pär Anders; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-09-03

    Many witnesses to violent crimes are alcohol intoxicated, but research is lacking regarding how alcohol affects their perception of aggression and guilt. This study investigated to what extent alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses differed from sober witnesses regarding how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts in an intimate partner violence (IPV) situation. Eighty-seven healthy men (n = 44) and women (n = 43) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.7 g/kg) or a non-alcohol group. In a laboratory setting, alcoholic/non-alcoholic drinks were consumed before viewing a film depicting IPV between a man and a woman. Ten min after viewing, in an interview, the participants rated how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts to be. Alcohol intoxicated participants perceived both parts' physically aggressive behavior as comparatively less severe, but their neutral behavior as more hostile. Sober witnesses perceived the man to be the most guilty part, whereas intoxicated witnesses distributed guilt more evenly. Alcohol had a strong but complex impact on the perception of aggression in IPV (i.e., heightened during the neutral interaction and lowered during physical aggression). These results may be explained by the cognitive consequences of alcohol's anxiety-dampening effects. Regarding the asymmetric difference in perceived guilt, stereotypical expectations of gender-appropriate behavior in an IPV situation may need to be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. On Standby? A Comparison of Online and Offline Witnesses to Bullying and Their Bystander Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Roslynn; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Given their ubiquitous presence as witnesses to school-yard bullying, the role of the "bystander" has been studied extensively. The prevalence and behaviour of bystanders to "cyberbullying," however, is less understood. In an anonymous, school-based questionnaire, 716 secondary school students from South-East Queensland…

  11. Transfusion-free treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses: respecting the autonomous patient's motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyon, D

    1998-01-01

    What makes Jehovah's Witnesses tick? What motivates practitioners of medicine? How is benevolent human behaviour to be interpreted? The explanation that fear of censure, mind-control techniques or enlightened self-interest are the real motivators of human conduct is questioned. Those who believe that man was created in "God's image", hold that humanity has the potential to rise above selfishly driven attitudes and actions, and reflect the qualities of love, kindness and justice that separate us from the beasts. A comparison of general medical ethics and disciplines, and those of the Jehovah's Witness community, is made in this context. The easy charge that frequent deaths result from refusal of blood transfusions is examined. The central source of antipathy towards Jehovah's Witnesses, namely the alleged imposition of extreme and even harmful refusal of blood therapy on our children is addressed. Of course, "...few dilemmas are likely to be resolved wisely or satisfactorily by a blinkered adherence to abstract principles alone. Solutions to most cases will be dictated by a combination of factors. The support of medical ethics by Jehovah's Witnesses, and their willingness to share in reasoned and ethical debate, while at the same time holding firm to their religious and conscientious principles are emphasised. PMID:9873976

  12. Gospel in the air : 50 years of christian witness through radio in the Arab world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strengholt, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gospel in the Air is the first study of Christian Arab radio since Protestants began broadcasting Christian programs to the Arab World in the 1950s. It describes 50 years of history of this particular form of ecumenical and evangelical Christian witness in the Arab World. This study is the result of

  13. Nahuatl among Jehovah's Witnesses of Hueyapan, Morelos: A case of Spontaneous revitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    . Here the Nahuatl language has experienced a revival within the last five years, to a degree where congregational meetings are now held mostly in Nahuatl, and where young Witnesses are probably the only group of youths in Hueyapan to communicate daily in Nahuatl. It is argued that this situation arose...

  14. 12 CFR 19.184 - Service of subpoena and payment of witness expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of subpoena and payment of witness expenses. 19.184 Section 19.184 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Investigations § 19.184 Service of subpoena and payment of...

  15. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  16. From Reader to Mediated Witness: The Engaging Effects of Journalistic Crime Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, K; Hoeken, J.A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111050359; Sanders, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the claim that news narratives about shocking criminal acts enable readers to become mediated witnesses, which implies that readers identify with actual eyewitnesses to a crime and vicariously experience the crime from up close. In an experiment (n = 128), participants read an

  17. The 'School of de Wit' crop growth simulation models: a pedigree and historical overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, B.A.M.; Keulen, van H.; Laar, van H.H.; Rabbinge, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a pedigree of the crop growth simulation models by the ‘School of de Wit’ is presented. The origins and philosophy of this school are traced from de Wit's classical publication on modelling photosynthesis of leaf canopies in 1965. It is shown how changing research goals and priorities

  18. Witnessing and re-enacting in Cambodia: reflection on shifting testimonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.F. Benzaquen-Gautier (Stéphanie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThirty years after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-1979) how do Cambodians cope with the traumatic legacy of Pol Pot's reign of terror? What forms does witnessing take on in post-socialist and transitional Cambodia as senior Khmer Rouge leaders await prosecution at the

  19. Speaking to the yet unknowing world: Hamlet, Horatio and the problem of imperfect witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine

    2010-12-01

    Every day doctors bear witness to others about the experiences, needs and feelings of their patients, drawing on what they have learnt from clinical consultations. This paper considers the medical task of bearing honourable and truthful witness through an examination of the role and actions of Horatio in Hamlet. Horatio is simultaneously located among the background machinery of the play, separate from the lives of the protagonists, and in the foreground, where his authoritative witness is repeatedly called upon by the play's characters. Horatio is invited to watch an unfolding disaster, his warnings are not heard, and at its conclusion he stands apart from the drama to give its account. The tensions between engagement and observation, and between partial and impartial accounting echo those faced by doctors in everyday clinical practice. The act of bearing witness, Shakespeare suggests, even for those who are tasked with being objective, is necessarily imperfect, and not dispassionate. Those people, including doctors, who are expected to construct authoritative accounts of the motives and actions of others may find in Hamlet a small lesson on the need to approach their summary narratives about others more humbly, aware of the narrowness and partiality of their perspective.

  20. Associations among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from ages 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in…

  1. Populism, School Prayer, and the Courts: Confessions of an Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes author's expert witness testimony in West Virginia court case (1985) involving prayer in public schools. Covers the constitutional issue of separation of church and state, the specific issue of school prayer, the particular law under legal challenge, and the perceptions of a Catholic boy and a Jewish girl directly affected. (NH)

  2. [Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; de Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine (FCM), opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The FCM resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra de; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine, opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The Federal Council of Medicine resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  5. A field evaluation of the Eye-Closure Interview with witnesses of serious crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.; Tredoux, C.G.; Nortje, A.; Kempen, K.; Puljevic, C.; Labuschagne, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory research shows that eye-closure during memory retrieval improves both the amount and the factual accuracy of memory reports about witnessed events. Based on these findings, we developed the Eye-Closure Interview, and examined its feasibility (in terms of compliance with the instructions)

  6. 10 CFR 1003.8 - Subpoenas, special report orders, oaths, witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... best of his knowledge, information, and belief each document responsive to the subpoena is being... of a claim of attorney-client or other privilege, the person submitting the certification required by... follows: (1) Upon the initiative of the attorney or witness, the attorney may advise his client, in...

  7. 10 CFR 205.8 - Subpoenas, special report orders, oaths, witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the subpoena, and (ii) to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief each document responsive... because of a claim of attorney-client or other privilege, the person submitting the certification required... advise his client, in confidence, with respect to the question asked his client, and if the witness...

  8. Proofing the ban on ‘witness proofing': did the ICC get it right?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for disaccord between the ICC and the more seasoned international criminal tribunals on the issue of allowing substantive preparation of witnesses for testifying in court. The rationales behind the opposing decisions and the ensuing debate on the legitimacy and

  9. 24 CFR 3800.50 - Rights of witnesses in investigational proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800... investigational proceeding shall be entitled, on payment of costs, to purchase a copy of a transcript of the..., equivocation, or incompleteness in the witness's testimony. The decision to grant or deny this request is...

  10. Re-Presenting Trauma: The Witness Function in the Art of the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Josee

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 30,000 drawings remain of the concentration camp artworks generated over the course of the Holocaust. Fabricated in a reality conceived to eradicate not just life but the very will to live, concentration camp art raises the question of the persistence of creativity in traumatic situations. This article explores the witness function of…

  11. Children's Physiological and Emotional Reactions to Witnessing Bullying Predict Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhight, Lydia R.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Hyde, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Study goals were to explore whether children clustered into groups based on reactions to witnessing bullying and to examine whether these reactions predicted bullying intervention. Seventy-nine children ("M" = 10.80 years) watched bullying videos in the laboratory while their heart rate (HR) was measured, and they self-reported on…

  12. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources

    OpenAIRE

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K.; Steffener, J.; Turner, J. A.; van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G. A.; Nichols, B.N.; Ghosh, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Res...

  13. Yield of emergent neuroimaging in children with new-onset seizure and status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Johnson, Kara B; Michelson, Kenneth A; Nigrovic, Lise E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kimia, Amir A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the yield of emergent neuroimaging among children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus. We performed a cross-sectional study of children seen at a single ED between 1995 and 2012 with new-onset seizure presenting with status epilepticus. We defined status epilepticus as a single seizure or multiple seizures without regaining consciousness lasting 30 min or longer. Our primary outcome was urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. We categorized neuroimaging results as emergent if they would have changed acute management as assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist and neurologist. To ensure abnormalities were not missed, we review neuroimaging results for 30 days following the initial episode of SE. We included 177 children presenting with new-onset seizure with status epilepticus, of whom 170 (96%) had neuroimaging performed. Abnormal findings were identified on neuroimaging in 64/177 (36%, 95% confidence interval 29-43%) children with 15 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 5.2-14%) children having urgent or emergent pathology. Four (27%) of the 15 children with urgent or emergent findings had a normal non-contrast computed tomography scan and a subsequently abnormal magnetic resonance image. Longer seizure duration and older age were associated with urgent or emergent intracranial pathology. A substantial minority of children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus have urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. Clinicians should strongly consider emergent neuroimaging in these children. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality when available and safe. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Federating distributed and heterogeneous information sources in neuroimaging: the NeuroBase Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...

  15. Visual Systems for Interactive Exploration and Mining of Large-Scale Neuroimaging Data Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eBowman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the population of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the Informatics Visualization for Neuroimaging (INVIZIAN program for the graphical rendering of and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, describe its development, and demonstrate its use to examine a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical MRI image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies and drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining.

  16. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  17. Critical remarks on Bruno Thuring's polemic against Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, F.; Lackner, K.; Posch, T.

    2005-08-01

    Bruno Thüring (1905-1989) was among those scientists who joined the campaign against Einstein's Theories of Relativity which was undertaken in the name of so-called "German Physics". Thüring served as director of Vienna's University Observatory between 1940-45; hence, we present biographical information on his scientific and administrative activities in Vienna, partly based on interviews with time-witnesses. It is one of Thüring's basic convictions that Einstein's work cannot be understood without an analysis of the developments of physics and philosophy in the 19th century. While this is true generally, Thüring's account of these developments is rather superficial. For example, Thüring considers Kant's idea of the a priori status of geometry as a wholly sufficient epistemological foundation of mechanics, while both post-Kantian idealism and positivism were a mere backdrop to the development of knowledge - a view which can hardly stand critical examination. Concerning the impact of Einstein's theories on physics, Thüring argues that the principles of special and general relativity be nothing else but arbitrary decisions (as opposed to real insights). Hence these principles would never be verified or falsified by any experiment. The Michelson-Moreley experiment, e.g., would not prove the principles of special relativity. Thüring considers Einstein's interpretation of this experiment as premature and as an arbitrary judgement on a very particular and subaltern phenomenon which would not justify the conclusion that the velocity of the Earth with respect to the luminiferous aether be immeasurable by just any experimental technique.

  18. An Analysis of Malpractice Litigation and Expert Witnesses in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Expert witness testimony is crucial for juror decision making. The goals of this study were to examine the trends in malpractice litigation in plastic surgery and to examine the characteristics of expert witnesses in litigation. Methods: The Westlaw legal database was queried for jury verdict and settlement reports related to plastic surgery cases from 2009 to 2015. Cases were examined for expert witness testimony, procedure performed, alleged injury, cause of action, verdict, and indemnity payments. Results: Ninety-three relevant cases were examined. Mean plaintiff award was $1,036,469, whereas mean settlement was $633,960. The most commonly litigated procedures involved breast surgery (34.4%), liposuction (18.3%), and body contouring (14.0%). Cases involving body contouring (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.10) were more likely to result in favor of the defendant, whereas cases involving breast surgery (RR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.57) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). Cases in which there was claimed pain (RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48) or emotional distress (RR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). The party of a lawsuit was more likely to win the case if its expert witness was a plastic surgeon (P < .05). Conclusion: Plastic surgery litigation tends to favor defendants. Most litigation involves breast surgery, liposuction, and body contouring. The type of procedure and alleged claim affect case success. Parties with a plastic surgeon as an expert witness tend to be more successful in litigation.

  19. Single-subject anxiety treatment outcome prediction using functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tali M; Stein, Murray B; Ramsawh, Holly J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Paulus, Martin P

    2014-04-01

    The possibility of individualized treatment prediction has profound implications for the development of personalized interventions for patients with anxiety disorders. Here we utilize random forest classification and pre-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) to generate individual subject treatment outcome predictions. Before cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 48 adults (25 GAD and 23 PD) reduced (via cognitive reappraisal) or maintained their emotional responses to negative images during fMRI scanning. CBT responder status was predicted using activations from 70 anatomically defined regions. The final random forest model included 10 predictors contributing most to classification accuracy. A similar analysis was conducted using the clinical and demographic variables. Activations in the hippocampus during maintenance and anterior insula, superior temporal, supramarginal, and superior frontal gyri during reappraisal were among the best predictors, with greater activation in responders than non-responders. The final fMRI-based model yielded 79% accuracy, with good sensitivity (0.86), specificity (0.68), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (2.73, 0.20). Clinical and demographic variables yielded poorer accuracy (69%), sensitivity (0.79), specificity (0.53), and likelihood ratios (1.67, 0.39). This is the first use of random forest models to predict treatment outcome from pre-treatment neuroimaging data in psychiatry. Together, random forest models and fMRI can provide single-subject predictions with good test characteristics. Moreover, activation patterns are consistent with the notion that greater activation in cortico-limbic circuitry predicts better CBT response in GAD and PD.

  20. DeID - a data sharing tool for neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  1. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  2. Variability in clinical assessment of neuroimaging in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Westover, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    Neuroimaging is critical in deciding candidacy for epilepsy surgery. Currently imaging is primarily assessed qualitatively, which may affect patient selection and outcomes. The epilepsy surgery database at MGH was reviewed for temporal lobectomy patients from the last 10 years. Radiology reports for MRI and FDG-PET were compared to the epilepsy conference consensus. First, specific findings of ipsi/contra hippocampal atrophy and T2 signal changes were directly compared. Next the overall impression of presence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) for MRI and temporal hypometabolism for PET was used for sensitivity/specificity analysis. To assess predictive power of imaging findings logistic regression was used. 104 subjects were identified. 70% of subjects were ILAE class I at 1-year. Radiology reports and the conference consensus differed in 31% of FDG-PET studies and 41% of MRIs. For PET most disagreement (50%) stemmed for discrepancy regarding contralateral temporal hypometabolism. For MRI discrepancy in ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy/T2 signal accounted for 59% of disagreements. When overall impression of the image was used the overall reliability between groups was high with only MRI sensitivity to detect HS (0.75 radiology, 0.91 conference, p=0.02) was significantly different between groups. On logistic regression MRI was a significant predictor of HS, but still 36% of patients with normal MRI as read by both groups had HS on pathology. Despite some difference in specific radiologic findings, overall accuracy for MRI and PET is similar in clinical practice between radiology and conference; nonetheless there are still cases of hippocampal pathology not detected by standard imaging methods. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care. ©RSNA, 2013.

  4. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  5. 16 CFR 1025.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 1025.39 Section 1025.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Process § 1025.39 Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity... witness or deponent to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from prosecution...

  6. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854, Extension Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien...

  7. 78 FR 24429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency...: State, local or Tribal Government. Form I-854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien...

  8. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  9. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms. PMID:25429995

  10. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Allard, Lawrence F; Stocks, G M; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  11. The Social Interplay of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity. Some Introductory Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Hedtke

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Science Education as a subject field in schools is an intrinsic pluridisciplinary feature, whatever disciplines are included, however it may be organised and wherever it may be institutionalised. Civic education, economic education, social education and historical education each comprise several academic disciplines even if they are thought to be completely independent subjects. From the start on, disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity are on the agenda for any subject related to social science education and are one of its main problems. For these introductory remarks interdisciplinarity can be simply defined as relating two or more academic disciplines or school subjects to each other if this is done in a purposeful, systematic, explicit and reflective way. The overarching goal is to improve education that is to enhance students' understandings of the worlds and their abilities to act within and towards them. A relationship between disciplines or subjects which misses one or more of the four characteristics can be called pluridisciplinary or multidisciplinary (cf. Audigier 2006. In the following I first want to discuss some aspects of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity at schools and at universities and the weakness of interdisciplinarity. I sketch some social science based ideas on the interrelationship between the subject structure of the academic world and the world of schools (3. and of some tendency to commonalities or even unification of social sciences and related competencies (4.. I conclude with some remarks on different kinds of knowledge (5.. Last but not least, I'll give an overview on the papers in this issue of the Journal of Social Science Education (6..

  12. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    acrimony between physicians and attorneys is commonplace. An editorial in JAMA as far back as 1892 addressed ... creating a hypothetic opening statement from an attorney to a jury: "Gentlemen of the jury, there are three .... illness, for example, will have a causation defence if it can be demonstrated that, on the balance of ...

  13. Ear witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, L; van der Lugt, C

    2000-07-01

    A description is given of some aspects of the normal human auricle. The physiognomy of the auricle is different for every individual which leads to the possibility of identifying people based on their auricles. Indeed this has even led to the reading of earprints similar to fingerprints, a fact not generally known amongst ENT-specialists. This highly specialized knowledge has been developed within a special branch of forensic medicine and criminology, called 'earology' or 'otomorphology'. Two illustrative case histories are presented.

  14. Forgotten Witnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Porto, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    the lines of art history and philology has turned them into fragmentary realities devoid of any coherent meaning, further isolating these works from the complex visual culture they belonged to. Besides, both art historians and philologists alike seem to have been more concerned with a search for origins...... historia sagrada?...

  15. Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie; Weinrich, W. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

    1998-12-31

    This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding

  16. Toward a neuroimaging treatment selection biomarker for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Callie L; Kelley, Mary E; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Dunlop, Boadie W; Craighead, W Edward; Franco, Alexandre R; Craddock, R Cameron; Mayberg, Helen S

    2013-08-01

    Currently, fewer than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder achieve remission with initial treatment. Identification of a biological marker that might improve these odds could have significant health and economic impact. To identify a candidate neuroimaging "treatment-specific biomarker" that predicts differential outcome to either medication or psychotherapy. Brain glucose metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography prior to treatment randomization to either escitalopram oxalate or cognitive behavior therapy for 12 weeks. Patients who did not remit on completion of their phase 1 treatment were offered enrollment in phase 2 comprising an additional 12 weeks of treatment with combination escitalopram and cognitive behavior therapy. Mood and anxiety disorders research program at an academic medical center. Men and women aged 18 to 60 years with currently untreated major depressive disorder. Randomized assignment to 12 weeks of treatment with either escitalopram oxalate (10-20 mg/d) or 16 sessions of manual-based cognitive behavior therapy. Remission, defined as a 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale score of 7 or less at both weeks 10 and 12, as assessed by raters blinded to treatment. Positive and negative predictors of remission were identified with a 2-way analysis of variance treatment (escitalopram or cognitive behavior therapy) × outcome (remission or nonresponse) interaction. Of 65 protocol completers, 38 patients with clear outcomes and usable positron emission tomography scans were included in the primary analysis: 12 remitters to cognitive behavior therapy, 11 remitters to escitalopram, 9 nonresponders to cognitive behavior therapy, and 6 nonresponders to escitalopram. Six limbic and cortical regions were identified, with the right anterior insula showing the most robust discriminant properties across groups (effect size = 1.43). Insula hypometabolism (relative to whole-brain mean) was associated with remission to

  17. Experiences of going to court: Witnesses with intellectual disabilities and their carers speak up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckene, Tessy; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Murphy, Glynis H

    2017-03-31

    People with intellectual disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse and are more disadvantaged in the criminal justice system than the general population. However, little is known about the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities who have allegedly been victims of sexual abuse and also been witnesses in court. This study used semi-structured interviews and a Grounded Theory approach to examine the experiences of four people with intellectual disabilities and four carers/supporters who had all attended trials. Findings showed that after the traumatic incident of abuse, a court experience could become a secondary source of trauma. Experience of this trauma was dependent on the quality and quantity of support people received and the understanding of intellectual disabilities amongst the legal participants. The findings argue for better training for legal participants who are in contact with vulnerable witnesses and better support structures for alleged victims. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Questioning History, Nationality and Identity in Timberlake Wertenbaker’s Credible Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursen Gömceli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the Anglo-American playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker’s approach to the issues of history, nationality and identity in her play Credible Witness (2001, and to discuss the significance of these concepts in our modern world through a close analysis of the play. In Credible Witness, the playwright brings together people from diverse countries, such as Sri Lanka, Algeria, Eritrea, Somalia and Macedonia in a detention centre in London, and via the stories of these asylum seekers, and particularly through the dramatic encounter between Petra, a Macedonian woman with strong nationalistic pride, and her son Alexander, a history teacher forced to seek refuge in Britain for political reasons, Wertenbaker tries to demonstrate “what happens to people when they step outside, or are forced outside, their history, their identity” (Aston 2003, 13.

  19. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  20. Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-03-18

    Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.

  1. Witnesses of causal nonseparability: an introduction and a few case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciard, Cyril

    2016-05-18

    It was recently realised that quantum theory allows for so-called causally nonseparable processes, which are incompatible with any definite causal order. This was first suggested on a rather abstract level by the formalism of process matrices, an extension of the quantum formalism which only assumes that quantum theory holds locally in some observers' laboratories, but does not impose a global causal structure; it was then shown, on a more practical level, that the quantum switch-a new, already implementable resource for quantum computation that goes beyond causally ordered circuits-provided precisely a physical example of a causally nonseparable process. To demonstrate that a given process is causally nonseparable, the concept of witnesses of causal nonseparability was introduced. Here we present a shorter introduction to this concept, and concentrate on some explicit examples-by considering in particular different noise models for the quantum switch-to show how to construct and use such witnesses in practice.

  2. Prophetic witness and public discourse in European societies – a German perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of prophetic witness of the churches in the public discourse of modern civil societies is analysed on the basis of three public memorandums of the German Protestant churches on economic questions and their impact on the public. Among the ten systematic conclusions which are drawn from this case study is the importance of the specific context for the role of prophetic statements. The article tries to show how prophetic witness is a necessary element of a public theology, which is not based on fundamental criticism, but develops both critical and constructive perspectives for politics and society. If such public theology is liberation theology for a democratic society it is the task of the church to get involved in the public debate in a ‘bilingual’ way, that is, on the basis of its biblical-theological sources but at the same time with the ability to engage in the secular language of pluralistic societies.

  3. Alcohol-induced retrograde facilitation renders witnesses of crime less suggestible to misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Albery, IP; Gawrylowicz, J; Ridley, AM; Barnoth, E; Young, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). Method: Participants watch...

  4. Forensic accounting and the law: The forensic accountant in the capacity of an expert witness

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on what constitutes “an attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of audit evidence”, namely professional scepticism. This paper also focuses on factors and reasons contributory to the ever increasing use of (and the need for) forensic accountants – particularly in courts. It also addresses various standards which must be taken into consideration before testimonies provided by expert witnesses are considered to be admissible.

  5. Intravenous iron administration together with parenteral nutrition to very preterm Jehovah's Witness twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Schroeder, Allan Mikael; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Preterm twin sisters (monozygotic) were born at gestational age 27 weeks and 5 days with birth weights of 935 and 735 g. They were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for a period of 1 month. Their parents were Jehovah's Witnesses and refused blood transfusion for their preterm daughters....... Subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron were given as a prophylactic to avoid anaemia....

  6. Frequency of behavior witnessed and conformity in an everyday social context

    OpenAIRE

    Claidière, N.; Bowler, M.; Brookes, S.; Brown, R.; Whiten, A.

    2014-01-01

    Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options they witness. In a previous study we found that in a natural situation people displayed a tendency to be 'linear...

  7. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  8. Witnessing versus Experiencing Direct Violence in Childhood as Correlates of Adulthood PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Madhur; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Seng, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships among early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and PTSD. This study investigates whether two specific types of childhood violence exposure (witnessing domestic violence and experiencing child abuse) are uniquely associated with PTSD while controlling for ad...

  9. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crandall Keith A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Thecostraca are arguably the most morphologically and biologically variable group within the Crustacea, including both suspension feeders (Cirripedia: Thoracica and Acrothoracica and parasitic forms (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala, Ascothoracida and Facetotecta. Similarities between the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305, 28S rRNA (2,402, Histone H3 (328] and 41 larval characters in seven facetotectans, five ascothoracidans, three acrothoracicans, 25 rhizocephalans and 39 thoracicans (ingroup and 12 Malacostraca and 10 Copepoda (outgroup. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed the Facetotecta, Ascothoracida and Cirripedia each as monophyletic. The better resolved and highly supported DNA maximum likelihood and morphological-DNA Bayesian analysis trees depicted the main phylogenetic relationships within the Thecostraca as (Facetotecta, (Ascothoracida, (Acrothoracica, (Rhizocephala, Thoracica. Conclusion Our analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from the Rhizocephala and strongly indicated for the Facetotecta had no common origin. Future analyses are needed to determine whether the most recent common ancestor of the Thecostraca was free-living or some primitive form of ectoparasite.

  10. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Background The Thecostraca are arguably the most morphologically and biologically variable group within the Crustacea, including both suspension feeders (Cirripedia: Thoracica and Acrothoracica) and parasitic forms (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala, Ascothoracida and Facetotecta). Similarities between the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305), 28S rRNA (2,402), Histone H3 (328)] and 41 larval characters in seven facetotectans, five ascothoracidans, three acrothoracicans, 25 rhizocephalans and 39 thoracicans (ingroup) and 12 Malacostraca and 10 Copepoda (outgroup). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed the Facetotecta, Ascothoracida and Cirripedia each as monophyletic. The better resolved and highly supported DNA maximum likelihood and morphological-DNA Bayesian analysis trees depicted the main phylogenetic relationships within the Thecostraca as (Facetotecta, (Ascothoracida, (Acrothoracica, (Rhizocephala, Thoracica)))). Conclusion Our analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from the Rhizocephala and strongly indicated for the Facetotecta had no common origin. Future analyses are needed to determine whether the most recent common ancestor of the Thecostraca was free-living or some primitive form of ectoparasite. PMID:19374762

  11. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in estimates of selection that were more variable than the true values. We reanalyze their dataset using techniques that account for the necessary effect of sampling error to inflate apparent levels of variation and show that directional selection is remarkably constant over time, both in magnitude and direction. Thus we cannot claim that the available data support the existence of substantial temporal heterogeneity in selection. Nonetheless, we conject that temporal variation in selection could be important, but that there are good reasons why it may not appear in the available data. These new analyses highlight the importance of applying techniques that estimate parameters of the distribution of selection, rather than parameters of the distribution of estimated selection (which will reflect both sampling error and "real" variation in selection); indeed, despite availability of methods for the former, focus on the latter has been common in synthetic reviews of the aspects of selection in nature, and can lead to serious misinterpretations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander; Post, Todd; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects: the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder Solar-Powered Airplane (NASA), and the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (U.S.Air Force). Each project is presented as a case study comprised of stories collected from key members of the project teams. The stories found in the book are included with the purpose of providing an effective learning source for project management, encouraging the unlearning of outdated project management concepts, and enhancing awareness of the contexts surrounding different projects. Significantly different from project concepts found in most project management literature, Shared Voyage highlights concepts like a will to win, a results-oriented focus, and collaboration through trust. All four project teams researched in this study applied similar concepts; however, they applied them differently, tailoring them to fit the context of their own particular projects. It is clear that the one best way approach which is still the prevailing paradigm in project management literature should be replaced by a new paradigm: Even though general project management principles exist, their successful application depends on the specifics of the situation.

  13. Aging, longevity, and diet: historical remarks on calorie intake reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between the elderly, longevity and caloric intake: (1) the question of a diet specifically tailored to old age as background to certain theories of aging; (2) the transfer of these dietetic concepts to younger patients in order to improve health and extend life, and (3) the promotion of dieting in order to avoid the consequences of plethora and to retard the aging process. A number of Latin texts from premodern medical and health literature will be examined and their contents will be analyzed for material relating to diet for the elderly and longevity in their historic contexts. We will clearly indicate fundamental parallels as well as differences between historic and modern scientific thought. We will thereby show that although a modern understanding of hormones and molecular genetics was obviously lacking, basic knowledge of the influence of nutrition on old age was prevalent. In contrast, the early modern lay concept of longevity through calorie reduction was based on coincidental observation. These premodern, but nonetheless rational ideas must be integrated into the socio-cultural setting and the question must be raised as to the link between contemporary research aims and social reality. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S.; Rioux, P.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Sherif, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Das, S.; Adalat, R.; Doyon, J.; Craddock, C.; Margulies, D.; Chu, C.; Lyttelton, O.; Evans, A. C.; Bellec, P.

    2012-02-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  15. Relationships between Cognitive Performance, Neuroimaging and Vascular Disease: The DHS-MIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Raffield, Laura M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Cox, Amanda; Xu, Jianzhao; Carr, J Jeffery; Freedman, Barry I; Maldjian, Joseph A; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance. Associations were examined using marginal models in this family-based cohort of 572 European Americans from 263 families. All models were adjusted for age, gender, education, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, with some neuroimaging measures additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Higher total brain volume was associated with better performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 7.0 × 10(-4)). Higher gray matter volume was associated with better performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 9.0 × 10(-4)). Adjusting for CAC caused minimal changes to the results. Relationships exist between neuroimaging measures and cognitive performance in a type 2 diabetes-enriched European American cohort. Associations were minimally attenuated after adjusting for subclinical CVD. Additional work is needed to understand how subclinical CVD burden interacts with other factors and impacts relationships between neuroimaging and cognitive testing measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi

    2011-01-25

    A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  17. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. Results The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. Conclusions With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  18. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  19. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwanseop; Bae, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 669 journals that were considered as potential outlets for neuroimaging articles. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the 100 most-cited articles relevant to neuroimaging within the selected journals. The following information was recorded for each article: publication year, journal, category and impact factor of journal, number of citations, number of annual citations, authorship, department, institution, country, article type, imaging technique used, and topic. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging were published between 1980 and 2012, with 1995-2004 producing 69 articles. Citations ranged from 4384 to 673 and annual citations ranged from 313.1 to 24.9. The majority of articles were published in radiology/imaging journals (n=75), originated in the United States (n=58), were original articles (n=63), used MRI as imaging modality (n=85), and dealt with imaging technique (n=45). The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at John Radcliffe Hospital (n=10) was the leading institutions and Karl J. Friston (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and an analysis of the 100 most-cited articles in the field of neuroimaging, which provides an insight into historical developments and allows for recognition of the important advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Altruistic Lying in an Alibi Corroboration Context: The Effects of Liking, Compliance, and Relationship between Suspects and Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Stéphanie B; Burke, Tara M

    2017-01-01

    Police investigators, judges, and jurors are often very skeptical of alibi witness testimony. To investigate when and why individuals lie for one another, we conducted two studies in which witnesses' support of a false alibi was observed. We varied the level of social pressure exerted on witnesses and the level of affinity between suspect-witness pairs. During a study session purportedly intended to investigate dyadic problem-solving ability, a mock theft was staged. When questioned, participants were provided the opportunity to either corroborate or refute a confederate's false alibi that the latter was with them when the theft occurred. Participants were more likely to lie for the confederate when the latter explicitly asked participants to conceal his/her whereabouts during the time of the theft (Study 1). How much participants liked the suspect did not impact lying; however, participants lied for a confederate more often when the latter was a friend rather than a stranger (Study 2). Results show that alibi witnesses often lie and that investigators and jurors may not accurately estimate the likelihood that such witnesses will lie for one another. Witnesses who lied also reported doing so more often because they believed that the suspect was innocent rather than guilty. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Witnessing arbitrary bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Ghosh, Sibasish

    2017-11-01

    Experimental detection of entanglement of an arbitrary state of a given bipartite system is crucial for exploring many areas of quantum information processing. But such a detection should be made in a device-independent way if the preparation process of the state is considered to be faithful, in order to avoid detection of a separable state as an entangled one. The recently developed scheme of detecting bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.060405] does require information about the state. Here, by using Auguisiak et al.'s universal entanglement witness scheme for two-qubit states [Phys. Rev. A 77, 030301 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.030301], we provide a universal entanglement detection scheme for two-qubit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We also provide a set of universal witness operators for detecting NPT-ness (negative under partial transpose) of two-qudit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We conjecture that no such universal entanglement witness scheme exists for PPT (positive under partial transpose) entangled states. We also analyze the robustness of some of the experimental schemes—for detecting entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way—under the influence of noise in the inputs (from the referee) as well as in the measurement operator.

  2. Witnesses in action: the effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Lewinski, William; Dixon, Justin; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Understanding memory performance under different operational conditions is critical in many occupational settings. To examine the effect of physical exertion on memory for a witnessed event, we placed two groups of law-enforcement officers in a live, occupationally relevant scenario. One group had previously completed a high-intensity physical-assault exercise, and the other had not. Participants who completed the assault exercise showed impaired recall and recognition performance compared with the control group. Specifically, they provided significantly less accurate information concerning critical and incidental target individuals encountered during the scenario, recalled less briefing information, and provided fewer briefing updates than control participants did. Exertion was also associated with reduced accuracy in identifying the critical target from a lineup. These results support arousal-based competition accounts proposing differential allocation of resources under physiological arousal. These novel findings relating to eyewitness memory performance have important implications for victims, ordinary citizens who become witnesses, and witnesses in policing, military, and related operational contexts.

  3. Terminally ill patients and Jehovah's Witnesses: teaching acceptance of patients' refusals of vital treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, B S; Harding, T W

    2002-05-01

    To find out whether and how the teaching of medical ethics can influence attitudes on accepting treatment refusals. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 4 groups of students at the University of Geneva who had participated (P) or not (nP) in teaching modules on medical law and ethics. One vignette described a terminally ill patient refusing mechanical ventilation, another a Jehovah's Witness refusing a life-saving blood transfusion. 127 medical and 168 law students. 5-point Likert scale of responses to the vignettes reaching from certain acceptance to certain non-acceptance of the treatment refusal. More than 80% of law students (nP) said that a good physician should accept the terminally ill patient's refusal. 84% (P) compared to 68% (nP) of medical students (P=0.03) would accept this refusal. The acceptance of the Jehovah's Witness refusal of a life-saving transfusion was less among all students. Students from the groups (P) reported significantly more often (P accept (76% of medical students) or that a good physician should accept (63% of law students) the treatment refusal of the Jehovah's Witness than medical students (48%) and law students (27%) from the two other groups (nP). (P) students showed significantly more acceptance of treatment refusals in the hypothetical case scenarios than (nP) students from the same faculty. Religion, cultural origin and school education of the parents had less influence on attitudes than participation in ethical teaching and type of student (medicine vs. law).

  4. Opinions of legal professionals: Comparing child and adult witnesses' memory report capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Knutsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The opinions of legal professionals about child and adult witnesses might influence the likelihood that a case is allowed to proceed through the different stages of the legal process. With the aim of knowing the opinions of legal practitioners about child and adult witnesses, 84 legal professionals (Swedish police, prosecutors, and attorneys were surveyed about their beliefs about child and adult eyewitness memory (and metamemory abilities. The respondents answered 27 questions relating to nine forensically relevant belief areas in which they compared the memory ability of children (ages 7 to 11 years and adults. The results showed no differences in assessment among members of different professions and a general trend suggesting that, across the professions, children were believed to be poorer witnesses than adults regarding their memory abilities. Moreover, the professionals' within-group consensus was very low. These results are discussed in the context of eyewitness research findings and with respect to the implications for both legal and research practice.

  5. Relations Among Victimization, Witnessing, and Perpetration of Aggression: Impact of Gender Among Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John; Baker, Erin R.; Graupensperger, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The participants included 251 (158 males; 93 females) youth offenders who were arrested and incarcerated in a juvenile facility in the Midwest United States. The aims were to assess (a) how often they were a victim, a witness, and/or a perpetrator of social aggression, simple assault, and aggravated assault during the past year; (b) to examine whether exposure (either witness or victim or both) predicted committing three types of aggressive behaviors; and (c) to assess the impact of gender among the youth offenders. Differential predictability models were utilized to assess gender differences. The findings revealed that gender was an important predictor. For example, females reported higher rates of being a witness, a victim, and a perpetrator of social aggression than did males. Moreover, female offenders committed simple assault more often than males and males committed aggravated assault more often than females. The general results suggest that it is important to examine the various forms of aggression, and exposure, as well as how gender affects these relationships. PMID:27462063

  6. Ask versus tell: Potential confusion when child witnesses are questioned about conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Stacia N; McWilliams, Kelly; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Children's potential confusion between "ask" and "tell" can lead to misunderstandings when child witnesses are asked to report prior conversations. The verbs distinguish both between interrogating and informing, and between requesting and commanding. Children's understanding was examined using both field (Study 1) and laboratory methods (Studies 2-4). Study 1 examined 100 5- to 12-year-olds' trial testimony in child sexual abuse cases, and found that potentially ambiguous use of ask and tell was common, typically found in yes-no questions that elicited unelaborated answers, and virtually never clarified by attorneys or child witnesses. Studies 2 to 4 examined 345 maltreated 6- to 11-year-olds' understanding of ask and tell. The results suggest that children initially comprehend telling as saying, and thus believed that asking is a form of telling. As such, they often endorsed asking as telling when asked yes-no questions, but distinguished between asking and telling when explicitly asked to choose. Their performance was impaired by movement between different use of the words. Child witnesses' characterization of their conversations can easily be misconstrued by the way in which they are questioned, leading questioners to misinterpret whether they were coached by disclosure recipients or coerced by abuse suspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ready-to-wear sexual politics: The semiotics of visibility on Wits Pride T-shirts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso M. Milani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate T-shirts as semiotic tools of the politics of visibility, showing which role these sartorial artefacts may play in competing struggles for recognition in which gender and sexuality intersect with other axes of social categorisations. Drawing on a queer multimodal approach, the article offers an analysis of the four promotional T-shirts that were distributed each year between 2011 and 2014 by the Transformation and Employment Equity Office at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits, Johannesburg, in the context of the annual Pride parade on campus. Our main argument is that changes over time in the design of Wits Pride T-shirts represent a shift both in what is claimed to be the main goal of campus sexual politics and in the proposed means to achieve such a goal. If one were to imagine that each T-shirt is a corporeal embodiment of Wits Pride, then this body has changed considerably in four years: from a gay man who is (supposedly ashamed of voicing his sexual identity; into a camp though masculine figure that loudly urges to counter racial division within same-sex desire; into a more multifaceted individual who proudly carries their gender and sexual uniqueness; and finally, into an activist who, in tension with the complex intersections that underpin discrimination, is perhaps a little reluctant to foreground gender and sexuality at all.

  8. Transnational Criminal Proceedings, Witness Evidence and Confrontation: Lessons from the ECtHR’s Case Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bachmaier Winter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A single European area of freedom, security and justice requires new models of judicial cooperation in criminal matters to be put in place in order to efficiently combat transnational organized crime. However, this should not be done while disregarding the protection of the individual rights of the suspect and the accused: a transnational criminal procedure should not entail a lowering of the procedural safeguards identified by the European Court of Human Rights. The tension between the efficiency in the cooperation and the need to protect the fundamental rights of the defendant is particularly visible in matters of the transnational gathering of evidence, its transfer and its admissibility as evidence against the accused. This paper intends to identify general principles and rules that should be applied in European transnational criminal proceedings with regard to witness evidence. Departing from the ECHR’s case law, this paper will try to identify the principles regarding the hearing of witnesses who reside in another Member State, the admissibility of pre-trial statements as evidence and the need to foster the use of the live video link for witness questioning.

  9. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ryan Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1 disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2 liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the somatosensory cortex, reward processing (the striatum, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person’s pain.

  10. The riverbank, the seashore and the wilderness: Miriam, liberation and prophetic witness against empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner and method of resistance against patriarchal power and privilege. Two types of power are contrasted. One is the violent, war-like and hierarchical power of an empire, and the other is the faithful resistance of Israel’s prophets. A further distinction is made between violent male power and non-violent female power. It is argued that Miriam was a prophet of the people and her prophetic witness is an example of the power and outcome of non-violent resistance. Her theology explicitly and specifically praises God not as a warrior. Hers is not a muscular, masculine God whose power seeks to match the power of empire. Her God has a power that through radical love for a slave people and taking sides with the enslaved overcomes the power of the slaveholder. In her theology, Miriam recalls the God of the exodus, who begins the acts of liberation with the women, to whose faithfulness, courage and defiant obedience, the freedom of the people is entrusted. From a feminist perspective it is argued that this style of non-violent, faithful prophetic witness has a greater impact than violent resistance associated with an empire-like power. It is suggested that black liberation theology should adopt this paradigm in its witness of and resistance against oppression.

  11. A remarkable climate warming hiatus over Northeast China since 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiubao; Ren, Guoyu; Ren, Yuyu; Fang, Yihe; Liu, Yulian; Xue, Xiaoying; Zhang, Panfeng

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics and causes of global warming hiatus (GWH) phenomenon have received much attention in recent years. Monthly mean data of land surface air maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean temperature (Tmean) of 118 national stations since 1951 in Northeast China are used in this paper to analyze the changes of land surface air temperature in recent 64 years with an emphasis on the GWH period. The results show that (1) from 1951 to 2014, the warming trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are 0.20, 0.42, and 0.34 °C/decade respectively for the whole area, with the warming rate of Tmin about two times of Tmax, and the upward trend of Tmean obviously higher than mainland China and global averages; (2) in the period 1998-2014, the annual mean temperature consistently exhibits a cooling phenomenon in Northeast China, and the trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are -0.36, -0.14, and -0.28 °C/decade respectively; (3) in the GWH period, seasonal mean cooling mainly occurs in northern winter (DJF) and spring (MAM), but northern summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) still experience a warming, implying that the annual mean temperature decrease is controlled by the remarkable cooling of winter and spring; (4) compared to the global and mainland China averages, the hiatus phenomenon is more evident in Northeast China, and the cooling trends are more obvious in the cold season; (5) the Northeast China cooling trend occurs under the circulation background of the negative phase Arctic Oscillation (AO), and it is also closely related to strengthening of the Siberia High (SH) and the East Asian Trough (EAT), and the stronger East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the GWH period.

  12. The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzdok Danilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed.

  13. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  14. Neuroimaging chronic pain: what have we learned and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658

  15. B-SPID: an object-relational database architecture to store, retrieve, and manipulate neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Dolidon, F; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a hardware and software architecture to respond to crucial problems in the neuroimaging field: storage, retrieval, and processing of large datasets. The B-SPID project, here discussed, concerns the processing of neuroimages and attached components stored in an object-relational multimedia database management system (DBMS). Advanced bioinformation concepts are exploited in this project such as large scale data storage, high level graphical user interfaces and 3D graphical processing and display of data. Our database implementation is based on standard programming components, runs on several UNIX platforms and is written to be evolutive. Queries on this database are designed to obtain and display from neuroimaging data several types of results (pictures, text, or 3D graphical shapes) on heterogeneous systems.

  16. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  17. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  18. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  19. Bullying Experiment Based on the Doers' Perspective, Victim and Eye Witness on the Junior High School Student

    OpenAIRE

    Masruroh, Nurlailatul

    2016-01-01

    The Bullying Phenomena of 40 countries showed that Indonesia is ranked as the world's second highest state for bullying cases. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of Bullying Experience in Perspective Actors, Victims and Witnesses of The Junior Student "X" Batu City. The design and approach is Descriptive Qualitative and Case Study, it conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews to 11 participants consisting of students perpetrators, witnesses and victims of bullying. Data valid...

  20. Test Characteristics of Neck Fullness and Witnessed Neck Pulsations in the Diagnosis of Typical AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, Rahul; Smith, Lisa M; Tseng, Zian H; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Scheinman, Melvin M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Claims in the medical literature suggest that neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations are useful in the diagnosis of typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Hypothesis Neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations have a high positive predictive value in the diagnosis of typical AVNRT. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of consecutive patients with palpitations presenting to a single electrophysiology (EP) laboratory over a 1 year period. Each patient underwent a standard questionnaire regarding neck fullness and/or witnessed neck pulsations during their palpitations. The reference standard for diagnosis was determined by electrocardiogram and invasive EP studies. Results Comparing typical AVNRT to atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) patients, the proportions with neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations did not significantly differ: in the best case scenario (using the upper end of the 95% confidence interval [CI]), none of the positive or negative predictive values exceeded 79%. After restricting the population to those with supraventricular tachycardia other than AF or AFL (SVT), neck fullness again exhibited poor test characteristics; however, witnessed neck pulsations exhibited a specificity of 97% (95% CI 90–100%) and a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI 52–98%). After adjustment for potential confounders, SVT patients with witnessed neck pulsations had a 7 fold greater odds of having typical AVNRT, p=0.029. Conclusions Although neither neck fullness nor witnessed neck pulsations are useful in distinguishing typical AVNRT from AF or AFL, witnessed neck pulsations are specific for the presence of typical AVNRT among those with SVT. PMID:19479968