WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuroimaging witnessed remarkable

  1. Looking inside the brain the power of neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...

  2. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    formal rules of evidence apply) to help it understand the issues of a case and ... statements on medical expert witness by professional representative bodies in .... determining the size of the financial settlement that may have to be made to the.

  3. Symmetry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.

  4. Celebrity witnessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Frello, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with emotional address in the narrative modality of celebrity witnessing in the marketing of development aid. We analyse Danish celebrity narratives of global caring, drawing on Luc Boltanski’s work on a ‘politics of pity’, Lilie Chouliaraki’s notion of the ‘aspirational discou...

  5. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  6. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nani, Andrea; Blumenfeld, Hal; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  7. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. David R. Kyd briefly described the IAEA mission. Then he outlined main aim of the seminar which is bring together journalists, educators, officials and other specialists to let them hear and put questions to experts on various aspects of nuclear energy and techniques. Further he analyzed problems and prospects of energy development in Asia and particularly in China, including environmental considerations. The final part of the remarks was devoted comparative evaluation of different energy production technologies

  8. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, H.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides the speech presented by Hideki Nariai on May 2007 at the workshop on transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. It aims to propose concluding remarks concerning nuclear safety and the necessity to be transparent to the general public. (A.L.B.)

  9. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This section contains the concluding remarks of the workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment. Technical issues such as spatial variability of rock properties, rock mass strength, measurement of loads, evaluation of long-term seal performance, and integration of data into design were discussed. Programmatic issues such as development of a coherent and consistent design methodology and implementation of that methodology were also reiterated

  10. Welcome remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong

    1993-01-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. Zhao Hong stressed the importance of nuclear power for further economic development. He noticed that one of the main factors to obstruct the progress of nuclear energy is nuclear dread in public psychology and that enhancement of the public acceptance of nuclear power is an important task to promote the development of nuclear power. Than he described activities in China in public relation work in the field of nuclear energy. Importance of international cooperation on peaceful use of nuclear energy and supporting non-proliferation regime was stressed

  11. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwood, Richard

    1987-01-01

    General opening remarks to a conference on the effects of low-level radiation on man, exploring particularly areas where disagreements have most frequently been voiced. The author comments on two approaches: a) the study, stepwise of putative cause and effect chains, using models which are tested by comparing calculated and observed effects. b) the epidemiological approach by extensive correlative study of cause, correlations and effect. Attention is drawn to the confidence to be accorded to any quantitative theory supported by both approaches, and the need for further analysis if the approaches give different indications. (U.K.)

  12. Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1989-05-01

    The workshop has covered in a very interesting and complete way the basic physics issues to be addressed by the complementary facilities, in Canada and Japan, intended to explore the intensity-frontier of strong-interaction physics. Japan has its new KEK facilities and its future Japanese Hadron Project (JHP): Canada has its present TRIUMF laboratory and its future KAON Factory. Both JHP and KAON appear very near to final construction approval. The possibilities are very great for new joint programs between the two countries which can lead the world in the new strong interaction physics. These concluding remarks describe the general science basis and particularly the models for the internationalization of science needed to make these new collaborations thrive

  13. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    2007-01-01

    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  14. Closing Remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed

    1996-01-01

    -related conditions were developed. * The only three drugs to date that have been specifically approved for the treatment of AIDS-AZT, DDI, and DDC-were developed under the guidance of the DCT, with Bruce Chabner as Scientific Director. * The first clinical trials conducted with each of these agents-AZT, DDI, and DDC-were performed in the Intramural Program of the DCT. * Concurrently, many of the exciting findings reported by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project over the past 10 years (as well as other cooperative groups) were a direct result of the strong support shown by Bruce Chabner during his tenure as Director of the Division of Cancer Treatment. Further, the list above does not include his personal labortory and clinical accomplishments, some of which are: * Development of the principles of use of important antimetabolites, such as methotrexate. * Elucidation of biochemical pathways affected, and the mechanisms of action, of antifols and other antimetabolites. * The conduct of seminal studies in the clinical staging of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, using laparoscopy as a primary tool. * Important contributions to the development of multiagent regimens in the clinical treatment of lymphomas, and of Hodgkin's disease. * Developed and is editor of the textbook which is considered to be the primary reference source for anticancer chemotherapeutic agents [1]. With all of these accomplishments, his career is long from over. Having just become the Medical Director of the Cancer Center at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Bruce Chabner is uniquely poised to have an even more far-reaching impact on a discipline in which he has played such a strong seminal role. This author was never a postdoctoral fellow in Bruce Chabner's laboratory. However, more than any other single person, he has played a central role in my professional development. I know of many others for whom the same statement would be true. It is a pleasure for me to witness the launching of the second phase

  15. PROTECTION OF THREATENED WITNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Claudia CANTEMIR-STOICA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First, I wish to make a presentation of historically institution and subsequently parallels between past and current regulators to expose whether the legislature has reached desire - namely ensuring effective protection of witnesses threatened and vulnerable. Also, I decided to analyze the topic from the perspective of the criminal procedural provisions of Law 682/2002 and witness protection, which are republished to expose the conditions and criteria by which to ensure this status. I also want to present besides theoretical and practical ways in which the National Office for Witness Protection gives effective legal provisions. Not least, I will bring criticism of current regulation and not by law ferenda proposals.

  16. Witnessing the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    and the problematic work life elsewhere. Finally, it notes that the manager's strategy enacts a timeworld characterised by dramatic epochal changes, which is radically different from the more stable and knowable time-world that is enacted in ordinary scientific discourses. Key words: actor-network theory, witnessing......Abstract: The paper explores the phenomenon of witnessing the future through a case study of how a Scandinavian new economy firm managed to persuade a number of business journalists that it was "the future". It describes the procedures and rhetorical strategies that the manager deployed to turn...... the journalists into witnesses. It compares the manager's strategy to other cases of effective witnessing in courtrooms and in science. It concludes that the manager's persuasiveness is derived from his ability to articulate a series of pointed contrasts between the attractive working life within the firm...

  17. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons

  18. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  19. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU

  20. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  1. Witnessing entanglement by proxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Bruß, Dagmar; Kampermann, Hermann; Huber, Marcus; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is a ubiquitous feature of low temperature systems and believed to be highly relevant for the dynamics of condensed matter properties and quantum computation even at higher temperatures. The experimental certification of this paradigmatic quantum effect in macroscopic high temperature systems is constrained by the limited access to the quantum state of the system. In this paper we show how macroscopic observables beyond the mean energy of the system can be exploited as proxy witnesses for entanglement detection. Using linear and semi-definite relaxations we show that all previous approaches to this problem can be outperformed by our proxies, i.e. entanglement can be certified at higher temperatures without access to any local observable. For an efficient computation of proxy witnesses one can resort to a generalised grand canonical ensemble, enabling entanglement certification even in complex systems with macroscopic particle numbers. (paper)

  2. ETHIOPIAN WITNESS PROTECTION SYSTEM: COMPARATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    witness protection involves social cohesion of the protected person. Scholars ..... interests' need to balance an accused right to know and confront prosecution ..... was reduced to 2.5 years through the fast tracking of witness protection cases.

  3. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...

  4. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  5. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huangjun; Teo Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.

  6. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-05-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.

  7. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  8. Introduction to neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrison, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author focuses on neuroradiology with emphasis on the current imaging modalities. There are chapters on angiography, myelography, nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The other chapters are dedicated to the spine, skull, head and neck, and pediatric neuroimaging

  9. Fibonacci - Protagonist or Witness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Leonardo Fibonacci (ca. 1170 - after 1240) during his boyhood went to Bejaïa, learned about the Hindu-Arabic numerals there, and continued to collect information about their use during travels to the Arabic world. He then wrote the Liber abbaci, which with half a century’s delay inspired the crea......Leonardo Fibonacci (ca. 1170 - after 1240) during his boyhood went to Bejaïa, learned about the Hindu-Arabic numerals there, and continued to collect information about their use during travels to the Arabic world. He then wrote the Liber abbaci, which with half a century’s delay inspired......, of course, that Fibonacci learned about Arabic (and Byzantine) commercial arithmetic, and that he presented it in his book. He is thus a witness (with a degree of reliability which has to be determined) of the commercial mathematics thriving in the commercially developed parts of the Mediterranean world...... with Arabic non-scholarly traditions, at least until ca. 1350 within an open space, apparently concentrated around the Iberian region....

  10. Optimization of entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, M.; Kraus, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Horodecki, P.

    2000-11-01

    An entanglement witness (EW) is an operator that allows the detection of entangled states. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be optimal, i.e., to detect entangled states in an optimal way. We show how to optimize general EW, and then we particularize our results to the nondecomposable ones; the latter are those that can detect positive partial transpose entangled states (PPTES's). We also present a method to systematically construct and optimize this last class of operators based on the existence of ``edge'' PPTES's, i.e., states that violate the range separability criterion [Phys. Lett. A 232, 333 (1997)] in an extreme manner. This method also permits a systematic construction of nondecomposable positive maps (PM's). Our results lead to a sufficient condition for entanglement in terms of nondecomposable EW's and PM's. Finally, we illustrate our results by constructing optimal EW acting on H=C2⊗C4. The corresponding PM's constitute examples of PM's with minimal ``qubit'' domains, or-equivalently-minimal Hermitian conjugate codomains.

  11. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  12. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  13. Let's not, and say we would: imagined and actual responses to witnessing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jennifer Randall; Wilson, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We compared imagined versus actual affective and behavioral responses to witnessing a homophobic slur. Participants (N = 72) witnessed a confederate using a homophobic slur, imagined the same scenario, or were not exposed to the slur. Those who imagined hearing the slur reported significantly higher levels of negative affect than those who actually witnessed the slur, and nearly one half of them reported that they would confront the slur, whereas no participants who actually heard the slur confronted it. These findings reveal a discrepancy between imagined and real responses to homophobic remarks, and they have implications for the likelihood that heterosexuals will actually confront homophobic remarks.

  14. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease have been moved from diagnosis of advanced Alzheimer's disease to diagnosis of very early Alzheimer's disease at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and brain perfusion SPECT are widely used in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers accurate evaluation of therapeutical effects on brain metabolism or perfusion. The latest development in functional imaging relates to the final pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease-amyloid plaques. Amyloid imaging might be an important surrogate marker for trials of disease-modifying agents. (author)

  16. Witnessing Solar Rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    At the end of last year, the Suns large-scale magnetic field suddenly strengthened, reaching its highest value in over two decades. Here, Neil Sheeley and Yi-Ming Wang (both of the Naval Research Laboratory) propose an explanation for why this happened and what it predicts for the next solar cycle.Magnetic StrengtheningUntil midway through 2014, solar cycle 24 the current solar cycle was remarkably quiet. Even at its peak, it averaged only 79 sunspots per year, compared to maximums of up to 190 in recent cycles. Thus it was rather surprising when, toward the end of 2014, the Suns large-scale magnetic field underwent a sudden rejuvenation, with its mean field leaping up to its highest values since 1991 and causing unprecedentedly large numbers of coronal loops to collapse inward.Yet in spite of the increase we observed in the Suns open flux (the magnetic flux leaving the Suns atmosphere, measured from Earth), there was not a significant increase in solar activity, as indicated by sunspot number and the rate of coronal mass ejections. This means that the number of sources of magnetic flux didnt increase so Sheeley and Wang conclude that flux must instead have been emerging from those sources in a more efficient way! But how?Aligned ActivityWSO open flux and the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (measures of the magnetic flux leaving the Suns photosphere and heliosphere, respectively), compared to sunspot number (in units of 100 sunspots). A sudden increase in flux is visible after the peak of each of the last four sunspot cycles. Click for a larger view! [Sheeley Wang 2015]The authors show that the active regions on the solar surface in late 2014 lined up in such a way that the emerging flux was enhanced, forming a strong equatorial dipole field that accounts for the sudden rejuvenation observed.Interestingly, this rejuvenation of the Suns open flux wasnt just a one-time thing; similar bursts have occurred shortly after the peak of every sunspot

  17. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  18. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  19. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging of neurotic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Yahata, Noriaki

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)

  1. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  2. NRC closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.

    1994-01-01

    This section contains the edited transcript of the NRC closing remarks made by Mr. Franklin Coffman (Chief, Human Factors Branch, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research) and Dr. Cecil Thomas (Deputy Director, Division of Reactor Controls and Human Factors, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation). This editing consisted of minimal editing to correct grammar and remove extraneous references to microphone volume, etc

  3. Remarks of Joseph Marrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author's remarks are directed primarily at proposals that have been made that would substantially tort law with respect to radiation claims in order to ease the ability of claimants to recovery damages from defendants. The change would be based upon what had been assumed to be a ''scientific'' means of measuring the ''probability'' that exposure to ionizing radiation was the case of a cancer in a particular claimant. The remarks are divided into three parts: a summary description of the nuclear insurance pools, including the tort radiation claims filed against the pools; and a brief description of claims against the Federal Government and its contractors; an examination of the elementary principles of tort law, and an outline of the threat that has developed that would transform it into a hybrid social benefits program; and comment on the danger to the integrity of science when it is injected into the legislative process

  4. Remarks on stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the following, a few simple remarks on the evolution and properties of stellar clusters will be collected. In particular, globular clusters will be considered. Though details of such clusters are often not known, a few questions can be clarified with the help of primitive arguments. These are:- why are spherical clusters spherical, why do they have high densities, why do they consist of approximately a million stars, how may a black hole of great mass form within them, may they be the origin of gamma-ray bursts, may their invisible remnants account for the missing mass of our galaxy. The available data do not warrant a detailed evaluation. However, it is remarkable that exceedingly simple models can shed some light on the questions enumerated above. (author)

  5. Healthcare system simulation using Witness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakdaman, Masoud; Zeinahvazi, Milad; Zohoori, Bahareh; Nasiri, Fardokht; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    Simulation techniques have a proven track record in manufacturing industry as well as other areas such as healthcare system improvement. In this study, simulation model of a health center in Malaysia is developed through the application of WITNESS simulation software which has shown its flexibility and capability in manufacturing industry. Modelling procedure is started through process mapping and data collection and continued with model development, verification, validation and experimentation. At the end, final results and possible future improvements are demonstrated.

  6. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  7. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remarks on superconductive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Lopez, A.R.N.; Simonin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some remarks on the determination of the normal-superconductor phase boundary in random superconductive networks are made. A recently reported work by Soukoulis, Grest and Li which introduces weak links between nodes as these are removed in the site percolation problem is discussed. By the analysis of two simple geometries, it is shown that this procedure introduces spurious effects which mask the physical properties of the system. These affect in particular the field slope critical index and the sharpness of the normal-superconductor boundary. (Author)

  9. 41 CFR 105-70.033 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Witnesses. 105-70.033 Section 105-70.033 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... may proceed by leading questions only if the witness is a hostile witness, an adverse party, or a...

  10. 47 CFR 1.339 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witness fees. 1.339 Section 1.339....339 Witness fees. Witnesses who are subpenaed and respond thereto are entitled to the same fees, including mileage, as are paid for like service in the courts of the United States. Fees shall be paid by...

  11. Seven remarkable days

    CERN Document Server

    This has been a truly remarkable seven days for CERN. Things have moved so fast that it has sometimes been hard to separate fact from fiction – all the more so since facts have often seemed too good to be true. It’s been a week of many firsts. Monday was the first time we’ve had two captured beams in the LHC. It’s the first time the LHC has functioned as a particle accelerator, boosting particles to the highest beam energy so far achieved at CERN. And it’s been a week in which we’ve seen the highest energy proton-proton collisions ever produced at CERN: our last hadron collider, the SPS was a proton-antiproton collider, a technically simpler machine than the LHC. This week’s successes are all the more remarkable precisely because of the complexity of the LHC. Unlike the SPS collider, it is two accelerators not one, making the job of commissioning nearly twice as difficult. I’d like to express my heartfelt thanks and congra...

  12. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  13. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  14. 2011 Asia Pacific Few-Body Conference Summary Remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    These remarks represent the author’s personal perspective regarding ideas presented at this fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics. They are not intended as a comprehensive summary of what we witnessed during this week of stimulating presentations and intense discussions. However, these remarks do characterize some of the physics we heard and some of the key questions raised. The ideas presented will hopefully outlive the rapporteurs who brought their work and that of others to our attention here in the International Hall of the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Republic of Korea. (author)

  15. [Evaluation of Wits appraisal with superimposition method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    1999-07-01

    To compare the conventional Wits appraisal with superimposed Wits appraisal in evaluation of sagittal jaw relationship change between pre and post orthodontic treatment. The sample consists of 48-case pre and post treatment lateral head films. Computerized digitizing is used to get the cephalometric landmarks and measure conventional Wits value, superimposed Wits value and ANB angle. The correlation analysis among these three measures was done by SAS statistical package. The change of ANB angle has higher correlation with the change of superimposed Wits than that of the conventional Wits. The r-value is as high as 0.849 (P < 0.001). The superimposed Wits appraisal reflects the change of sagittal jaw relationship more objectively than the conventional one.

  16. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  17. Neuroimaging, nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes radionuclide imaging as it related to neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), and normal aging, among the various diseases of the elderly. The role of neuroimaging with nuclear medicine is to detect changes in neural activities that are caused by these diseases. Such changes may be indirect phenomena, but the imaging of neural functions provides physicians with useful, objective information regarding pathophysiology in the brain. Brain activities change with age, with the elderly showing decreased brain function in memory, execution, and attention. Age-dependent reduction in the global mean of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been reported in many studies that have used X-133 and O-15 labeled gas, the spatial resolution of which is low. Partial volume correction (PVC) is available through the segmentation of grey matter from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Meltzer reported that age-related change disappeared after PVC. The relative distribution of CBF and glucose metabolism has been examined on a voxel-by-voxel basis in many studies. The areas negatively correlated with age are the anterior part of the brain, especially the dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, anterior cingulate cortices, frontolateral and perisylvian cortices, and basal ganglia. The areas positively correlated with age are the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, sensorimotor cortex, and primary visual cortex. It is not easy to define ''normal aging''. Aged people tend to have the potential for diseases like cerebral ischemia caused by arteriosclerosis. Ischemia results in volume loss of the gray matter and CBF. The ApoE e4 gene is a risk factor for AD, and carriers of the ApoE e4 allel show CBF-like AD even at a relatively young age. Hypo-glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex is seen in 5% of normal people over 50 years of age. This Alzheimer-like CBF/metabolic pattern needs further

  18. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  19. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  20. Evolving and Combining Facial Composites: Between-Witness and Within-Witness Morphs Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Davis, Josh P.; Thorner, Kate; Solomon, Chris; Gibson, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Student participant-witnesses produced 4 composites of unfamiliar faces with a system that uses a genetic algorithm to evolve appearance of artificial faces. Morphs of 4 composites produced by different witnesses (between-witness morphs) were judged better likenesses (Experiment 1) and were more frequently named (Experiment 2) by participants who…

  1. 20 CFR 258.2 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Witnesses. 258.2 Section 258.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT HEARINGS BEFORE THE BOARD... a delegation of authority to such examiner to require and compel the attendance of witnesses and the...

  2. Children's Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…

  3. 6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing will be given orally by...

  4. Safety Tips from the Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Gary R.

    1995-01-01

    Many physical educators and coaches use the potential for liability to guide their decisions about conducting activities. By understanding expert witnesses' roles in negligence actions, surer planning, teaching, and coaching are possible. The paper describes issues that expert witnesses examine in negligence actions against physical educators,…

  5. Ethiopian witness protection system: comparative analysis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Witnesses are the eyes and the ears of justice.” They assist the court in deciding the guilt or otherwise of the accused person. They are crucial in a criminal proceeding; from reporting of crime to its trial. The evidence by a witness is crucial for the ...

  6. Neurosurgical Procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses: The Tema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: On account of religious reasons, Jehovah Witnesses do not accept blood or blood products; occasionally, they accept reinfusion of autologous blood via a cell saver during surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to document the demographics of Jehovah Witnesses undergoing neurosurgical ...

  7. 14 CFR 406.161 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witness fees. 406.161 Section 406.161 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the same fees and mileage expenses as are paid to a witness in a court of the United States in...

  8. The Witness-Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerck, Ed

    We present a new, comprehensive framework to qualitatively improve election outcome trustworthiness, where voting is modeled as an information transfer process. Although voting is deterministic (all ballots are counted), information is treated stochastically using Information Theory. Error considerations, including faults, attacks, and threats by adversaries, are explicitly included. The influence of errors may be corrected to achieve an election outcome error as close to zero as desired (error-free), with a provably optimal design that is applicable to any type of voting, with or without ballots. Sixteen voting system requirements, including functional, performance, environmental and non-functional considerations, are derived and rated, meeting or exceeding current public-election requirements. The voter and the vote are unlinkable (secret ballot) although each is identifiable. The Witness-Voting System (Gerck, 2001) is extended as a conforming implementation of the provably optimal design that is error-free, transparent, simple, scalable, robust, receipt-free, universally-verifiable, 100% voter-verified, and end-to-end audited.

  9. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized to...

  10. Caring for the Jehovah's Witness Parturient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C LaToya; Tran, Connie K

    2015-12-01

    Caring for the Jehovah's Witness parturient is a complex task that presents a number of ethical, medical, and legal concerns because many Jehovah's Witnesses refuse allogeneic blood transfusion. Childbirth and its surrounding events may be associated with significant blood loss. Given their significant role in the intraoperative administration of blood products, anesthesia providers should be familiar with factors that must be considered in the perioperative care of Jehovah's Witness parturients. Several pharmacologic therapies, anesthetic techniques, and operative interventions aimed at blood conservation may be useful in the care of such patients. Aside from their refusal of transfusion, each Witness makes a personal decision on the acceptability of derivatives of plasma or cellular blood components and autologous blood management. Therefore, the patient-physician relationship must ensure that the individual patient's desires are accurately communicated, respected, and documented in the patient's medical record. The Perioperative Surgical Home model is appropriate for use in caring for Jehovah's Witness patients because it allows for the early and continuing coordination of care and communication between the patient and a multidisciplinary team. In this article, we present a focused review of concepts important to the provision of anesthetic care of parturients who are Jehovah's Witnesses and introduce an algorithmic perioperative approach that may be applied to the care of the Jehovah's Witness parturient undergoing an operative procedure.

  11. Bearing witness: an existential position in caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Maria

    2007-12-01

    A basic assumption for the study is that perceiving a person's deepest needs and desires to be on hand for another person, and their attempt to do so, have, in an ontological sense, the power to bear witness of goodness and eternity. The study was based on a theoretical basis of a caring science view of suffering, as well as the ethics of the philosopher Lévinas. The aim was to explore and clinically validate nuances of witnessing as a caring act.A Socratic dialogue was performed and an interpretive (hermeneutic) method was employed in this study. The Socratic dialogue with four nurses in palliative care focused on and analysed one clinical example of witnessing in palliative care. As basis for the findings are the participating nurses jointly formulated assumptions on the subject: To be a witness you have to be with the patient and refer back to him or her what you have seen; but also to act in accordance with what you have perceived. In the moment you witness, a window is opened onto the unknown; you become vulnerable as a caregiver and require courage. Being a witness encompasses existential and spiritual aspects; being a fellow human being, having a heart to heart relationship is a wilful act on the part of the nurse. Our theoretical discussion focuses on the language of the body, courage as a bridge to an existential encounter and the alleviation of patients' suffering through caregivers' witnessing. A conclusive aspect is that being a witness may bring a new understanding of life in the face of death and suffering. The existential position of being a witness requires the caregiver to be courageous because of its transformative prospect, but may utterly enrich both parties' inner life of shared meaning.

  12. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  13. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: Snow stated in 1959 a modern conflict between classical hermeneutic humanism and natural science which recently has been renewed by Kensei Hiwaki [2011]. However, the last decade has brought a breakthrough in the study of the neural base of mental processes by neuroimaging which may...... patients. Further, this healing principle explains classical relaxation procedures as yoga and meditation as coping techniques. 2. Mental balance between L(x) and NC is not a continued but a discrete variable of general risk attitude differentiating 4 sub-groups corresponding to the classical tempers which...

  14. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  15. What's new in neuroimaging methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid advancement of neuroimaging methodology and availability has transformed neuroscience research. The answers to many questions that we ask about how the brain is organized depend on the quality of data that we are able to obtain about the locations, dynamics, fluctuations, magnitudes, and types of brain activity and structural changes. In this review, an attempt is made to take a snapshot of the cutting edge of a small component of the very rapidly evolving field of neuroimaging. For each area covered, a brief context is provided along with a summary of a few of the current developments and issues. Then, several outstanding papers, published in the past year or so, are described, providing an example of the directions in which each area is progressing. The areas covered include functional MRI (fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), optical imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET). More detail is included on fMRI, as subsections include: functional MRI interpretation, new functional MRI contrasts, MRI technology, MRI paradigms and processing, and endogenous oscillations in functional MRI. PMID:19338512

  16. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, famili...

  17. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  18. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  19. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  20. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  1. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section 18.701 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS... Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. If the witness is not testifying as an expert, the witness' testimony...

  2. Concluding Remarks | Ewing | Rwanda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Concluding Remarks. Helen Ewing. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  3. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  4. Optimal Entanglement Witnesses for Qubits and Qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Krammer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We give a review of the connection between an optimal entanglement witness and the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states): a generalized Bell inequality is derived within the concept of entanglement witnesses, in the sense that a violation of the inequality detects entanglement and not non-locality liKEX usual Bell inequalities do. It can be seen that the maximal violation equals the Hilbert-Schmidt measure. Furthermore, since finding the nearest separable state to a given entangled state is rather difficult, a method for checking an estimated nearest separable state is presented. This is illustrated with isotropic qubit and qutrit states; the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the optimal entanglement witness and the maximal violation of the GBI are calculated for those cases. Possible generalizations for arbitrary dimensions are discussed. (author)

  5. Visual attention and the neuroimage bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Baker

    Full Text Available Several highly-cited experiments have presented evidence suggesting that neuroimages may unduly bias laypeople's judgments of scientific research. This finding has been especially worrisome to the legal community in which neuroimage techniques may be used to produce evidence of a person's mental state. However, a more recent body of work that has looked directly at the independent impact of neuroimages on layperson decision-making (both in legal and more general arenas, and has failed to find evidence of bias. To help resolve these conflicting findings, this research uses eye tracking technology to provide a measure of attention to different visual representations of neuroscientific data. Finding an effect of neuroimages on the distribution of attention would provide a potential mechanism for the influence of neuroimages on higher-level decisions. In the present experiment, a sample of laypeople viewed a vignette that briefly described a court case in which the defendant's actions might have been explained by a neurological defect. Accompanying these vignettes was either an MRI image of the defendant's brain, or a bar graph depicting levels of brain activity-two competing visualizations that have been the focus of much of the previous research on the neuroimage bias. We found that, while laypeople differentially attended to neuroimagery relative to the bar graph, this did not translate into differential judgments in a way that would support the idea of a neuroimage bias.

  6. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P

    2017-01-20

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  7. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-11-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states—and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions—where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly.

  8. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states--and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions--where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly

  9. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  10. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    Further details are provided of a soon-to-be published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence

  11. Remarks on the clump theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Further details are provided of a recently published dialog [Phys. Fluids 29 (July, 1986)] which discussed the role of the small scales in fluid clump theory. It is argued that the approximation of the clump lifetime which is compatible with exponentially rapid separation of adjacent orbits is inappropriate for the description of the dynamically important large scales. Various other remarks are made relating to the analytic treatment of strong drift-wave-like turbulence. (author)

  12. Remarks on High Energy Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We make several remarks on the B-JIMWLK hierarchy. First, we present a simple and instructive derivation of this equation by considering an arbitrary projectile wave function with small number of valence gluons. We also generalize the equation by including corrections which incorporate effects of high density in the projectile wave function. Second, we systematically derive the dipole model approximation to the hierarchy. We show that in the dipole approximation the hierarchy has a simplifyin...

  13. 20 CFR 725.457 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... days before the hearing. The failure to give notice of the appearance of an expert witness in... relevant to the physical condition of the miner, such physician must have prepared a medical report...

  14. 'Het gaat niet over zwart en wit'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Kennedy Aquilino Tielman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr. Perry den Brok; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2009-01-01

    'Het gaat niet over zwart en wit' De meeste mbo-scholen hebben samenwerking tussen de leerlingen hoog in het vaandel. Kunnen samenwerken is belangrijk voor de latere beroepsuitoefening en het functioneren van de leerlingen in de samenleving. De grote culturele diversiteit binnen de leerlingpopulatie

  15. Witness: The Movie. A Material Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Susan Henderson

    A teaching guide and series of exercises for high-intermediate or advanced English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction based on the movie "Witness" are presented. The materials are designed primarily to develop English listening and speaking skills and enhance awareness of American culture and the criminal justice system. The teaching…

  16. Associations between witnessing parental violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information concerning witnessing parental violence as a child, symptoms of depression during the current academic year. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Approximately 22.7% female students and 27.1% of the male students reported ...

  17. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment…

  18. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES... pay for his or her travel to the hearing. The sponsoring party is responsible for producing the...

  19. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso

    2012-01-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  20. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  1. Functional neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the title is reviewed often referring to authors' investigations. The method eZIS developed by them is for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT, where voxel-based analysis can be done using a Z-score map calculable from patient's data and standard database with 3D-stereotactic surface projection. Decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and of glucose metabolism detectable in specified brain regions by PET or SPECT in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are found useful for predicting the stage progression of MCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) in future. Partial volume correction method, essentially the division of images of a gray matter SPECT by MR, has elevated the precision of cerebral image analysis. Differential diagnosis of AD and dementia with Lewy bodies, the second most common form of dementia, is possible by the difference of occipital perfusion or glucose metabolism. Evidences by rCBF SPECT as well as by symptomatic ones have been accumulated recently for the therapeutic effect of donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase used for AD treatment. PET and SPECT imaging for the assessment of rCBF and metabolism has thus played very important roles in AD diagnosis, staging, differentiation, prediction and drug effect assessment. Recent advance in voxel-based statistical analysis of PET and SPECT images has raised the value of neuroimaging in dementia. (T.I.)

  2. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  4. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimized entanglement witnesses for Dicke states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Marcel; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Department Physik, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Quantum entanglement is an important resource for applications in quantum information processing like quantum teleportation and cryptography. Moreover, the number of particles that can be entangled experimentally using polarized photons or ion traps has been significantly enlarged. Therefore, criteria to decide the question whether a given multi-particle state is entangled or not have to be improved. Our approach to this problem uses the notion of PPT mixtures which form an approximation to the set of bi-separable states. With this method, entanglement witnesses can be obtained in a natural manner via linear semi-definite programming. In our contribution, we will present analytical results for entanglement witnesses for Dicke states. This allows to overcome the limitations of convex optimization.

  6. From entanglement witness to generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.; Hansen, T.; Itzhaki, N.

    2016-07-01

    Being extremely important resources in quantum information and computation, it is vital to efficiently detect and properly characterize entangled states. We analyze in this work the problem of entanglement detection for arbitrary spin systems. It is demonstrated how a single measurement of the squared total spin can probabilistically discern separable from entangled many-particle states. For achieving this goal, we construct a tripartite analogy between the degeneracy of entanglement witness eigenstates, tensor products of SO(3) representations and classical lattice walks with special constraints. Within this framework, degeneracies are naturally given by generalized Catalan numbers and determine the fraction of states that are decidedly entangled and also known to be somewhat protected against decoherence. In addition, we introduce the concept of a “sterile entanglement witness”, which for large enough systems detects entanglement without affecting much the system’s state. We discuss when our proposed entanglement witness can be regarded as a sterile one.

  7. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  8. Will "no blood" kill Jehovah Witnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, R; Tham, K F

    2006-11-01

    A 46-year-old Indonesian woman presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of an ovarian tumour and was advised to have surgery with exploratory laparotomy and removal of the mass. She agreed but refused blood transfusion any time in the course of her treatment or procedure, as she was a Jehovah Witness. As there was a high risk of intraoperative haemorrhage, steps were taken to reduce any consequent complications due to the surgery. The ethical conflict is between respecting patient autonomy and compromising standards of care, arising from the refusal of a standard therapy. The latest developments in the blood transfusion doctrine policy for the Jehovah Witnesses are also discussed in this case study.

  9. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  10. Minimal Entanglement Witness From Electrical Current Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and non-collinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be ...

  11. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  12. 29 CFR 1921.18 - Witnesses and fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Witnesses and fees. 1921.18 Section 1921.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Miscellaneous § 1921.18 Witnesses and fees. Witnesses subpoenaed by any party...

  13. 32 CFR 724.213 - Attendance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.213 Attendance of witnesses. Arrangement for attendance of witnesses testifying in behalf of the applicant at discharge review hearings is the... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance of witnesses. 724.213 Section 724.213...

  14. 41 CFR 50-203.20 - Examination of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Examination of witnesses... Under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.20 Examination of witnesses. The administrative law... such examination or cross-examination of any witness as may be required for a full and true disclosure...

  15. 12 CFR 512.5 - Rights of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has given. During the taking of the testimony of a witness, such attorney may make summary notes... before, during, and after the taking of his testimony and may briefly question the witness, on the record... permitted to be present during the taking of testimony of any other witness called in such proceeding...

  16. Editorial - a remark you made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ”A remark you made” is the title of a wonderful tune by the famous jazz-rock group “Weather Report”, issued on the influential “Heavy weather” LP some 30 years ago. In an age where planning and rationalizing is the main issue in most contexts, whether it’s a matter of studying, teaching, doing research or using a diet, “A remark you made” is a symbol of attending to the unplanned, unforeseen and often, unwanted. In most accounts on cognitive development one is overtly focused on the manageable, on the predictable and expected, and not so attentive to the opposite. “A remark you made” makes us think again and reconsider what might be of value, in what we otherwise might neglect. A remark made by Terry Anderson at a conference last year (2006 was rather telling. Anderson is the renown distance educator from Athabasca University, Alberta Canada, and editor of our fellow e-journal “The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning”. I recite it here totally from my own memory, and I have never approached him to have it verified, falsified or commented. That doesn’t matter in this context. Standing on the podium, he lowered his voice and asked if any Danes were present in the room. There weren’t! Then he explained that his argument might be presented differently with Danes present: “You see – Danes seem to think that learning alone is no longer possible!” That remark caused quite a good laugh, not the least because any comment – good or bad – about fellow Scandinavians generally is considered to be a good joke. But it was also a comment on how not only distance education, or open and flexible learning, but learning theory in general is driven by the sociocultural learning theory, - and according to Anderson, particularly so in Denmark! Our first contribution in this issue is about the theory of media theory developed by one of our editors: Lars Qvortrup. Lars is now the rector of the Danish

  17. [How to start a neuroimaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumoto, Jin

    2012-06-01

    In order to help researchers understand how to start a neuroimaging study, several tips are described in this paper. These include 1) Choice of an imaging modality, 2) Statistical method, and 3) Interpretation of the results. 1) There are several imaging modalities available in clinical research. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality are described. 2) Statistical Parametric Mapping, which is the most common statistical software for neuroimaging analysis, is described in terms of parameter setting in normalization and level of significance. 3) In the discussion section, the region which shows a significant difference between patients and normal controls should be discussed in relation to the neurophysiology of the disease, making reference to previous reports from neuroimaging studies in normal controls, lesion studies and animal studies. A typical pattern of discussion is described.

  18. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret brain function. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  19. Molecular neuroimaging of emotional decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-04-01

    With the dissemination of non-invasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions and social cognition have become established. Along with this advancement, behavioral economics taking emotional and social factors into account for economic decisions has been merged with neuroscientific studies, and this interdisciplinary approach is called neuroeconomics. Past neuroeconomics studies have demonstrated that subcortical emotion-related brain structures play an important role in "irrational" decision-making. The research field that investigates the role of central neurotransmitters in this process is worthy of further development. Here, we provide an overview of recent molecular neuroimaging studies to further the understanding of the neurochemical basis of "irrational" or emotional decision-making and the future direction, including clinical implications, of the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  1. Witness sample preparation for measuring antireflection coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ronald R

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of antireflection coating of witness samples from across the worldwide industry has been shown to have excess variability from a sampling taken for the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings: Measurement Problem. Various sample preparation techniques have been discussed with their limitations, and a preferred technique is recommended with its justification, calibration procedures, and limitations. The common practice of grinding the second side to reduce its reflection is less than satisfactory. One recommended practice is to paint the polished second side, which reduces its reflection to almost zero. A method to evaluate the suitability of given paints is also described.

  2. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  3. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric population neuroimaging is an emerging field that falls at the intersection between developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. A key feature of population neuroimaging studies involves large-scale recruitment that is representative of the general population. One successful approach f...

  4. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  5. The search for neuroimaging and cognitive endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Kjærstad, Hanne L; Meluken, Iselin

    2017-01-01

    and structural neuroimaging. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. The present review revealed that URs in comparison with HCs showed: (i) widespread deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and executive function; (ii) abnormalities in the reactivity to and regulation...

  6. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  7. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  9. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiou, George A.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  10. Hirayama disease: diagnostic essentials in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Chourmouzi, Danae; Terzoudi, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Nikiforos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini

    2017-12-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with progressive muscular weakness of the upper extremities. MRI of the cervical spine established the final diagnosis of Hirayama disease (HD). HD is a rare disease with benign progress. Neurologists and radiologists should be aware of the specific neuroimaging signs of this rare clinical entity.

  11. Statistical Challenges in "Big Data" Human Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E

    2018-01-17

    Smith and Nichols discuss "big data" human neuroimaging studies, with very large subject numbers and amounts of data. These studies provide great opportunities for making new discoveries about the brain but raise many new analytical challenges and interpretational risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  13. Fidelity Witnesses for Fermionic Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluza, M.; Kliesch, M.; Eisert, J.; Aolita, L.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental interest and developments in quantum spin-1 /2 chains has increased uninterruptedly over the past decade. In many instances, the target quantum simulation belongs to the broader class of noninteracting fermionic models, constituting an important benchmark. In spite of this class being analytically efficiently tractable, no direct certification tool has yet been reported for it. In fact, in experiments, certification has almost exclusively relied on notions of quantum state tomography scaling very unfavorably with the system size. Here, we develop experimentally friendly fidelity witnesses for all pure fermionic Gaussian target states. Their expectation value yields a tight lower bound to the fidelity and can be measured efficiently. We derive witnesses in full generality in the Majorana-fermion representation and apply them to experimentally relevant spin-1 /2 chains. Among others, we show how to efficiently certify strongly out-of-equilibrium dynamics in critical Ising chains. At the heart of the measurement scheme is a variant of importance sampling specially tailored to overlaps between covariance matrices. The method is shown to be robust against finite experimental-state infidelities.

  14. On Witnessed Models in Fuzzy Logic III - Witnessed Gödel Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-174 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * Gödel logic * witnessed models * arithmetical complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2010

  15. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two different types of neuroimaging of value in clinical psychiatry, namely: structural neuroimaging techniques (e.g., CT, MRI) which provide static images of the skull, and brain, and funnctional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., single photon emission CT [SPECT], positron emission tomography [PET], functional MRI ...

  16. Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A; Barker, Peter F; Kim, M S; Milburn, Gerard

    2017-12-15

    Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.

  17. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  18. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  19. Neuroimaging studies of self-reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some basic findings and methodological issues in neuroimaging studies of self-referential processing.As a general rule,making judgments about one's self,inclusive of personality trait adjectives or current mental states(person's prefer ences,norms,aesthetic values and feeling)uniformly generates medial prefrontal activations,regardless of stimulus materials(words or pictures)and modality(visual or auditory).Cingulate activations are also observed in association with most self-referential processing.Methodological issues include treating self-referential processing as either representing one's own personality traits or representing one's own current mental states.Finally,self-referential processing could Be considered as implement of "I think therefore I am" approach to neuroimaging the self.

  20. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...... be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret the brain. The second part concerns interpretation of nonlinear models and procedures for extraction of ‘brain maps’ from nonlinear kernel models. We assess the performance of the sensitivity map as means...

  1. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  2. Occipital headaches and neuroimaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joshua J; Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J; Bass, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the common thinking, as reinforced by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta), that occipital headaches in children are rare and suggestive of serious intracranial pathology. We performed a retrospective chart review cohort study of all patients ≤18 years of age referred to a university child neurology clinic for headache in 2009. Patients were stratified by headache location: solely occipital, occipital plus other area(s) of head pain, or no occipital involvement. Children with abnormal neurologic examinations were excluded. We assessed location as a predictor of whether neuroimaging was ordered and whether intracranial pathology was found. Analyses were performed with cohort study tools in Stata/SE 13.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 308 patients were included. Median age was 12 years (32 months-18 years), and 57% were female. Headaches were solely occipital in 7% and occipital-plus in 14%. Patients with occipital head pain were more likely to undergo neuroimaging than those without occipital involvement (solely occipital: 95%, relative risk [RR] 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-77.3; occipital-plus: 88%, RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.2; no occipital pain: 63%, referent). Occipital pain alone or with other locations was not significantly associated with radiographic evidence of clinically significant intracranial pathology. Children with occipital headache are more likely to undergo neuroimaging. In the absence of concerning features on the history and in the setting of a normal neurologic examination, neuroimaging can be deferred in most pediatric patients when occipital pain is present. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  4. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  5. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  6. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  7. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasugi, Hiroko

    1992-01-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author)

  8. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  9. [Neuroimaging and the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Tominschek, Igor; Karch, Susanne; Mulert, Christoph; Pogarell, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The following review is focusing on results of functional neuroimaging. After some introductory remarks on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and psychotherapy approaches of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) the most important OCD-related brain regions are presented. Obviously, not only the prominent cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops are involved, as functional brain imaging studies tell us, but also other regions as the inferior parietal lobe, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala, cerebellum, and others. Subclassifications using factor-analysis methods support the hypothesis, that most important subtypes ("washing/contamination fear", "obsessions/checking", "symmetry/ordering", "hoarding") involve different, but partially overlapping brain areas. Stimulation paradigms in fMRI-research are commonly based on symptom provocation by visual or tactile stimuli, or on action-monitoring and error-monitoring tasks. Deficits in action-monitoring and planning are discussed to be one of the basic dysfunctions of OCD. Finally, results of psychotherapeutic induced variations of brain activations in OCD are presented.

  10. Theories of superconductivity (a few remarks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The early history in the development of superconductivity. Idea of pairing, Schafroth and BCS types of theories. Some remarks on present state of the microscopical theory of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC). Mean field macroscopic theory of superconductivity and its specific features in HTSC. About generalized macroscopic theory applicable in critical region. Concluding remarks. (orig.)

  11. Analyzing Counsel/Witness Discourse in Nnewi, Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzed counsel/witness discourse using the High Court in. Nnewi Municipal Council. Specifically, it described the structure and organization of counsel/witness discourse in the courtroom context highlighting some discourse features inherent in them, and observed the communication strategies and motivation ...

  12. 12 CFR 308.148 - Rights of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... meets the requirements of § 308.6 of the Uniform Rules. That counsel may be present and may: (1) Advise... conflict of interest arising out of an attorney's or law firm's representation of multiple witnesses, the... the Uniform Rules; and (e) Witness fees shall be paid in accordance with § 308.14 of the Uniform Rules...

  13. Metallic witness packs for behind-armour debris characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verolme, J.L.; Szymczak, M.; Broos, J.P.F.

    1999-01-01

    For the experimental characterization of behind-armour debris so-called metallic witness packs can be used. A metallic witness pack consists of an array of metallic plates interspaced by polystyrene foam sheets. To quantify the fragment mass and velocity from the corresponding hole area and position

  14. Medicine, religion and faith: issues in Jehovah's Witnesses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major surgical treatment in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) presents complex ethical and legal issues to the physician. The Jehovah's Witness is willing to accept all medical treatment except blood transfusion; and so, the physician is often confronted with a difficult task especially in emergency settings and among ...

  15. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  16. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  17. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  18. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  19. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead.

  20. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...

  1. College students' behavioral reactions upon witnessing relational peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji-In; Bellmore, Amy

    2014-01-01

    With a sample of 228 college students (82.5% females) from the Midwestern United States, individual factors that contribute to emerging adults' behavioral responses when witnessing relational aggression among their peers were explored. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was found to be systematically associated with college students' behavioral responses to relational aggression through two social cognitive processes: normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was associated with defending behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and both assisting and reinforcing behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was also associated with onlooking behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression. The findings indicate that exposure to relational aggression as a witness may influence witness responses because of the way such exposure may shape specific social cognitions. The potential for using the study findings for promoting effective witness interventions among college students is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Concluding Remarks: Experiment from a materials perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Z

    2011-01-01

    The author provides some remarks regarding the current status of experiments in strongly correlated electron systems. By construction, they are biased by the author's perspectives at the time of writing.

  3. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  4. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  5. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, Henry J.; Hedlund, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  6. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  7. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Chabrol, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  8. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  9. Ceramic waste form qualification using results from witness tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Johnson, S.G.; Bateman, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form is prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). The use of small, easily fabricated HIP capsules called witness tubes has been proposed as a practical way to obtain representative samples of ceramic waste form material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Witness tubes are filled with the same material used to fill the corresponding HIP can, and are HIPed along with the HIP can. Relevant physical, chemical, and performance (leach test) data are analyzed and compared. Differences between witness tube and HIP can materials are shown to be statistically insignificant, demonstrating that witness tubes do provide ceramic waste form material representative of the material in the corresponding HIP can.

  10. Identifying Witness Accounts from Social Media Using Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Truelove

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the use of image category classification to distinguish images posted to social media that are Witness Accounts of an event. Only images depicting observations of the event, captured by micro-bloggers at the event, are considered Witness Accounts. Identifying Witness Accounts from social media is important for services such as news, marketing and emergency response. Automated image category classification is essential due to the large number of images on social media and interest in identifying witnesses in near real time. This paper begins research of this emerging problem with an established procedure, using a bag-of-words method to create a vocabulary of visual words and classifier trained to categorize the encoded images. In order to test the procedure, a set of images were collected for case study events, Australian Football League matches, from Twitter. Evaluation shows an overall accuracy of 90% and precision and recall for both classes exceeding 83%.

  11. 32 CFR 719.138 - Fees of civilian witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Method of Payment. The fees and mileage of a civilian witness shall be paid by the disbursing officer of... whose testimony is determined not to meet the standards of relevancy and materiality set forth in...

  12. Turner Syndrome: Neuroimaging Findings--Structural and Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Ronan; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including…

  13. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  14. The progress and clinical application of radionuclide neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxin; He Pinyu

    2008-01-01

    Development of site-specific brain radiopharmaceuticals extends the the functional neuroimaging applications in the diagnosis and monitoring treatments of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This article highlights recent advances and clinical applications of the functional neuroimaging in Parkinson disease, epilepsy, dementia, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders and brain functional research. (authors)

  15. Entanglement witness via quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiadong; Ding, Zhiyong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan; Yu, Lizhi; Sun, Wenyang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-12-01

    By virtue of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (EUR), we analyze entanglement witness via the efficiencies of the estimates proposed by Berta (2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) and Pati (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 042105). The results show that, without a structured reservoir, the entanglement regions witnessed by these EUR estimates are only determined by the chosen estimated setup, and have no correlation with the explicit form of the initial state. On the other hand, with the structured reservoirs, the time regions during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and the corresponding entanglement regions closely depend on the choice of the estimated setup, the initial state and the state purity p . Concretely, for a pure state with p=1 , the entanglement can be witnessed by both estimates, while for mixed states with p=0.78 , it can only be witnessed using the Pati estimate. What is more, we find that the time regions incorporating the Pati estimate become discontinuous for the initial state with ≤ft| {{φ }\\prime } \\right> ={≤ft(≤ft| 01 \\right> +≤ft| 10 \\right> \\right)}/{\\sqrt{2}} , and the corresponding entanglement regions remain the same; however the entanglement can only be witnessed once by utilizing the Berta estimate.

  16. Jehovah's Witness patients within the German medical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied. Drawing on a nine-month fieldwork with Jehovah's Witnesses and physicians in Germany (mainly in Berlin) between 2010 and 2012, the paper addresses treatment choices made by Witness patients and their relationship with physicians. In light of the long tradition of 'medical heterodoxy' established in German culture and society, Germany constitutes an ideal point of departure for such a study. By utilising the concept of 'medical landscape' it is argued that Jehovah's Witnesses in my field site find themselves at the intersection of different medical landscapes: in the 'immediate' surroundings of the German healthcare system that is open to different 'treatment modalities', and that of the United States, which favours biomedicine. The paper also argues that Jehovah's Witnesses' position towards blood transfusions can further be used as a lens to shed light on the German (bio)medical landscape itself.

  17. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in critically ill Jehovah's Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Amanda M; Winstead, P Shane

    2008-11-01

    Blood transfusions and blood products are often given as a life-saving measure in patients with critical illness. However, some patients, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, may refuse their administration due to religious beliefs. Jehovah's Witnesses accept most available medical treatments, but not blood transfusions or blood products due to their religion's interpretation of several passages from the Bible. Since recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) became available, several cases have been reported in which rHuEPO was successfully administered to critically ill Jehovah's Witnesses. Administration of rHuEPO in combination with other blood conservation techniques has been shown to increase hemoglobin levels and survival in patients who experienced trauma, burns, general surgery, or gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We performed a literature search of the MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases of rHuEPO therapy in the Jehovah's Witness population. Fourteen cases were identified in which rHuEPO was administered to Jehovah's Witnesses who required the drug for critical care resuscitation as an alternative to blood products. In each clinical situation, rHuEPO enhanced erythropoiesis; however, time to the start of treatment, dosages, route of administration, and treatment duration varied widely. Supplementation with adjunctive agents, such as iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12, was also beneficial. Use of rHuEPO in Jehovah's Witnesses may provide an alternative to blood transfusions or blood products. Other alternatives, such as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and perfluorocarbons, are also being explored.

  18. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  19. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  20. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H 2 15 O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  1. Approach to ''Mind'' using functional neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School, Hospital, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    This review mainly describes authors' recent investigations concerning neuroimages approaching to even human ''mind'' using techniques of PET, SPECT and functional MRI (fMRI). Progress of such studies greatly owes to the development of image statistics of the brain like statistical parametric mapping (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/), and brain standards (www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/Imaging/mnispace.html, and ric.uthscsa.edu/projects/talairach daemon.html). The author discusses and presents images in cases of hallucinations (SPECT and H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET), autism (SPECT), sleep, depression, and its therapy by transcaranial magnetic stimulation. These studies are expected to contribute to diagnosis and therapy of endogenous neurological disorders. (T.I.)

  2. The teen brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N

    2008-04-01

    Few parents of a teenager are surprised to hear that the brain of a 16-year-old is different from the brain of an 8-year-old. Yet to pin down these differences in a rigorous scientific way has been elusive. Magnetic resonance imaging, with the capacity to provide exquisitely accurate quantifications of brain anatomy and physiology without the use of ionizing radiation, has launched a new era of adolescent neuroscience. Longitudinal studies of subjects from ages 3-30 years demonstrate a general pattern of childhood peaks of gray matter followed by adolescent declines, functional and structural increases in connectivity and integrative processing, and a changing balance between limbic/subcortical and frontal lobe functions, extending well into young adulthood. Although overinterpretation and premature application of neuroimaging findings for diagnostic purposes remains a risk, converging data from multiple imaging modalities is beginning to elucidate the implications of these brain changes on cognition, emotion, and behavior.

  3. Silent stroke and advance in neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Yasushi; Sadoshima, Seizo; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Saku, Yoshisuke; Fujishima, Masatoshi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Recently, silent strokes are more frequently demonstrated by CT and MRI with the advance of neuroimaging. The infarcted lesions unrelated to the neurological symptoms were detected in 8, 30, 28, 34, 60, 63% of the patients with cerebral infarction in 1977-78, 1982, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, respectively, by CT and/or MRI, and the asymptomatic patients with incidentally diagnosed cerebral infarction were amounted to 16% (8 of 51 cases) in 1988. Of the recent 50 patients with cerebral infarction examined by CT and MRI, asymptomatic cerebrovascular lesions were detected in 25 (50%) by CT and in 35 (70%) by MRI. MRI also revealed asymptomatic old hemorrhage in 7 (14%). The clinical significance of silent stroke was discussed. (author).

  4. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  5. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  6. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHaselgrove

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available.We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing DICOM data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/.

  7. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  8. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Nagaraj, Usha D.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  9. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Neurosurgical procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses: the Tema experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, N B

    2009-05-01

    On account of religious reasons, Jehovah Witnesses do not accept blood or blood products; occasionally, they accept reinfusion of autologous blood via a cell saver during surgery. The aim of this study was to document the demographics of Jehovah Witnesses undergoing neurosurgical procedures, the neurosurgical procedures undertaken in Jehovah Witnesses and to evaluate the complications of the procedures. A retrospective audit of the medical records of all Jehovah's Witnesses who underwent neurosurgical procedures at our institution, from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2006, was carried out. The parameters investigated included demographics, pre and post operative diagnosis, type of neurosurgical procedure and complications. Nineteen patients (fifteen male, four female; male/female 3.8:1) constituted the series. The mean age was 45.8 (range: 20-65) years. A total of 21 procedures were performed; intracranial surgery (33%), spinal surgery (67%). No autotransfusion of blood was given. Lumbar laminectomy for stenosis was the commonest spine procedure, ten (71.4%); craniotomy for tumor excision was the commonest intracranial procedure, six (85.7%). With respect to the whole series, the morbidity rate was 4.7% and the mortality rate was 4.7%; both were from intracranial surgery. It is possible to perform certain types of neurosurgical procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses without increasing the mortality and morbidity rate.

  11. 43 CFR 45.47 - What are the requirements for subpoenas and witness fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and witness fees? 45.47 Section 45.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... § 45.47 What are the requirements for subpoenas and witness fees? (a) Request for subpoena. (1) Except...) Witness fees. (1) A party who subpoenas a witness who is not a party must pay him or her the same fees and...

  12. Some concluding remarks about cold moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the transcription of remarks made at the conclusion of the Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources held at the Los Angeles National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 5--7, 1990. Areas of interest include the following: scattering functions; cold moderator materials; radiation mixing of chemical composition; comparison of some pulsed moderator spectra; hydrogen mixtures; premoderators and shields; composite reflectors; exotic moderator materials; deuterated methanes; mixed moderator materials; and test facility availabilities. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  14. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  15. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  16. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  18. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  19. The experience of art: insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The experience of art is a complex one. It emerges from the interaction of multiple cognitive and affective processes. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies are revealing the broadly distributed network of brain regions upon which it relies. This network can be divided into three functional components: (i) prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions support evaluative judgment, attentional processing, and memory retrieval; (ii) the reward circuit, including cortical, subcortical regions, and some of its regulators, is involved in the generation of pleasurable feelings and emotions, and the valuation and anticipation of reward; and (iii) attentional modulation of activity in low-, mid-, and high-level cortical sensory regions enhances the perceptual processing of certain features, relations, locations, or objects. Understanding how these regions act in concert to produce unique and moving art experiences and determining the impact of personal and cultural meaning and context on this network the biological foundation of the experience of art--remain future challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  1. Dental witness seminars: dentistry in the UK since 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N H F; Gelbier, S

    2016-02-12

    Witness seminars attempt to get behind the scenes of advances and developments to find out what really happened at certain times; they are not intended to provide a detailed history of events. This paper presents highlights from the five John McLean Archive witness seminars, providing an instructional collection of memories and insights into the world of dentistry in the UK since the late 1940s. It is concluded that future change will be seen as a welcome constant to be used for the benefit of the profession and the patients and communities it serves.

  2. Detecting quantum entanglement. Entanglement witnesses and uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guehne, O.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with methods of the detection of entanglement. After recalling some facts and definitions concerning entanglement and separability, we investigate two methods of the detection of entanglement. In the first part of this thesis we consider so-called entanglement witnesses, mainly in view of the detection of multipartite entanglement. Entanglement witnesses are observables for which a negative expectation value indicates entanglement. We first present a simple method to construct these witnesses. Since witnesses are nonlocal observables, they are not easy to measure in a real experiment. However, as we will show, one can circumvent this problem by decomposing the witness into several local observables which can be measured separately. We calculate the local decompositions for several interesting witnesses for two, three and four qubits. Local decompositions can be optimized in the number of measurement settings which are needed for an experimental implementation. We present a method to prove that a given local decomposition is optimal and discuss with this the optimality of our decompositions. Then we present another method of designing witnesses which are by construction measurable with local measurements. Finally, we shortly report on experiments where some of the witnesses derived in this part have been used to detect three- and four-partite entanglement of polarized photons. The second part of this thesis deals with separability criteria which are written in terms of uncertainty relations. There are two different formulations of uncertainty relations since one can measure the uncertainty of an observable by its variance as well as by entropic quantities. We show that both formulations are useful tools for the derivation of separability criteria for finite-dimensional systems and investigate the resulting criteria. Our results in this part exhibit also some more fundamental properties of entanglement: We show how known separability criteria for

  3. ASPECTS OF CRIMINALISTICS TACTICS RELATED TO WITNESS HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Mărgărit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses some aspects related to witness statements, with regard to the actual tactics of hearing witnesses and the hearing of child witnesses. Judicial practice has well shown that giving evidence is the most important phase in the course of the activity carried out by judicial bodies, being the way for determining the facts, for finding the truth in the case referred for settlement. Giving the evidence in a correct and complete way, the value of the administered evidence and its correct and lawful evaluation are decisive for the judicial bodies to come to an intimate belief with regard to the factual reality on which the solution they pronounce should be based, the lawfulness itself of court rulings and other solutions given by the judicial bodies being dependant on these elements. In order to obtain the evidence and make the most of it in a criminal trial, legal activities or operations are necessary to discover it and to present it in a form which is perceptible for the judicial bodies, an aspect which is accomplished by legal means of evidence. Criminal doctrine and judicial practice alike have determined that for finding the truth in a criminal trial, besides the statements made by the suspect or the accused, the statements of the other parties in the trial have an appreciable contribution too. In this context, the contribution of Criminalistics – the science of crime investigation – to establishing the facts in a criminal trial is especially noticeable with the conclusions of forensic examinations and findings. The study put forward reveals some aspects of criminalistics tactics related to witness hearing in a criminal trial, as well as that the result of the investigation depends on how the activity of witness hearing is prepared and the compliance with all procedural rules. At the same time, as Criminalistics supports the witness hearing activity, it develops a particular tactical hearing procedure, starting precisely

  4. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  5. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Terminology development towards harmonizing multiple clinical neuroimaging research repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Pasquerello, Danielle; Turner, Matthew D; Keator, David B; Alpert, Kathryn; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Tallis, Marcelo; Ambite, Jose Luis; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Data sharing and mediation across disparate neuroimaging repositories requires extensive effort to ensure that the different domains of data types are referred to by commonly agreed upon terms. Within the SchizConnect project, which enables querying across decentralized databases of neuroimaging, clinical, and cognitive data from various studies of schizophrenia, we developed a model for each data domain, identified common usable terms that could be agreed upon across the repositories, and linked them to standard ontological terms where possible. We had the goal of facilitating both the current user experience in querying and future automated computations and reasoning regarding the data. We found that existing terminologies are incomplete for these purposes, even with the history of neuroimaging data sharing in the field; and we provide a model for efforts focused on querying multiple clinical neuroimaging repositories.

  7. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  8. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i......-suited for delivering the sort of theoretical guidance that is required for assessing the desirability of using neuroimaging in the work of the criminal court....

  9. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Perforated choledochal cyst in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, V S; Philip, C

    2007-07-01

    Perforation is a rare presentation of a choledochal cyst. The case reported is a 9-month-old female baby with a perforated choledochal cyst. Being a Jehovah's Witness, blood tranfusion was refused. Apart from highlighting this social dilemma, the suitability of a cystojejunostomy as a temporary measure in the above scenario is evaluated and discussed.

  11. The Emotional Child Witness Effect Survives Presentation Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Burrell, Lisa; Eriksen, Maria Olaussen; Magnussen, Svein; Wessel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The emotional witness effect - the phenomenon whereby people are affected by the emotional manner in which a witness presents testimony - constitutes a possible source of wrongful decisions in legal contexts. One stereotypical view of abused children is that they should be sad when talking about their experiences of maltreatment, whereas children may in fact express a variety of emotional expressions when talking about abusive events. This raises the question as to whether there is an optimal mode in which to present child victim testimony that could reduce the possible influence of displayed emotions. In the present study, mock police interviews were carried out with female child actors, role-playing the victims of physical abuse by their stepfather, telling the same story with four emotional expressions (neutral, sad, angry, or positive). Laypersons (N = 465) were presented with the interviews as transcripts with the emotional reactions of the child witness noted, audio recordings, or videotaped recordings. Participants then rated the credibility of the victim witness. Replicating previous results, the "sad" expression elicited the highest credibility ratings across all modes of presentations. Presentation mode affected ratings of credibility, with the transcript versions resulting in the highest ratings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  13. Clinician or Witness? The Intervener's Relationship with Traumatized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, William

    2008-01-01

    To heal the hurt child, one begins not as a clinician but as a person trying to witness how the child experiences trauma. This requires more than just talking since the child's terrifying memories are stored in the brain's senses and visual imagery, not in rational thoughts and words. The goal is to change these frightening sensory experiences…

  14. Affective Responses of Students Who Witness Classroom Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda; Blosser, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    For this study, 82 general psychology students (51 females, 31 males) witnessed a peer cheating while completing a test. Following the incident, we tape recorded semi-structured interviews with each student who saw the cheating event for later analysis. Using qualitative coding and methodology, themes emerged regarding students' emotional…

  15. Targets and Witnesses: Middle School Students' Sexual Harassment Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…

  16. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  17. WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, B.

    2000-01-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals

  18. Children's Lies and Their Detection: Implications for Child Witness Testimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    The veracity of child witness testimony is central to the justice system where there are serious consequences for the child, the accused, and society. Thus, it is important to examine how children's lie-telling abilities develop and the factors that can influence their truthfulness. The current review examines children's lie-telling ability in…

  19. Wits University's response to HIV/AIDS: flagship programme or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS is a threat to the creation of human capital and development prospects in southern Africa and South Africa. The University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) is a well-regarded institution of higher education in Johannesburg. This paper outlines the university's qualified failure to implement its HIV/AIDS Policy through a ...

  20. Exploring the relationship between victims and witnesses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Young people who are victims of, or witnesses to, aggression are at increased risk of developing a psychological disorder and behaving aggressively themselves. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of exposure to aggression in a sample of 1 770 students, aged 15–26 years recruited from technical ...

  1. Some remarks on word formation in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzsche, Hans

    Abstract for the 25th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics Some remarks on wordformation in Danish Some Danish word formation phenomena pose a problem for the linguist, being a predicament for analysis. In Danish a train leaves the station when it afgår ‘leaves’, while a minister may gå af......, there are some patterns for these Danish compounds concerning their internal semantics, in that the same lexical items may be used for different purposes depending on whether they are formed as a straightforward linear sequence (a word formation) or a reversed sequence (a phrase). The problem is (i) how the two...

  2. Some Remarks on Stability of Generalized Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Henrion, R.; Kruger, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2013), s. 681-697 ISSN 0022-3239 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parameterized generalized equation * Regular and limiting coderivative * Constant rank CQ * Mathematical program with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/outrata-some remarks on stability of generalized equations.pdf

  3. Development of REI meetings (concluding remarks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is an honour and a pleasure to deliver the concluding remarks of this Fourth International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators. After commenting upon the present meeting, the genesis of REI conferences, their aims and position relative to related meetings in radiation and ion implantation research will be treated, particularly in order to inform new-comers. The development of the last four REI meetings will be discussed on the base of a statistical analysis. Some recommendations and an outlook of future trends will be given. (orig.)

  4. Chemical physics of electroactive materials: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself."It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline". It is thus reassuring to see how the application of rigorous chemical physics is leading to ingenious new solutions for both energy storage and harvesting, via, for example, nanoactuation, electrowetting, ionic materials and nanoplasmonics. In fact, the same language of chemical physics allows seamless transition between applications as diverse as mechano-electric energy generation, active moisture transport and plasmonic shutters - even the origins of life were addressed in the context of electro-autocatalysis!

  5. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  6. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  7. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  8. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  9. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  10. BETWEEN PSYCHOANALYSIS AND TESTIMONIAL SPACE: THE ANALYST AS A WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondar, Jô

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article is to think of the place of the witness as a third place that the analyst, in the clinical space of trauma, is able to sustain. According to Ferenczi, in traumatic dreams a third is already being summoned. It is not the witness of the realm of law, nor the place of the father or the symbolic law. This is a third space that can be called potential, interstitial space, indeterminate and formless, where something that at first would be incommunicable circulates and gradually takes shape. This space allows and supports the literalness of a testimonial narrative, its hesitations, paradoxes and silences. More than a trauma theory, the notion of a potential space would be the great contribution of psychoanalysis to the treatment of trauma survivors, establishing the difference between the task of a psychoanalyst and the one of a truth commission.

  11. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  12. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852.

  13. Towards New Membrane Flow from de Wit-Nicolai Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub; Woo, Kyungsung

    2011-01-01

    The internal 4-form field strengths with 7-dimensional indices have been constructed by de Wit and Nicolai in 1986. They are determined by the following six quantities: the 56-bein of 4-dimensional N=8 gauged supergravity, the Killing vectors on the round seven-sphere, the covariant derivative acting on these Killing vectors, the warp factor, the field strengths with 4-dimensional indices and the 7-dimensional metric. In this paper, by projecting out the remaining mixed 4-form field strengths...

  14. Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent.

  15. Alleged child sexual abuse : The expert witness and the court

    OpenAIRE

    Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2001-01-01

    Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...

  16. Entanglement witnessing and quantum cryptography with nonideal ferromagnetic detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kłobus, Waldemar; Grudka, Andrzej; Baumgartner, Andreas; Tomaszewski, Damian; Schönenberger, Christian; Martinek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the use of non-ideal ferromagnetic contacts as a mean to detect quantum entanglement of electron spins in transport experiments. We use a designated entanglement witness and find a minimal spin polarization of $\\eta > 1/\\sqrt{3} \\approx 58 %$ required to demonstrate spin entanglement. This is significantly less stringent than the ubiquitous tests of Bell's inequality with $\\eta > 1/\\sqrt[4]{2}\\approx 84%$. In addition, we discuss the impact of decoherence and nois...

  17. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  18. Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Leff, Daniel R; James, David R C; Darzi, Ara W; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis (ICNNA) software tool for functional near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging data. ICNNA is a MATLAB-based object-oriented framework encompassing an application programming interface and a graphical user interface. ICNNA incorporates reconstruction based on the modified Beer-Lambert law and basic processing and data validation capabilities. Emphasis is placed on the full experiment rather than individual neuroimages as the central element of analysis. The software offers three types of analyses including classical statistical methods based on comparison of changes in relative concentrations of hemoglobin between the task and baseline periods, graph theory-based metrics of connectivity and, distinctively, an analysis approach based on manifold embedding. This paper presents the different capabilities of ICNNA in its current version.

  19. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  20. [Gynaecological surgery of Jehovah´s Witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, M; Pilka, R; Hansmanová, L

    2013-06-01

    To present experience with surgical treatment of various gynaecological diseases in patients belonging to the Church of Jehova´s Witness. DESIGNE: Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Palacky University Olomouc, Institute of Health Care Studies, Faculty of Humanity Studies, Thomas Bata University, Zlín. The study included 24 patients belonging to the Church of Jehova´s Witness who reject blood tranfusion. The operations in these patients were performed for malignant as well as nonmalignant gynaecological disorders which could not be treated by conservative therapeutic procedures. The operation records were analysed and evaluated according to a set of criteria including the type of surgical procedure, estimated amount of blood loss, postoperative complications and the outcome of surgical treatment. Jehovas´s Witnesses represent a risk group of patients considering their refusal of blood transfusion. The indication for the operation and its performing is responsible decision which always inherits a certain degrese of risk. On the other hand, when adhering to the principles of bloodless surgery, the therapeutic results are very good and in the properly indicated cases the scope of risk is acceptable.

  1. [Reliability of iWitness photogrammetry in maxillofacial application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengcheng; Song, Qinggao; He, Wei; Chen, Shang; Hong, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to test the accuracy and precision of iWitness photogrammetry for measuring the facial tissues of mannequin head. Under ideal circumstances, the 3D landmark coordinates were repeatedly obtained from a mannequin head using iWitness photogrammetric system with different parameters, to examine the precision of this system. The differences between the 3D data and their true distance values of mannequin head were computed. Operator error of 3D system in non-zoom and zoom status were 0.20 mm and 0.09 mm, and the difference was significant (P 0.05). Image captured error of 3D system was 0.283 mm, and there was no significant difference compared with the same group of images (P>0.05). Error of 3D systen with recalibration was 0.251 mm, and the difference was not statistically significant compared with image captured error (P>0.05). Good congruence was observed between means derived from the 3D photos and direct anthropometry, with difference ranging from -0.4 mm to +0.4 mm. This study provides further evidence of the high reliability of iWitness photogrammetry for several craniofacial measurements, including landmarks and inter-landmark distances. The evaluated system can be recommended for the evaluation and documentation of the facial surface.

  2. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.

  3. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by the...

  4. Nonlinear entanglement witnesses, covariance matrices and the geometry of separable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Entanglement witnesses provide a standard tool for the analysis of entanglement in experiments. We investigate possible nonlinear entanglement witnesses from several perspectives. First, we demonstrate that they can be used to show that the set of separable states has no facets. Second, we give a new derivation of nonlinear witnesses based on covariance matrices. Finally, we investigate extensions to the multipartite case.

  5. The Kitty Genovese Murder and the Social Psychology of Helping: The Parable of the 38 Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Rachel; Levine, Mark; Collins, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that an iconic event in the history of helping research--the story of the 38 witnesses who remained inactive during the murder of Kitty Genovese--is not supported by the available evidence. Using archive material, the authors show that there is no evidence for the presence of 38 witnesses, or that witnesses observed the murder,…

  6. 50 CFR 221.47 - What are the requirements for subpoenas and witness fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and witness fees? 221.47 Section 221.47 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... requirements for subpoenas and witness fees? (a) Request for subpoena. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a... return it to the party on whose behalf the subpoena was served. (c) Witness fees. (1) A party who...

  7. On the importance of considering heterogeneity in witnesses' competence levels when reconstructing crimes from multiple witness testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Greving, Sven; Aßfalg, André; Musch, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    Aggregating information across multiple testimonies may improve crime reconstructions. However, different aggregation methods are available, and research on which method is best suited for aggregating multiple observations is lacking. Furthermore, little is known about how variance in the accuracy of individual testimonies impacts the performance of competing aggregation procedures. We investigated the superiority of aggregation-based crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies and whether this superiority varied as a function of the number of witnesses and the degree of heterogeneity in witnesses' ability to accurately report their observations. Moreover, we examined whether heterogeneity in competence levels differentially affected the relative accuracy of two aggregation procedures: a simple majority rule, which ignores individual differences, and the more complex general Condorcet model (Romney et al., Am Anthropol 88(2):313-338, 1986; Batchelder and Romney, Psychometrika 53(1):71-92, 1988), which takes into account differences in competence between individuals. 121 participants viewed a simulated crime and subsequently answered 128 true/false questions about the crime. We experimentally generated groups of witnesses with homogeneous or heterogeneous competences. Both the majority rule and the general Condorcet model provided more accurate reconstructions of the observed crime than individual testimonies. The superiority of aggregated crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies increased with an increasing number of witnesses. Crime reconstructions were most accurate when competences were heterogeneous and aggregation was based on the general Condorcet model. We argue that a formal aggregation should be considered more often when eyewitness testimonies have to be assessed and that the general Condorcet model provides a good framework for such aggregations.

  8. The end of a remarkable era

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    An important era in particle physics is coming to an end: the US Department of Energy announced on Monday that it will not fund an extension to Tevatron running beyond 2011. It is a poignant moment for particle physics as we prepare to bid farewell to a machine that has changed our view of the Universe, and played a significant role in paving the way for the new era that is opening up with the LHC.   The Tevatron has been at the high-energy frontier of particle physics for over a quarter of a century. That’s a remarkable achievement by any account, and the physics results are there to prove it. As well as bringing us the discovery of the top quark in 1995, the Tevatron’s experiments have provided vitally important precision measurements covering the full spectrum of Standard Model physics, not to mention hints of what may lie beyond. With several months of running still to come, it would be a foolish gambler who bet against further new physics emerging before the Teva...

  9. Remarks on theoretical hot-atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, Mitio

    1993-01-01

    The publication of the 'Handbook of Hot Atom Chemistry', following the earlier volume 'Recent Trend and Application', was a major milestone in physical chemistry. Theoretical treatments of hot atom chemistry must address two classes of problems. The first class concerns the individual collisions of hot atoms with other atoms or molecules. The second class concerns the description of the consequences of the many collisions of hot atoms and their chemical environment. Most of the remarks pertain to the problems of the first class. The central issue is the adiabaticity of nuclear motions versus electronic motions. To be precise, any atomic core motion should be mentioned rather than pure nuclear motion, because tightly bound core electrons are largely irrelevant to the chemistry. When nuclear motions are sufficiently slow, or for other reasons that can be regarded as adiabatic, the collision problem is basically straightforward, therefore, interatomic and intermolecular forces can be assumed, and their consequences for nuclear motions are calculable in principle. In the case of non-adiabaticity being important, much more difficult problems arise, and it is briefly discussed, and the work by Phelps is cited. (K.I.)

  10. Single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulst, Niek F

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is all about molecules: control, synthesis, interaction and reaction of molecules. All too easily on a blackboard, one draws molecules, their structures and dynamics, to create an insightful picture. The dream is to see these molecules in reality. This is exactly what "Single Molecule Detection" provides: a look at molecules in action at ambient conditions; a breakthrough technology in chemistry, physics and biology. Within the realms of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussion on "Single Molecule Microscopy and Spectroscopy" was a very appropriate topic for presentation, deliberation and debate. Undoubtedly, the Faraday Discussions have a splendid reputation in stimulating scientific debates along the traditions set by Michael Faraday. Interestingly, back in the 1830's, Faraday himself pursued an experiment that led to the idea that atoms in a compound were joined by an electrical component. He placed two opposite electrodes in a solution of water containing a dissolved compound, and observed that one of the elements of the compound accumulated on one electrode, while the other was deposited on the opposite electrode. Although Faraday was deeply opposed to atomism, he had to recognize that electrical forces were responsible for the joining of atoms. Probably a direct view on the atoms or molecules in his experiment would have convinced him. As such, Michael Faraday might have liked the gathering at Burlington House in September 2015 (). Surely, with the questioning eyes of his bust on the 1st floor corridor, the non-believer Michael Faraday has incited each passer-by to enter into discussion and search for deeper answers at the level of single molecules. In these concluding remarks, highlights of the presented papers and discussions are summarized, complemented by a conclusion on future perspectives.

  11. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  12. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  13. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  14. SHIWA workflow interoperability solutions for neuroimaging data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to

  15. Porcupine : A visual pipeline tool for neuroimaging analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Tim; Snoek, Lukas; Knapen, T; Norris, David G

    The field of neuroimaging is rapidly adopting a more reproducible approach to data acquisition and analysis. Data structures and formats are being standardised and data analyses are getting more automated. However, as data analysis becomes more complicated, researchers often have to write longer

  16. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  17. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  18. 25 years of neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which a precise cause has not yet been identified. Standard CT or MRI evaluation does not demonstrate gross structural nervous system changes in ALS, so conventional neuroimaging techniques have provided little insight into the pathophysiology of this disease. Advanced neuroimaging techniques—such as structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy—allow evaluation of alterations of the nervous system in ALS. These alterations include focal loss of grey and white matter and reductions in white matter tract integrity, as well as changes in neural networks and in the chemistry, metabolism and receptor distribution in the brain. Given their potential for investigation of both brain structure and function, advanced neuroimaging methods offer important opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and direct future treatment strategies in ALS. In this article, we review the contributions made by various advanced neuroimaging techniques to our understanding of the impact of ALS on different brain regions, and the potential role of such measures in biomarker development. PMID:23917850

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Cleare, Anthony J; Herane, Andrés; Young, Allan H; Arnone, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, "machine learning" methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level.

  20. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  1. Neuroimaging in psychiatric pharmacogenetics research: the promise and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-11-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment.

  2. Functional neuroimaging of emotional learning and autonomic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Martin; Herpers, Martin; Spreer, Joachim; Hennig, Jürgen; Zentner, Josef

    2006-06-01

    This article provides a selective overview of the functional neuroimaging literature with an emphasis on emotional activation processes. Emotions are fast and flexible response systems that provide basic tendencies for adaptive action. From the range of involved component functions, we first discuss selected automatic mechanisms that control basic adaptational changes. Second, we illustrate how neuroimaging work has contributed to the mapping of the network components associated with basic emotion families (fear, anger, disgust, happiness), and secondary dimensional concepts that organise the meaning space for subjective experience and verbal labels (emotional valence, activity/intensity, approach/withdrawal, etc.). Third, results and methodological difficulties are discussed in view of own neuroimaging experiments that investigated the component functions involved in emotional learning. The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and striatum form a network of reciprocal connections that show topographically distinct patterns of activity as a correlate of up and down regulation processes during an emotional episode. Emotional modulations of other brain systems have attracted recent research interests. Emotional neuroimaging calls for more representative designs that highlight the modulatory influences of regulation strategies and socio-cultural factors responsible for inhibitory control and extinction. We conclude by emphasising the relevance of the temporal process dynamics of emotional activations that may provide improved prediction of individual differences in emotionality.

  3. Attention to spoken word planning: Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  4. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  5. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on v...

  6. The Emergence of the Infrared Transient VVV-WIT-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Forster, F.; Pignata, G.; Ivanov, V. D.; Lucas, P. W.; Beamin, J. C.; Borissova, J.; Catelan, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Hempel, M.; Hsiao, E.; Kurtev, R.; Majaess, D.; Masetti, N.; Morrell, N. I.; Phillips, M. M.; Pullen, J. B.; Rejkuba, M.; Smith, L.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.

    2017-11-01

    We report the discovery of an enigmatic large-amplitude ({{Δ }}{Ks}> 10.5 mag) transient event in near-IR data obtained by the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) ESO Public Survey. The object (designated VVV-WIT-06) is located at R.A. = 17:07:18.917, decl. = -39:06:26.45 (J2000), corresponding to Galactic coordinates l = 347.14539, b = 0.88522. It exhibits a clear eruption, peaking at Ks = 9 mag during 2013 July and fading to {Ks}˜ 16.5 in 2017. Our late near-IR spectra show post-outburst emission lines, including some broad emission lines (upward of {FWHM}˜ 3000 km s-1). We estimate a total extinction of {A}V=10{--}15 mag in the surrounding field, and no progenitor was observed in ZYJHKs images obtained during 2010-2012 (down to {K}s> 18.5 mag). Subsequent deep near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, in concert with the available multiband photometry, indicate that VVV-WIT-06 may be either: (I) the closest Type I SN observed in about 400 years, (II) an exotic high-amplitude nova that would extend the known realm of such objects, or (III) a stellar merger. In all of these cases, VVV-WIT-06 is a fascinating and curious astrophysical target under any of the scenarios considered. Based on observations taken within the ESO programmes 179.B-2002 and 298.D-5048, and on observations carried out at the Magellan Telescope at LCO.

  7. Efficient linear criterion for witnessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nonlocality under many-setting local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.

  8. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  10. Blood transfusion in jehovah's witnesses, a dilemma in medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gutierrez-Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The provision of health services should be carried attached to the scientific and ethical principles of medicine. The negative to accept blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses, when indicated, determines a conflict and a challenge for physicians. We discuss concepts related to this complex situation, including: Freedom of religion and belief, patients’ rights, regulatory framework that applies to providers of health services and medical rights. Which should be taken into account in these situations to make an informed decision from the legal and ethical point of view.

  11. Entanglement witnessing and quantum cryptography with nonideal ferromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłobus, Waldemar; Grudka, Andrzej; Baumgartner, Andreas; Tomaszewski, Damian; Schönenberger, Christian; Martinek, Jan

    2014-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the use of nonideal ferromagnetic contacts as a means to detect quantum entanglement of electron spins in transport experiments. We use a designated entanglement witness and find a minimal spin polarization of η >1/√3 ≈58% required to demonstrate spin entanglement. This is significantly less stringent than the ubiquitous tests of Bell's inequality with η >1/√24 >≈84%. In addition, we discuss the impact of decoherence and noise on entanglement detection and apply the presented framework to a simple quantum cryptography protocol. Our results are directly applicable to a large variety of experiments.

  12. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  13. Trauma, forgiveness and the witnessing dance: making public spaces intimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla

    2008-04-01

    In this paper I explore the concept of forgiveness as a response to gross human rights violations. I present a conceptual examination of the effects of massive trauma in relation to what I refer to as the 'unfinished business' of trauma. Using a psychoanalytic framework, I consider the process of 'bearing witness' about trauma and examine how this process opens up the possibility of reciprocal expressions of empathy between victim and perpetrator. I then argue that, in this context of trauma testimony and witnessing, empathy is essential for the development of remorse on the part of perpetrators, and of forgiveness on the part of victims. Using a case study from South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) I clarify the relationship between empathy and forgiveness, and show how the restorative model of the TRC can open up an ethical space and create the possibility of transformation for victims, perpetrators and bystanders. In my conclusion I suggest that forgiveness in politics is the only action that holds promise for the repair of brokenness in post-conflict societies, particularly if, as in South Africa, victims have to live together with perpetrators and beneficiaries in the same country.

  14. Assembly Line Efficiency Improvement by Using WITNESS Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, A. S. H. M.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.

    2018-03-01

    In the nowadays-competitive world, efficiencies and the productivity of the assembly line are essential in manufacturing company. This paper demonstrates the study of the existing production line performance. The actual cycle time observed and recorded during the working process. The current layout was designed and analysed using Witness simulation software. The productivity and effectiveness for every single operator are measured to determine the operator idle time and busy time. Two new alternatives layout were proposed and analysed by using Witness simulation software to improve the performance of production activities. This research provided valuable and better understanding of production effectiveness by adjusting the line balancing. After analysing the data, simulation result from the current layout and the proposed plan later been tabulated to compare the improved efficiency and productivity. The proposed design plan has shown an increase in yield and productivity compared to the current arrangement. This research has been carried out in company XYZ, which is one of the automotive premises in Pahang, Malaysia.

  15. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: Its geometric quantification and witness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Huan-Yu; Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Miranowicz, Adam; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2018-02-01

    We propose a measure of quantum steerability, namely, a convex steering monotone, based on the trace distance between a given assemblage and its corresponding closest assemblage admitting a local-hidden-state (LHS) model. We provide methods to estimate such a quantity, via lower and upper bounds, based on semidefinite programming. One of these upper bounds has a clear geometrical interpretation as a linear function of rescaled Euclidean distances in the Bloch sphere between the normalized quantum states of (i) a given assemblage and (ii) an LHS assemblage. For a qubit-qubit quantum state, these ideas also allow us to visualize various steerability properties of the state in the Bloch sphere via the so-called LHS surface. In particular, some steerability properties can be obtained by comparing such an LHS surface with a corresponding quantum steering ellipsoid. Thus, we propose a witness of steerability corresponding to the difference of the volumes enclosed by these two surfaces. This witness (which reveals the steerability of a quantum state) enables one to find an optimal measurement basis, which can then be used to determine the proposed steering monotone (which describes the steerability of an assemblage) optimized over all mutually unbiased bases.

  16. The voices of victims and witnesses of school bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Wet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a stronger demand from the South African public to reduce school violence than at present. The demand for safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. However, it appears from newspaper reports that some of the role players are not willing to listen to the victims of bullying. The aim of this article is to give a voice to some of the victims, as well as those witnessing school bullying. This article reports on findings from an investigation of the experiences of a group of Free State learners who were witnesses and victims of bullying. The research instrument was the Delaware Bullying Questionnaire. The first important conclusion from this study was that bullying was a serious problem in some Free State schools. Secondly, it was found that the respondents were more often the victims of male than of female bullies. Thirdly, the quantitative data indicated that the majority of victims were bullied by learners who were in the same grade as they were. The qualitative data, however, revealed that the bullying of Grade 8 learners by Grade 12 learners seems to be a fairly common occurrence. Finally, some comments and recommendations are made.

  17. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365

  18. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  20. Predicting Age Using Neuroimaging: Innovative Brain Ageing Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Franke, Katja

    2017-12-01

    The brain changes as we age and these changes are associated with functional deterioration and neurodegenerative disease. It is vital that we better understand individual differences in the brain ageing process; hence, techniques for making individualised predictions of brain ageing have been developed. We present evidence supporting the use of neuroimaging-based 'brain age' as a biomarker of an individual's brain health. Increasingly, research is showing how brain disease or poor physical health negatively impacts brain age. Importantly, recent evidence shows that having an 'older'-appearing brain relates to advanced physiological and cognitive ageing and the risk of mortality. We discuss controversies surrounding brain age and highlight emerging trends such as the use of multimodality neuroimaging and the employment of 'deep learning' methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  2. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  3. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  5. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  6. Nervous System Injury and Neuroimaging of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yu; Lerner, Alexander; Gao, Bo; Law, Meng

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, World Health Organization announced Zika virus infection and its neurological sequalae are a public health emergency of global scope. Preliminary studies have confirmed a relationship between Zika virus infection and certain neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). The neuroimaging features of microcephaly secondary to Zika virus infection include calcifications at the junction of gray–white matter and subcortical white matter with associated cortical abnormalities, diminution of white matter, large ventricles with or without hydrocephalus, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of cerebellum and brainstem, and enlargement of cerebellomedullary cistern. Contrast enhancement of the cauda equine nerve roots is the typical neuroimaging finding of GBS associated with Zika virus. This review describes the nervous system disorders and associated imaging findings seen in Zika virus infection, with the aim to improve the understanding of this disease. Imaging plays a key role on accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this disease. PMID:29740383

  7. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders.

  8. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...... allows for mass meta-analysis, e.g., meta-analysis across multiple brain regions and multiple mental disorders providing an overview of important relationships and their uncertainties in a collaborative environment....

  9. Neuroimaging in aging: brain maintenance [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nyberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of the aging brain provide support that the strongest predictor of preserved memory and cognition in older age is brain maintenance, or relative lack of brain pathology. Evidence for brain maintenance comes from different levels of examination, but up to now relatively few studies have used a longitudinal design. Examining factors that promote brain maintenance in aging is a critical task for the future and may be combined with the use of new techniques for multimodal imaging.

  10. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  11. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  12. Making Individual Prognoses in Psychiatry Using Neuroimaging and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ronald J; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Schnack, Hugo G

    2018-04-22

    Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality. Machine-learning techniques are especially suited to tackle this challenging problem. This review starts with a brief introduction to machine learning in the context of its application to clinical neuroimaging data. We highlight a few issues that are especially relevant for prediction of outcome and transition using neuroimaging. We then review the literature that discusses the application of machine learning for this purpose. Critical examination of the studies and their results with respect to the relevant issues revealed the following: 1) there is growing evidence for the prognostic capability of machine-learning-based models using neuroimaging; and 2) reported accuracies may be too optimistic owing to small sample sizes and the lack of independent test samples. Finally, we discuss options to improve the reliability of (prognostic) prediction models. These include new methodologies and multimodal modeling. Paramount, however, is our conclusion that future work will need to provide properly (cross-)validated accuracy estimates of models trained on sufficiently large datasets. Nevertheless, with the technological advances enabling acquisition of large databases of patients and healthy subjects, machine learning represents a powerful tool in the search for psychiatric biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroimaging in human MDMA (Ecstasy) users: A cortical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ronald L; Roberts, Deanne M; Joers, James M

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been used by millions of people worldwide as a recreational drug. MDMA and Ecstasy are often used synonymously but it is important to note that the purity of Ecstasy sold as MDMA is not certain. MDMA use is of public health concern, not so much because MDMA produces a common or severe dependence syndrome, but rather because rodent and non-human primate studies have indicated that MDMA (when administered at certain dosages and intervals) can cause long-lasting reductions in markers of brain serotonin (5-HT) that appear specific to fine diameter axons arising largely from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Given the popularity of MDMA, the potential for the drug to produce long-lasting or permanent 5-HT axon damage or loss, and the widespread role of 5-HT function in the brain, there is a great need for a better understanding of brain function in human users of this drug. To this end, neuropsychological, neuroendocrine, and neuroimaging studies have all suggested that human MDMA users may have long-lasting changes in brain function consistent with 5-HT toxicity. Data from animal models leads to testable hypotheses regarding MDMA effects on the human brain. Because neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings have focused on the neocortex, a cortical model is developed to provide context for designing and interpreting neuroimaging studies in MDMA users. Aspects of the model are supported by the available neuroimaging data but there are controversial findings in some areas and most findings have not been replicated across different laboratories and using different modalities. This paper reviews existing findings in the context of a cortical model and suggests directions for future research. PMID:18991874

  14. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Uduak E Williams; Ekanem E Philip Ephraim; Sidney K Oparah

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of demen...

  15. The Power of Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Screening Frontotemporal Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, Philip; Ungar, Lyle; Trojanowski, John Q.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease that can result from either frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. It is critical to establish statistically powerful biomarkers that can achieve substantial cost-savings and increase feasibility of clinical trials. We assessed three broad categories of neuroimaging methods to screen underlying FTLD and AD pathology in a clinical FTD series: global ...

  16. Functional neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruimin

    2001-01-01

    Dementing illnesses comprise Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, Multi-infarct dementia (MID) and other neurological disorders. These diseases have different clinical characters respectively. Neuropsychological examinations can help to diagnose and differential diagnose dementias. The development of neuroimaging dementias is more and more rapid. 18 F-FDG PET method shows neo-cortical hypometabolism occurring in the biparietal-temporal lobes and left-right asymmetry of AD patients in the early stage. It can also differential diagnose Ad from other dementias

  17. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  18. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  19. Longitudinal Associations in Youth Involvement as Victimized, Bullying, or Witnessing Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Mishna, Faye

    2018-04-01

    Although cyberbullying has been linked to cyber victimization, it is unknown whether witnessing cyberbullying impacts and is impacted by experiences of cyberbullying and victimization. In the current study, we examine the frequency of youth involved as victimized, bullying, and witnessing cyberbullying and how these experiences are associated across three academic years. Participants comprised 670 Canadian students who began the longitudinal study in grades 4, 7, or 10 at Time 1 (T1). Cyber witnessing represented the largest role of youth involvement in cyberbullying. Cyber witnessing was positively associated with both cyberbullying and victimization. Cyber victimization at T1 was positively associated with cyber witnessing at T2, which was positively related to both cyberbullying and victimization at T3. Findings highlight the significance of addressing the role of cyber witnesses in cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. Witnessing Partner Violence: Exploring the Role of Partner Preferences on Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Yanes, José M; Ramírez-Santana, Gustavo

    2015-06-02

    Research has shown that witnessing partner violence (WPV) increases the likelihood of experiencing or perpetrating violence in later romantic relationships, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. This study examines the relationships between preference for unsuitable partners and teen dating violence (TDV) among adolescents who have witnessed parental violence or not. Attachment was also considered. Participants were 356 adolescents, both witnesses and non-witnesses of partner violence. Results showed no difference in preferences (for good, risky, or loving partners) between the two groups. However, preference for unsuitable partners did significantly predict TDV perpetration and victimization, but only among witnesses. Also, loving-partner preference moderates the relationship between WPV and TDV perpetration among highly avoidant witnesses. Findings indicate a new avenue for prevention through targeting partner preferences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed. (author)

  2. Neuroimaging Studies Illustrate the Commonalities Between Ageing and Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H

    2018-07-01

    The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis. In reviewing this field, I conclude that such observations could have important implications, suggesting that we should shift experimental paradigm: away from characterizing the average case-control brain differences resulting from a disease toward methods that place individuals in their age-appropriate context. This will also lead naturally to clinical applications, whereby neuroimaging can contribute to a personalized-medicine approach to improve brain health. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D.; Donahue, Kathleen L.; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J.R.J.; McIntosh, Elissa C.; Mocking, Steven J.; Dalca, Adrian V.; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kittner, Steven J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI–GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. Methods: MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions: The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment. PMID:28852707

  4. [Recent progress of neuroimaging studies on sleeping brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuka

    2012-06-01

    Although sleep is a familiar phenomenon, its functions are yet to be elucidated. Understanding these functions of sleep is an important focus area in neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been the predominantly used method in human sleep research but does not provide detailed spatial information about brain activation during sleep. To supplement the spatial information provided by this method, researchers have started using a combination of EEG and various advanced neuroimaging techniques that have been recently developed, including positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we will review the recent progress in sleep studies, especially studies that have used such advanced neuroimaging techniques. First, we will briefly introduce several neuroimaging techniques available for use in sleep studies. Next, we will review the spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the dynamics of functional connectivity during sleep, and the consolidation of learning and memory during sleep; studies on the neural correlates of dreams, which have not yet been identified, will also be discussed. Lastly, possible directions for future research in this area will be discussed.

  5. The witness indiscreet window: Primo Levi and surrealism after Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Basevi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primo Levi, renowned for his testimony of Nazi camp (If This Is a Man, 1947, published a collection of short stories entitled “Natural Tales”. He uses the surrealistic elements and plots to imagine the paradoxical consequences of human rationality. “Angelic Butterfly” relates to the theme of genetic experiments during Nazism and stands out for horror elements and drama. This tale’s re­lation to the post-Auschwitz reflection lies firstly in its structure which raises the question of the wit­ness; secondly, in the uncertain effect of the “imaginable” as it questions the fragile boundary be­tween real, possible and fantastic; thirdly in the narrative organization based on the connection of the ideas of trace, fragment and testimony. In my analysis I will expose how this text is marked by one of the most traumatic events of the twentieth century.

  6. A quantitative witness for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Along with the vast progress in experimental quantum technologies there is an increasing demand for the quantification of entanglement between three or more quantum systems. Theory still does not provide adequate tools for this purpose. The objective is, besides the quest for exact results, to develop operational methods that allow for efficient entanglement quantification. Here we put forward an analytical approach that serves both these goals. We provide a simple procedure to quantify Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type multipartite entanglement in arbitrary three-qubit states. For two qubits this method is equivalent to Wootters' seminal result for the concurrence. It establishes a close link between entanglement quantification and entanglement detection by witnesses, and can be generalised both to higher dimensions and to more than three parties.

  7. Witness and nonwitness children's violent and peaceful behavior in different types of simulated conflict with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie; Clayton, Claudia J; Hendrix, Suzanne B

    2007-04-01

    The violent and peaceful behaviors of 115 children who had or had not witnessed domestic violence were measured in five types of simulated conflict. Witnesses did not differ from nonwitnesses in conflicts involving limited resources, jealousy over possessions, or intimidation; witnesses were significantly more violent in conflicts involving aggression and exclusion. The most violent responses were found among abusers' sons who had been excluded by peers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-08-01

    The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected.

  9. Witness memory and alcohol: The effects of state-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber Compo, Nadja; Carol, Rolando N; Evans, Jacqueline R; Pimentel, Pamela; Holness, Howard; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Rose, Stefan; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-04-01

    Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition. They recalled a witnessed mock crime using open ended and cued recall formats. After a delay, witnesses intoxicated at both encoding and retrieval provided less accurate information than witnesses in sober or placebo groups at both times. There was no advantage of state-dependent memory but intoxicated witnesses were best when recalling immediately compared to 1 week later (sober, placebo, or reintoxicated). Findings have direct implications for the timing of intoxicated witnesses' interviews such that moderately intoxicated witnesses may not benefit from a sobering delay but rather, should be interviewed immediately. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    York Hotel and Towers, New York, NY, 25 September 2012), accessed 21 March 2015, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/2012/09/ 25/remarks...with law enforcement for greater societal good will not come before the satisfaction of more basic human survival needs, including protection from...of Homeland Security (DHS) DHS: Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Investigations (22 U.S.C. 7110(i)) $18.0 $10.0 DHS: Human Smuggling and

  11. Experience in working with volunteers as providers of support to victims and witnesses in victim and witness support departments at the courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer-Vidmar Nikica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey on the experience of engaging volunteers as providers of support for victims and witnesses in Victim and Witness Support Departments at the courts. The Independent Service for Victim and Witness Support in Ministry of Justice is responsible for the development of the victim and witness support system in Croatia. The Independent Service also coordinates the work of Victim and Witness Support Departments and develops and provides training programs and supervision for support officers and volunteers. A survey was conducted in order to determine volunteer motivation, assess the volunteers’ required qualities, their educational needs, the emotional impact arising from the work with victims and witnesses and the volunteers‘ assessment of the level of acceptance by court officials. In order to improve the level of safety of volunteers and the organization itself, the selection and educational processes for volunteers have been improved, according to both the experience achieved by working with volunteers and the results of the aforementioned survey. Engaging volunteers in the judicial system is a large step forward in the field of co-operation between the judiciary and the community.

  12. What do people with dementia and their carers want to know about neuroimaging for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Hannah; Butler, Marie-Louise; Ciblis, Aurelia; Bokde, Arun L; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging forms an important part of dementia diagnosis. Provision of information on neuroimaging to people with dementia and their carers may aid understanding of the pathological, physiological and psychosocial changes of the disease, and increase understanding of symptoms. This qualitative study aimed to investigate participants' knowledge of the dementia diagnosis pathway, their understanding of neuroimaging and its use in diagnosis, and to determine content requirements for a website providing neuroimaging information. Structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with carers and people with dementia. The findings demonstrate an unmet need for information on neuroimaging both before and after the examination. Carers were keen to know about neuroimaging at a practical and technical level to help avoid diagnosis denial. People with dementia requested greater information, but with a caveat to avoid overwhelming detail, and were less likely to favour an Internet resource.

  13. Child-Witnesses of Domestic Violence: The Evolution of a Counseling Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth Heather

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative research design was used to explore the processes by which four child-witnesses of domestic violence made meaning of their experiences in a counseling group. A specific aim of this study was to determine if there were stages of group development that occurred in the counseling group with four young child-witnesses of domestic…

  14. Witnessing in the New Memory Ecology : Memory Construction of the Syrian Conflict on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Pieter Hendrik; Broersma, Marcel; Heinrich, Ansgard

    2017-01-01

    With the pervasiveness of mobile technologies, witnesses have the opportunity to mediate up-close and seemingly truthful recordings of events. As such, “witness videos” have become prominent in news reports and serve as authoritative resources in the construction of memory. However, once they are

  15. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  16. 29 CFR 4003.55 - Opportunity to appear and to present witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity to appear and to present witnesses. 4003.55 Section 4003.55 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL RULES FOR ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW OF AGENCY DECISIONS Administrative Appeals § 4003.55 Opportunity to appear and to present witnesses. (a) At the...

  17. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  18. 26 CFR 301.7610-1 - Fees and costs for witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees and costs for witnesses. 301.7610-1... Examination and Inspection § 301.7610-1 Fees and costs for witnesses. (a) Introduction. Section 7610 provides..., these fees are considered to be directly incurred by the summoned third party. (2) Reproduction cost...

  19. 13 CFR 142.25 - Can a party or witness object to discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discovery? 142.25 Section 142.25 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.25 Can a party or witness object to discovery? Any party or prospective witness may file a motion to quash a subpoena or to limit discovery or the...

  20. 6 CFR 13.22 - Exchange of witness lists, Statements, and exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exchange of witness lists, Statements, and exhibits. 13.22 Section 13.22 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.22 Exchange of witness lists, Statements, and exhibits. (a) At least 15...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7602-1 - Examination of books and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of books and witnesses. 301.7602-1... Examination and Inspection § 301.7602-1 Examination of books and witnesses. (a) In general. For the purpose of... officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service may examine any books, papers, records or other data...

  2. Poor Agreement Among Expert Witnesses in Bile Duct Injury Malpractice Litigation An Expert Panel Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, Philip R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. Background Data: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modem surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to

  3. Poor agreement among expert witnesses in bile duct injury malpractice litigation: an expert panel survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, P.R. de; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Gevers, S.K.; Gouma, D.J.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Cuesta, M.A.; Erp, W.F. van; Gerritsen, J.; Hesselink, E.J.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Lange, J. de; Obertop, H.; Stassen, L.P.; Terpstra, O.T.; Tilanus, H.W.; Vroonhoven, T.J.; Wit, L. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. BACKGROUND DATA: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modern surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to

  4. Maternal Mortality and Serious Maternal Morbidity in Jehovah's Witnesses in The Netherlands EDITORIAL COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Refusal of blood by women with major obstetric hemorrhage who are Jehovah's witnesses increases their risk of maternal death. This retrospective study of case notes assessed the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality from major obstetric hemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses. The data was obtained

  5. Reflexive awareness, transcendence and witnessing - in contemplative awareness cultures in school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    The paper presents reflections about contemplative education as a way to learn openness and witnessing phenomena of the mind and of lived experiences of oneself and others. The reflections include concepts of transcendence and witnessing and results from a qualitative study of contemplative educa...... and to adopt an open and reflective self-perception and understanding of others....

  6. Neuroimaging: do we really need new contrast agents for MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.P.L.; Chuang, N.; Roberts, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The use of exogenous contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has brought dramatic improvement in the sensitivity of detection and delineation of pathological structures, such as primary and metastatic brain tumors, inflammation and ischemia. Disruption of the blood brain barrier leads to accumulation of the intravenously injected contrast material in the extravascular space, leading to signal enhancement. Magnetic resonance angiography benefits from T 1 -shortening effects of contrast agent, improving small vessel depiction and providing vascular visualization even in situations of slow flow. High speed dynamic MRI after bolus injection of contrast media allows tracer kinetic modeling of cerebral perfusion. Progressive enhancement over serial post-contrast imaging allows modeling of vascular permeability and thus quantitative estimation of the severity of blood brain barrier disruption. With such an array of capabilities and ever improving technical abilities, it seems that the role of contrast agents in MR neuroimaging is established and the development of new agents may be superfluous. However, new agents are being developed with prolonged intravascular residence times, and with in-vivo binding of ever-increasing specificity. Intravascular, or blood pool, agents are likely to benefit magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid and cerebral vessels; future agents may allow the visualization of therapeutic drug delivery, the monitoring of, for example, gene expression, and the imaging evaluation of treatment efficacy. So while there is a substantial body of work that can be performed with currently available contrast agents, especially in conjunction with optimized image acquisition strategies, post processing, and mathematical analysis, there are still unrealized opportunities for novel contrast agent introduction, particularly those exploiting biological specificity. This article reviews the current use of contrast media in magnetic resonance

  7. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  8. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2011-01-01

    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  9. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  10. Functional neuroimaging in the assessment of cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.; Heiland, S.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral infarct causes over 170, 000 deaths per year in the United States. Recent developments in neuroimaging are providing an insight into focal cerebral ischaemia, including its pathophysiology and the area of brain at risk. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) allows evaluation of the blood supply to the ischaemic area, and diffusion-weighted MR permits assessment of tissue damage. Although both functional imaging techniques require some refinement, it is likely that they will soon become part of the normal clinical routine and allow accurate characterisation of pathology. It is expected that this may eventually lead to the development of new treatments. (orig.)

  11. Neuroimaging of Narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Bong

    2017-09-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic neurologic disorder with the abnormal regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and manifestations related to rapid eye movement sleep, such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucination. Over the past decade, numerous neuroimaging studies have been performed to characterize the pathophysiology and various clinical features of narcolepsy. This article reviews structural and functional brain imaging findings in narcolepsy and Kleine-Levin syndrome. Based on the current state of research, brain imaging is a useful tool to investigate and understand the neuroanatomic correlates and brain abnormalities of narcolepsy and other hypersomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  13. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...... direction the individual locations influence the classification. We illustrate the visualization procedure on a real data from a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment....

  14. The emotional child witness: effects on juror decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alexia; Quas, Jodi A; Cleveland, Kyndra C

    2014-01-01

    Despite wide variations in child witness behavior while on the stand, little research has focused on how that behavior influences jurors' perceptions of the child's credibility or the case itself. In the current study, the impact of a child's emotional displays on credibility judgments and verdict preferences was examined in jury-eligible college students and jurors released from jury duty. No significant differences emerged in perceptions or verdicts based on whether a child was shown as crying or not while participants read a transcript of the child's testimony. However, participants who rated the child as more emotional (regardless of whether the image showed a crying child) were more likely to render guilty verdicts, were more certain of guilt, and found the child more credible and the defendant less credible than participants who rated the child as less emotional. Also, when the child was perceived as low in emotion, older children were rated as less credible than younger children. The results have implications for understanding how children's emotional displays and jurors' perceptions of children's emotionality influence decisions in sexual abuse cases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Towards New Membrane Flow from de Wit-Nicolai Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub; Woo, Kyungsung

    The internal 4-form field strengths with 7-dimensional indices have been constructed by de Wit and Nicolai in 1986. They are determined by the following six quantities: the 56-bein of 4-dimensional ${\\mathcal N} = 8$ gauged supergravity, the Killing vectors on the round seven-sphere, the covariant derivative acting on these Killing vectors, the warp factor, the field strengths with 4-dimensional indices and the 7-dimensional metric. In this paper, by projecting out the remaining mixed 4-form field strengths in an SU(8) tensor that appears in the variation of spin-½ fermionic sector, we also write down them explicitly in terms of some of the above quantities. For the known critical points, the ${\\mathcal N} = 8$ $SO(8)$ point and the nonsupersymmetric SO(7)+ point, we reproduce the corresponding 11-dimensional uplifts by computing the full nonlinear expressions. Moreover, we find out the 11-dimensional lift of the nonsupersymmetric SO(7)+ invariant flow. We decode their implicit formula for the first time and the present work will provide how to obtain the new supersymmetric or nonsupersymmetric membrane flows in 11 dimensions.

  16. Trauma and the state with Sigmund Freud as witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Elizabeth Ann

    Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers. As sociological as psychoanalytic in his responses, Freud's withering critique came just 2years after he avowed that "it is possible to foresee that the conscience of society will awake." That speech on the human right to mental health care affirmed Freud's alliance to the social democratic position and inspired the second generation of psychoanalysts to develop community-based clinics throughout Europe where treatment was free of cost, for war neurosis and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LRN, ERN:, & BERN @ Wireless Integrating the Sciences (WITS) Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Campbell, B.; Foody, M.; Klitsner, D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a call to action for a learning tool that would work to best teach Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM), the NASA Goddard team will partner with the inventor of Bop It!, an interactive game of verbs and following instructions; and Global Imagination, the developers of Magic Planet. In this paper Decision-making Orbital Health! (DOH!) will be described as a game derived from the basic functions necessary for Bop lt!, a familiar game. that will ask the educational audience to respond to changing commands to Bop It!, Twist It!, and Squeeze It! The success of the new version of the game, will be that the Earth will be making these commands from Dynamic Planet, and the crowd assembled can play wirelessly. Wireless Integrating The Sciences (WITS) Theatre : A balanced approach will describe how the communities local to Goddard and perhaps San Francisco will develop curriculum that helps kids teach kids with an engaging game and a STEM message. The performing arts will be employed to make it entertaining and appropriate to the size of the gathering, and the students educational level.

  18. Functional neuroimaging studies of prospective memory: what have we learnt so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Paul W; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of the behaviour described by the term "prospective memory" meant that it was not at all clear, when the earliest studies were conducted, that this would prove a fruitful area for neuroimaging study. However, a consistent relation rapidly emerged between activation in rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) and performance of prospective memory paradigms. This consistency has greatly increased the accumulation of findings, since each study has offered perspectives on the previous ones. Considerable help too has come from broad agreement between functional neuroimaging findings and those from other methods (e.g. human lesion studies, electrophysiology). The result has been a quite startling degree of advance given the relatively few studies that have been conducted. These findings are summarised, along with those from other brain regions, and new directions suggested. Key points are that there is a medial-lateral dissociation within rostral PFC. Some (but not all) regions of medial rostral PFC are typically more active during performance of the ongoing task only, and lateral aspects are relatively more active during conditions involving delayed intentions. Some of these rostral PFC activations seem remarkably insensitive to the form of stimulus material presented, the nature of the ongoing task, the specifics of the intention, how easy or hard the PM cue is to detect, or the intended action is to recall. However there are other regions within rostral PFC where haemodynamic changes vary with alterations in these, and other, aspects of prospective memory paradigms. It is concluded that rostral PFC most likely plays a super-ordinate role during many stages of creating, maintaining and enacting delayed intentions, which in some cases may be linked to recent evidence showing that this brain region is involved in the control of stimulus-oriented vs. stimulus-independent attending. Other key brain regions activated during prospective

  19. [Perioperative management of Jehovah's Witness patients. Special consideration of religiously motivated refusal of allogeneic blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, O; Voss, B

    2010-04-01

    The religious organization of Jehovah's Witnesses numbers more than 7 million members worldwide, including 165,000 members in Germany. Although Jehovah's Witnesses strictly refuse the transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelets and plasma, Jehovah's Witness patients may nevertheless benefit from modern therapeutic concepts including major surgical procedures without facing an excessive risk of death. The present review describes the perioperative management of surgical Jehovah's Witness patients aiming to prevent fatal anemia and coagulopathy. The cornerstones of this concept are 1) education of the patient about blood conservation techniques generally accepted by Jehovah's Witnesses, 2) preoperative optimization of the cardiopulmonary status and correction of preoperative anemia and coagulopathy, 3) perioperative collection of autologous blood, 4) minimization of perioperative blood loss and 5) utilization of the organism's natural anemia tolerance and its acute accentuation in the case of life-threatening anemia.

  20. Some remarks on the statistical model of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution is an attempt to assess what can be learned from the remarkable success of this statistical model in describing ratios of particle abundances in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

  1. Some remarks on a scenario of supersymmetry in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannussis, A.; Tsohantzis, I; Vavougios, D.

    1990-01-01

    Some remarks are given on a recent paper of Lahiri, Kumar Roy and Bagchi who have constructed a scenario of supersymmetry in quantum mechanics by imposing a structure on the raising and lowering operators

  2. Remarks on the elaboration of an English–Spanish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spanish word-combination dictionary examined here, some concluding remarks are made with regard to the educational implications of this kind of dictionary primarily aimed at intermediate- to advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners.

  3. Behavioural, computational, and neuroimaging studies of acquired apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrie J Ballard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions - the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS and the linguistic / grammatical disorder of Broca’s aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca's area and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS. Behavioral, neuroimaging, and computational modeling studies are indicating that AOS is associated with impairment in learning feedforward models and/or implementing feedback mechanisms and with the functional contribution of BA6. While functional connectivity methods are not yet routinely applied to the study of AOS, we highlight the need for focusing on the functional impact of localised lesions throughout the speech network, as well as larger scale comparative studies to distinguish the unique behavioral and neurological signature of AOS. By coupling these methods with neural network models, we have a powerful set of tools to improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie AOS, and speech production generally.

  4. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Sujan [University of Missouri-Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Obaldo, Ruby E. [The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Walsh, Irene R. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  5. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmáry, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.

  6. DFBIdb: a software package for neuroimaging data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher L; Wood, Amanda G

    2010-12-01

    We present DFBIdb: a suite of tools for efficient management of neuroimaging project data. Specifically, DFBIdb was designed to allow users to quickly perform routine management tasks of sorting, archiving, exploring, exporting and organising raw data. DFBIdb was implemented as a collection of Python scripts that maintain a project-based, centralised database that is based on the XCEDE 2 data model. Project data is imported from a filesystem hierarchy of raw files, which is an often-used convention of imaging devices, using a single script that catalogues meta-data into a modified XCEDE 2 data model. During the import process data are reversibly anonymised, archived and compressed. The import script was designed to support multiple file formats and features an extensible framework that can be adapted to novel file formats. An ACL-based security model, with accompanying graphical management tools, was implemented to provide a straightforward method to restrict access to raw and meta-data. Graphical user interfaces are provided for data exploration. DFBIdb includes facilities to export, convert and organise customisable subsets of project data according to user-specified criteria. The command-line interface was implemented to allow users to incorporate database commands into more complex scripts that may be utilised to automate data management tasks. By using DFBIdb, neuroimaging laboratories will be able to perform routine data management tasks in an efficient manner.

  7. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  8. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  9. Self-development: integrating cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Peake, Shannon J

    2012-01-01

    This review integrates cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives on self-development. Neural correlates of key processes implicated in personal and social identity are reported from studies of children, adolescents, and adults, including autobiographical memory, direct and reflected self-appraisals, and social exclusion. While cortical midline structures of medial prefrontal cortex and medial posterior parietal cortex are consistently identified in neuroimaging studies considering personal identity from a primarily cognitive perspective ("who am I?"), additional regions are implicated by studies considering personal and social identity from a more socioemotional perspective ("what do others think about me, where do I fit in?"), especially in child or adolescent samples. The involvement of these additional regions (including tempo-parietal junction and posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal poles, anterior insula, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, middle cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) suggests mentalizing, emotion, and emotion regulation are central to self-development. In addition, these regions appear to function atypically during personal and social identity tasks in autism and depression, exhibiting a broad pattern of hypoactivation and hyperactivation, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  11. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  12. Investigating the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder with neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R K; Shin, L M; Rauch, S L

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly evolving brain neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are proving fruitful in exploring the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural abnormalities in PTSD found with MRI include nonspecific white matter lesions and decreased hippocampal volume. These abnormalities may reflect pretrauma vulnerability to develop PTSD, or they may be a consequence of traumatic exposure, PTSD, and/or PTSD sequelae. Functional neuroimaging symptom provocation and cognitive activation paradigms using PET measurement of regional cerebral blood flow have revealed greater activation of the amygdala and anterior paralimbic structures (which are known to be involved in processing negative emotions such as fear), greater deactivation of Broca's region (motor speech) and other nonlimbic cortical regions, and failure of activation of the cingulate cortex (which possibly plays an inhibitory role) in response to trauma-related stimuli in individuals with PTSD. Functional MRI research has shown the amygdala to be hyperresponsive to fear-related stimuli in this disorder. Research with PET suggests that cortical, notably hippocampal, metabolism is suppressed to a greater extent by pharmacologic stimulation of the noradrenergic system in persons with PTSD. The growth of knowledge concerning the anatomical and neurochemical basis of this important mental disorder will hopefully eventually lead to rational psychological and pharmacologic treatments.

  13. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho [Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Sujan; Obaldo, Ruby E.; Walsh, Irene R.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  15. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence shows that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterize the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  16. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  17. Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F; Boyd, Rhonda C; Cammack, Nicole L; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing community violence has been linked with several adverse outcomes for adolescents, including emotional and behavioral problems. Among youth who have witnessed community violence, proximity to the victim of community violence is one factor that may determine, in part, the nature of adolescents' responses to community violence exposure. The present study examines whether relationship proximity to the victim of community violence is associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors among a sample of urban and predominantly African American adolescents (N = 501) who have witnessed community violence. In 10th grade, participants reported whether they had witnessed 10 community violence events during the past year, and, if so, whether the victim of the violence was a family member, close friend, acquaintance, or stranger. Witnessed community violence against a family member or close friend was associated with depressive symptoms, and witnessed community violence against known individuals was associated with anxiety symptoms. Witnessing community violence against familiar persons and strangers was linked with aggressive behavior. Gender differences in these associations and implications for assessment and intervention with community violence-exposed youth are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  18. Comprehensive personal witness: a model to enlarge missional involvement of the local church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancke, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the The Split-Level Fellowship, Wesley Baker analysed the role of individual members in the Church. He gave a name to a tragic phenomenon with which Church leaders are familiar. Although true of society in general it is especially true of the church. Baker called the difference between the committed few and the uninvolved many, Factor Beta. This reality triggers the question: Why are the majority of Christians in the world not missionally involved through personal witness and which factors consequently influence personal witness and missional involvement? This article explains how the range of personal witness and missional involvement found in local churches are rooted in certain fundamental factors and conditions which are mutually influencing each other and ultimately contribute towards forming a certain paradigm. This paradigm acts as the basis from which certain behavioural patterns (witness will manifest. The factors influencing witness are either described as accelerators or decelerators and their relativity and mutual relationships are considered. Factors acting as decelerators can severely hamper or even annul witness, while accelerators on the other hand, can have an immensely positive effect to enlarge the transformational influence of witness. In conclusion a transformational model is developed through which paradigms can be influenced and eventually changed. This model fulfils a diagnostic and remedial function and will support local churches to enlarge the individual and corporate missional involvement of believers.

  19. Prophylactic use of factor IX concentrate in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Daniel; Sreeram, Gautam; Duncan, Alexander; Molinaro, Ross J; Szlam, Fania; Chen, Edward P; Tanaka, Kenichi A

    2009-11-01

    In Jehovah's Witness patients, the use of red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is not optional. Various blood conservation techniques are available, but complex cardiac surgery remains a major challenge. The feasibility of fractions of "primary components" has not been fully considered in published case reports. For Jehovah's Witness patients who preoperatively give consent, factor IX concentrates may be acceptable for hemostatic therapy. We hereby describe a combination of "secondary components" to prevent excessive bleeding in a Jehovah's Witness patient undergoing complex replacement of the aortic arch.

  20. Model sparsity and brain pattern interpretation of classification models in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan W

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model. In this ...

  1. Predictive modelling using neuroimaging data in the presence of confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anil; Monteiro, Joao M; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina

    2017-04-15

    When training predictive models from neuroimaging data, we typically have available non-imaging variables such as age and gender that affect the imaging data but which we may be uninterested in from a clinical perspective. Such variables are commonly referred to as 'confounds'. In this work, we firstly give a working definition for confound in the context of training predictive models from samples of neuroimaging data. We define a confound as a variable which affects the imaging data and has an association with the target variable in the sample that differs from that in the population-of-interest, i.e., the population over which we intend to apply the estimated predictive model. The focus of this paper is the scenario in which the confound and target variable are independent in the population-of-interest, but the training sample is biased due to a sample association between the target and confound. We then discuss standard approaches for dealing with confounds in predictive modelling such as image adjustment and including the confound as a predictor, before deriving and motivating an Instance Weighting scheme that attempts to account for confounds by focusing model training so that it is optimal for the population-of-interest. We evaluate the standard approaches and Instance Weighting in two regression problems with neuroimaging data in which we train models in the presence of confounding, and predict samples that are representative of the population-of-interest. For comparison, these models are also evaluated when there is no confounding present. In the first experiment we predict the MMSE score using structural MRI from the ADNI database with gender as the confound, while in the second we predict age using structural MRI from the IXI database with acquisition site as the confound. Considered over both datasets we find that none of the methods for dealing with confounding gives more accurate predictions than a baseline model which ignores confounding, although

  2. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency...- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien witnesses and informants to the United States...

  3. 78 FR 24429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I... the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any... Government. Form I-854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien witnesses and informants to the...

  4. NeuroDebian Virtual Machine Deployment Facilitates Trainee-Driven Bedside Neuroimaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander; Kenney-Jung, Daniel; Botha, Hugo; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt

    2017-01-01

    Freely available software, derived from the past 2 decades of neuroimaging research, is significantly more flexible for research purposes than presently available clinical tools. Here, we describe and demonstrate the utility of rapidly deployable analysis software to facilitate trainee-driven translational neuroimaging research. A recipe and video tutorial were created to guide the creation of a NeuroDebian-based virtual computer that conforms to current neuroimaging research standards and can exist within a HIPAA-compliant system. This allows for retrieval of clinical imaging data, conversion to standard file formats, and rapid visualization and quantification of individual patients' cortical and subcortical anatomy. As an example, we apply this pipeline to a pediatric patient's data to illustrate the advantages of research-derived neuroimaging tools in asking quantitative questions "at the bedside." Our goal is to provide a path of entry for trainees to become familiar with common neuroimaging tools and foster an increased interest in translational research.

  5. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed

  6. Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals are primed to respond strongly to an inappropriate extent to threatening or frustrating events. In contrast, individuals with psychopathic tendencies show decreased amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex responses to emotionally provocative stimuli or during emotional learning paradigms. This is consistent with suggestions that such individuals face difficulties with basic forms of emotional learning and decision making.

  7. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  8. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  9. Cranial neuroimaging in pregnancy and the post-partum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Likeman, M.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several diverse neurological conditions may be seen during pregnancy and the post partum period. These usually require neuroimaging for definitive diagnosis and range from a predisposition to neurovascular abnormalities, such as acute ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, through to more specific pregnancy-related conditions, such as eclampsia/posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy and post-partum angiopathy. Additionally, the pregnant patient is predisposed to pituitary disease. It is necessary that the radiologist has an awareness of these conditions to allow swift specific diagnoses or suggest the most appropriate diagnosis when imaging findings are non-specific. We describe epidemiological and radiological features to allow the radiologist to guide the clinician in management, and review guidelines for safe cranial imaging of the pregnant patient

  10. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Heather G; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Warden, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute physiological changes that result in at least some acute cognitive difficulties and typically resolve by 3 months postinjury. Because the majority of mild TBI patients have normal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT) scans, there is increasing attention directed at finding objective physiological correlates of persistent cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms through experimental neuroimaging techniques. The authors review studies utilizing these techniques in patients with mild TBI; these techniques may provide more sensitive assessment of structural and functional abnormalities following mild TBI. Particular promise is evident with fMRI, PET, and SPECT scanning, as demonstrated by associations between brain activation and clinical outcomes.

  11. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuat......The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone...... fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri......-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain....

  12. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stippich, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  13. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  14. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  15. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  17. Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology.

  18. Porcupine: A visual pipeline tool for neuroimaging analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van Mourik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroimaging is rapidly adopting a more reproducible approach to data acquisition and analysis. Data structures and formats are being standardised and data analyses are getting more automated. However, as data analysis becomes more complicated, researchers often have to write longer analysis scripts, spanning different tools across multiple programming languages. This makes it more difficult to share or recreate code, reducing the reproducibility of the analysis. We present a tool, Porcupine, that constructs one's analysis visually and automatically produces analysis code. The graphical representation improves understanding of the performed analysis, while retaining the flexibility of modifying the produced code manually to custom needs. Not only does Porcupine produce the analysis code, it also creates a shareable environment for running the code in the form of a Docker image. Together, this forms a reproducible way of constructing, visualising and sharing one's analysis. Currently, Porcupine links to Nipype functionalities, which in turn accesses most standard neuroimaging analysis tools. Our goal is to release researchers from the constraints of specific implementation details, thereby freeing them to think about novel and creative ways to solve a given problem. Porcupine improves the overview researchers have of their processing pipelines, and facilitates both the development and communication of their work. This will reduce the threshold at which less expert users can generate reusable pipelines. With Porcupine, we bridge the gap between a conceptual and an implementational level of analysis and make it easier for researchers to create reproducible and shareable science. We provide a wide range of examples and documentation, as well as installer files for all platforms on our website: https://timvanmourik.github.io/Porcupine. Porcupine is free, open source, and released under the GNU General Public License v3.0.

  19. Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Silverman, Edward; Brem, Henry; Wharam, Moody D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

  20. Neuroimaging classification of progression patterns in glioblastoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Rory J; Senthil, Keerthi K; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Price, Stephen J

    2018-03-30

    Our primary objective was to report the current neuroimaging classification systems of spatial patterns of progression in glioblastoma. In addition, we aimed to report the terminology used to describe 'progression' and to assess the compliance with the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Criteria. We conducted a systematic review to identify all neuroimaging studies of glioblastoma that have employed a categorical classification system of spatial progression patterns. Our review was registered with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) registry. From the included 157 results, we identified 129 studies that used labels of spatial progression patterns that were not based on radiation volumes (Group 1) and 50 studies that used labels that were based on radiation volumes (Group 2). In Group 1, we found 113 individual labels and the most frequent were: local/localised (58%), distant/distal (51%), diffuse (20%), multifocal (15%) and subependymal/subventricular zone (15%). We identified 13 different labels used to refer to 'progression', of which the most frequent were 'recurrence' (99%) and 'progression' (92%). We identified that 37% (n = 33/90) of the studies published following the release of the RANO classification were adherent compliant with the RANO criteria. Our review reports significant heterogeneity in the published systems used to classify glioblastoma spatial progression patterns. Standardization of terminology and classification systems used in studying progression would increase the efficiency of our research in our attempts to more successfully treat glioblastoma.

  1. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  2. A short synthesis-stuttgart of (S)-pyrrolam A via domino oxidation-witting reaction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Shet, J.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    A short synthesis of (S)-pyrrolam A starting from readily available N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L prolinol is described that makes use of a domino primary alcohol oxidation-Witting reaction as the key step...

  3. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  4. Connecting Quantum Contextuality and Genuine Multipartite Nonlocality with the Quantumness Witness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xu; Su Hong-Yi; Chen Jing-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-type noncontextuality inequality and the Svetlichny inequality are derived from the Alicki-van Ryn quantumness witness. Thus connections between quantumness and quantum contextuality, and between quantumness and genuine multipartite nonlocality are established. (paper)

  5. Bearing Witness to the Inhuman at M? Lai: Museum, Ritual, Pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Tamashiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the Son M? Memorial and Museum and its associated community activities and programs commemorate and memorialize the 1968 M? Lai Massacre and its aftermath. The museum provides space for reflection and bearing witness to the profound suffering in the Massacre. B'earing witness' means reliving or remembering and coming to know an experience, especially a traumatic one like M? Lai. Witness bearers are both those reporting first-hand experiences and memories, and those listening to and learning about the experiences. When locals and visitors alike participate in the activities and rituals at Son M?, in pilgrimages to M? Lai, or in touring the memorial and museum, an opportunity is available to recognize the “existential legitimacy” of the events, experiences, and memories. Bearing witness can open pathways to individual and societal healing as well as identity redefinition.

  6. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A new device-independent dimension witness and its experimental implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    A dimension witness is a criterion that sets a lower bound on the dimension needed to reproduce the observed data. Three types of dimension witnesses can be found in the literature: device-dependent ones, in which the bound is obtained assuming some knowledge on the state and the measurements; device-independent prepare-and-measure ones, that can be applied to any system including classical ones; and device-independent Bell-based ones, that certify the minimal dimension of some entangled systems. Here we consider the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu Bell-type inequality for four outcomes. We show that a sufficiently high violation of this inequality witnesses d≥slant 4 and present a proof-of-principle experimental observation of such a violation. This presents a first experimental violation of the third type of dimension witness beyond qutrits.

  8. [Thoughts on the Witnessed Audit in Medical Device Single Audit Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Xiao, Jiangyi; Wang, Aijun

    2018-02-08

    Medical Device Single Audit Program is one of the key projects in International Medical Device Regulators Forum, which has much experience to be used for reference. This paper briefly describes the procedures and contents of the Witnessed Audit in Medical Device Single Audit Program. Some revelations about the work of Witnessed Audit have been discussed, for reference by the Regulatory Authorities and the Auditing Organizations.

  9. Determinants of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Qirjako, Gentiana; Roshi, Enver; Brand, Helmut

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to assess the extent and the socioeconomic correlates of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in Albania, a country in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. 2797 students (93% of all students) at the Medical Faculty, Tirana, filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire in April-June 2009. Information on witnessed father-to-mother physical violence during childhood and/or adolescence and sociodemographic and socioeconomic data were collected. The association of witnessed parental violence with socioeconomic factors was assessed with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. 736 (26.7%) of students witnessed father-to-mother physical violence, and 36 (1.3%) reported 'very often' witnessing episodes. In multivariable-adjusted models, independent predictors of witnessed violence were: low family income [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-3.2], rural origin (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), father's lower education and unemployment (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 4.1-7.1 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.2, respectively) and mother's educational and employment advantage compared with the spouse (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8 and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8, respectively). Father's socioeconomic disadvantage and mother's socioeconomic empowerment were each independently related to increased risk for witnessed father-to-mother physical violence among university students in this transitional patriarchal society. Health professionals in post-communist Albania should be aware of the ways in which witnessed domestic violence influences physical and psychological health of young adults.

  10. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-12-01

    To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer-reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak "share of voice" in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Tobacco industry-affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries.

  11. Impact of Evidence Type and Judicial Warning on Juror Perceptions of Global and Specific Witness Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Keogan, Hannah

    2017-04-03

    The Court of Appeal in England and Wales held (R. v. Sardar, 2012) there had been no exceptional circumstances that justified a jury retiring with a transcript of the complainant's interview. This paper reports an investigation into the impact multiple evidence forms and use of a judicial warning has on juror evaluations of a witness. The warning focuses juror attention on placing disproportionate weight on the evidence as opposed to their general impression of it. Sixty jury-eligible participants were presented with witness evidence in transcript, video, or transcript plus video format. Half the participants in each condition received the warning. All mock jurors completed a questionnaire which assessed perceptions of witness and task. Outcomes showed that transcript plus video evidence, when accompanied by a warning, did impact on mock jurors' global assessments of the witness. The warning made the task less clear for jurors and, in the video condition, led to higher ratings of how satisfactory and reliable the witness was. Findings support the provision of a judicial warning to jurors and show some initial support for judiciary opposition to the provision of an additional transcript only when jurors are asked to make the more usual global witness assessments.

  12. Witness response at acute onset of stroke: a qualitative theory-guided study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan U Dombrowski

    Full Text Available Delay in calling emergency medical services following stroke limits access to early treatment that can reduce disability. Emergency medical services contact is mostly initiated by stroke witnesses (often relatives, rather than stroke patients. This study explored appraisal and behavioural factors that are potentially important in influencing witness behaviour in response to stroke.Semi-structured interviews with 26 stroke witnesses were transcribed and theory-guided content analysed was undertaken based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (appraisal processes and Theory Domains Framework (behavioural determinants. Response behaviours were often influenced by heuristics-guided appraisal (i.e. mental rules of thumb. Some witnesses described their responses to the situation as 'automatic' and 'instinctive', rather than products of deliberation. Potential behavioural influences included: environmental context and resources (e.g. time of day, social influence (e.g. prompts from patients and beliefs about consequences (e.g. 999 accesses rapid help. Findings are based on retrospective accounts and need further verification in prospective studies.Witnesses play a key role in patient access to emergency medical services. Factors that potentially influence witnesses' responses to stroke were identified and could inform behavioural interventions and future research. Interventions might benefit from linking automatic/instinctive threat perceptions with deliberate appraisal of stroke symptoms, prompting action to call emergency medical services.

  13. I see so I feel: Coping with workplace violence among victims and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biru; Marchand, Alain; Guay, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious concern for workers' mental health and well-being in high risk work sectors. This study examined victims' and witnesses' experiences after exposure to workplace violence, and the types of help they used to cope with the violent event. Workers (n = 211) from five different work sectors participated in our study. Multiple mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect effects through psychological and work consequences on victims' versus witnesses' differential likelihood of using formal, paraformal and informal helping. Results showed that workplace violence has detrimental effects on both victims and witnesses. Direct victims were more negatively affected psychologically and at work than witnesses. The indirect effect through psychological difficulty after experiencing workplace violence was significant in predicting formal helping. The indirect effect through reduced work functioning in predicting paraformal helping was also significant. No significant indirect effect was found in predicting informal helping. Both victims and witnesses used multiple types of helping to cope with the violent event. This study has practical implications on management and clinical practices for better organizations of resources in helping victims and witnesses to cope with workplace violence.

  14. A Remarkable Recent Transition in the Solar Dynamo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Duhau, S.; Livingston, W.C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Potgieter, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the major aspects of the remarkable, fairly long lasting period(∼ 2005 to ∼ 2010) of low solar activity, that we will call the Transition. It is the transitionalstage between the Grand Maximum of the 20th century and a forthcoming (most probablyRegular) episode of solar activity. The

  15. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, Toivo

    1975-01-01

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr

  16. Collisionless shocks and upstream waves and particles: Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss more aspects of collisionless shock theory that might be pertinent to the problem of upstream waves and particles. It is hoped that our qualititive remarks may be a useful guide for the general reader as he goes through the detailed papers to come

  17. Some remarks on electron scattering in a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1988-01-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field is reconsidered. Some remarks are made on the validity of the Kroll-Watson scattering formula and on the close connection of this formula with the classical transition rate of scattering in a radiation field. (17 refs.)

  18. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  19. Discussant Remarks on Session: Statistical Aspects of Measuring the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    1999-04-02

    These remarks will briefly summarize what we learn from the talks in this session, and add some more areas in Internet Measurement that may provide challenges for statisticians. It will also point out some reasons why statisticians may be interested in working in this area.

  20. The European Public Prosecutor's Office (EPPO): Introductory Remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2018-01-01

    These introductory remarks deal with the reasons why the EPPO is perceived by some as a controversial body. These reasons are mirrored with the problem identification and the causes thereof. The size of EU fraud and related corruption and money laundering, both at the income and expenditure side, is

  1. Remarks concerning two sympatric seedeaters Poliospiza spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D.A., Finch, B.F, & Hunter, N.D. Remarks concerning the all-black coastal boubous. (Laniarius ... Currently, however, there is little evidence to support such a theory, and it is .... twigs with its beak in order to increase the size of the hole.

  2. Some remarks on the Bonnor-Swaminarayan solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezdivin, R.; Herrera, L.

    1976-01-01

    The letter re-examines the Bonnor-Swaminarayan solution with the aim to try a clarification of its physical interpretation. The radiative nature of the solution as suggested by Bicak is questioned and some remarks on this topic are given

  3. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  4. Neurobiological narratives: Experiences of mood disorder through the lens of neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma

    2013-01-01

    of receiving neuroimaging for prediction, diagnosis and planning treatment. The participants discussed the potential role of neuroimages in (i) mitigating stigma; (ii) supporting morally loaded explanations of mental illness due to an imbalance of brain chemistry; (iii) legitimising psychiatric symptoms, which...... illness view functional neuroimaging, or of the potential psychological impacts of its clinical use. We conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with adults diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder, probing their experiences with mental health care and their perspectives on the prospect...... to biologisation of mental illness, and argue for bringing these voices into upstream ethics discussion....

  5. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  6. Remarkable recoveries: research and practice from a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Marc Ian

    2008-08-01

    Mind-body therapies are often portrayed in the literature as self-palliative, adjunctive, and complementary, but rarely as contributive to cure. Many physicians continue to view them as acceptable indulgences so long as they are harmless and the patient remains fully compliant with a standard treatment regimen. The possibility that such modalities might help drive the healing process itself is infrequently acknowledged. This article addresses the topic of such therapies, examining remarkable recoveries in cancer, and suggesting the need for a "Remarkable Recovery Registry" to expand the literature on these cases. The author discusses the importance of complementary alternative medicine, and emotional and pyschologic support in the treatment regimen, and the need for health care providers and patients to work together to provide the best emotional environment for the healing process.

  7. Adiabatic analysis of collisions. III. Remarks on the spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano, U.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of a spin-rotation model illustrates how transitions between adiabatic channel states stem from the second, rather than from the first, rate of change of these states, provided that appropriate identification of channels and scaling of the independent variable are used. These remarks, like the earlier development of a post-adiabatic approach, aim at elucidating the surprising success of approximate separation of variables in the treatment of complex mechanical systems

  8. A remark on the energy conditions for Hawking's area theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Hawking's area theorem is a fundamental result in black hole theory that is universally associated with the null energy condition. That this condition can be weakened is illustrated by the formulation of a strengthened version of the theorem based on an energy condition that allows for violations of the null energy condition. With the semi-classical context in mind, some brief remarks pertaining to the suitability of the area theorem and its energy condition are made.

  9. Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed last summer on its Web site the draft text of the 2005 ICRP recommendations for consultation. As it was done for the previous drafts, the French Society for Radiation Protection, has sent his comments to the ICRP, through a specific working group. The text sent to the ICRP is presented here to the readers of the SFRP's Journal. (author)

  10. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  11. Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2017-12-21

    The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimaging in CMV congenital infected neonates: how and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, M; Capretti, M G; Lazzarotto, T; Gabrielli, L; Rizzollo, S; Mostert, M; Manzoni, P

    2012-05-01

    Neonatal congenital infections are an important cause of mortality, morbidity and long-term neurodevelopmental and sensorineural sequelae. Many pathogens can cause in utero infection, and among them, cytomegalovirus (CMV) plays a prominent role. In developed countries, CMV poses major health problems as it is the most common pathogen leading to congenital infection, and the leading cause of nonhereditary deafness in children. Evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in congenital CMV infected newborns is mandatory to better assess the severity of the disease, to guide adequate treatment, to define prognosis, and to tailor follow-up observations and parents' counselling. Cerebral ultrasonography (cUS), Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the currently available techniques to evaluate infants with suspected or proven congenital CMV infection. In congenital CMV infection, their role in early detection and confirmation of cerebral involvement within the first month of life is crucial to initiate specific treatment with antivirals. Neonatologists, paediatricians and radiologists should be aware of the role, the limitations and the inherent risks related to the use of these specific neuroimaging diagnostic tools in these infants. In this article we will discuss from a neonatological perspective the advantages, disadvantages, risks and limitations of each imaging technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  14. On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2004-12-01

    One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure-function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure-function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure-function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples.

  15. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  16. The Virtual Brain Integrates Computational Modeling and Multimodal Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Brain function is thought to emerge from the interactions among neuronal populations. Apart from traditional efforts to reproduce brain dynamics from the micro- to macroscopic scales, complementary approaches develop phenomenological models of lower complexity. Such macroscopic models typically generate only a few selected—ideally functionally relevant—aspects of the brain dynamics. Importantly, they often allow an understanding of the underlying mechanisms beyond computational reproduction. Adding detail to these models will widen their ability to reproduce a broader range of dynamic features of the brain. For instance, such models allow for the exploration of consequences of focal and distributed pathological changes in the system, enabling us to identify and develop approaches to counteract those unfavorable processes. Toward this end, The Virtual Brain (TVB) (www.thevirtualbrain.org), a neuroinformatics platform with a brain simulator that incorporates a range of neuronal models and dynamics at its core, has been developed. This integrated framework allows the model-based simulation, analysis, and inference of neurophysiological mechanisms over several brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals. In this article, we describe how TVB works, and we present the first proof of concept. PMID:23442172

  17. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2002-01-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias

  18. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  19. Neuroimage in neuroecthodermic diseases Part II: Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, J.M.; Vilar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective clinicoradiological study has been carried out in 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis. The neuroimaging studies detected some type of disorder in 94% of patients, contributing significantly to the positive diagnosis of the disease. CT was better for viewing periventricular nodules, while MR was more reliable in disclosing the number and location of cortical and white matter lesions. The use of gadolinium-DTPA in MR demonstrated frequent uptake by the periventricular nodules which was exceptional in the cortical and subcortical lesions. The use of contrast, both in CT and in MR, enhanced the images of the 7 presumed giant-cell astrocytomas detected in 6 patients. Uptake by the tumors was always much greater than that observed in the nodules, being and important criterion for the differentiation between nodules and small tumors. The appearance and topography of these CNS lesions can be reasonably well explained by considering the disease to be a disorder of the migration of dysgenic cells. We have found no consistent correlation between the neuroradiological findings and the clinical evolution of the patients. MR and CT are similarly useful in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Given that MR is more effective in the detection of the set of intracranial lesions, it could be used as the initial technique, resorting to CT in those cases in which the clinical evidence is highly suggestive and the MR study is negative. Periodic MR control is not justified unless there is suspicion of tumor implantation or growth

  20. Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: Declining brain, adapting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three domains. The age-related increase in activation of the sensorimotor network may reflect the alteration of the peripheral sensorimotor systems. The increased susceptibility of the network for the mental-state inference to the socioemotional significance may be explained by the age-related motivational shift due to the altered social perception. The age-related change in activation of the self-referential network may be relevant to the focused positive self-concept of elderly driven by a similar motivational shift. Across the domains, the concept of the self and internal model may provide the theoretical bases of this adaptation framework. These two frameworks complement each other to provide a comprehensive view of the normal aging brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sturge-Weber syndrome. The current neuro-imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, M.; Cambra, M.R.; Merland, J.J.; Enjolras, O.

    2000-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital sporadic disease with neuro-ocular and cutaneous vascular findings. Clinically, the full-blown condition consists of a facial port-wine stain (PWS) the V1 facial trigeminal skin area, alone or in combination with V2 and V3 PWS, seizures and ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal angioma). Radiologically, a leptomeningeal (pial) capillary and venous malformation, mostly located in the parieto-occipital area, cerebral atrophy and calcifications are demonstrated. An ipsilateral enlarged choroid plexus may be an early anatomic symptom. Development neuro-diagnostic technique for the screening of infants with an at-risk V1 PWS, as well as for the follow-up of patients with evidence SWS. Accelerated myelination in the involved hemisphere may be early diagnostic feature before 6 months of age. Later, hyperintensity of white matter on T2 is considered a symptom of gliosis. Clinically, progression of the diseases is associated with anatomic changes and correlates with the extent of the pial vascular anomaly, extent and severity of cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. A neonatal neuro-imaging work-up, using CT or MRI, may not demonstrate the pial anomaly and should be repeated after 6 to 12 months in an at-risk infant with V1 PWS. (authors)

  2. The Power of Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Screening Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, Philip; Ungar, Lyle; Trojanowski, John Q.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease that can result from either frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. It is critical to establish statistically powerful biomarkers that can achieve substantial cost-savings and increase feasibility of clinical trials. We assessed three broad categories of neuroimaging methods to screen underlying FTLD and AD pathology in a clinical FTD series: global measures (e.g., ventricular volume), anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) (e.g., hippocampus) using a standard atlas, and data-driven VOIs using Eigenanatomy. We evaluated clinical FTD patients (N=93) with cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM) MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess whether they had underlying FTLD or AD pathology. Linear regression was performed to identify the optimal VOIs for each method in a training dataset and then we evaluated classification sensitivity and specificity in an independent test cohort. Power was evaluated by calculating minimum sample sizes (mSS) required in the test classification analyses for each model. The data-driven VOI analysis using a multimodal combination of GM MRI and DTI achieved the greatest classification accuracy (89% SENSITIVE; 89% SPECIFIC) and required a lower minimum sample size (N=26) relative to anatomical VOI and global measures. We conclude that a data-driven VOI approach employing Eigenanatomy provides more accurate classification, benefits from increased statistical power in unseen datasets, and therefore provides a robust method for screening underlying pathology in FTD patients for entry into clinical trials. PMID:24687814

  3. Neuroimaging of the Injured Pediatric Brain: Methods and New Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Babikian, Talin; Giza, Christopher C; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F

    2018-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period. The neuroimaging methods used to assess brain injury improve each year, providing researchers a more detailed characterization of the injury and recovery process. In this review, we cover current imaging methods used to quantify brain disruption post-injury, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI, functional MRI, resting state fMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with brief coverage of other methods, including electroencephalography (EEG), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). We include studies focusing on pediatric moderate-severe TBI from 2 months post-injury and beyond. While the morbidity of pediatric TBI is considerable, continuing advances in imaging methods have the potential to identify new treatment targets that can lead to significant improvements in outcome.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic musical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Hervé

    2005-12-01

    The distinction between episodic and semantic memory has become very popular since it was first proposed by Tulving in 1972. So far, very few neuropsychological, psychophysical, and imaging studies have related to the mnemonic aspects of music, notably on the long-term memory features, and practically nothing is known about the functional anatomy of long-term memory for music. Numerous functional imaging studies have shown that retrieval from semantic and episodic memory is subserved by distinct neural networks. For instance, the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry) ascribes to the left prefrontal cortex a preferential role in the encoding process of episodic material and the recall of semantic information, while the right prefrontal cortex would preferentially operate in the recall of episodic information. However, these results were essentially obtained with verbal and visuo-spatial material. We have done a study to determine the neural substrates underlying the semantic and episodic components of music using familiar and nonfamiliar melodic tunes. Two distinct patterns of activations were found: bilateral activation of the middle and superior frontal areas and precuneus for episodic memory, and activation of the medial and orbital frontal cortex bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and the anterior part of the left middle and superior temporal gyri for semantic memory. We discuss these findings in light of the available neuropsychological data obtained in brain-damaged subjects and functional neuroimaging studies.

  5. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S.; Gibson, C.; Benson, L.; Ochner, C. N.; Geliebter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly common in obesity research as investigators try to understand the neurological underpinnings of appetite and body weight in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining responses to food intake and food cues, dopamine function and brain volume in lean vs. obese individuals are now beginning to coalesce in identifying irregularities in a range of regions implicated in reward (e.g. striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus), homeostatic regulation of intake (e.g. hypothalamus), sensory and motor processing (e.g. insula, precentral gyrus), and cognitive control and attention (e.g. prefrontal cortex, cingulate). Studies of weight change in children and adolescents, and those at high genetic risk for obesity, promise to illuminate causal processes. Studies examining specific eating behaviours (e.g. external eating, emotional eating, dietary restraint) are teaching us about the distinct neural networks that drive components of appetite, and contribute to the phenotype of body weight. Finally, innovative investigations of appetite-related hormones, including studies of abnormalities (e.g. leptin deficiency) and interventions (e.g. leptin replacement, bariatric surgery), are shedding light on the interactive relationship between gut and brain. The dynamic distributed vulnerability model of eating behaviour in obesity that we propose has scientific and practical implications. PMID:21902800

  6. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  7. Neural mechanisms of mindfulness and meditation: Evidence from neuroimaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; R; Marchand

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness is the dispassionate,moment-by-moment awareness of sensations,emotions and thoughts.Mindfulness-based interventions are being increasingly used for stress,psychological well being,coping with chronic illness as well as adjunctive treatments for psychiatric disorders.However,the neural mechanisms associated with mindfulness have not been well characterized.Recent functional and structural neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide insights into neural processes associated with the practice of mindfulness.A review of this literature revealed compelling evidence that mindfulness impacts the function of the medial cortex and associated default mode network as well as insula and amygdala.Additionally,mindfulness practice appears to effect lateral frontal regions and basal ganglia,at least in some cases.Structural imaging studies are consistent with these findings and also indicate changes in the hippocampus.While many questions remain unanswered,the current literature provides evidence of brain regions and networks relevant for understanding neural processes associated with mindfulness.

  8. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  9. Failure mode and effects analysis of witnessing protocols for ensuring traceability during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Laura; Bariani, Fiorenza; Dalla Zorza, Michela; Romano, Stefania; Scarica, Catello; Maggiulli, Roberta; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2015-10-01

    Traceability of cells during IVF is a fundamental aspect of treatment, and involves witnessing protocols. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method of identifying real or potential breakdowns in processes, and allows strategies to mitigate risks to be developed. To examine the risks associated with witnessing protocols, an FMEA was carried out in a busy IVF centre, before and after implementation of an electronic witnessing system (EWS). A multidisciplinary team was formed and moderated by human factors specialists. Possible causes of failures, and their potential effects, were identified and risk priority number (RPN) for each failure calculated. A second FMEA analysis was carried out after implementation of an EWS. The IVF team identified seven main process phases, 19 associated process steps and 32 possible failure modes. The highest RPN was 30, confirming the relatively low risk that mismatches may occur in IVF when a manual witnessing system is used. The introduction of the EWS allowed a reduction in the moderate-risk failure mode by two-thirds (highest RPN = 10). In our experience, FMEA is effective in supporting multidisciplinary IVF groups to understand the witnessing process, identifying critical steps and planning changes in practice to enable safety to be enhanced. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Witnesses' memory for events and faces under elevated levels of intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Christopher M; Schreiber Compo, Nadja; McQuiston, Dawn; Hagsand, Angelica V; Cervera, Jiselle

    2018-08-01

    Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime. Participants were then interviewed using free recall and cued questions and shown a six-person target-present or target-absent lineup. Results show that alcohol negatively affected both the quantity and quality of recall. Regardless of question format, alcohol also reduced the percentage of accurate information elicited from witnesses; however, only cued questions increased the percentage of inaccurate information reported. Intoxication had no effect on identification accuracy. These findings suggest that the encoding and storage systems for faces and events may be impacted differently by alcohol. Our results also highlight the importance of including higher BAC levels when examining the effects of alcohol on witness memory.

  11. Driver-witness electron beam acceleration in dielectric mm-scale capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekomtsev, K.; Aryshev, A.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Shevelev, M.; Lyapin, A.; Boogert, S.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated a corrugated mm-scale capillary as a compact accelerating structure in the driver-witness acceleration scheme, and suggested a methodology to measure the acceleration of the witness bunch. The accelerating fields produced by the driver bunch and the energy spread of the witness bunch in a corrugated capillary and in a capillary with a constant inner radius were measured and simulated for both on-axis and off-axis beam propagation. Our simulations predicted a change in the accelerating field structure for the corrugated capillary. Also, an approximately twofold increase of the witness bunch energy gain on the first accelerating cycle was expected for both capillaries for the off-axis beam propagation. These results were confirmed in the experiment, and the maximum measured acceleration of 170 keV /m at 20 pC driver beam charge was achieved for off-axis beam propagation. The driver bunch showed an increase in energy spread of up to 11%, depending on the capillary geometry and beam propagation, with a suppression of the longitudinal energy spread in the witness bunch of up to 15%.

  12. Examining the Relationship Between Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence and Victimization Among Children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; Saleheen, Hassan N; Almuneef, Maha

    2017-03-01

    Childhood exposure to violence can lead to physical, mental, and emotional harm, whether a child is a direct victim or a witness to violent events. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) and victimization among children. A cross-sectional, national study was conducted in secondary high schools in the five main provinces of Saudi Arabia (SA) using International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) ISPCAN Child Abuse and Neglect Screening Tool-Child: Home version. Boys and girls, public and private schools were selected to participate. Students ( N = 16,939) aged 15 to 18 years completed the survey instrument which included demographics, different types of abuse (physical, psychological, and sexual), neglect, and witnessing IPV. Mean age of the participants was 16.8 ± 0.9 years, and 51% were boys. Eighty-one percent lived with both parents, 6% with single parent, and 2% with step-parent. Fifty-two percent of the participants witnessed IPV. Those who witnessed IPV were more likely to be abused compared with those who did not ( p violence and child protection workers could effectively respond to this problem.

  13. Factors influencing intention to help and helping behaviour in witnesses of bullying in nursing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-León, Carmen; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Olmos, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    The role played by witnesses of bullying in nursing settings remains little studied, despite their potential relevance in explaining the onset and development of bullying. The objective of this study was to develop a model to account for witnesses' intention to help and helping behaviour in response to bullying in a nursing setting. Three hundred and thirty-seven witnesses completed self-report measures of variables predicting intention to help and helping behaviour. A full structural model was constructed using structural equation modelling. The intention to help victims was elicited by tension, group identity, support to peers' initiative to intervene and absence of fear of retaliation. However, engagement in helping behaviour was only predicted by the absence of fear of retaliation. This study shows that witnesses of bullying in nursing settings do not remain impassive, but their experienced discomfort and intention to help victims is not sufficient to predict helping behaviour. Fear of possible retaliation if intervening in favour of victims constitutes a crucial factor explaining witnesses' hesitation to help victims. Several implications for the implementation of policies directed at eradicating bullying in nursing settings are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Booij, J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K.; van den Brink, W.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence,

  16. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys) function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-) amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine

  17. Responsible Reporting : Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into

  18. Guidelines for the ethical use of neuroimages in medical testimony: report of a multidisciplinary consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, C C; Sze, G; Rommelfanger, K S; Kinlaw, K; Banja, J D; Wolpe, P R

    2014-04-01

    With rapid advances in neuroimaging technology, there is growing concern over potential misuse of neuroradiologic imaging data in legal matters. On December 7 and 8, 2012, a multidisciplinary consensus conference, Use and Abuse of Neuroimaging in the Courtroom, was held at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Through this interactive forum, a highly select group of experts-including neuroradiologists, neurologists, forensic psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroscientists, legal scholars, imaging statisticians, judges, practicing attorneys, and neuroethicists-discussed the complex issues involved in the use of neuroimaging data entered into legal evidence and for associated expert testimony. The specific contexts of criminal cases, child abuse, and head trauma were especially considered. The purpose of the conference was to inform the development of guidelines on expert testimony for the American Society of Neuroradiology and to provide principles for courts on the ethical use of neuroimaging data as evidence. This report summarizes the conference and resulting recommendations.

  19. NeuroVault and the vision for data sharing in neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgolewski, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Talk from the 14 January 2014 "GlaxoSmithKline - Neurophysics Workshop on Skeptical Neuroimaging", an activity hosted at Imperial College and coordinated with the Neurophysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of which GSK is a participant.

  20. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzone, Luigi; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptua...

  1. A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity:behavioural and neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Jessica; Dalton, Bethan; Kekic, Maria; Bartholdy, Savani; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity.METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED...

  2. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-01-01

    Full text: High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, par ticularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve patholo gies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.

  3. Responsible Reporting: Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Kupper, Frank; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into account from the outset. We previously identified that Dutch neuroscientists interpret "responsible innovation" as educating the public on neuroimaging technologies via the popular press. Their aim is to mitigate (neuro)hype, an aim shared with the wider emerging RRI community. Here, we present results of a media-analysis undertaken to establish whether the body of articles in the Dutch popular press presents balanced conversations on neuroimaging research to the public. We found that reporting was mostly positive and framed in terms of (healthcare) progress. There was rarely a balance between technology opportunities and limitations, and even fewer articles addressed societal or ethical aspects of neuroimaging research. Furthermore, neuroimaging metaphors seem to favour oversimplification. Current reporting is therefore more likely to enable hype than to mitigate it. How can neuroscientists, given their self-ascribed social responsibility, address this conundrum? We make a case for a collective and shared responsibility among neuroscientists, journalists and other stakeholders, including funders, committed to responsible reporting on neuroimaging research.

  4. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar S. Shatil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1 inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2 highlight their main advantages; 3 discuss when it may (and may not be advisable to use them; 4 review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5 give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc., a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  5. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  6. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S.; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R.

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications. PMID:27279746

  7. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  8. Witnesses to hunger: participation through photovoice to ensure the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.

  9. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  10. Contemplation: If It Makes for Peace, Why Not for Christian Witness Too?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to answer the following question: Why does Christian witness need contemplation? He claims that Christian witness needs contemplation, because contemplation reveals the truth about the nature of reality; it is this truth which is one of the factors that constitute the foundation of Christian faith. In a sense, contemplation is analogical to mysticism: as mystical visions make Christian belief grounded on the immediate experience of (meeting with the Truth, so the contemplation of the creatures makes Christian belief based on the indirect experience of the Truth (i.e., the meeting with the traces left by the Creator in the world.

  11. Prehospital behaviour of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or witnessed cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study prehospital behaviour of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or witnessed cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Structured interview of 250 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome and relatives of 48 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest. The following courses of action...... hundred and thirteen patients (45%) knew of thrombolytic therapy. Twenty-seven of 75 patients with knowledge of the benefit of prompt treatment with thrombolysis, acted in accordance with this awareness. CONCLUSION: Patients misinterpret symptoms of acute coronary syndrome and are misguided when calling...

  12. Pedagogy and the Art of Death: Reparative Readings of Death and Dying in Margaret Edson's Wit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Christine M

    2015-11-19

    Wit explores modes of reading representations of death and dying, both through the play's sustained engagement with Donne's Holy Sonnets and through Vivian's self-reflexive approach to her illness and death. I argue that the play dramatizes reparative readings, a term coined by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick to describe an alternative to the paranoid reading practices that have come to dominate literary criticism. By analyzing the play's reparative readings of death and dying (as well as its representation of the shortcomings of paranoid readings), I show how Wit provides lessons about knowledge-making and reading practices in the field of health humanities.

  13. Geriatric medicine, Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative and biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2010-01-01

    Due to a change in disease spectrum in aged countries, the primary role of geriatricians should be directed to an appropriate management and prevention of cognitive decline and dementia, swallowing and aspiration pneumonia and falls and fractures. Management of dementia constitutes a central part in the practice of geriatric medicine in order to support independence of life in elderly people. The current paradigm of cognitive function-based testing for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is going to drastically shift to a biomarker-based test approach, a shift that will correspond to the emergence of disease-modifying drugs. In addition, a new molecular imaging technique that visualizes neuronal protein deposits or pathological features has been developed in Japan and the U.S.A. Based on these achievements, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was proposed and initiated in 2005. The ADNI is a long-term observational study being conducted in the U.S.A., Europe, Australia, and Japan using identical protocols. The objectives of ADNI are: to establish methodology which will allow standard values related to long-term changes in imaging data, such as MRI and positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly persons; to obtain clinical indices, psychological test data, and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to demonstrate the validity of image-based surrogate markers; and to establish optimum methods to monitor the therapeutic effects of disease-modifying drugs for AD. Patient enrollment in the Japanese ADNI has begun in July 2008. Imaging of AD pathology not only acts as a reliable biomarker with which to assay curative drug development by novel pharmaceutical companies, but it also helps health promotion toward AD prevention. (author)

  14. Differentiating emotional processing and attention in psychopathy with functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, J Michael; Rao, Vikram; Koenigs, Michael R; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a task designed to manipulate attention to emotional features of visual stimuli, we demonstrate effects representing implicit emotional processing, explicit emotional processing, attention-facilitated emotional processing, and vigilance for emotional content. Results confirm the importance of considering mechanisms of attention when evaluating emotional processing differences related to psychopathic traits. The affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy (PCL-R Factor 1) were associated with relatively lower emotion-dependent augmentation of activity in visual processing areas during implicit emotional processing, while antisocial-lifestyle features (PCL-R Factor 2) were associated with elevated activity in the amygdala and related salience network regions. During explicit emotional processing, psychopathic traits were associated with upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and superior frontal regions. Isolating the impact of explicit attention to emotional content, only Factor 1 was related to upregulation of activity in the visual processing stream, which was accompanied by increased activity in the angular gyrus. These effects highlight some important mechanisms underlying abnormal features of attention and emotional processing that accompany psychopathic traits.

  15. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald’s criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here.

  16. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Rose, N.; Masita, A.; Dhaliwal, J. S.; Puvanarajah, S. D.; Rafia, M. H.; Muda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald's criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here. PMID:24455266

  17. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care. ©RSNA, 2013.

  18. 'Number-forms' in neuroimaging?;- a PET activation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Code, C.; Harasty, J.; Egan, G.F.; Watson, J.D.G.; University of New South Wales,; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW; University of Melbourne, VIC; University of Exeter,

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 1880 Francis Galton reported a mental imagery study in which imagers were able to describe and draw arithmetic operations called 'number-forms' (NF). While many studies have reported NFs, little is known about their neural basis. We report a PET case study of a normal volunteer who invoked NFs during mental arithmetic tasks. This PET study used two conditions, repetition and calculation, presented bi-aurally while the subject was blindfolded. The calculation condition required the subject to say out loud the answers to arithmetic tasks, eg. 'nineteen minus seven'. A post-test protocol for vividness of visual imagery during calculation (PVVIC), based on the interviews of Galton (1880) and Seron and colleagues (1992), identified AF, a 43year-old women, as the highest imager (PVVIC - 95%) from a group of 12 normal volunteers. She was able to accurately describe and draw a well-used imagery strategy for mental arithmetic. Her results were contrasted with non-imager, FM (PVVIC - 10%). AF's MRI guided PET results showed significant rCBF activations during the calculation tasks including the right precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus (BA8), left superior parietal lobe (BA7), left visual cortex, medial thalamus and cerebellum. Except for the activation in the right BA8, common to both subjects, AF's areas were not activated by FM. These data confirm previous PET findings that the precuneus plays a major role in mental imagery and point to a neural network for mental imagery during simple calculation. AF's imagery strategies could be the first number-forms reported in a neuroimaging study. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  20. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  1. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep.

  2. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  3. Remarks on search methods for stable, massive, elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, Martin L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented at the 69th birthday celebration of Professor Eugene Commins, honoring his research achievements. These remarks are about the experimental techniques used in the search for new stable, massive particles, particles at least as massive as the electron. A variety of experimental methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for halo particles in the galaxy and searches for exotic particles in bulk matter are described. A summary is presented of the measured limits on the existence of new stable, massive particle

  4. Remarks on the 'Grenelle Environnement' portfolio of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Boston Consulting Group has presented its remarks on the economic impact of the portfolio of measures issued from the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' workshop that was held in France and involved people with a variety of backgrounds (government representatives, politicians, companies, professional syndicates, NGOs, scientists and university professors, etc.). These measures (covering sectors such as agriculture, biodiversity, wastes, renewable energies, transport, buildings, risk prevention, etc.) are said to potentially generate 450 billions Euros of economic activities and 600,000 jobs during 12 years. Their direct impacts on the environment would be a 14 percent reduction in greenhouse gases between 2010 and 2020. Concerning renewable energies, investment focusing is suggested

  5. Remarks on Hamiltonian structures in G2-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyunjoo; Salur, Sema; Todd, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we treat G 2 -geometry as a special case of multisymplectic geometry and make a number of remarks regarding Hamiltonian multivector fields and Hamiltonian differential forms on manifolds with an integrable G 2 -structure; in particular, we discuss existence and make a number of identifications of the spaces of Hamiltonian structures associated to the two multisymplectic structures associated to an integrable G 2 -structure. Along the way, we prove some results in multisymplectic geometry that are generalizations of results from symplectic geometry

  6. Unbound color, prefaced by remarks on baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    Theoretical and experimental issues related to the possibility that color is unbound are surveyed. This implies that quarks, gluons and other particles carrying color can exist as isolated objects. It is surprisingly difficult to distinguish models with unbound color from those in which color is permanently confined. None-the-less, the present situation seems discouraging for unbound color because there is no unambiguous support for it and because the crucial prediction of formation of a colored gluon in e + e - collisions has been ruled out wherever sufficient data exists. The above survey is prefaced by remarks on the symmetric quark model for baryon spectroscopy

  7. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  8. Some Remarks on Stochastic Versions of the Ramsey Growth Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 139-152 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Economic dynamics * Ramsey growth model with disturbance * stochastic dynamic programming * multistage stochastic programs Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/sladky-some remarks on stochastic versions of the ramsey growth model.pdf

  9. Remarkable Computing - the Challenge of Designing for the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2004-01-01

    The vision of ubiquitous computing is floating into the domain of the household, despite arguments that lessons from design of workplace artefacts cannot be blindly transferred into the domain of the household. This paper discusses why the ideal of unremarkable or ubiquitous computing is too narrow...... with respect to the household. It points out how understanding technology use, is a matter of looking into the process of use and on how the specific context of the home, in several ways, call for technology to be remarkable rather than unremarkable....

  10. Some remarks about large p/sub perpendicular/ spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the ingredients necessary to make predictions concerning single and double spin measurements in large p/sub perpendicular to/ inclusive processes is presented. Remarks are made as to what might be expected and what might be learned from such measurements. Various models for the production of large p/sub perpendicular to/ mesons have quite different spin structure and hence can be expected to give differing predictions. However, it is not possible at this time to make quantitative calculations, and it is possible (not probable) that the interesting spin observables will be negligibly small

  11. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305), 28S rRNA (2...... analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from...

  12. Concluding remarks: Faraday Discussion on chemistry in the urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jose L

    2016-07-18

    This article summarises the Concluding remarks from the Faraday Discussion on Chemistry in the Urban Atmosphere. The following themes are addressed: (a) new results that inform our understanding of the evolving sources and composition of the urban atmosphere ("News"); (b) results that identify gaps in our understanding that necessitate further work ("Gaps"); (c) the emerging instrumentation revolution and some of the challenges that it brings; (d) the structural issues of insufficient support for the analysis of field campaigns; and (e) some important areas that were missing from this Faraday Discussion and that should receive an increasing focus in the future.

  13. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Escaping the flybottle: solipsism and method in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônadas Techio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper supports a dialectical interpretation of Wittgenstein's method focusing on the analysis of the conditions of experience presented in his Philosophical Remarks. By means of a close reading of some key passages dealing with solipsism I will try to lay bare their self-subverting character: the fact that they amount to miniature dialectical exercises offering specific directions to pass from particular pieces of disguised nonsense to corresponding pieces of patent nonsense. Yet, in order to follow those directions one needs to allow oneself to become simultaneously tempted by and suspicious of their all-too-evident "metaphysical tone" - a tone which, as we shall see, is particularly manifest in those claims purporting to state what can or cannot be the case, and, still more particularly, those purporting to state what can or cannot be done in language or thought, thus leading to the view that there are some (determinate things which are ineffable or unthinkable. I conclude by suggesting that in writing those remarks Wittgenstein was still moved by an ethical project, which gets conspicuously displayed in these reiterations of his attempts to cure the readers (and himself from some of the temptations expressed by solipsism.

  15. Critical remarks on Bruno Thuring's polemic against Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, F.; Lackner, K.; Posch, T.

    2005-08-01

    Bruno Thüring (1905-1989) was among those scientists who joined the campaign against Einstein's Theories of Relativity which was undertaken in the name of so-called "German Physics". Thüring served as director of Vienna's University Observatory between 1940-45; hence, we present biographical information on his scientific and administrative activities in Vienna, partly based on interviews with time-witnesses. It is one of Thüring's basic convictions that Einstein's work cannot be understood without an analysis of the developments of physics and philosophy in the 19th century. While this is true generally, Thüring's account of these developments is rather superficial. For example, Thüring considers Kant's idea of the a priori status of geometry as a wholly sufficient epistemological foundation of mechanics, while both post-Kantian idealism and positivism were a mere backdrop to the development of knowledge - a view which can hardly stand critical examination. Concerning the impact of Einstein's theories on physics, Thüring argues that the principles of special and general relativity be nothing else but arbitrary decisions (as opposed to real insights). Hence these principles would never be verified or falsified by any experiment. The Michelson-Moreley experiment, e.g., would not prove the principles of special relativity. Thüring considers Einstein's interpretation of this experiment as premature and as an arbitrary judgement on a very particular and subaltern phenomenon which would not justify the conclusion that the velocity of the Earth with respect to the luminiferous aether be immeasurable by just any experimental technique.

  16. The Witnesses Walk Your Halls: The School Counselor and Student Victims of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refvem, Joanna

    More than three million children witness domestic violence each year. School counselors need to understand the dynamics of domestic violence, learn the most effective assessments of violence in the lives of their students, and be familiar with the interventions that can be implemented. External stresses on the family do not appear to influence the…

  17. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  18. 12 CFR 1780.29 - Deposition of witness unavailable for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prehearing... not be available for the hearing, a party desiring to preserve that witness' testimony for the record... the grounds for the objection. Failure to object to questions or documents is not deemed a waiver...

  19. Minorities with Different Values at School--The Case of Jehovah's Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedgren, Pernilla

    2018-01-01

    Teachers in Swedish schools must balance the values imposed by law while simultaneously attempting to respect freedom of religion for their pupils. This study aimed to empirically investigate how teachers handle pupils who are Jehovah's Witnesses, a minority religion. Eleven, adult ex-members were asked to reflect on their experiences during…

  20. 7 CFR 1.213 - Appearance as a witness on behalf of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.213 Appearance as a... United States in any judicial or administrative proceeding without the issuance of a summons, subpoena, or other compulsory process. Employees should obtain permission for such an appearance from their...

  1. Nahuatl among Jehovah's Witnesses of Hueyapan, Morelos: A case of Spontaneous revitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The sociolinguistic situation of Hueyapan, Morelos, is similar to those described in other studies of modern Nahua communities: the language is in a rapid process of decline. This article describes the situation within one particular subcommunity of the town: the congregation of Jehovah's Witness...

  2. Intravenous iron administration together with parenteral nutrition to very preterm Jehovah's Witness twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Schroeder, Allan Mikael; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Preterm twin sisters (monozygotic) were born at gestational age 27 weeks and 5 days with birth weights of 935 and 735 g. They were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for a period of 1 month. Their parents were Jehovah's Witnesses and refused blood transfusion for their preterm daughters...

  3. Proofing the ban on ‘witness proofing': did the ICC get it right?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for disaccord between the ICC and the more seasoned international criminal tribunals on the issue of allowing substantive preparation of witnesses for testifying in court. The rationales behind the opposing decisions and the ensuing debate on the legitimacy and

  4. Outcomes in cardiac surgery in 500 consecutive Jehovah's Witness patients: 21 year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaislic Claude D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refusal of heterogenic blood products can be for religious reasons as in Jehovah's Witnesses or otherwise or as requested by an increasing number of patients. Furthermore blood reserves are under continuous demand with increasing costs. Therefore, transfusion avoidance strategies are desirable. We describe a historic comparison and current results of blood saving protocols in Jehovah's Witnesses patients. Methods Data on 250 Jehovah's Witness patients operated upon between 1991 and 2003 (group A were reviewed and compared with a second population of 250 patients treated from 2003 to 2012 (group B. Results In group A, mean age was 51 years of age compared to 68 years in group B. An iterative procedure was performed in 13% of patients in group B. Thirty days mortality was 3% in group A and 1% in group B despite greater operative risk factors, with more redo, and lower ejection fraction in group B. Several factors contributed to the low morbidity-mortality in group B, namely: preoperative erythropoietin to attain a minimal hemoglobin value of 14 g/dl, warm blood cardioplegia, the implementation of the Cornell University protocol and fast track extubation. Conclusions Cardiac surgery without transfusion in high-risk patients such as Jehovah Witnesses can be carried out with results equivalent to those of low risk patients. Recent advances in surgical techniques and blood conservation protocols are main contributing factors.

  5. Speaking to the yet unknowing world: Hamlet, Horatio and the problem of imperfect witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine

    2010-12-01

    Every day doctors bear witness to others about the experiences, needs and feelings of their patients, drawing on what they have learnt from clinical consultations. This paper considers the medical task of bearing honourable and truthful witness through an examination of the role and actions of Horatio in Hamlet. Horatio is simultaneously located among the background machinery of the play, separate from the lives of the protagonists, and in the foreground, where his authoritative witness is repeatedly called upon by the play's characters. Horatio is invited to watch an unfolding disaster, his warnings are not heard, and at its conclusion he stands apart from the drama to give its account. The tensions between engagement and observation, and between partial and impartial accounting echo those faced by doctors in everyday clinical practice. The act of bearing witness, Shakespeare suggests, even for those who are tasked with being objective, is necessarily imperfect, and not dispassionate. Those people, including doctors, who are expected to construct authoritative accounts of the motives and actions of others may find in Hamlet a small lesson on the need to approach their summary narratives about others more humbly, aware of the narrowness and partiality of their perspective.

  6. When fellow customers behave badly: Witness reactions to employee mistreatment by customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Bhatnagar, Namita

    2017-11-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined how customers react after witnessing a fellow customer mistreat an employee. Drawing on the deontic model of justice, we argue that customer mistreatment of employees leads witnesses (i.e., other customers) to leave larger tips, engage in supportive employee-directed behaviors, and evaluate employees more positively (Studies 1 and 2). We also theorize that witnesses develop less positive treatment intentions and more negative retaliatory intentions toward perpetrators, with anger and empathy acting as parallel mediators of our perpetrator- and target-directed outcomes, respectively. In Study 1, we conducted a field experiment that examined real customers' target-directed reactions to witnessed mistreatment in the context of a fast-food restaurant. In Study 2, we replicated Study 1 findings in an online vignette experiment, and extended it by examining more severe mistreatment and perpetrator-directed responses. In Study 3, we demonstrated that employees who respond to mistreatment uncivilly are significantly less likely to receive the positive outcomes found in Studies 1 and 2 than those who respond neutrally. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 42 CFR 34.8 - Reexamination; convening of review boards; expert witnesses; reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... witnesses; reports. 34.8 Section 34.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... behavior associated with the disorder that may pose, or has posed, a threat to the property, safety, or welfare of the alien or others; or (ii) Having a history of a physical or mental disorder and behavior...

  8. The Significance of Witness Sensors for Mass Casualty Incidents and Epidemic Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Long; Lin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Yan-Ren; Wen, Hsin-Yu; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2018-02-02

    Due to the increasing number of natural and man-made disasters, mass casualty incidents occur more often than ever before. As a result, health care providers need to adapt in order to cope with the overwhelming patient surge. To ensure quality and safety in health care, accurate information in pandemic disease control, death reduction, and health quality promotion should be highlighted. However, obtaining precise information in real time is an enormous challenge to all researchers of the field. In this paper, innovative strategies are presented to develop a sound information network using the concept of "witness sensors." To overcome the reliability and quality limitations of information obtained through social media, researchers must focus on developing solutions that secure the authenticity of social media messages, especially for matters related to health. To address this challenge, we introduce a novel concept based on the two elements of "witness" and "sensor." Witness sensors can be key players designated to minimize limitations to quality of information and to distinguish fact from fiction during critical events. In order to enhance health communication practices and deliver valid information to end users, the education and management of witness sensors should be further investigated, especially for implementation during mass casualty incidents and epidemic outbreaks. ©Chih-Long Pan, Chih-Hao Lin, Yan-Ren Lin, Hsin-Yu Wen, Jet-Chau Wen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.02.2018.

  9. The Selective Cue Integration Framework: A Theory of Postidentification Witness Confidence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Steve D.; Carlucci, Marianna; Vallano, Jon; Gregory, Amy Hyman

    2010-01-01

    The current manuscript proposes a theory of how witnesses assess their confidence following a lineup identification, called the selective cue integration framework (SCIF). Drawing from past research on the postidentification feedback effect, the SCIF details a three-stage process of confidence assessment that is based largely on a…

  10. On Standby? A Comparison of Online and Offline Witnesses to Bullying and Their Bystander Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Roslynn; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Given their ubiquitous presence as witnesses to school-yard bullying, the role of the "bystander" has been studied extensively. The prevalence and behaviour of bystanders to "cyberbullying," however, is less understood. In an anonymous, school-based questionnaire, 716 secondary school students from South-East Queensland…

  11. HLA antibody-incompatible kidney transplantation between jehovah's witnesses--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A; Macphee, I; Popoola, J; Sage, D; Iqbal, R; Fossati, N; Heap, S; Morsy, M; Kessaris, N

    2013-06-01

    Desensitization before HLA antibody-incompatible (HLAi) transplantation involves nonspecific apheresis of HLA antibodies. Clotting factors and albumin are also removed and have to be replaced. This makes transplantation difficult because it increases the risk of bleeding. Such risk is further compounded when certain blood products are refused on religious grounds. We present a case of successful HLAi transplantation in a Jehovah's Witness across a positive-flow cytometric HLA crossmatch from a live donor who was also a Jehovah's Witness. This was achieved by giving rituximab 1 month before transplantation and starting prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil 10 days before surgery. In preparation, the patient also underwent 4 sessions of double-filtration plasma exchange each followed by low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. The night before transplantation, the fibrinogen was low, requiring 2 pools of cryoprecipitate. The organ was retrieved through laparoscopic hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy and transplanted into the recipient with no complications. In addition, the patient received basiliximab during surgery. Sixteen months after transplantation the serum creatinine was 70 μmol/L (0.79 mg/dL) and there were no rejection episodes. To our knowledge this is the world's first live-related kidney transplant across the HLAi barrier between 2 Jehovah's Witnesses. This case may allow further HLAi transplants to be carried out in Jehovah's Witnesses in the future around the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily Reports of Witnessing and Experiencing Peer Harassment in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined daily incidents of peer harassment in urban middle schools. Sixth-grade students (M age=11 years) described their daily personal experiences and witnessed accounts of peer harassment, and rated their negative feelings across a 2-week period. In Study 1 (n=95), within-subject analyses across 4 days revealed that both personally…

  13. Maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity in Jehovah's witnesses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the risk of maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity because of major obstetric haemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses in The Netherlands. A retrospective study of case notes. All tertiary care centres, general teaching hospitals and other general hospitals in The Netherlands. All

  14. Maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    To determine the risk of maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity because of major obstetric haemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands. A retrospective study of case notes. All tertiary care centres, general teaching hospitals and other general hospitals in the Netherlands. All

  15. The body in analysis: authentic movement and witnessing in analytic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman-McGinty, W

    1998-04-01

    This paper will describe a form of active imagination called authentic movement, in which attention is given to the somatic unconscious. In authentic movement, patients are encouraged to focus inward and attend to any bodily sensations, images and feelings which may arise. In the process of focusing inward on one's bodily-felt experience, images, somatic memory and the accompanying feelings which arise are then available to be explored as a communication from the patient's unconscious. Authentic movement supports the individual in linking image with affect in that the individual re-experiences the somatic aspect of symbolization. What was previously conserved on the somatic level as unmentalized experience, can now begin to be taken up into the mind, thought about, and made available for analysis. In authentic movement, the analyst acts as a silent witness to the patient's explorations. The quiet focused attention of the witness helps to create a secure containing environment in which the person moving can experience a sense of feeling held and seen. The function of the witness is to hold the patient's experience in his own mind, particularly what is not yet mentalized. The witness utilizes his somatic countertransference, including any images, feelings and bodily responses which are generated by what is being communicated non-verbally, as a means of understanding and responding to the patient's material.

  16. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  17. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  18. Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra de; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine, opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The Federal Council of Medicine resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; de Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine (FCM), opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The FCM resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implications of Witness Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…