WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuroimaging evidence points

  1. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

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    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  2. A neuroimaging point of view on the diversity of social cognition: evidence for extended influence of experience- and emotion-related factors on face processing.

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    George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Faces are key social stimuli that convey a wealth of information essential for person perception and adaptive interpersonal behaviour. Studies in the domain of cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience have put in light that the processing of faces recruits specific visual regions and activates a distributed set of brain regions related to attentional, emotional, social, and memory processes associated with the perception of faces and the extraction of the numerous information attached to them. Studies using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed localizing these brain regions and characterizing their functional properties. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) techniques are complementary to fMRI in that they offer a unique insight into the temporal dynamics of mental processes. In this article, I review the contribution of neuroimaging techniques to the knowledge on face processing and person perception with the aim of putting in light the extended influence of experience-related factors, particularly in relation with emotions, on the face processing system. Although the face processing network has evolved under evolutionary selection pressure related to sociality-related needs and is therefore highly conserved throughout the human species, neuroimaging studies put in light both the extension and the flexibility of the brain network involved in face processing. MEG and EEG allow in particular to reveal that the human brain integrates emotion- and experience-related information from the earliest stage of face processing. Altogether, this emphasizes the diversity of social cognitive processes associated with face perception.

  3. Attention to spoken word planning : Chronometric and neuroimaging evidence

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    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews chronometric and neuroimaging evidence on attention to spoken word planning, using the WEAVER++ model as theoretical framework. First, chronometric studies on the time to initiate vocal responding and gaze shifting suggest that spoken word planning may require some attention,

  4. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

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    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective.

  5. Bayesian Spatial Point Process Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

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    Johnson, Timothy D.

    2017-01-01

    Talk given during the "Where’s Your Signal? Explicit Spatial Models to Improve Interpretability and Sensitivity of Neuroimaging Results" workshop at the 2012 Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) conference in in Beijing, 10-14 June.

  6. Estrogen- and progesterone-mediated structural neuroplasticity in women: evidence from neuroimaging.

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    Catenaccio, Eva; Mu, Weiya; Lipton, Michael L

    2016-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that the ovarian sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, which vary considerably over the course of the human female lifetime, contribute to changes in brain structure and function. This structured, quantitative literature reviews aims to summarize neuroimaging literature addressing physiological variation in brain macro- and microstructure across an array of hormonal transitions including the menstrual cycle, use of hormonal contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. Twenty-five studies reporting structural neuroimaging of women, addressing variation across hormonal states, were identified from a structured search of PUBMED and were systematically reviewed. Although the studies are heterogenous with regard to methodology, overall the results point to overlapping areas of hormone related effects on brain structure particularly affecting the structures of the limbic system. These findings are in keeping with functional data that point to a role for estrogen and progesterone in mediating emotional processing.

  7. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

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    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat

  8. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER:EVIDENCE FROM NEUROIMAGING

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    Pierre Alexis Geoffroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia (SZ and Bipolar disorder (BD are considered as severe multifactorial diseases, stemming from genetic and environmental influences. Growing evidence supports gene x environment (GxE interactions in these disorders and neuroimaging studies can help us to understand how those factors mechanistically interact. No reviews synthesized the existing data of neuroimaging studies in these issues.Methods: We conduct a systematic review on the neuroimaging studies exploring GxE interactions relative to SZ or BD in PubMed.Results: First results of the influence of genetic and environmental risks on brain structures came from monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for SZ or BD. Few structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies have explored the GxE interactions. No other imaging methods were found. Two main GxE interactions on brain volumes have arisen. First, an interaction between genetic liability to SZ and obstetric complications on gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampal volumes. Second, cannabis use and genetic liability interaction effects on cortical thickness and white matter volumes.Conclusion: Combining GxE interactions and neuroimaging domains is a promising approach. Genetic risk and environmental exposures such as cannabis or obstetrical complications seem to interact leading to specific neuroimaging cerebral alterations in SZ. They are suggestive of GxE interactions that confer phenotypic abnormalities in SZ and possibly BD. We need further, larger neuroimaging studies of GxE interactions for which we may propose a framework focusing on GxE interactions data already known to have a clinical effect such as infections, early stress, urbanicity and substance abuse.

  9. Pediatric head trauma: the evidence regarding indications for emergent neuroimaging

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    Kuppermann, Nathan [UC Davis Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of childhood death and disability worldwide. In the United States, childhood head trauma results in approximately 3,000 deaths, 50,000 hospitalizations, and 650,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. Children presenting to the ED with seemingly minor head trauma account for approximately one-half of children with documented TBIs. Despite the frequency and importance of childhood minor head trauma, there exists no highly accurate, reliable and validated clinical scoring system or prediction rule for assessing risk of TBI among those with minor head trauma. At the same time, use of CT scanning in these children in recent years has increased substantially. The major benefit of CT scanning is early identification (and treatment) of TBIs that might otherwise be missed and result in increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Unnecessary CT imaging, however, exposes the child needlessly to the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. What constitutes appropriate criteria for obtaining CT scans in children after minor blunt head trauma remains controversial. Current evidence to guide clinicians in this regard is limited; however, large studies performed in multi-center research networks have recently been conducted. These studies should provide the foundation of evidence to guide CT decisions by clinicians, help identify TBIs in a timely fashion, and reduce unnecessary radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Estrogen- and progesterone-mediated structural neuroplasticity in women: evidence from neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Catenaccio, Eva; Mu, Weiya; Lipton, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the ovarian sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, which vary considerably over the course of the human female lifetime, contribute to changes in brain structure and function. This structured, quantitative literature reviews aims to summarize neuroimaging literature addressing physiological variation in brain macro- and microstructure across an array of hormonal transitions including the menstrual cycle, use of hormonal contraceptives, pregnancy, and menop...

  11. Evidence on Use of Neuroimaging for Surgical Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Systematic Review.

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    Jones, Amy L; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Neuroimaging studies are considered essential in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with medically refractory focal seizures being considered for surgical treatment. To review the evidence for the use of neuroimaging studies in the selection of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy for focal cortical resection and discuss the prognostic importance of selected techniques. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical retrospective case studies (≥20 patients with ≥1 year of follow-up) were identified using Medical Subject Headings and indexed text terms in EMBASE (1988-November 29, 2014); MEDLINE (1946-December 2, 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991-October 31, 2014), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-October 31, 2014). Twenty-seven articles describing 3163 patients were included. Neuroimaging techniques analyzed included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Subpopulations and prognostic factors were identified. Of the 27 studies evaluated (3163 patients), 7 showed the outcome was more favorable in patients with MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy indicating mesial temporal sclerosis. Five additional studies indicated that the outcome was less favorable in patients with unremarkable MRI studies. There are conflicting findings regarding the prognostic importance of PET-identified focal hypometabolism; however, 2 investigations indicated that the presence of a PET imaging study demonstrating abnormalities in individuals with unremarkable MRI results showed an operative outcome similar to that in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The studies assessing SPECT use in temporal lobe epilepsy did not reveal a correlation with outcome. There is strong evidence that preoperative MRI-identified hippocampal atrophy consistent with mesial temporal

  12. Neurobiological Foundations of Acupuncture: The Relevance and Future Prospect Based on Neuroimaging Evidence

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    Lijun Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is currently gaining popularity as an important modality of alternative and complementary medicine in the western world. Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography open a window into the neurobiological foundations of acupuncture. In this review, we have summarized evidence derived from neuroimaging studies and tried to elucidate both neurophysiological correlates and key experimental factors involving acupuncture. Converging evidence focusing on acute effects of acupuncture has revealed significant modulatory activities at widespread cerebrocerebellar brain regions. Given the delayed effect of acupuncture, block-designed analysis may produce bias, and acupuncture shared a common feature that identified voxels that coded the temporal dimension for which multiple levels of their dynamic activities in concert cause the processing of acupuncture. Expectation in acupuncture treatment has a physiological effect on the brain network, which may be heterogeneous from acupuncture mechanism. “Deqi” response, bearing clinical relevance and association with distinct nerve fibers, has the specific neurophysiology foundation reflected by neural responses to acupuncture stimuli. The type of sham treatment chosen is dependent on the research question asked and the type of acupuncture treatment to be tested. Due to the complexities of the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture, using multiple controls is an optimal choice.

  13. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL POINT PROCESS MODEL FOR MULTI-TYPE NEUROIMAGING META-ANALYSIS.

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    Kang, Jian; Nichols, Thomas E; Wager, Tor D; Johnson, Timothy D

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging meta-analysis is an important tool for finding consistent effects over studies that each usually have 20 or fewer subjects. Interest in meta-analysis in brain mapping is also driven by a recent focus on so-called "reverse inference": where as traditional "forward inference" identifies the regions of the brain involved in a task, a reverse inference identifies the cognitive processes that a task engages. Such reverse inferences, however, requires a set of meta-analysis, one for each possible cognitive domain. However, existing methods for neuroimaging meta-analysis have significant limitations. Commonly used methods for neuroimaging meta-analysis are not model based, do not provide interpretable parameter estimates, and only produce null hypothesis inferences; further, they are generally designed for a single group of studies and cannot produce reverse inferences. In this work we address these limitations by adopting a non-parametric Bayesian approach for meta analysis data from multiple classes or types of studies. In particular, foci from each type of study are modeled as a cluster process driven by a random intensity function that is modeled as a kernel convolution of a gamma random field. The type-specific gamma random fields are linked and modeled as a realization of a common gamma random field, shared by all types, that induces correlation between study types and mimics the behavior of a univariate mixed effects model. We illustrate our model on simulation studies and a meta analysis of five emotions from 219 studies and check model fit by a posterior predictive assessment. In addition, we implement reverse inference by using the model to predict study type from a newly presented study. We evaluate this predictive performance via leave-one-out cross validation that is efficiently implemented using importance sampling techniques.

  14. Language and thought are not the same thing: evidence from neuroimaging and neurological patients.

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    Fedorenko, Evelina; Varley, Rosemary

    2016-04-01

    Is thought possible without language? Individuals with global aphasia, who have almost no ability to understand or produce language, provide a powerful opportunity to find out. Surprisingly, despite their near-total loss of language, these individuals are nonetheless able to add and subtract, solve logic problems, think about another person's thoughts, appreciate music, and successfully navigate their environments. Further, neuroimaging studies show that healthy adults strongly engage the brain's language areas when they understand a sentence, but not when they perform other nonlinguistic tasks such as arithmetic, storing information in working memory, inhibiting prepotent responses, or listening to music. Together, these two complementary lines of evidence provide a clear answer: many aspects of thought engage distinct brain regions from, and do not depend on, language. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Neuroimaging of love: fMRI meta-analysis evidence toward new perspectives in sexual medicine.

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    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Patel, Nisa; Frum, Chris; Lewis, James W

    2010-11-01

    Brain imaging is becoming a powerful tool in the study of human cerebral functions related to close personal relationships. Outside of subcortical structures traditionally thought to be involved in reward-related systems, a wide range of neuroimaging studies in relationship science indicate a prominent role for different cortical networks and cognitive factors. Thus, the field needs a better anatomical/network/whole-brain model to help translate scientific knowledge from lab bench to clinical models and ultimately to the patients suffering from disorders associated with love and couple relationships. The aim of the present review is to provide a review across wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to critically identify the cortical networks associated with passionate love, and to compare and contrast it with other types of love (such as maternal love and unconditional love for persons with intellectual disabilities). Retrospective review of pertinent neuroimaging literature. Review of published literature on fMRI studies of love illustrating brain regions associated with different forms of love. Although all fMRI studies of love point to the subcortical dopaminergic reward-related brain systems (involving dopamine and oxytocin receptors) for motivating individuals in pair-bonding, the present meta-analysis newly demonstrated that different types of love involve distinct cerebral networks, including those for higher cognitive functions such as social cognition and bodily self-representation. These metaresults provide the first stages of a global neuroanatomical model of cortical networks involved in emotions related to different aspects of love. Developing this model in future studies should be helpful for advancing clinical approaches helpful in sexual medicine and couple therapy. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Neural Correlates of Visual Perceptual Expertise: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience Using Functional Neuroimaging

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    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Kok, Ellen M.; van Geel, Koos; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Sorger, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a useful approach to study the neural correlates of visual perceptual expertise. The purpose of this paper is to review the functional-neuroimaging methods that have been implemented in previous research in this context. First, we will discuss research questions typically addressed in visual expertise research. Second,…

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Future Thinking: Evidence from Neuroimaging and Amnesia

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    Mieke Verfaellie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Following early amnesic case reports, there is now considerable evidence suggesting a link between remembering the past and envisioning the future. This link is evident in the overlap in neural substrates as well as cognitive processes involved in both kinds of tasks. While constructing a future narrative requires multiple processes, neuroimaging and lesion data converge on a critical role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in retrieving and recombining details from memory in the service of novel simulations. Deficient detail retrieval and recombination may lead to impairments not only in episodic, but also in semantic prospection. MTL contributions to scene construction and mental time travel may further compound impairments in amnesia on tasks that pose additional demands on these processes, but are unlikely to form the core deficit underlying amnesics' cross-domain future thinking impairment. Future studies exploring the role of episodic memory in other forms of self-projection or future-oriented behaviour may elucidate further the adaptive role of memory.

  18. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports

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    Kieran C. R. Fox

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (with high chances of dreaming. Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an ‘intensified’ version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal

  19. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports

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    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G. William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both “daydreaming” and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (with high chances of dreaming). Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an “intensified” version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal-directed waking

  20. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

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    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be particularly

  1. Neural Correlates of Developmental Speech and Language Disorders: Evidence from Neuroimaging.

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    Liégeois, Frédérique; Mayes, Angela; Morgan, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of speech and language arise out of a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and neural factors. Little is understood about the neural bases of these disorders. Here we systematically reviewed neuroimaging findings in Speech disorders (SD) and Language disorders (LD) over the last five years (2008-2013; 10 articles). In participants with SD, structural and functional anomalies in the left supramarginal gyrus suggest a possible deficit in sensory feedback or integration. In LD, cortical and subcortical anomalies were reported in a widespread language network, with little consistency across studies except in the superior temporal gyri. In summary, both functional and structural anomalies are associated with LD and SD, including greater activity and volumes relative to controls. The variability in neuroimaging approach and heterogeneity within and across participant samples restricts our full understanding of the neurobiology of these conditions- reducing the potential for devising novel interventions targeted at the underlying pathology.

  2. Disorders of Consciousness: Painless or Painful Conditions?—Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

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    Francesca Pistoia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, multichannel electroencephalography (EEG and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS, as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS. However, all of these techniques suggest that pain-related brain activation patterns of patients in MCS more closely resemble those of healthy subjects. This is further supported by fMRI findings showing a much greater functional connectivity within the structures of the so-called pain matrix in MCS as compared to UWS/VS patients. Nonetheless, when interpreting the results, a distinction is necessary between autonomic responses to potentially harmful stimuli and conscious experience of the unpleasantness of pain. Even more so if we consider that the degree of residual functioning and cortical connectivity necessary for the somatosensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components of pain processing are not yet clear. Although procedurally challenging, the particular value of the aforementioned techniques in the assessment of pain in disorders of consciousness has been clearly demonstrated. The study of pain-related brain activation and functioning can contribute to a better understanding of the networks underlying pain perception while addressing clinical and ethical questions concerning patient care. Further development of technology and methods should aim to increase the availability of neuroimaging, objective assessment of functional connectivity and analysis at the level of individual cases as well as group comparisons. This will enable neuroimaging to truly become a clinical tool to

  3. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

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    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history. Impairments in working memory components supporting language learning were also examined. In Study 2, right handed children from Study 1 who did not wear braces (controls, n=9, dysgraphia, n= 14; dyslexia, n=17, OWL LD, n=5) completed an fMRI functional connectivity brain imaging study in which they performed a word-specific spelling judgment task, which is related to both word reading and spelling, and may be impaired in dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD for different reasons. fMRI functional connectivity from 4 seed points in brain locations involved in written word processing to other brain regions also differentiated dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD; both specific regions to which connected and overall number of functional connections differed. Thus, results provide converging neurological and behavioral evidence, for dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD being different, diagnosable specific learning disabilities (SLDs) for persisting written language problems during middle childhood and early adolescence. Translation of the research findings into practice at policy and administrative levels and

  4. Aspects of cerebral plasticity related to clinical features in acute vestibular neuritis: a "starting point" review from neuroimaging studies.

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    Micarelli, A; Chiaravalloti, A; Schillaci, O; Ottaviani, F; Alessandrini, M

    2016-04-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is one of the most common causes of vertigo and is characterised by a sudden unilateral vestibular failure (UVF). Many neuroimaging studies in the last 10 years have focused on brain changes related to sudden vestibular deafferentation as in VN. However, most of these studies, also due to different possibilities across diverse centres, were based on different times of first acquisition from the onset of VN symptoms, neuroimaging techniques, statistical analysis and correlation with otoneurological and psychological findings. In the present review, the authors aim to merge together the similarities and discrepancies across various investigations that have employed neuroimaging techniques and group analysis with the purpose of better understanding about how the brain changes and what characteristic clinical features may relate to each other in the acute phase of VN. Six studies that strictly met inclusion criteria were analysed to assess cortical-subcortical correlates of acute clinical features related to VN. The present review clearly reveals that sudden UVF may induce a wide variety of cortical and subcortical responses - with changes in different sensory modules - as a result of acute plasticity in the central nervous system. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  5. Healthy and pathological processes in adult development: new evidence from neuroimaging of the aging brain.

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    Hedden, Trey; Gabrieli, John D E

    2005-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that the population of older adults is composed not only of individuals who are either healthy or have an age-related disease, most commonly Alzheimer's disease, but also individuals with mild cognitive impairment who are at-risk for or already in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. These variations in cognitive aging can be related to their neural bases via structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Healthy aging appears to primarily affect a frontal-striatal system that undergirds executive control of cognition, while minimally affecting medial temporal lobe structures. Functional imaging studies suggest that enhanced prefrontal engagement may offer compensatory plasticity that minimizes age-related cognitive losses. Mild cognitive impairment appears to affect the entorhinal cortex in particular, with functional consequences in other brain regions. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by severe hippocampal injury, although early-stage Alzheimer's disease may relatively spare some cortical regions. Advances in in-vivo imaging methods are providing the tools for identifying different trajectories of neurocognitive aging, and knowledge about these brain changes may promote opportunities for treatment.

  6. Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex

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    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction. Method An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed. This model and findings from neuroimaging studies on the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional processes that are at the core of drug addiction were used to analyze the involvement of frontal structures in drug addiction. Results The orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which are regions neuroanatomically connected with limbic structures, are the frontal cortical areas most frequently implicated in drug addiction. They are activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal. These regions are also involved in higher-order cognitive and motivational functions, such as the ability to track, update, and modulate the salience of a reinforcer as a function of context and expectation and the ability to control and inhibit prepotent responses. Conclusions These results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervaluing of alternative reinforcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses. These changes in addiction, which the authors call I-RISA (impaired response inhibition and salience attribution), expand the traditional concepts of drug dependence that emphasize limbic-regulated responses to pleasure and reward. PMID:12359667

  7. The Semantic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia: Clinical and Neuroimaging Evidence in Single Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Leonardo; Crespi, Chiara; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Guidi, Lucia; Marcone, Alessandra; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Perani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim We present a clinical-neuroimaging study in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), with the aim to provide clinical-functional correlations of the cognitive and behavioral manifestations at the single-subject level. Methods We performed neuropsychological investigations, 18F-FDG-PET single-subject and group analysis, with an optimized SPM voxel-based approach, and correlation analyses. A measurement of white matter integrity by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was also available for a subgroup of patients. Results Cognitive assessment confirmed the presence of typical semantic memory deficits in all patients, with a relative sparing of executive, attentional, visuo-constructional, and episodic memory domains. 18F-FDG-PET showed a consistent pattern of cerebral hypometabolism across all patients, which correlated with performance in semantic memory tasks. In addition, a majority of patients also presented with behavioral disturbances associated with metabolic dysfunction in limbic structures. In a subgroup of cases the DTI analysis showed FA abnormalities in the inferior longitudinal and uncinate fasciculi. Discussion Each svPPA individual had functional derangement involving an extended, connected system within the left temporal lobe, a crucial part of the verbal semantic network, as well as an involvement of limbic structures. The latter was associated with behavioral manifestations and extended beyond the area of atrophy shown by CT scan. Conclusion Single-subject 18F-FDG-PET analysis can account for both cognitive and behavioral alterations in svPPA. This provides useful support to the clinical diagnosis. PMID:25756991

  8. Evidence against functionalism from neuroimaging of the alien colour effect in synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeffrey A; Parslow, David M; Brammer, Michael J; Chopping, Susan; Vythelingum, Goparlen N; ffytche, Dominic H

    2006-02-01

    Coloured hearing synaesthetes experience colours to heard words, as confirmed by reliability of self-report, psychophysical testing and functional neuroimaging data. Some also describe the 'alien colour effect' (ACE): in response to colour names, they experience colours different from those named. We have previously reported that the ACE slows colour naming in a Stroop task, reflecting cognitive interference from synaesthetically induced colours, which depends upon their being consciously experienced. It has been proposed that the hippocampus mediates such consciously experienced conflict. Consistent with this hypothesis, we now report that, in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the Stroop task, hippocampal activation differentiates synaesthetes with the ACE from those without it and from non-synaesthete controls. These findings confirm the reality of coloured hearing synaesthesia and the ACE, phenomena which pose major challenges to the dominant contemporary account of mental states, functionalism. Reductive functionalism identifies types of mental states with causal roles: relations to inputs, outputs and other states. However, conscious mental states, such as experiences of colour, are distinguished by their qualitative properties or qualia. If functionalism is applied to conscious mental states, it identifies the qualitative type of an experience with its causal role or function. This entails both that experiences with disparate qualitative properties cannot have the same functional properties, and that experiences with disparate functional properties cannot have the same qualitative properties. Challenges to functionalism have often denied the first entailment. Here, we challenge the second entailment on empirical grounds. In coloured hearing synaesthesia, colour qualia are associated with both hearing words and seeing surfaces; and, in the ACE, these two functions act in opposition to one another. Whatever its merits as an account of other mental states

  9. Further neuroimaging evidence for the deficit subtype of schizophrenia: a cortical connectomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne L; Wessa, Michèle; Szeszko, Philip R; Foussias, George; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; DeRosse, Pamela; Remington, Gary; Mulsant, Benoit H; Linke, Julia; Malhotra, Anil K; Voineskos, Aristotle N

    2015-05-01

    The clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia has hindered neurobiological investigations aimed at identifying neural correlates of the disorder. To identify network-based biomarkers across the spectrum of impairment present in schizophrenia by separately evaluating individuals with deficit and nondeficit subtypes of this disorder. A university hospital network-based neuroimaging study was conducted between February 1, 2007, and February 28, 2012. Participants included patients with schizophrenia (n = 128) and matched healthy controls (n = 130) from two academic centers and patients with bipolar I disorder (n = 39) and matched healthy controls (n = 43) from a third site. Patients with schizophrenia at each site in the top quartile on the proxy scale for the deficit syndrome were classified as having deficit schizophrenia and those in the bottom quartile were classified as having nondeficit schizophrenia. All participants underwent magnetic resonance brain imaging. Network-level properties of cortical thickness were assessed in each group. Interregional cortexwide coupling was compared among the groups, and graph theoretical approaches were used to assess network density and node degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality. Stronger frontoparietal and frontotemporal coupling was found in patients with deficit schizophrenia compared with those with nondeficit schizophrenia (17 of 1326 pairwise relationships were significantly different, P  .05; 5% false discovery rate). The networks formed from patients with deficit schizophrenia demonstrated increased density of connections relative to controls and nondeficit patients (range, 0.07-0.45 in controls, 0.09-0.43 in the nondeficit group, and 0.18-0.67 in the deficit group). High centrality nodes were identified in the supramarginal, middle, and superior temporal and inferior frontal regions in deficit schizophrenia networks based on ranking of 4 centrality metrics. High centrality regions were identified

  10. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd L.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4-9 (N = 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history…

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to cate...

  12. Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Liane; Koenigs, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human moral decision-making has long been a topic of philosophical debate, and, more recently, a topic for empirical investigation. Central to this investigation is the extent to which emotional processes underlie our decisions about moral right and wrong. Neuroscience offers a unique perspective on this question by addressing whether brain regions associated with emotional processing are involved in moral cognition. We conduct a narrative review of neuroscientific studies focused on the role of emotion in morality. Specifically, we describe evidence implicating the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region known to be important for emotional processing. Functional imaging studies demonstrate VMPC activation during tasks probing moral cognition. Studies of clinical populations, including patients with VMPC damage, reveal an association between impairments in emotional processing and impairments in moral judgement and behaviour. Considered together, these studies indicate that not only are emotions engaged during moral cognition, but that emotions, particularly those mediated by VMPC, are in fact critical for human morality.

  13. Oxytocin effects on self-referential processing: behavioral and neuroimaging evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Bing; Wang, Xuena; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Xinhuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin (OT) influences other-oriented mental processes (e.g. trust and empathy) and the underlying neural substrates. However, whether and how OT modulates self-oriented processes and the underlying brain activity remains unclear. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we manipulated memory encoding and retrieval of trait adjectives related to the self, a friend and a celebrity in a self-referential task in male adults. Experiment 1 (N = 51) found that OT vs placebo treatments reduced response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives but increased recognition scores of self-related information during memory retrieval. Experiment 2 (N = 50) showed similar OT effects on response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results revealed that OT vs placebo treatments decreased the activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) involved in encoding of self-related trait adjectives and weakened the coupling between the MPFC activity and a cultural trait (i.e. interdependence). Experiment 3 (N = 52) revealed that OT vs placebo treatments increased the right superior frontal activity during memory retrieval of self-related information. The results provide behavioral and fMRI evidence for OT effects on self-referential processing and suggest distinct patterns of OT modulations of brain activities engaged in encoding and retrieval of self-related information. PMID:29040763

  14. Oxytocin effects on self-referential processing: behavioral and neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Bing; Wang, Xuena; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2017-12-01

    Oxytocin (OT) influences other-oriented mental processes (e.g. trust and empathy) and the underlying neural substrates. However, whether and how OT modulates self-oriented processes and the underlying brain activity remains unclear. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we manipulated memory encoding and retrieval of trait adjectives related to the self, a friend and a celebrity in a self-referential task in male adults. Experiment 1 (N = 51) found that OT vs placebo treatments reduced response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives but increased recognition scores of self-related information during memory retrieval. Experiment 2 (N = 50) showed similar OT effects on response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results revealed that OT vs placebo treatments decreased the activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) involved in encoding of self-related trait adjectives and weakened the coupling between the MPFC activity and a cultural trait (i.e. interdependence). Experiment 3 (N = 52) revealed that OT vs placebo treatments increased the right superior frontal activity during memory retrieval of self-related information. The results provide behavioral and fMRI evidence for OT effects on self-referential processing and suggest distinct patterns of OT modulations of brain activities engaged in encoding and retrieval of self-related information. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Multimodal neuroimaging evidence linking memory and attention systems during visual search cued by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Ryan W; Grafton, Scott T; Eckstein, Miguel P; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2015-03-01

    Visual search can be facilitated by the learning of spatial configurations that predict the location of a target among distractors. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence implicates the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system in this contextual cueing effect, and electroencephalography (EEG) studies have identified the involvement of visual cortical regions related to attention. This work investigated two questions: (1) how memory and attention systems are related in contextual cueing; and (2) how these systems are involved in both short- and long-term contextual learning. In one session, EEG and fMRI data were acquired simultaneously in a contextual cueing task. In a second session conducted 1 week later, EEG data were recorded in isolation. The fMRI results revealed MTL contextual modulations that were correlated with short- and long-term behavioral context enhancements and attention-related effects measured with EEG. An fMRI-seeded EEG source analysis revealed that the MTL contributed the most variance to the variability in the attention enhancements measured with EEG. These results support the notion that memory and attention systems interact to facilitate search when spatial context is implicitly learned. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Psychological and physical pain as predictors of suicide risk: evidence from clinical and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Iskric, Adam; Calati, Raffaella; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear. This review will focus on integrating current clinical and neurobiological findings by which psychache and pain tolerance confer suicide risk. Results indicate that psychache has been identified as a significant risk factor for suicide and that psychache may be associated with the neurocircuitry involved in the modulation of physical pain. Converging evidence has also been found linking pain tolerance to self-injurious behaviours and suicide risk. The experience of psychache and physical pain in relation to other predictors of suicide, including reward processing, hopelessness and depression, are further discussed. Future research examining the pain-suicide connection is required to understand the mechanism behind clinically relevant risk factors for suicide, which can ultimately inform the construction of empirically supported suicide risk assessment and intervention techniques.

  17. Immunity factor contributes to altered brain functional networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Neuroimaging-genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Shi, Yongmei; Yuan, Yonggui; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is recognized as a secreted protein that is related to the processes of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of the risk variant of the C allele at the rs11136000 locus of the CLU gene are associated with variations in the brain structure and function. However, the relationship of the CLU-C allele to architectural disruptions in resting-state networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects (i.e., individuals with elevated risk of AD) remains relatively unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an imaging genetic approach, this study investigated whether individual brain functional networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network, were modulated by the CLU-C allele (rs11136000) in 50 elderly participants, including 26 aMCI subjects and 24 healthy controls. CLU-by-aMCI interactions were associated with the information-bridging regions between resting-state networks rather than with the DMN itself, especially in cortical midline regions. Interestingly, the complex communications between resting-state networks were enhanced in aMCI subjects with the CLU rs11136000 CC genotype and were modulated by the degree of memory impairment, suggesting a reconstructed balance of the resting-state networks in these individuals with an elevated risk of AD. The neuroimaging-genetic evidence indicates that immunity factors may contribute to alterations in brain functional networks in aMCI. These findings add to the evidence that the CLU gene may represent a potential therapeutic target for slowing disease progression in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paediatric Neuroimaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric Neuroimaging Quiz Case. S Afr J Rad. 2015;19(2); Art. #873, 3 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i2.873. Copyright: © 2015. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons. Attribution License. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  19. Clinical, Cognitive, and Neuroimaging Evidence of a Neurodevelopmental Continuum in Offspring of Probands With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugranyes, Gisela; de la Serna, Elena; Borras, Roger; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Pariente, Jose C; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Inmaculada; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Moreno, Carmen; Bernardo, Miguel; Moreno, Dolores; Vieta, Eduard; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2017-10-21

    Studies in child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders may help understand the influence of neurodevelopmental factors on the premorbid phenotype of these disorders. To assess whether a combination of neurodevelopmental factors discriminates between young offspring of patients with schizophrenia (SzO) or bipolar disorder (BpO) and community controls (CcO). To assess the association between these factors and rates of psychiatric diagnoses in high risk (HR) youth. One hundred thirty-three HR offspring (47 SzO and 86 BpO) and 84 CcO, aged 6-17, underwent cross-sectional clinical, neurocognitive, and structural neuroimaging assessment. Information on perinatal events and early childhood development was also obtained. General linear mixed models were performed to assess group discrimination and association with lifetime axis I psychiatric disorders. Multivariate analyses revealed that greater neurological soft signs (NSS), less total grey matter volume (GMV) and a higher frequency of obstetric complications discriminated HR offspring from CcO. When comparing each group individually, greater NSS and a higher frequency of obstetric complications discriminated SzO from CcO, and BpO from CcO, while lower intelligence also discriminated SzO from CcO and from BpO. Within HR offspring, lower intelligence and less total GMV were associated with lifetime incidence of psychiatric disorders. Both SzO and BpO showed evidence of neurodevelopmental insult, although this may have a greater impact in SzO. Lower intelligence and less total GMV hold potential as biomarkers of risk for psychiatric disorders in HR youth.

  20. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, S J A; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J N; Elzinga, B M; van der Wee, N J A

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. Even though research into the neurobiological basis of resilience is still in its early stages, these insights can have important implications for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Neuroimaging studies contribute to our knowledge of intra-individual variability in resilience and the development of posttraumatic symptoms or other stress-related disorders. This review provides an overview of neuroimaging findings related to resilience. Structural, resting-state, and task-related neuroimaging results associated with resilience are discussed. There are a limited number of studies available and neuroimaging research of resilience is still in its infancy. The available studies point at brain circuitries involved in stress and emotion regulation, with more efficient processing and regulation associated with resilience.

  1. Big Data and Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-12-01

    Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.

  2. Reassessment: neuroimaging in the emergency patient presenting with seizure (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, C L; Huff, J S; Schwartz, T H; Dubinsky, R M; Zimmerman, R D; Weinstein, S; Foltin, J C; Theodore, W H

    2007-10-30

    To reassess the value of neuroimaging of the emergency patient presenting with seizure as a screening procedure for providing information that will change acute management, and to reassess clinical and historical features associated with an abnormal neuroimaging study in these patients. A broad-based panel with topic expertise evaluated the available evidence based on a structured literature review using a Medline search from 1966 until November 2004. The 15 articles meeting criteria were Class II or III evidence since interpretation was not masked to the patient's clinical presentation; most were series including 22 to 875 patients. There is evidence that for adults with first seizure, cranial CT will change acute management in 9 to 17% of patients. CT in the emergency department for children presenting with first seizure will change acute management in approximately 3 to 8%. There is no clear difference between rates of abnormal emergent CT for patients with chronic seizures vs first. Children seizures have clinically relevant abnormalities on CT scans 50% of the time. Persons with AIDS and first seizure have high rates of abnormalities, and CNS toxoplasmosis is frequently found. Abnormal neurologic examination, predisposing history, or focal seizure onset are probably predictive of an abnormal CT study in this context. Immediate noncontrast CT is possibly useful for emergency patients presenting with seizure to guide appropriate acute management especially where there is an abnormal neurologic examination, predisposing history, or focal seizure onset.

  3. Can multi-modal neuroimaging evidence from hippocampus provide biomarkers for the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Shijiang

    2015-02-01

    Impaired structure and function of the hippocampus is a valuable predictor of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, the hippocampus is one of the brain regions affected earliest by AD neuropathology, and shows progressive degeneration as aMCI progresses to AD. Currently, no validated biomarkers can precisely predict the conversion from aMCI to AD. Therefore, there is a great need of sensitive tools for the early detection of AD progression. In this review, we summarize the specific structural and functional changes in the hippocampus from recent aMCI studies using neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. We suggest that a combination of advanced multi-modal neuroimaging measures in discovering biomarkers will provide more precise and sensitive measures of hippocampal changes than using only one of them. These will potentially affect early diagnosis and disease-modifying treatments. We propose a new sequential and progressive framework in which the impairment spreads from the integrity of fibers to volume and then to function in hippocampal subregions. Meanwhile, this is likely to be accompanied by progressive impairment of behavioral and neuropsychological performance in the progression of aMCI to AD.

  4. Resilience after 9/11: Multimodal neuroimaging evidence for stress-related change in the healthy adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Barbara L.; Kim, Pilyoung; Glover, Gary H.; Temple, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to psychological trauma is common and predicts long-term physical and mental health problems, even in those who initially appear resilient. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in healthy adults who were at different distances from the World Trade Center on 9/11/01 to examine the neural mechanisms that may underlie this association. More than three years after 9/11/01, adults with closer proximity to the disaster had lower gray matter volume in amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex, with control for age, gender, and total gray matter volume. Further analysis showed a nonlinear (first-order quadratic) association between total number of traumas in lifetime and amygdala gray matter volume and function in the whole group. Post hoc analysis of subgroups with higher versus lower levels of lifetime trauma exposure revealed systematic associations between amygdala gray matter volume, amygdala functional reactivity, and anxiety that suggest a nonlinear trajectory in the neural response to accumulated trauma in healthy adults PMID:18234524

  5. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  6. Behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging evidence for a deficit in brain timing networks in stuttering: A hypothesis and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Etchell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluent production of speech requires accurately timed movements. In this article, we propose that a deficit in brain timing networks is the core neurophysiological deficit in stuttering. We first discuss the experimental evidence supporting the involvement of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area in stuttering and the involvement of the cerebellum as a mechanism for compensating for the neural deficits that underlie stuttering. Next, we outline the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus as another putative compensatory locus in stuttering and suggest a role for this structure in an expanded core timing-network. Subsequently, we review behavioral studies of timing in people who stutter and examine their behavioral performance as compared to people who do not stutter. Finally, we highlight challenges to existing research and provide avenues for future research with specific hypotheses.

  7. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  8. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Dan; Berns, Gregory S

    2010-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster than other marketing methods; and second, the hope that neuroimaging will provide marketers with information that is not obtainable through conventional marketing methods. Although neuroimaging is unlikely to be cheaper than other tools in the near future, there is growing evidence that it may provide hidden information about the consumer experience. The most promising application of neuroimaging methods to marketing may come before a product is even released - when it is just an idea being developed.

  9. Neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarath, L

    2001-10-01

    To review recent neuroimaging studies of antisocial behaviour, including criminality, psychopathy, sexual offending, aggression, and violence. Using OVID software, Psycinfo and Medline were searched for studies undertaken in the last 15 years. A brief outline of each technology is followed by a survey of published reports from refereed journals. Where indicated, critical appraisal is offered. Converging evidence from multiple studies of structure and function indicates that abnormal prefrontal (and probably subcortical) circuitry are very likely involved in antisocial behaviour. Clinicians should be aware of emerging findings from biological studies of antisociality. Future neuroimaging and other biologically based work, especially when combined with psychosocial initiatives, should yield fruit in attempts to better understand, treat, and prevent such socially devastating and destructive behaviour.

  10. Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Rosalind; Chavez, Robert S; Grazioplene, Rachael; Jung, Rex E

    2010-12-25

    Many studies of creative cognition with a neuroimaging component now exist; what do they say about where and how creativity arises in the brain? We reviewed 45 brain-imaging studies of creative cognition. We found little clear evidence of overlap in their results. Nearly as many different tests were used as there were studies; this test diversity makes it impossible to interpret the different findings across studies with any confidence. Our conclusion is that creativity research would benefit from psychometrically informed revision, and the addition of neuroimaging methods designed to provide greater spatial localization of function. Without such revision in the behavioral measures and study designs, it is hard to see the benefit of imaging. We set out eight suggestions in a manifesto for taking creativity research forward. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The blood-brain barrier is intact after levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian primates--evidence from in vivo neuroimaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Jenkins, Bruce G; Choi, Ji-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested, based on rodent studies, that levodopa (L-dopa) induced dyskinesia is associated with a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have investigated BBB integrity with in vivo neuroimaging techniques in six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioned primates ...

  12. Neuroimaging of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando; Theodore, William H.; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cascino, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging is pivotal in the evaluation and management of patients with seizure disorders. Elegant structural neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may assist in determining the etiology of focal epilepsy and demonstrating the anatomical changes associated with seizure activity. The high diagnostic yield of MRI to identify the common pathological findings in individuals with focal seizures including mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular anomalies, low-grade glial neoplasms and malformations of cortical development has been demonstrated. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most commonly performed interictal functional neuroimaging technique that may reveal a focal hypometabolic region concordant with seizure onset. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies may assist performance of ictal neuroimaging in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy being considered for neurosurgical treatment. This chapter highlights neuroimaging developments and innovations, and provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging strategies used to improve the care and management of people with epilepsy. PMID:27430454

  13. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  14. Neuroimaging of the bilingual brain: evidence and research methodology = Neuroimagem do cérebro bilíngüe: evidências e metodologia de pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente mais da metade da população mundial é bilíngüe, sendo o estudo do processamento lingüístico e de seus correlatos cerebrais em indivíduos bilíngües um tópico relevante e inovador na recente área da neuropsicolingüística. Este artigo tem dois objetivos: 1 discutir alguns aspectos metodológicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de investigações com técnicas de neuroimagem sobre o processamento da linguagem no cérebro bilíngüe e 2 revisar evidências de neuroimagem sobre o processamento lingüístico considerando fatores individuais que têm caracterizado a literatura acerca do bilingüismo, por seu importante papel na representação cerebral bilíngüe da linguagem. Muitos estudos têm mostrado dados sobre a relação entre idade de aquisição, nível de proficiência, idade cronológica, uso de linguagem e forma de exposição às línguas na organização da linguagem no cérebro bilíngüe. A grande variabilidade de métodos de investigação e um controle metodológico nem sempre criterioso tem tornado difícil a generalização de conclusões sobre uma circuitaria cerebral da linguagem em bilíngües. A presente discussão deve contribuir para o debate dos fundamentos teóricos e metodológicos da organização neurofuncional da linguagem no cérebro bilíngüe

  15. Widespread hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome is dynamically maintained by tonic visceral impulse input and placebo/nocebo factors: Evidence from human psychophysics, animal models, and neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Donald D.; Craggs, Jason G.; Zhou, QiQi; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M.; Robinson, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that is often accompanied by both visceral and somatic hyperalgesia (enhanced pain from colorectal and somatic stimuli). Neural mechanisms of both types of hyperalgesia have been analyzed by neuroimaging studies of IBS patients and animal analog studies of “IBS-like” rats with delayed rectal and somatic hypersensitivity. Results from these studies suggest that pains associated with both visceral and widespread seco...

  16. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence.

  17. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  18. Neuroimaging the Menstrual Cycle and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of gonadal hormone-related influences on human brain anatomy, function, and chemistry is scarce. The present review scrutinized organizational and functional neuroimaging correlates of the menstrual cycle and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Supportive evidence of cyclic short-term structural and functional brain plasticity in response to gonadal hormonal modulation is provided. The paucity of studies, sparsity and discordance of findings, and weaknesses in study design at present hinder the drawing of firm conclusions. Ideal study designs should comprise high-resolution multimodal neuroimaging (e.g., MRI, DTI, rs-fMRI, fMRI, PET), hormones, genetic, and behavioral longitudinal assessments of healthy women and PMDD patients at critical time points of the menstrual cycle phase (i.e., early follicular phase, late follicular phase, mid-luteal phase) in a counter-balanced setup. Studies integrating large-scale brain network structural, functional, and molecular neuroimaging, as well as treatment data, will deepen the understanding of neural state, disorder, and treatment markers.

  19. Recruitment of both the mirror and the mentalizing networks when observing social interactions depicted by point-lights: a neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Centelles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding social interactions requires the ability to accurately interpret conspecifics' actions, sometimes only on the basis of subtle body language analysis. Here we address an important issue that has not yet received much attention in social neuroscience, that of an interaction between two agents. We attempted to isolate brain responses to two individuals interacting compared to two individuals acting independently. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used minimalistic point-light displays to depict the characters, as they provide the most straightforward way to isolate mechanisms used to extract information from motion per se without any interference with other visual information. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI method was used to determine which brain regions were recruited during the observation of two interacting agents, mimicking everyday social scenes. While the mirror and mentalizing networks are rarely concurrently active, we found that both of them might be needed to catch the social intentions carried by whole-body motion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings shed light on how motor cognition contributes to social cognition when social information is embedded in whole-body motion only. Finally, the approach described here provides a valuable and original tool for investigating the brain networks responsible for social understanding, in particular in psychiatric disorders.

  20. Neuroimaging in contact sports: Determining brain fitness before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroimaging may also be carried out to assess for evidence of structural brain injury which may make a combatant more likely to express late-life neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. As such, neuroimaging plays a prognostic role and aids in the determination of whether the ...

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  2. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  3. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  4. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  5. Widespread hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome is dynamically maintained by tonic visceral impulse input and placebo/nocebo factors: evidence from human psychophysics, animal models, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Donald D; Craggs, Jason G; Zhou, QiQi; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M; Robinson, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that is often accompanied by both visceral and somatic hyperalgesia (enhanced pain from colorectal and somatic stimuli). Neural mechanisms of both types of hyperalgesia have been analyzed by neuroimaging studies of IBS patients and animal analog studies of "IBS-like" rats with delayed rectal and somatic hypersensitivity. Results from these studies suggest that pains associated with both visceral and widespread secondary cutaneous hyperalgesia are dynamically maintained by tonic impulse input from the non-inflamed colon and/or rectum and by brain-to-spinal cord facilitation. Enhanced visceral and somatic pains are accompanied by enhanced pain-related brain activity in IBS patients as compared to normal control subjects; placebos can normalize both their hyperalgesia and enhanced brain activity. That pain in IBS which is likely to be at least partly maintained by peripheral impulse input from the colon/rectum is supported by results showing that local rectal-colonic anesthesia normalizes visceral and somatic hyperalgesia in IBS patients and visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in "IBS-like" rats. Yet these forms of hyperalgesia are also highly modifiable by placebo and nocebo factors (e.g., expectations of relief or distress, respectively). Our working hypothesis is that synergistic interactions occur between placebo/nocebo factors and enhanced afferent processing so as to enhance, maintain, or reduce hyperalgesia in IBS. This explanatory model may be relevant to other persistent pain conditions.

  6. Neuroimaging evidence of major morpho-anatomical and functional abnormalities in the BTBR T+TF/J mouse model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dodero

    Full Text Available BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR mice display prominent behavioural deficits analogous to the defining symptoms of autism, a feature that has prompted a widespread use of the model in preclinical autism research. Because neuro-behavioural traits are described with respect to reference populations, multiple investigators have examined and described the behaviour of BTBR mice against that exhibited by C57BL/6J (B6, a mouse line characterised by high sociability and low self-grooming. In an attempt to probe the translational relevance of this comparison for autism research, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to map in both strain multiple morpho-anatomical and functional neuroimaging readouts that have been extensively used in patient populations. Diffusion tensor tractography confirmed previous reports of callosal agenesis and lack of hippocampal commissure in BTBR mice, and revealed a concomitant rostro-caudal reorganisation of major cortical white matter bundles. Intact inter-hemispheric tracts were found in the anterior commissure, ventro-medial thalamus, and in a strain-specific white matter formation located above the third ventricle. BTBR also exhibited decreased fronto-cortical, occipital and thalamic gray matter volume and widespread reductions in cortical thickness with respect to control B6 mice. Foci of increased gray matter volume and thickness were observed in the medial prefrontal and insular cortex. Mapping of resting-state brain activity using cerebral blood volume weighted fMRI revealed reduced cortico-thalamic function together with foci of increased activity in the hypothalamus and dorsal hippocampus of BTBR mice. Collectively, our results show pronounced functional and structural abnormalities in the brain of BTBR mice with respect to control B6 mice. The large and widespread white and gray matter abnormalities observed do not appear to be representative of the neuroanatomical alterations typically observed in autistic patients. The

  7. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Speed of updating online evidence based point of care summaries: prospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquini, Michela; Liberati, Alessandro; Moschetti, Ivan; Pecoraro, Valentina; Tagliabue, Ludovica; Moja, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of international point of care information summaries to update evidence relevant to medical practice. Design Prospective cohort bibliometric analysis. Setting Top five point of care information summaries (Clinical Evidence, EBMGuidelines, eMedicine, Dynamed, UpToDate) ranked for coverage of medical conditions, editorial quality, and evidence based methodology. Main outcome measures From June 2009 to May 2010 we measured the incidence of research findings relating to potentially eligible newsworthy evidence. As samples, we chose systematic reviews rated as relevant by international research networks (such as, Evidence-Based Medicine, ACP Journal Club, and the Cochrane Collaboration). Every month we assessed whether each sampled review was cited in at least one chapter of the five summaries. The cumulative updating rate was analysed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results From April to December 2009, 128 reviews were retrieved; 53% (68) from the literature surveillance journals and 47% (60) from the Cochrane Library. At nine months, Dynamed had cited 87% of the sampled reviews, while the other summaries had cited less than 50%. The updating speed of Dynamed clearly led the others. For instance, the hazard ratios for citations in EBM Guidelines and Clinical Evidence versus the top performer were 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) and 0.03 (0.01 to 0.05). Conclusions Point of care information summaries include evidence relevant to practice at different speeds. A qualitative analysis of updating mechanisms is needed to determine whether greater speed corresponds to more appropriate incorporation of new information. PMID:21948588

  9. Neuroimaging-use trends in nonacute pediatric headache before and after clinical practice parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Kayyali, Husam R; Alexander, John J; Simon, Steven D; Morriss, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in diagnostic neuroimaging-use rates in nonacute pediatric headache before and after publication of clinical practice guidelines. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of neuroimaging rates for 725 children and adolescents who were aged 3 to 18 years with nonacute headache and normal neurologic examination and were evaluated in a single pediatric neurology clinic during study years 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. Following recommendations of current practice parameters, patients with conditions that justify consideration for neuroimaging (eg, progressive headache, abnormal neurologic examination) were excluded from this analysis. We recorded the origin of any neuroimaging request at the time of the clinic visit and any abnormal neuroimaging findings that led to major clinical consequences. Overall, the mean rate of neuroimaging for patients with nonacute headache was 45%. Use rates remained steady during the 13-year study period (range: 41%-47%). The majority of neuroimaging studies were ordered originally by primary care providers. The proportion of neuroimaging studies that were ordered by primary care providers increased significantly from 1992 to 2004. In the evaluation of patients who had nonacute pediatric headache and were referred to a child neurology clinic, neuroimaging-use rates remained stable during the past decade. An increasing proportion of neuroimaging studies are ordered by primary care providers. The influence of evidence-based medicine on medical decision-making may be partly responsible for curbing increases in neuroimaging overuse. The perceived value of neuroimaging by physicians and consumers deserves ongoing study.

  10. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste ePoline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

  11. Interactive Information Visualization in Neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...

  12. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  13. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data.

  14. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  15. Ethical and Legal Implications of the Methodological Crisis in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmeyer, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and clinical neuroscience, particularly with respect to faulty brain-based models of human cognition, behavior, and personality. Specifically examined is whether such faulty models, when they are applied to neurological or psychiatric diseases, could put patients at risk, and whether this places special obligations on researchers using neuroimaging. In the legal domain, the actual use of neuroimaging as evidence in United States courtrooms is surveyed, followed by an examination of ways that the methodological problems may create challenges for the criminal justice system. Finally, the article reviews and promotes some promising ideas and initiatives from within the neuroimaging community for addressing the methodological problems.

  16. Automatic indexing and retrieval of encounter-specific evidence for point-of-care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dympna M; Wilk, Szymon A; Michalowski, Wojtek J; Farion, Ken J

    2010-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine relies on repositories of empirical research evidence that can be used to support clinical decision making for improved patient care. However, retrieving evidence from such repositories at local sites presents many challenges. This paper describes a methodological framework for automatically indexing and retrieving empirical research evidence in the form of the systematic reviews and associated studies from The Cochrane Library, where retrieved documents are specific to a patient-physician encounter and thus can be used to support evidence-based decision making at the point of care. Such an encounter is defined by three pertinent groups of concepts - diagnosis, treatment, and patient, and the framework relies on these three groups to steer indexing and retrieval of reviews and associated studies. An evaluation of the indexing and retrieval components of the proposed framework was performed using documents relevant for the pediatric asthma domain. Precision and recall values for automatic indexing of systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.93 and 0.87, and 0.81 and 0.56, respectively. Moreover, precision and recall for the retrieval of relevant systematic reviews and associated studies were 0.89 and 0.81, and 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. With minor modifications, the proposed methodological framework can be customized for other evidence repositories. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A neuroimaging point of view on the diversity of social cognition: evidence for extended influence of experience- and emotion-related factors on face processing

    OpenAIRE

    George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Faces are key social stimuli that convey a wealth of information essential for person perception and adaptive interpersonal behaviour. Studies in the domain of cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience have put in light that the processing of faces recruits specific visual regions and activates a distributed set of brain regions related to attentional, emotional, social, and memory processes associated with the perception of faces and the extraction of the numerous...

  18. Neuroimaging Studies in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpit; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 2–3% in general population. The pathophysiology of OCD is not yet fully understood, however over the last few decades, evidence for abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CSTC) circuitry in etiopathogenesis of OCD has accumulated. Recent brain imaging techniques have been particularly convincing in suggesting that CSTC circuits are responsible for mediation of OCD symptoms. Neuroimaging studies, especially more recent studies using functional neuroimaging methods have looked for possible changes seen in the brain of patients with OCD, the specificity of the findings (as compared to other psychiatric illnesses) and the effects of treatment (pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy) on such changes were observed. This narrative review discusses the neuroimaging findings seen in patients with OCD with a special focus on relatively more recent neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography. PMID:27833219

  19. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine.

  20. Technology: Is There Sufficient Evidence to Change Practice in Point-of-Care Management of Coagulopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Michael; Winkler, Anne M; Levy, Jerrold H

    2017-10-01

    Currently, hemostasis is one of the most widely researched topics in perioperative medicine. As investigators learn more about the complexity of coagulation, developing tests with the ability to rapidly monitor coagulation and guide targeted therapy is the key to optimizing hemostasis management. There is mounting evidence that algorithmic transfusion using point-of-care (POC) testing can reduce red cell and platelet transfusions and major bleeding after cardiac surgery. Integrating these tests during cardiac surgery and trauma management is especially important because these groups use the most blood products within a health system and the risks of transfusion are well documented. Currently, numerous POC tests are available for evaluating hemostasis. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the current evidence surrounding the most common POC testing devices in practice for managing coagulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Chul; Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions. Chronic abnormalities identified with neuroimaging enable examination of brain damage in living patients with KS and have expanded the understanding of the neuropsychological deficits resulting from thiamine deficiency, alcohol neurotoxicity, and their comorbidity. Brain structure and functional studies indicate that the interactions involving the thalamus, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, frontal lobes, and cerebellum are crucial for memory formation and executive functions, and the interruption of these circuits by WE and chronic alcoholism can contribute substantially to the neuropsychological deficits in KS.

  2. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  3. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-30

    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Type of evidence behind point-of-care clinical information products: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Andrea M; Saleh, Ahlam A; Jeong, Kwonho

    2011-02-18

    Point-of-care (POC) products are widely used as information reference tools in the clinical setting. Although usability, scope of coverage, ability to answer clinical questions, and impact on health outcomes have been studied, no comparative analysis of the characteristics of the references, the evidence for the content, in POC products is available. The objective of this study was to compare the type of evidence behind five POC clinical information products. This study is a comparative bibliometric analysis of references cited in monographs in POC products. Five commonly used products served as subjects for the study: ACP PIER, Clinical Evidence, DynaMed, FirstCONSULT, and UpToDate. The four clinical topics examined to identify content in the products were asthma, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Four indicators were measured: distribution of citations, type of evidence, product currency, and citation overlap. The type of evidence was determined based primarily on the publication type found in the MEDLINE bibliographic record, as well as the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), both assigned by the US National Library of Medicine. MeSH is the controlled vocabulary used for indexing articles in MEDLINE/PubMed. FirstCONSULT had the greatest proportion of references with higher levels of evidence publication types such as systematic review and randomized controlled trial (137/153, 89.5%), although it contained the lowest total number of references (153/2330, 6.6%). DynaMed had the largest total number of references (1131/2330, 48.5%) and the largest proportion of current (2007-2009) references (170/1131, 15%). The distribution of references cited for each topic varied between products. For example, asthma had the most references listed in DynaMed, Clinical Evidence, and FirstCONSULT, while hypertension had the most references in UpToDate and ACP PIER. An unexpected finding was that the rate of citation overlap was less than 1% for each topic

  5. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced understanding biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Methods Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). Results 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Conclusion Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. PMID:25684554

  6. Convergent evidence for construct validity of a 7-point likert scale of lower limb muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness, assessing its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). An additional aim was to examine its sensitivity as measure of symptom of eccentric-contraction muscle damage. Correlational study. Self-administered questionnaires collected in field setting. Twenty-six soccer players. 4-week preseason training camp, which included high-intensity plyometric training sessions. Players self-reported the perceived muscle soreness of the lower limbs using the VAS (criterion measure) and the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. Significant individual correlations were found between the 2 muscle soreness scales (mean r=0.80+/-0.07; range, 0.65 to 0.94). The correlation using the pooled data was 0.81. No significant muscle soreness scale x time interaction was found for standardized measures of muscle soreness (P=0.98). The main factor for time (24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the first plyometric training session) was significant (P=0.0001). Effect sizes for the changes in the Likert and VAS absolute scores during the first 96 hours were similar (partial eta=0.13). The results of this study provide further convergent evidence for the construct validity of the 7-point Likert scale of muscle soreness. The 2 scales showed similar sensitivity to muscle soreness caused by eccentric contractions during the first 96 hours after plyometric exercises.

  7. Developing and using a rubric for evaluating evidence-based medicine point-of-care tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Foster, Margaret J

    2011-07-01

    The research sought to establish a rubric for evaluating evidence-based medicine (EBM) point-of-care tools in a health sciences library. The authors searched the literature for EBM tool evaluations and found that most previous reviews were designed to evaluate the ability of an EBM tool to answer a clinical question. The researchers' goal was to develop and complete rubrics for assessing these tools based on criteria for a general evaluation of tools (reviewing content, search options, quality control, and grading) and criteria for an evaluation of clinical summaries (searching tools for treatments of common diagnoses and evaluating summaries for quality control). Differences between EBM tools' options, content coverage, and usability were minimal. However, the products' methods for locating and grading evidence varied widely in transparency and process. As EBM tools are constantly updating and evolving, evaluation of these tools needs to be conducted frequently. Standards for evaluating EBM tools need to be established, with one method being the use of objective rubrics. In addition, EBM tools need to provide more information about authorship, reviewers, methods for evidence collection, and grading system employed.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review: Lack of neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Plitman, Eric; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging have advanced the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear. Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT). 25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest that hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Liu, Songhao

    2002-04-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in evaluating the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its uses are growing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show the presence of cerebral infarcts and white matter disease. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which visualize such cerebral functions as glucose metabolism and blood flow, may provide positive evidence to support the diagnosis of AD. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed technique which enables the internal impedance of an object to be imaged noninvasively.

  10. Neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation for translational neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Anna; Savli, Markus; Comasco, Erika; Moser, Ulrike; Novak, Klaus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2013-10-01

    From a neuroimaging point of view, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders represents a unique source of information to probe results gained in functional, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in vivo. However, the implementation has, up to now, been restricted by the heterogeneity of the data reported in DBS studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a comprehensive and standardized database of currently used DBS targets in selected psychiatric disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS)) to enable topological comparisons between neuroimaging results and stimulation areas. A systematic literature research was performed and all peer-reviewed publications until the year 2012 were included. Literature research yielded a total of 84 peer-reviewed studies including about 296 psychiatric patients. The individual stimulation data of 37 of these studies meeting the inclusion criteria which included a total of 202 patients (63 OCD, 89 TRD, 50 GTS) was translated into MNI stereotactic space with respect to AC origin in order to identify key targets. The created database can be used to compare DBS target areas in MNI stereotactic coordinates with: 1) activation patterns in functional brain imaging (fMRI, phfMRI, PET, MET, EEG); 2) brain connectivity data (e.g., MR-based DTI/tractography, functional and effective connectivity); 3) quantitative molecular distribution data (e.g., neuroreceptor PET, post-mortem neuroreceptor mapping); 4) structural data (e.g., VBM for neuroplastic changes). Vice versa, the structural, functional and molecular data may provide a rationale to define new DBS targets and adjust/fine-tune currently used targets in DBS based on this overview in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, the availability of DBS data in stereotactic space may facilitate the investigation and interpretation of treatment effects and side effect of DBS by

  11. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  13. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-08-09

    There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body's 'set point' (i.e., a constant 'body-inherent' weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various 'settling points' that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition.

  14. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ali Hossein-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNeuroimaging allows noninvasive evaluation of the anatomy, physiology, and function of the brain. It is widely used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation of neurological disorders as well as understanding functions of the brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging modalities include X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, positron emission tomography (PET, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. This paper presents an overview of the neuroimaging research in Iran in recent years, partitioned into three categories: anatomical imaging; anatomical image analysis; and functional imaging and analysis. Published papers reflect considerable progress in development of neuroimaging infrastructure, hardware installation and software development. However, group work and research collaborations among engineers, scientists, and clinicians need significant enhancement to optimize utility of the resources and maximize productivity. This is a challenge that cannot be solved without specific plans, policies, and funding.

  15. Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-01-15

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there is extensive evidence showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  16. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  17. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maxim...... thermal pain studies where "hot pain" and "cold pain" form the two groups....

  18. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i...

  19. Neuroimaging and illness progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, Benicio N.; Minuzzi, L; Haarman, Bartholomeus; Sassi, R; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard; Magalhães, Pedro V. S.; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    •Asymptomatic children at high-risk to develop BD have shown gray matter volume changes in several prefrontal cortical areas and reduced frontal and increased amygdala activation; Preliminary evidence suggests that development of BD may be associated with lower amygdala volumes •Initial studies

  20. Functional neuroimaging in early-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask, Bryan; Gordon, Isky; Christie, Deborah; Frampton, Ian; Chowdhury, Uttom; Watkins, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in early-onset anorexia nervosa provide evidence of limbic system dysfunction. The current study adds support to the possibility by revealing a significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and impaired visuospatial ability, impaired visual memory, and enhanced speed of information processing. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  2. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F; Rodriguez-Takeuchi, Sara Y

    2015-10-01

    To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9-65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ=1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ=0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ=0.24). Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejareh dar M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Ejareh dar, Richard AA Kanaan Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia Abstract: Conversion disorder (CD is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. Keywords: conversion disorder, neuroimaging, functional neurology, hysteria, mechanisms 

  4. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  5. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Reference Point Adaptation: Evidence from China, Korea, and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.; Hirshleifer, David; Jiang, Danling; Lim, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined reference point adaptation following gains or losses in security trading using participants from China, Korea, and the US. In both questionnaire studies and trading experiments with real money incentives, reference point adaptation was larger for Asians than for Americans. Subjects in all countries adapted their reference points more…

  7. Evidence of a possible turning point in solar UV-B over Canada, Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long-term variability of UV solar irradiances at 305 nm and 325 nm over selected sites in Canada, Europe and Japan. Site selection was restricted to the availability of the most complete UV spectroradiometric datasets during the period 1990–2011. The analysis includes the long-term variability of total ozone, aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the sites studied. The results, based on observations and modeling, suggest that over Canada, Europe and Japan the period under study can be divided into three sub-periods of scientific merit: the first period (1991–1994 is the period perturbed by the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, during which excess volcanic aerosol has enhanced the "conventional" amplification factor of UV-B at ground level by an additional factor that depends on solar elevation. The increase of the UV-B amplification factor is the result of enhanced scattering processes caused by the injection of huge amounts of volcanic aerosols during the perturbed period. The second period (1995–2006 is characterized by a 0.14% yr−1 increase in total ozone and an increasing trend in spectral irradiance by 0.94% yr−1 at 305 nm and 0.88% yr−1 at 325 nm. That paradox was caused by the significant decline of the aerosol optical depth by more than 1% yr−1 (the "brightening" effect and the absence of any statistically significant trend in the cloud fraction. The third period (2007–2011 shows statistically significant evidence of a slowdown or even a turning point in the previously reported upward UV-B trends over Canada, Europe and Japan.

  8. Evidence of Asian carp spawning upstream of a key choke point in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Knights, Brent C.; McCalla, Sunnie; Monroe, Emy; Tuttle-Lau, Maren T.; Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.; Vallazza, Jon; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Silver Carp H. molitrix, and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella(collectively termed “Asian carp”) were introduced into North America during the 1960s and 1970s and have become established in the lower Mississippi River basin. Previously published evidence for spawning of these species in the upper Mississippi River has been limited to an area just downstream of Dam 22 (near Saverton, Missouri). In 2013 and 2014, we sampled ichthyoplankton at 18 locations in the upper Mississippi River main stem from Dam 9 through Dam 19 and in four tributaries of the Mississippi River (Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Wisconsin rivers). We identified eggs and larvae by using morphological techniques and then used genetic tools to confirm species identity. The spawning events we observed often included more than one species of Asian carp and in a few cases included eggs that must have been derived from more than one upstream spawning event. The upstream extent of genetically confirmed Grass Carp ichthyoplankton was the Wisconsin River, while Bighead Carp and Silver Carp ichthyoplankton were observed in Pool 16. In all these cases, ichthyoplankton likely drifted downstream for several hours prior to collection. Higher water velocities (and, to a lesser extent, higher temperatures) were associated with an increased likelihood of observing eggs or larvae, although the temperature range we encountered was mostly above 17°C. Several major spawning events were detected in 2013, but no major spawning events were observed in 2014. The area between Dam 15 and Dam 19 appears to be the upstream edge of spawning activity for both Silver Carp and Bighead Carp, suggesting that this area could be a focal point for management efforts designed to limit further upstream movement of these species..

  9. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  10. Neuroimaging and advanced social living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    of the application of neuroimaging findings to guide multidisciplinary collaboration in a randomized controlled trial on integrated home care for stroke patients. This approach may be termed double-objectivism. Results: 1. In classical neurology CNS is a dual system of ANS and Cortex. The new neuroeconomic...... understanding is that of a reciprocal balance of interacting Limbic System (L(x)) and Neocortex (NC). This favours integrated homecare as relaxation of LS at home (BP declines 5 mmHg) in itself improves cognitive integration to the benefit of rehabilitation i.e. reduced risk of ‘death or disability’ for stroke...... is basal knowledge for collaborative self-management. 3. Values of an integrative logic are derived as patience to both positivist prediction and client-centered implementation. Conclusion: Modern neuroimaging presents a positivistic guidance towards modern values of multidisciplinary collaboration...

  11. Evidence-Based Practice Point-of-Care Resources: A Quantitative Evaluation of Quality, Rigor, and Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Umapathysivam, Kandiah; Xue, Yifan; Lockwood, Craig

    2015-12-01

    Clinicians and other healthcare professionals need access to summaries of evidence-based information in order to provide effective care to their patients at the point-of-care. Evidence-based practice (EBP) point-of-care resources have been developed and are available online to meet this need. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive list of available EBP point-of-care resources and evaluate their processes and policies for the development of content, in order to provide a critical analysis based upon rigor, transparency and measures of editorial quality to inform healthcare providers and promote quality improvement amongst publishers of EBP resources. A comprehensive and systematic search (Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central) was undertaken to identify available EBP point-of-care resources, defined as "web-based medical compendia specifically designed to deliver predigested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, periodically updated, and evidence-based information (and possibly also guidance) to clinicians." A pair of investigators independently extracted information on general characteristics, content presentation, editorial quality, evidence-based methodology, and breadth and volume. Twenty-seven summary resources were identified, of which 22 met the predefined inclusion criteria for EBP point-of-care resources, and 20 could be accessed for description and assessment. Overall, the upper quartile of EBP point-of-care providers was assessed to be UpToDate, Nursing Reference Centre, Mosby's Nursing Consult, BMJ Best Practice, and JBI COnNECT+. The choice of which EBP point-of-care resources are suitable for an organization is a decision that depends heavily on the unique requirements of that organization and the resources it has available. However, the results presented in this study should enable healthcare providers to make that assessment in a clear, evidence-based manner, and provide a comprehensive list of the available options. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau

  12. Neuroimaging Studies of Essential Tremor: How Well Do These Studies Support/Refute the Neurodegenerative Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue‐based research has recently led to a new patho‐mechanistic model of essential tremor (ET—the cerebellar degenerative model. We are not aware of a study that has reviewed the current neuroimaging evidence, focusing on whether the studies support or refute the neurodegenerative hypothesis of ET. This was our aim.Methods: References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed (1966 to February 2014.Results: Several neuroimaging methods have been used to study ET, most of them based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The methods most specific to address the question of neurodegeneration are MRI‐based volumetry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion‐weighted imaging. Studies using each of these methods provide support for the presence of cerebellar degeneration in ET, finding reduced cerebellar brain volumes, consistent decreases in cerebellar N‐acetylaspartate, and increased mean diffusivity. Other neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET are less specific, but still sensitive to potential neurodegeneration. These techniques are used for measuring a variety of brain functions and their impairment. Studies using these modalities also largely support cerebellar neuronal impairment. In particular, changes in 11C‐flumazenil binding in PET studies and changes in iron deposition in an MRI study provide evidence along these lines. The composite data point to neuronal impairment and likely neuronal degeneration in ET.Discussion: Recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of imaging studies of ET. As a whole, the combined data provide support for the presence of cerebellar neuronal degeneration in this disease.

  13. Collecting Validity Evidence for Simulation-Based Assessment of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Kørup; Dyre, Liv; Jørgensen, Mattis Enggaard

    2017-01-01

    evidence (P based on the 34 metrics with established validity evidence, and test scores were calculated as percentages of the maximum score. The median simulator test scores were 14.7% (range, 0%-47.1%) and 94.1% (range, 94.1%-100%) for novices and experts...... skills assessed using a virtual reality ultrasound simulator. Procedural performance on the 4 FAST windows was assessed by automated simulator metrics, which received a passing or failing score. The validity evidence for these simulator metrics was examined by a stepwise approach according...... to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Metrics with validity evidence were included in a simulator test, and the reliability of test scores was determined. Finally, a pass/fail level for procedural performance was established. RESULTS: Of the initial 55 metrics, 34 (61.8%) had validity...

  14. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  15. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  16. Commentary: Applications of functional neuroimaging to civil litigation of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The current definition of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is in flux. Presently, there are at least three working definitions of this disorder in the United States, with no clear consensus. Functional neuroimaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), initially showed promise in their ability to improve the diagnostic credibility of MTBI. Over the past decade, that promise has not been fulfilled and there is a paucity of quality studies or standards for the application of functional neuroimaging to traumatic brain injury, particularly in litigation. The legal profession is ahead of the science in this matter. The emergence of neurolaw is driving a growing use of functional neuroimaging, as a sole imaging modality, used by lawyers in an attempt to prove MTBI at trial. The medical literature on functional neuroimaging and its applications to MTBI is weak scientifically, sparse in quality publications, lacking in well-designed controlled studies, and currently does not meet the complete standards of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., for introduction of scientific evidence at trial. At the present time, there is a clear lack of clinical correlation between functional neuroimaging of MTBI and behavioral, neuropsychological, or structural neuroimaging deficits. The use of SPECT or PET, without concurrent clinical correlation with structural neuroimaging (CT or MRI), is not recommended to be offered as evidence of MTBI in litigation.

  17. THREE-POINT VOLATILITY SMILE CLASSIFICATION: EVIDENCE FROM THE WARSOW STOCK EXCHANGE DURING VOLATILE SUMMER 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Machado, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the behavior of the smile in the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE during the volatile summer of 2011.We investigate the volatility smile derived from liquid call and put options on the Polish WIG20 index which option series expired on September 2011. In this period, the polish index has dropped about 20% in two weeks time. By linear interpolation, implied volatilities for moneyness points needed were calculated, then we construct 355 smile curves for calls and puts options to study and make some kind of smile-types classification. We propose seventeen types-smiles which represent all possible cases of three points (three moneynesses graphical patterns. This classification is made basing upon relationship higher/equal/lower values of implied volatility for each of three points. Furthermore, we distinguish the convexity of pattern. We can note that smiles, smirks and ups are convex in shape, while reversed ones and downs are concave functions.

  18. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  19. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.

  20. Pointing Gestures as a Cognitive Tool in Young Children: Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Begona; Gomez, Juan Carlos; Sarria, Encarnacion

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the possible cognitive function associated with pointing gestures from a Vygotskian perspective. In Study 1, 39 children who were 2-4 years of age were observed in a solitary condition while solving a mnemonic task with or without an explicit memory demand. A discriminant analysis showed that children used noncommunicative…

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of Evidence-Based Decision Making at the Point of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. O’Malley MD, MPH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians vary widely in how they treat some health conditions, despite strong evidence favoring certain treatments over others. We examined physicians’ perspectives on factors that support or hinder evidence-based decisions and the implications for delivery systems, payers, and policymakers. Methods: We used Choosing Wisely ® recommendations to create four clinical vignettes for common types of decisions. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 specialists to identify factors that support or hinder evidence-based decisions. We examined these factors using a conceptual framework that includes six levels: patients, physicians, practice sites, organizations, networks and hospital affiliations, and the local market. In this model, population characteristics and payer and regulatory factors interact to influence decisions. Results: Patient openness to behavior modification and expectations, facilitated and hindered physicians in making evidence-based recommendations. Physicians’ communication skills were the most commonly mentioned facilitator. Practice site, organization, and hospital system barriers included measures of emergency department throughput, the order in which test options are listed in electronic health records (EHR, lack of relevant decision support in EHRs, and payment incentives that maximize billing and encourage procedures rather than medical management or counseling patients on behavior change. Factors from different levels interacted to undermine evidence-based care. Most physicians received billing feedback, but quality metrics on evidence-based service use were nonexistent for the four decisions in this study. Conclusions and Implications: Additional research and quality improvement may help to modify delivery systems to overcome barriers at multiple levels. Enhancing provider communication skills, improving decision support in EHRs, modifying workflows, and refining the design and interpretation of

  2. Common evidence gaps in point-of-care diagnostic test evaluation: a review of horizon scan reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Jan Y; Turner, Philip J; Thompson, Matthew J; Plüddemann, Annette; Price, Christopher P; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Since 2008, the Oxford Diagnostic Horizon Scan Programme has been identifying and summarising evidence on new and emerging diagnostic technologies relevant to primary care. We used these reports to determine the sequence and timing of evidence for new point-of-care diagnostic tests and to identify common evidence gaps in this process. Systematic overview of diagnostic horizon scan reports. We obtained the primary studies referenced in each horizon scan report (n=40) and extracted details of the study size, clinical setting and design characteristics. In particular, we assessed whether each study evaluated test accuracy, test impact or cost-effectiveness. The evidence for each point-of-care test was mapped against the Horvath framework for diagnostic test evaluation. We extracted data from 500 primary studies. Most diagnostic technologies underwent clinical performance (ie, ability to detect a clinical condition) assessment (71.2%), with very few progressing to comparative clinical effectiveness (10.0%) and a cost-effectiveness evaluation (8.6%), even in the more established and frequently reported clinical domains, such as cardiovascular disease. The median time to complete an evaluation cycle was 9 years (IQR 5.5-12.5 years). The sequence of evidence generation was typically haphazard and some diagnostic tests appear to be implemented in routine care without completing essential evaluation stages such as clinical effectiveness. Evidence generation for new point-of-care diagnostic tests is slow and tends to focus on accuracy, and overlooks other test attributes such as impact, implementation and cost-effectiveness. Evaluation of this dynamic cycle and feeding back data from clinical effectiveness to refine analytical and clinical performance are key to improve the efficiency of point-of-care diagnostic test development and impact on clinically relevant outcomes. While the 'road map' for the steps needed to generate evidence are reasonably well delineated, we

  3. Extracting novel information from neuroimaging data using neural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotsis Dimitris A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We showcase three case studies that illustrate how neural fields can be useful in the analysis of neuroimaging data. In particular, we argue that neural fields allow one to: (i compare evidences for alternative hypotheses regarding neurobiological determinants of stimulus-specific response variability; (ii make inferences about between subject variability in cortical function and microstructure using non-invasive data and (iii estimate spatial parameters describing cortical sources, even without spatially resolved data.

  4. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Wolff, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has proven very challenging in North America, as evidenced by its mounting socioeconomic burden. Choosing amongst available nonsurgical therapies can be overwhelming for many stakeholders, including patients, health providers, policy makers, and third-party payers. Although all parties share a common goal and wish to use limited health-care resources to support interventions most likely to result in clinically meaningful improvements, there is often uncertainty about the most appropriate intervention for a particular patient. To help understand and evaluate the various commonly used nonsurgical approaches to CLBP, the North American Spine Society has sponsored this special focus issue of The Spine Journal, titled Evidence-Informed Management of Chronic Low Back Pain Without Surgery. Articles in this special focus issue were contributed by leading spine practitioners and researchers, who were invited to summarize the best available evidence for a particular intervention and encouraged to make this information accessible to nonexperts. Each of the articles contains five sections (description, theory, evidence of efficacy, harms, and summary) with common subheadings to facilitate comparison across the 24 different interventions profiled in this special focus issue, blending narrative and systematic review methodology as deemed appropriate by the authors. It is hoped that articles in this special focus issue will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating nonsurgical interventions for CLBP.

  5. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  6. Thermodynamic and real-space structural evidence of a 2D critical point in phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars K.; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional phase diagram of phospholipid monolayers at air-water interfaces has been constructed from Langmuir compression isotherms. The coexistence region between the solid and fluid phases of the monolayer ends at the critical temperature of the transition. The small-scale lateral...... structure of the monolayers has been imaged by atomic force microscopy in the nm to mu m range at distinct points in the phase diagram. The lateral structure is immobilized by transferring the monolayer from an air-water interface to a solid mica support using Langmuir-Blodgett techniques. A transfer...

  7. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  8. Critical Points and Traveling Wave in Locomotion: Experimental Evidence and Some Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saltiel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The central pattern generator (CPG architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA, a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions. Thus CPGs consist of topographically organized modules. Modularity was also identified as a limited set of muscle synergies whose combinations reconstructed the EMGs. The cat CPG was investigated using proprioceptive inputs during fictive locomotion. Critical points identified both as abrupt transitions in the effect of phasic perturbations, and burst shape transitions, had biomechanical correlates in intact locomotion. During tonic proprioceptive perturbations, discrete shifts between these critical points explained the burst durations changes, and amplitude changes occurred at one of these points. Besides confirming CPG modularity, these results suggest a fixed temporal grid of anchoring points, to shift modules onsets and offsets. Frog locomotion, reconstructed with the NMDA synergies, showed a partially overlapping synergy activation sequence. Using the early synergy output evoked by NMDA at different spinal sites, revealed a rostrocaudal topographic organization, where each synergy is preferentially evoked from a few, albeit overlapping, cord regions. Comparing the locomotor synergy sequence with this topography suggests that a rostrocaudal traveling wave would activate the synergies in the proper sequence for locomotion. This output was reproduced in a two-layer model using this topography and a traveling wave

  9. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  10. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  11. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  12. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  13. [Neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2006-11-01

    I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the

  14. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Matthias J; Woermann, Friedrich; Savic, Ivanka; Wandschneider, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by specific types of seizures, showing a lack of pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scanning. However, JME is associated with a particular personality profile, and behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested the possible involvement of frontal lobe dysfunction. The development of highly sensitive neuroimaging techniques has provided a means of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of JME. Positron emission tomography demonstrated metabolic and neurotransmitter changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reflecting the particular cognitive and behavioral profile of JME patients. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown evidence of thalamic dysfunction, which appears to be progressive. Such techniques provide evidence of multi-focal disease mechanisms, suggesting that JME is a frontal lobe variant of a multi-regional, thalamocortical 'network' epilepsy, rather than a generalized epilepsy syndrome. Quantitative MRI revealed significant abnormalities of cortical gray matter in medial frontal areas close to the supplementary motor area and diffusion abnormalities with increased functional coupling between the motor and prefrontal cognitive systems. This altered structural connectivity of the supplementary motor area provides an explanatory framework for the particular imaging findings, seizure type, and seizure-provoking mechanisms in JME. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomic evidence of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, A John

    2011-03-01

    The genomes of 49 filamentous ascomycetes (subphylum Pezizomycotina) were examined by two independent methods for evidence of multiple C→T transitions typical of RIP. At least one transposable element or other repeat family was identified in each genome, and members were assessed for transition and transversion mutations relative to a model of their intact progenitor. Occurrence of RIP was indicated where family members differed by excess of directional transitions over transversions. Transition mutations were quantified by an algorithm taking double mutations in CpG and CpC dinucleotides into account. A second method assessed dinucleotide frequency distribution anomalies in whole genomes, a procedure that allowed quantification of fractions of the non-coding genome that had been subject to extensive directional mutation. The results of both methods revealed that RIP-like activity varied greatly, both in extent of mutation and in dinucleotide context for C→T transitions. In the most extreme case, 75% of a Blastomyces dermatitidis genome had suffered conspicuous GC-depletion, all of it in the non-coding fraction. Many genomes carried both intact repeats as well as others that had suffered heavily from transitions. Only one species, Chaetomium globosum, showed no evidence of directional mutation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  17. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Karylowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective. Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait’s self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits. Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  18. Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

  19. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  20. Neuroimaging of Fear-Associated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, John A; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning has been commonly used as a model of emotional learning in animals and, with the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques, has proven useful in establishing the neurocircuitry of emotional learning in humans. Studies of fear acquisition suggest that regions such as amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus play an important role in acquisition of fear, whereas studies of fear extinction suggest that the amygdala is also crucial for safety learning. Extinction retention testing points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as an essential region in the recall of the safety trace, and explicit learning of fear and safety associations recruits additional cortical and subcortical regions. Importantly, many of these findings have implications in our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Recent studies using clinical populations have lent insight into the changes in regional activity in specific disorders, and treatment studies have shown how pharmaceutical and other therapeutic interventions modulate brain activation during emotional learning. Finally, research investigating individual differences in neurotransmitter receptor genotypes has highlighted the contribution of these systems in fear-associated learning. PMID:26294108

  1. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  2. Decreasing overuse of therapies in the treatment of bronchiolitis by incorporating evidence at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muething, Stephen; Schoettker, Pamela J; Gerhardt, Wendy E; Atherton, Harry D; Britto, Maria T; Kotagal, Uma R

    2004-06-01

    To describe the effect of evidence-based point-of-care algorithms and rules, based on guideline recommendations, on the overuse of therapies for bronchiolitis. Study design Pre-postintervention for infants first-time episode of bronchiolitis. Data collected for guideline-eligible patients discharged between January 15, 2002, and March 27, 2002, were compared with data collected for guideline-eligible patients discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis during the same time period in the first 5 years after the original guideline implementation (1997 to 2001). The primary outcome of interest was use of bronchodilator therapy. Secondary outcomes included use of guideline order sets, resource utilization, length of stay, and readmission. A total of 256 patients from 2002 were compared with 1272 historic patients. In 2002, the odds of receiving any bronchodilator, more than 1, more than 2, and more than 4 bronchodilators were all significantly less than predicted by the 1997 to 2001 year-to-year trend. The odds of receiving a nasopharyngeal wash for respiratory syncytial virus and a chest radiography (OR=0.680, CL=0.476, 0.973) were also significantly lower than what was predicted from use trends of previous years. Evidence-based point-of-care instruments can have a significant effect on unwarranted treatment variation.

  3. Visual Systems for Interactive Exploration and Mining of Large-Scale Neuroimaging Data Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eBowman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While technological advancements in neuroimaging scanner engineering have improved the efficiency of data acquisition, electronic data capture methods will likewise significantly expedite the population of large-scale neuroimaging databases. As they do, a particular challenge lies in examining and interacting with the information these resources contain through the development of compelling, user-driven approaches for data exploration and mining. In this article, we introduce the Informatics Visualization for Neuroimaging (INVIZIAN program for the graphical rendering of and dynamic interaction with the contents of large-scale neuroimaging data sets. We describe the rationale behind INVIZIAN, describe its development, and demonstrate its use to examine a collection of over 900 T1-anatomical MRI image volumes from across a diverse set of clinical neuroimaging studies and drawn from a leading neuroimaging database. Using a collection of cortical surface metrics and means for examining brain similarity, INVIZIAN graphically displays brain surfaces as points in a coordinate space and enables classification of clusters of neuroanatomically similar MRI images and data mining. As an initial step toward addressing the need for such user-friendly tools, INVIZIAN provides a highly unique means to interact with large quantities of electronic brain imaging archives in ways suitable for hypothesis generation and data mining.

  4. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Organising evidence on QT prolongation and occurrence of Torsades de Pointes with non-antiarrhythmic drugs: a call for consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ponti, F; Poluzzi, E; Montanaro, N

    2001-06-01

    The growing list of non-antiarrhythmic drugs associated with QT prolongation and the relevant regulatory interventions have generated concern for two reasons. First, QT prolongation is sometimes viewed as an intrinsic effect of a whole therapeutic class (for example, antihistamines), whereas, in many cases, it is displayed only by some compounds within a given class of non-antiarrhythmic drugs because of an effect on cardiac repolarisation. Second, drug-induced Torsades de Pointes are still considered idiosyncratic, totally unpredictable adverse drug reactions, whereas a number of risk factors for their occurrence is now recognised. In order to increase awareness among prescribing physicians that many non-antiarrhythmic drugs can affect cardiac repolarisation, we would like to propose a comprehensive and updated list of QT-prolonging drugs that should be a starting point to maintain a "consensus list" to be periodically updated. The drug list was generated by performing a Medline search, by using published lists as starting points to retrieve the relevant references quoted in each article and by considering the International Registry for Drug-induced Arrhythmias maintained by the Georgetown University and mainly based on the FDA approved labelling. The drug list presented in this paper: (1) includes virtually all non-antiarrhythmic drugs with QT-prolonging potential, (2) organises the available information on each drug at different levels of clinical relevance and (3) is as up-to-date as possible in order to provide a fast track for the clinical pharmacologist to retrieve the original publications. This list should be considered as a starting point to call for consensus on: (1) the criteria used to generate the list, (2) possible ways to implement the use of this list as a quick reference for clinicians, for instance by providing a "proarrhythmic score" for each drug, and (3) inclusion/exclusion of a given agent into the list on the basis of evidence that may not

  6. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.

    2017-08-01

    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  7. A very simple, re-executable neuroimaging publication [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrajit S. Ghosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproducible research is a key element of the scientific process. Re-executability of neuroimaging workflows that lead to the conclusions arrived at in the literature has not yet been sufficiently addressed and adopted by the neuroimaging community. In this paper, we document a set of procedures, which include supplemental additions to a manuscript, that unambiguously define the data, workflow, execution environment and results of a neuroimaging analysis, in order to generate a verifiable re-executable publication. Re-executability provides a starting point for examination of the generalizability and reproducibility of a given finding.

  8. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  9. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  10. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  11. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular within the neuroimaging community. Such methods attempt...... to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical neuroimaging data...... sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative influence...

  12. Mathematical modeling and visualization of functional neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents research results regarding mathematical modeling in the context of the analysis of functional neuroimages. Specifically, the research focuses on pattern-based analysis methods that recently have become popular analysis tools within the neuroimaging community. Such methods...... attempt to predict or decode experimentally defined cognitive states based on brain scans. The topics covered in the dissertation are divided into two broad parts: The first part investigates the relative importance of model selection on the brain patterns extracted form analysis models. Typical...... neuroimaging data sets are characterized by relatively few data observations in a high dimensional space. The process of building models in such data sets often requires strong regularization. Often, the degree of model regularization is chosen in order to maximize prediction accuracy. We focus on the relative...

  13. Understanding other minds: linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, R; Carey, S; Kanwisher, N

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from developmental psychology suggests that understanding other minds constitutes a special domain of cognition with at least two components: an early-developing system for reasoning about goals, perceptions, and emotions, and a later-developing system for representing the contents of beliefs. Neuroimaging reinforces and elaborates upon this view by providing evidence that (a) domain-specific brain regions exist for representing belief contents, (b) these regions are apparently distinct from other regions engaged in reasoning about goals and actions (suggesting that the two developmental stages reflect the emergence of two distinct systems, rather than the elaboration of a single system), and (c) these regions are distinct from brain regions engaged in inhibitory control and in syntactic processing. The clear neural distinction between these processes is evidence that belief attribution is not dependent on either inhibitory control or syntax, but is subserved by a specialized neural system for theory of mind.

  14. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for central neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Can it read my mind?" - What do the public and experts think of the current (misuses of neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Wardlaw

    Full Text Available Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1(st June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education.

  16. "Can it read my mind?" - What do the public and experts think of the current (mis)uses of neuroimaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; O'Connell, Garret; Shuler, Kirsten; DeWilde, Janet; Haley, Jane; Escobar, Oliver; Murray, Shaun; Rae, Robert; Jarvie, Donald; Sandercock, Peter; Schafer, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Emerging applications of neuroimaging outside medicine and science have received intense public exposure through the media. Media misrepresentations can create a gulf between public and scientific understanding of the capabilities of neuroimaging and raise false expectations. To determine the extent of this effect and determine public opinions on acceptable uses and the need for regulation, we designed an electronic survey to obtain anonymous opinions from as wide a range of members of the public and neuroimaging experts as possible. The surveys ran from 1(st) June to 30 September 2010, asked 10 and 21 questions, respectively, about uses of neuroimaging outside traditional medical diagnosis, data storage, science communication and potential methods of regulation. We analysed the responses using descriptive statistics; 660 individuals responded to the public and 303 individuals responded to the expert survey. We found evidence of public skepticism about the use of neuroimaging for applications such as lie detection or to determine consumer preferences and considerable disquiet about use by employers or government and about how their data would be stored and used. While also somewhat skeptical about new applications of neuroimaging, experts grossly underestimated how often neuroimaging had been used as evidence in court. Although both the public and the experts rated highly the importance of a better informed public in limiting the inappropriate uses to which neuroimaging might be put, opinions differed on the need for, and mechanism of, actual regulation. Neuroscientists recognized the risks of inaccurate reporting of neuroimaging capabilities in the media but showed little motivation to engage with the public. The present study also emphasizes the need for better frameworks for scientific engagement with media and public education.

  17. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Bagnis, Arianna; Viola, Marco; Tamietto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in the brain. In

  18. Basic Emotions in Human Neuroscience: Neuroimaging and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Celeghin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of so-called ‘basic emotions’ and their defining attributes represents a long lasting and yet unsettled issue in psychology. Recently, neuroimaging evidence, especially related to the advent of neuroimaging meta-analytic methods, has revitalized this debate in the endeavor of systems and human neuroscience. The core theme focuses on the existence of unique neural bases that are specific and characteristic for each instance of basic emotion. Here we review this evidence, outlining contradictory findings, strengths and limits of different approaches. Constructionism dismisses the existence of dedicated neural structures for basic emotions, considering that the assumption of a one-to-one relationship between neural structures and their functions is central to basic emotion theories. While these critiques are useful to pinpoint current limitations of basic emotions theories, we argue that they do not always appear equally generative in fostering new testable accounts on how the brain relates to affective functions. We then consider evidence beyond PET and fMRI, including results concerning the relation between basic emotions and awareness and data from neuropsychology on patients with focal brain damage. Evidence from lesion studies are indeed particularly informative, as they are able to bring correlational evidence typical of neuroimaging studies to causation, thereby characterizing which brain structures are necessary for, rather than simply related to, basic emotion processing. These other studies shed light on attributes often ascribed to basic emotions, such as automaticity of perception, quick onset, and brief duration. Overall, we consider that evidence in favor of the neurobiological underpinnings of basic emotions outweighs dismissive approaches. In fact, the concept of basic emotions can still be fruitful, if updated to current neurobiological knowledge that overcomes traditional one-to-one localization of functions in

  19. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  20. Online open neuroimaging mass meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple format and a web service performs the numerical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system allows for mass meta-analysis, e...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  2. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  3. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  4. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  5. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yassin, Walid; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired social cognition is considered a core contributor to unfavorable psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Rather than being a unitary process, social cognition is a collection of multifaceted processes that recruit multiple brain structures, thus structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are ideal methodologies for revealing the underlying pathophysiology of impaired social cognition. Many neuroimaging studies have suggested that in addition to white-matter deficits, schizophrenia is associated with decreased gray-matter volume in multiple brain areas, especially fronto-temporal and limbic regions. However, few schizophrenia studies have examined associations between brain abnormalities and social cognitive disabilities. During the last decade, we have investigated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and our findings have been confirmed by us and others. By assessing different types of social cognitive abilities, structural abnormalities in multiple brain regions have been found to be associated with disabilities in social cognition, such as recognition of facial emotion, theory of mind, and empathy. These structural deficits have also been associated with alexithymia and quality of life in ways that are closely related to the social cognitive disabilities found in schizophrenia. Here, we overview a series of neuroimaging studies from our laboratory that exemplify current research into this topic, and discuss how it can be further tackled using recent advances in neuroimaging technology. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Meeting Curation Challenges in a Neuroimaging Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SCARP project is a series of short studies with two aims; firstly to discover more about disciplinary approaches and attitudes to digital curation through ‘immersion’ in selected cases; secondly to apply known good practice, and where possible, identify new lessons from practice in the selected discipline areas. The study summarised here is of the Neuroimaging Group in the University of Edinburgh’s Division of Psychiatry, which plays a leading role in eScience collaborations to improve the infrastructure for neuroimaging data integration and reuse. The Group also aims to address growing data storage and curation needs, given the capabilities afforded by new infrastructure. The study briefly reviews the policy context and current challenges to data integration and sharing in the neuroimaging field. It then describes how curation and preservation risks and opportunities for change were identified throughout the curation lifecycle; and their context appreciated through field study in the research site. The results are consistent with studies of neuroimaging eInfrastructure that emphasise the role of local data sharing and reuse practices. These sustain mutual awareness of datasets and experimental protocols through sharing peer to peer, and among senior researchers and students, enabling continuity in research and flexibility in project work. This “human infrastructure” is taken into account in considering next steps for curation and preservation of the Group’s datasets and a phased approach to supporting data documentation.

  7. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  8. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analysed and the data length. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  9. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey M; Hjelm, Devon R; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Allen, Elena A; Bockholt, Henry J; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Paulsen, Jane S; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges) in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  10. Deep learning for neuroimaging: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M Plis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning methods have recently made notable advances in the tasks of classification and representation learning. These tasks are important for brain imaging and neuroscience discovery, making the methods attractive for porting to a neuroimager's toolbox. Success of these methods is, in part, explained by the flexibility of deep learning models. However, this flexibility makes the process of porting to new areas a difficult parameter optimization problem. In this work we demonstrate our results (and feasible parameter ranges in application of deep learning methods to structural and functional brain imaging data. These methods include deep belief networks and their building block the restricted Boltzmann machine. We also describe a novel constraint-based approach to visualizing high dimensional data. We use it to analyze the effect of parameter choices on data transformations. Our results show that deep learning methods are able to learn physiologically important representations and detect latent relations in neuroimaging data.

  11. On small sample experiments in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubject...... will generalise to a larger population. In this contribution we address this issue using a Bayesian framework, derive confidence intervals forsmall samples experiments, and discuss the issue of the prior.......Most human brain imaging experiments involve a number of subjects that is unusually low by accepted statistical standards. Although there are anumber of practical reasons for using small samples in neuroimaging we need to face the question regarding whether results obtained with only a fewsubjects...

  12. Neuroimaging Endpoints in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Agosta, Federica; Grosskreutz, Julian; Filippi, Massimo; Turner, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo. Abnormalities are detectable before clinical symptoms develop, offering the potential for neuroprotective intervention in familial cases. Although promising neuroimaging biomarker candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease progression have emerged, these have been from the study of necessarily select patient cohorts identified in specialized referral centers. Further multicenter research is now needed to establish their validity as therapeutic outcome measures.

  13. Neuroimaging Measures as Endophenotypes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N. Braskie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD is moderately to highly heritable. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (APOE4 has been replicated consistently as an AD risk factor over many studies, and recently confirmed variants in other genes such as CLU, CR1, and PICALM each increase the lifetime risk of AD. However, much of the heritability of AD remains unexplained. AD is a complex disease that is diagnosed largely through neuropsychological testing, though neuroimaging measures may be more sensitive for detecting the incipient disease stages. Difficulties in early diagnosis and variable environmental contributions to the disease can obscure genetic relationships in traditional case-control genetic studies. Neuroimaging measures may be used as endophenotypes for AD, offering a reliable, objective tool to search for possible genetic risk factors. Imaging measures might also clarify the specific mechanisms by which proposed risk factors influence the brain.

  14. Energy landscape analysis of neuroimaging data

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular, the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but its use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy. We first review the methods and discuss some algorithms and technical aspects. Then, we apply the methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from healthy individuals to inspect the relationship between the accuracy of fitting, the size of the brain system to be analyzed, and the data length.

  15. The brain, the science and the media: The legal, corporate, social and security implications of neuroimaging and the impact of media coverage

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Garret; De Wilde, Janet; Haley, Jane; Shuler, Kirsten; Schafer, Burkhard; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a powerful research and diagnostic tool and is increasingly used outside clinical or scientific settings. However, many of these non-scientific uses, which often are uncritically covered by the media, are not supported by scientific evidence.

  16. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D. Bigler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1 the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2 how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3 how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.

  17. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  18. Multimodal Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia: Description and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aine, C J; Bockholt, H J; Bustillo, J R; Cañive, J M; Caprihan, A; Gasparovic, C; Hanlon, F M; Houck, J M; Jung, R E; Lauriello, J; Liu, J; Mayer, A R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Posse, S; Stephen, J M; Turner, J A; Clark, V P; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e.g., auditory sensory gating, auditory/visual multisensory integration, visual transverse patterning). Neuropsychological data were also acquired and genetic material via saliva samples were collected from most of the participants and have been typed for both genome-wide polymorphism data as well as genome-wide methylation data. Some results are also presented from the individual studies as well as from our data-driven multimodal analyses (e.g., multimodal examinations of network structure and network dynamics and multitask fMRI data analysis across projects). All data will be released through the Mind Research Network's collaborative informatics and neuroimaging suite (COINS).

  19. Functional neuroimaging in Tourette syndrome: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debes NM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanette Mol Debes, Marie Préel, Liselotte Skov Pediatric Department, Tourette Clinic, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: The most recent functional neuroimaging studies on Tourette syndrome (TS are reviewed in this paper. Although it can be difficult to compare functional neuroimaging studies due to differences in methods, differences in age of the included subjects, and differences in the extent to which the presence of comorbidity, medical treatment, and severity of tics are considered in the various studies; most studies show that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit seems to be involved in the generation of tics. Changes in this circuit seem to be correlated with tic severity. Correlations have been found between the presence of tics and hypermetabolism in various brain regions. Abnormalities of GABAergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with TS have been suggested. During tic suppression, increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus is seen. The premotor cortex might be involved in inhibition of motor control in subjects with TS. The right anterior insula is suggested to be a part of the urge–tic network. Several studies have shown altered motor network activations and sensorimotor gating deficits in subjects with TS. In future studies, inclusion of more well-defined subjects and further examination of premonitory urge and tic suppression is needed in order to increase the knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment possibilities of TS. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, Tourette syndrome

  20. [Neuroimaging the various symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Following consensus on fronto-striato-thalamo-frontal dysfunction as the neuronal basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and increasing sub-classification of this clinical picture, neurobiological differentiation of the various obsessive symptoms is also attracting interest in neuroimaging research. Original papers studying the neurobiological correlates of the various dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder were listed by a systematic literature search. The "washing" factor seems to involve particular brain structures dealing with emotional control (mainly the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and insula), but the predominant areas in the "forbidden thoughts" factor are cognitive control brain regions (mainly basal ganglia and ACC), and in hoarding obsessions and compulsions they are decision-making areas (mainly ventro-medial parts of the OFC and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)). The results underline the neurobiological heterogeneity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder clinical picture, pointing the way for future research approaches.

  1. Evidence for the Use of Ischemic Compression and Dry Needling in the Management of Trigger Points of the Upper Trapezius in Patients with Neck Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnie, Barbara; Castelein, Birgit; Pollie, Flore; Steelant, Lieselotte; Verhoeyen, Hanne; Cools, Ann

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the effects of ischemic compression and dry needling on trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle in patients with neck pain and compare these two interventions with other therapeutic interventions aiming to inactivate trigger points. Both PubMed and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials using different key word combinations related to myofascial neck pain and therapeutic interventions. Four main outcome parameters were evaluated on short and medium term: pain, range of motion, functionality, and quality-of-life, including depression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. There is moderate evidence for ischemic compression and strong evidence for dry needling to have a positive effect on pain intensity. This pain decrease is greater compared with active range of motion exercises (ischemic compression) and no or placebo intervention (ischemic compression and dry needling) but similar to other therapeutic approaches. There is moderate evidence that both ischemic compression and dry needling increase side-bending range of motion, with similar effects compared with lidocaine injection. There is weak evidence regarding its effects on functionality and quality-of-life. On the basis of this systematic review, ischemic compression and dry needling can both be recommended in the treatment of neck pain patients with trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Additional research with high-quality study designs are needed to develop more conclusive evidence.

  2. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia : Treatment options and evidence from neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jozarni

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on studies to improve treatment options for patients who suffer from schizophrenia. Lack of initiative (apathy) and a reduced ability to experience pleasure is part of a syndrome, called “negative symptoms”, in these patients. These symptoms are related to severe impairments in

  3. Cognitive Rehabilitation in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Cristina; Bustillo, Pedro J.; Castell, Pedro F.; Sanchez, Lucía; Medina, Vicente; Herrero, María Trinidad

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has received little attention to date and as such, there are currently very few treatment options available. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cognitive training might alleviate these cognitive symptoms and if so, whether such changes might be correlated with altered brain patterns. The performance of 10 PD patients and 10 paired healthy controls was assessed in a modified version of the Stroop task performed in association with functional magnetic resonance imaging, and half of the PD patients were given 6 months of cognitive daily training based on Sudoku exercises. Results showed that the training program improved the cognitive performance in the Stroop test of the trained Parkinson’s patients during MRI, specifically in terms of reaction time, and of correct and missing answers. Moreover, training provoked reduced cortical activation patterns with respect to untrained patients that were comparable to the patterns of activation observed in controls. Based on these findings, we propose that cognitive training can contribute significantly to save brain resources in PD patients, maybe by readdressing the imbalance caused by the alterations to inhibitory circuitry. Furthermore, these data strongly support the development and use of standardized cognitive training programs in PD patients. PMID:22203816

  4. The representation of object distance: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Berryhill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceived distance in two-dimensional images relies on monocular distance cues. Here, we examined the representation of perceived object distance using a continuous carry-over adaptation design for fMRI. The task was to look at photographs of objects and make a judgment as to whether or not the item belonged in the kitchen. Importantly, this task was orthogonal to the variable of interest: the object’s perceived distance from the viewer. In Experiment 1, whole brain group analyses identified bilateral clusters in the superior occipital gyrus (approximately area V3/V3A that showed parametric adaptation to relative changes in perceived distance. In Experiment 2, retinotopic analyses confirmed that area V3A/B reflected the greatest magnitude of response to monocular changes in perceived distance. In Experiment 3, we report that the functional activations overlap with the occipito-parietal lesions in a patient with impaired distance perception, showing that the same regions monitor implied (two-dimensional and actual (three-dimensional distance. These data suggest that distance information is automatically processed even when it is task-irrelevant and that this process relies on superior occipital areas in and around area V3A.

  5. How emotion leads to selective memory: Neuroimaging evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Often memory for emotionally arousing items is enhanced relative to neutral items within complex visual scenes, but this enhancement can come at the expense of memory for peripheral background information. This ‘trade-off’ effect has been elicited by a range of stimulus valence and arousal levels, yet the magnitude of the effect has been shown to vary with these factors. Using fMRI, this study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying this selective memory for emotional scenes. Further, we examined how these processes are affected by stimulus dimensions of arousal and valence. The trade-off effect in memory occurred for low to high arousal positive and negative scenes. There was a core emotional memory network associated with the trade-off among all the emotional scene types, however there were additional regions that were uniquely associated with the trade-off for each individual scene type. These results suggest that there is a common network of regions associated with the emotional memory tradeoff effect, but that valence and arousal also independently affect the neural activity underlying the effect. PMID:21414333

  6. Neuroimaging of Central Sensitivity Syndromes: Key Insights from the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes are characterized by distressing symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, in the absence of clinically obvious pathology. The scientific underpinnings of these disorders are not currently known. Modern neuroimaging techniques promise new insights into mechanisms mediating these postulated syndromes. We review the results of neuroimaging applied to five central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, and vulvodynia syndrome. Neuroimaging studies of basal metabolism, anatomic constitution, molecular constituents, evoked neural activity, and treatment effect are compared across all of these syndromes. Evoked sensory paradigms reveal sensory augmentation to both painful and non-painful stimulation. This is a transformative observation for these syndromes, which were historically considered to be completely of hysterical or feigned in origin. However, whether sensory augmentation represents the cause of these syndromes, a predisposing factor, an endophenotype, or an epiphenomenon cannot be discerned from the current literature. Further, the result from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies of basal activity, anatomy, and molecular constituency are extremely heterogeneous within and between the syndromes. A defining neuroimaging “signature” cannot be discerned for any of the particular syndromes or for an over-arching central sensitization mechanism common to all of the syndromes. Several issues confound initial attempts to meaningfully measure treatment effects in these syndromes. At this time, the existence of “central sensitivity syndromes” is based more soundly on clinical and epidemiological evidence. A coherent picture of a “central sensitization” mechanism that bridges across all of these syndromes does not emerge from the existing scientific evidence. PMID:26717948

  7. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  8. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  9. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    of the ZEB2 gene. To date, no characteristic pattern of brain dysmorphology in MWS has been defined. METHODS: Through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we delineated a neuroimaging phenotype in 54 MWS patients with a proven ZEB2 defect, compared it with the features identified in a thorough...... review of published cases, and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had abnormal MRI results. The most common features were anomalies of corpus callosum (79.6% of cases), hippocampal abnormalities (77.8%), enlargement of cerebral ventricles (68.5%), and white...

  10. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Littlejohns

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient (<25 nmol/L and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L were 0.76 (0.35-1.66 and 1.09 (0.76-1.55 compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19 and 1.12 (0.79-1.59 compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OHD deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54 and 0.73 (0.47-1.95 compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  11. Progress of neuroimaging research on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-cheng LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease which gives rise to senile dementia. High morbidity and poor efficacy of Alzheimer's disease have brought about much pressure to the aging society. However, based on early diagnosis, early clinical intervention may slow down the progression of disease and improve its prognosis. In this review, we attempt to introduce the progress of early neuroimaging diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.006

  12. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  13. Planning for the integration of the digital library, clinical decision support, and evidence at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Linda Matula; Iobst, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Integrating knowledge-based resources at the point of care is an important opportunity for hospital library involvement. In the progression of an IAIMS planning grant, the digital library is recognized as pivotal to the success of information domain integration throughout the institution. The planning process, data collection, and evolution of the planning project are discussed.

  14. Emerging neuroimaging contribution to the diagnosis and management of the ring chromosome 20 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Ruggieri, Andrea; Vignoli, Aglaia; Canevini, Maria Paola; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is an underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly characterized by severe epilepsy, behavioral problems, and mild-to-moderate cognitive deficits. Since the cognitive and behavioral decline follows seizure onset, this syndrome has been proposed as an epileptic encephalopathy (EE). The recent overwhelming development of advanced neuroimaging techniques has opened a new era in the investigation of the brain networks subserving the EEs. In particular, functional neuroimaging tools are well suited to show alterations related to epileptiform discharges at the network level and to build hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the cognitive disruption observed in these conditions. This paper reviews the brain circuits and their disruption as revealed by functional neuroimaging studies in patients with [r(20)] syndrome. It discusses the clinical consequences of the neuroimaging findings on the management of patients with [r(20)] syndrome, including their impact to an earlier diagnosis of this disorder. Based on the available lines of evidences, [r(20)] syndrome is characterized by interictal and ictal dysfunctions within basal ganglia-prefrontal lobe networks and by long-lasting effects of the peculiar theta-delta rhythm, which represents an EEG marker of the syndrome on integrated brain networks that subserve cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of physicians' thresholds for neuroimaging in children with recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; McDonald, Patrick J; Wittmeier, Kristy; Reed, Martin H; Moffatt, Michael

    2014-06-23

    We sought to determine the extent to which physicians agree about the appropriate decision threshold for recommending magnetic resonance imaging in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. We surveyed attending physicians in Canada practicing in community pediatrics, child neurology, pediatric radiology, and pediatric neurosurgery. For children in each of six risk categories, physicians were asked to determine whether they would recommend for or against routine magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. Completed surveys were returned by 114 physicians. The proportion recommending routine neuroimaging for each risk group was 100% (50% risk), 99% (10% risk), 93% (4% risk), 54% (1% risk), 25% (0.4% risk), 4% (0.01% risk). Community pediatricians, physicians in practice >15 years, and physicians who believed they ordered neuroimaging less often than peers were less likely to recommend neuroimaging for the 1% risk group (all p pediatric specialists regarding the appropriate decision threshold for neuroimaging in a clinical practice guideline for children with recurrent headache. Because of the impact that individual threshold preferences may have on guidelines, these findings support the need for careful composition of guideline committees and consideration of the role of patient and family preferences. Our findings also support the need for transparency in guidelines regarding how evidence was translated into recommendations and how conflicts were resolved.

  16. Practical management of heterogeneous neuroimaging metadata by global neuroimaging data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Scott C.; Crawford, Karen L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly evolving neuroimaging techniques are producing unprecedented quantities of digital data at the same time that many research studies are evolving into global, multi-disciplinary collaborations between geographically distributed scientists. While networked computers have made it almost trivial to transmit data across long distances, collecting and analyzing this data requires extensive metadata if the data is to be maximally shared. Though it is typically straightforward to encode text and numerical values into files and send content between different locations, it is often difficult to attach context and implicit assumptions to the content. As the number of and geographic separation between data contributors grows to national and global scales, the heterogeneity of the collected metadata increases and conformance to a single standardization becomes implausible. Neuroimaging data repositories must then not only accumulate data but must also consolidate disparate metadata into an integrated view. In this article, using specific examples from our experiences, we demonstrate how standardization alone cannot achieve full integration of neuroimaging data from multiple heterogeneous sources and why a fundamental change in the architecture of neuroimaging data repositories is needed instead. PMID:22470336

  17. Yield of retinal examination in suspected physical abuse with normal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D; Scribano, Philip V; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2010-05-01

    In some centers, dedicated ophthalmologic examination is performed for all children who are evaluated for potential physical abuse. Although retinal hemorrhages have been reported in rare cases of abused children with normal neuroimaging results, the utility of ophthalmologic examination in this group is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in children younger than 2 years who were evaluated for physical abuse and who had no evidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuroimaging. We performed retrospective analysis of data obtained from 1676 children younger than 5 years who were evaluated for potential physical abuse as a part of the Using Liver Transaminases to Recognize Abuse research network. We reviewed results of dedicated ophthalmologic examination in all children younger than 2 years with no evidence of TBI on neuroimaging. Among 282 children who met inclusion criteria, only 2 (0.7% [95% confidence interval: 0.1%-2.5%]) had retinal hemorrhages considered "characteristic" of abuse. Seven other children (2.5% [95% confidence interval: 1.0%-5.1%]) had a nonspecific pattern of retinal hemorrhages. Both children with characteristic retinal hemorrhages in the absence of TBI showed evidence of head or facial injury on physical examination and/or altered mental status. In children younger than 2 years being evaluated for physical abuse without radiographic evidence of brain injury, retinal hemorrhages are rare. Dedicated ophthalmologic examination should not be considered mandatory in this population.

  18. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging. Recent issues and future progresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, include X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, positron CT, etc. The trend of neuroimaging is from the diagnosis of the brain structural change to the functional localization of the brain function with accurate topographical data. Brain activation studies disclosed the responsible regions in the brain for various kinds of paradigms, including motor, sensory, cognitive functions. Another aspect of brain imaging shows the pathophysiological changes of the neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease by abnormal CBF or metabolism changes. It is very important to note that the neurotransmitter receptor imaging is now available for various kinds of transmitters. We recently developed a new tracer for nicotinic type acetylcholine receptor, which might be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and its treatment. In the near future, we will be able to visualize the proteins in the brain such as amyloid protein, which will make us to diagnose Alzheimer's patients accurately, and with respect to neuroscience research, not only neuronal functional localizations but also relationship between them will become important to disclose the functional aspects of the brain. (author)

  1. Neuroimaging of Muscle Pain in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Niddam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.

  2. Integrating Theoretical Models with Functional Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone. In this review, we highlight examples of recent studies that utilize this combined approach to provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human cognition. The studies described here span domains of perception, attention, memory, categorization, and cognitive control, employing a variety of analytic and model-inspired approaches. Across these diverse studies, a common theme is that individually tailored, creative solutions are often needed to establish compelling links between multi-parameter models and complex sets of neural data. We conclude that future developments in model-based cognitive neuroscience will have great potential to advance our theoretical understanding and ability to model both low-level and high-level cognitive processes.

  3. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  4. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing the Collaborative, Client-Centred Nutrition Education (3CNE) Framework and Practice Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Catherine; MacLellan, Deborah; Traviss, Karol; Cividin, Theresa

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this, the third phase of a 3-phase research project, was to develop guidelines for client-centred nutrition education (NE). A 3-phase study was conducted using a progressive development design, where each phase informed the subsequent phase. Phase 1 was a national online survey of dietitians' perceptions of consumers' NE needs and preferences; results informed the Phase 2 national online survey of consumers about their NE needs and preferences. Phase 3 involved national 2-part teleconference consultations with dietitians to discuss implications of the Phase 2 findings for NE practice. This paper is the report of Phase 3. Discussion group participants were 22 dietitians from around Canada who had been in practice for an average of 14.5 years. Discussions resulted in the development of the Collaborative Client-Centred Nutrition Education (3CNE) conceptual framework and related Practice Points that explicate the complexity of NE practice. The 3CNE framework and Practice Points provide a means to inform precepting students and interns, and for use in planning for the professional development of practicing dietitians on providing client-centred NE.

  5. Testosterone Induces Erythrocytosis via Increased Erythropoietin and Suppressed Hepcidin: Evidence for a New Erythropoietin/Hemoglobin Set Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travison, Thomas G.; Basaria, Shehzad; Davda, Maithili N.; Guo, Wen; Li, Michelle; Connor Westfall, John; Bae, Harold; Gordeuk, Victor; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin and hematocrit remain unclear. Methods. We assessed the hormonal and hematologic responses to testosterone administration in a clinical trial in which older men with mobility limitation were randomized to either placebo or testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Results. The 7%–10% increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, with testosterone administration was associated with significantly increased erythropoietin (EPO) levels and decreased ferritin and hepcidin levels at 1 and 3 months. At 6 months, EPO and hepcidin levels returned toward baseline in spite of continued testosterone administration, but EPO levels remained nonsuppressed even though elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit higher than at baseline, suggesting a new set point. Consistent with increased iron utilization, soluble transferrin receptor (sTR) levels and ratio of sTR/log ferritin increased significantly in testosterone-treated men. Hormonal and hematologic responses were similar in anemic participants. The majority of testosterone-treated anemic participants increased their hemoglobin into normal range. Conclusions. Testosterone-induced increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit is associated with stimulation of EPO and reduced ferritin and hepcidin concentrations. We propose that testosterone stimulates erythropoiesis by stimulating EPO and recalibrating the set point of EPO in relation to hemoglobin and by increasing iron utilization for erythropoiesis. PMID:24158761

  6. Schizophrenia: What do we know from neuroimaging research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Zedlitz, A.M.E.E.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - A summary of the main neuroimaging findings in the field of schizophrenia will be given in order to get a better understanding of this disorder. Methods - The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using PubMed and the internet. Results - Neuroimaging research on

  7. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  8. An Overview of Multimodal Neuroimaging Using Nanoprobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have gained tremendous significance as contrast agents for both anatomical and functional preclinical bio-imaging. Contrary to conventional medical practices, molecular imaging plays an important role in exploring the affected cells, thus providing precision medical solutions. It has been observed that incorporating nanoprobes improves the overall efficacy of the diagnosis and treatment processes. These nano-agents and tracers are therefore often incorporated into preclinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Multimodal imaging approaches are well equipped with nanoprobes to explore neurological disorders, as they can display more than one type of characteristic in molecular imaging. Multimodal imaging systems are explored by researchers as they can provide both anatomical and functional details of tumors and affected tissues. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art research concerning multimodal imaging systems and nanoprobes for neuroimaging applications.

  9. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  10. Diphtheric encephalitis and brain neuroimaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jen Chun; Rahmat, Kartini; Mumin, Nazimah Ab; Koh, Mia Tuang; Gan, Chin Seng; Ramli, Norlisah; Fong, Choong Yi

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of paediatric diphtheria complicated with encephalitis. A 6-year-old boy who did not receive his scheduled diptheria-tetanus-pertusis vaccination presented with one episode of generalised convulsive seizure. His illness was preceded by a 3day history of fever associated with enlarged exudative tonsils with a pseudomembrane. He was commenced on intravenous penicillin and oral erythromycin. However, he developed progressive encephalopathy with focal neurological deficit which required intubation on day 5 of illness. Throat swab polymerase chain reaction for diphtheria toxin A and B were positive and diphtheria antitoxin was given. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities over the anterior cingulate gyri, insular cortex and cerebellum. This is the first reported MRI finding of diphtheric encephalitis. Our report highlights the importance of neuroimaging in diagnosing diphtheric encephalitis particularly in cases with unremarkable cerebrospinal findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  12. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  13. Neuroimaging features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nagaraj, Usha D. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pearl, Phillip L. [Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial dysmorphia and dwarfism. Multiple organ system involvement is typical. Various central nervous system (CNS) aberrations have been described in the pathology literature; however, the spectrum of neuroimaging manifestations is less well documented. To present neuroimaging findings from a series of eight patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The CT/MR database at a single academic children's hospital was searched for the terms ''Cornelia'', ''Brachmann'' and ''de Lange.'' The search yielded 18 exams from 16 patients. Two non-CNS and six exams without available images were excluded. Ten exams from eight patients were evaluated by a board-certified neuroradiologist. All patients had skull base dysplasia, most with an unusual coronal basioccipital cleft (7/8). All brain MR exams showed microcephaly, volume loss and gyral simplification (5/5). Six patients had an absent massa intermedia. Four patients had small globe anterior segments; three had optic pathway hypoplasia. Basilar artery fenestration was present in two patients; vertebrobasilar hypoplasia was present in one patient. The inner ear vestibules were dysplastic in two patients. One patient had pachymeningeal thickening. Spinal anomalies included scoliosis, segmentation anomalies, endplate irregularities, basilar invagination, foramen magnum stenosis and tethered spinal cord. Typical imaging manifestations of Cornelia de Lange syndrome include skull base dysplasia with coronal clival cleft, cerebral and brainstem volume loss, and gyral simplification. Membranous labyrinth dysplasia, anterior segment and optic pathway hypoplasia, basilar artery fenestration, absent massa intermedia and spinal anomalies may also be present. (orig.)

  14. The Possible Neuronal Mechanism of Acupuncture: Morphological Evidence of the Neuronal Connection between Groin A-Shi Point and Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatovisceral reflex suggested that the somatic stimulation could affect visceral function like acupuncture which treats diseases by stimulating acupoints. The neuronal connection between somatic point and visceral organ was not clear. Uterine pain referred to the groin region has long been recognized clinically. Wesselmann, using neurogenic plasma extravasation method, showed that uterine pain was referred to the groin region through a neuronal mechanism (Wesselmann and Lai 1997. This connection could be considered through the somatovisceral reflex pathway. However, the relay center of this pathway is still not clearly identified. In the present study, bee venom was injected in the groin region to induce central Fos expression to map the sensory innervation of groin region. Pseudorabies virus (PrV, a transneuronal tracer, was injected in the uterus to identify the higher motor control of the uterus. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed the Fos expression and PrV-infected double-labeled neurons in the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMX, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN. These results suggest a somatoparasympathetic neuronal connection (groin-spinal dorsal horn-NTS/DMX-uterus and a somatosympathetic neuronal connection (groin-spinal dorsal horn-NTS-PVN-uterus. These two neuronal connections could be the prerequisites to the neuronal basis of the somatovisceral reflex and also the neuronal mechanism of acupuncture.

  15. Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays in Argentina: evidence from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Morello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the population that reports to have visited tobacco points of sale (POS in Argentina and their perception of tobacco advertising. Materials and methods. We used data from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey. Results. We included 31 167 respondents (96% of the total who attended a store that sells cigarettes in the previous 30 days. Overall, 54.1% (67.3% of current smokers, 55.1% of former smokers and 49% of non smokers referred having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Males (OR=1.2 and current smokers (OR=1.9 vs. non smokers were more likely to report having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Those who were exposed to second hand smoke in bars and restaurants (OR=1.2 were also more likely to have seen advertising. We found that younger people (age 18 – 24 were more likely to be exposed (OR=2.8 vs older than 65. Among smokers, those who referred to have seen the advertising were more likely to have tried to quit smoking during the previous year. Conclusions. It is important to regulate advertising at the POS to limit exposure, particularly among young people.

  16. Farmers' contact with health care services prior to suicide: evidence for the role of general practitioners as an intervention point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalidou, Katerina; McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Suicide in Australian rural communities has received significant attention from researchers, health practitioners and policymakers. Farmers and agricultural workers have been a focus of particular interest, especially in relation to levels of help seeking for mental health concerns. A less explored area, however, is the level of contact that Australian farming and agriculture workers who die by suicide have had with health providers for physical, rather than mental, health conditions. It is often assumed that farmers and agricultural workers have lower levels of contact with health care services than other rural residents, although this assumption has not been well tested. Using data from the Queensland Suicide Register, this paper describes levels of contact with health care providers in the 3 months before death by suicide among men in farming and agriculture occupations and other occupations in rural Queensland. No significant differences were found in farming and agricultural workers' levels of contact with a general practitioner when compared with other rural men in Queensland. The current findings lend weight to the view that rural general practitioners represent an important intervention point for farming and agriculture workers at risk of suicide (whether or not those individuals exhibit accompanying psychiatric illness).

  17. [Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays in Argentina: evidence from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Paola; Ondarsuhu, Dolores; Galante, Mariana; O'Donnell, Victoria; Konfino, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    To describe the population that reports to have visited tobacco points of sale (POS) in Argentina and their perception of tobacco advertising. We used data from the 2013 National Risk Factor Survey. We included 31 167 respondents (96% of the total) who attended a store that sells cigarettes in the previous 30 days. Overall, 54.1% (67.3% of current smokers, 55.1% of former smokers and 49% of non smokers) referred having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Males (OR=1.2) and current smokers (OR=1.9 vs. non smokers) were more likely to report having seen tobacco advertising at the POS. Those who were exposed to second hand smoke in bars and restaurants (OR=1.2) were also more likely to have seen advertising. We found that younger people (age 18 - 24) were more likely to be exposed (OR=2.8 vs older than 65). Among smokers, those who referred to have seen the advertising were more likely to have tried to quit smoking during the previous year. It is important to regulate advertising at the POS to limit exposure, particularly among young people.

  18. [Neuroimaging follow-up of cerebral aneurysms treated with endovascular techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Saiz, A; Hilario, A; Murias, E; San Román Manzanera, L; Lagares Gomez-Abascal, A; Gabarrós, A; González García, A

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific recommendations in clinical guidelines about the best time, imaging tests, or intervals for following up patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular techniques. We reviewed the literature, using the following keywords to search in the main medical databases: cerebral aneurysm, coils, endovascular procedure, and follow-up. Within the Cerebrovascular Disease Group of the Spanish Society of Neuroradiology, we aimed to propose recommendations and an orientative protocol based on the scientific evidence for using neuroimaging to monitor intracranial aneurysms that have been treated with endovascular techniques. We aimed to specify the most appropriate neuroimaging techniques, the interval, the time of follow-up, and the best approach to defining the imaging findings, with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes while optimizing and rationalizing the use of available resources. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroimaging of resilience to stress: current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Steven J A; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Stein, Dan J; van der Wee, Nic J A

    2013-09-01

    Resilience is defined as a dynamic, multidimensional process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity. The complex nature of this construct makes it a difficult topic to study in neuroimaging research; however, in this article, we propose ways to operationalize resilience. The limited amount of structural and functional neuroimaging studies specifically designed to examine resilience have mainly focused on investigating alterations in regions of the brain involved in emotion and stress regulation circuitry. In the future, neuroimaging of resilience is expected to benefit from functional and structural connectivity approaches and the use of novel imaging task paradigms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias.

  1. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2017-12-21

    The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases. Drawing on neuroimaging evidence, we review the ways that top-down social cognitive factors shape visual perception of facial features. This emerging work in social and affective neuroscience builds upon work on predictive coding and perceptual priors in cognitive neuroscience and visual cognition, suggesting domain-general mechanisms that underlie a social-visual interface through which social cognition affects visual perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral Microbleeds: A Review of Clinical, Genetic and Neuroimaging Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Yates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using 11C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography (PET.The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage – particularly in the setting of anticoagulation – and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future.

  4. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  5. Event time analysis of longitudinal neuroimage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness and gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Oshmyansky, Alexander; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a potentially life-threatening condition which is usually diagnosed by MRI. We analyzed the signal changes of the thrombus over time and the role of diffusion-weighted/tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) in the diagnosis of CSVT. Clinical histories were reviewed for risk factors for CSVT, neurologic manifestation, and interval from onset of symptoms related to CSVT to the neuroimaging diagnosis. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated for the appearance of thrombi on T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI/DTI, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) images. Thirty-three children with CSVT were included in this study. Seventy-seven thrombi were found. Seventy-four thrombi could be identified on T1- or T2-weighted images (96 %), 72 thrombi were seen on DWI/DTI (94 %) and 68 on FLAIR (88 %). DWI showed restricted diffusion in 29 thrombi (40 %). Thrombi older than 1 day were more likely to have a T1-hyperintense signal (p = 0.002). No additional correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi was found. Intraparenchymal changes secondary to CSVT were seen in 11 children. MR sequences individually are not sensitive enough to provide the diagnosis. DWI/DTI does not provide complementary diagnostic value. Approximation of the age of the thrombus is difficult because of poor correlation between signal intensity and age of the thrombi.

  7. How Shakespeare tempests the brain: neuroimaging insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, James L; Davis, Philip M; Gonzalez-Diaz, Victorina; Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Shakespeare made extensive use of the functional shift (FS), a rhetorical device involving a change in the grammatical status of words, e.g., using nouns as verbs. Previous work using event-related brain potentials showed how FS triggers a surprise effect inviting mental re-evaluation, seemingly independent of semantic processing. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation in participants making judgements on the semantic relationship between sentences -some containing a Shakespearean FS- and subsequently presented words. Behavioural performance in the semantic decision task was high and unaffected by sentence type. However, neuroimaging results showed that sentences featuring FS elicited significant activation beyond regions classically activated by typical language tasks, including the left caudate nucleus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus. These findings show how Shakespeare's grammatical exploration forces the listener to take a more active role in integrating the meaning of what is said. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Behrens, Marion; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli, and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses toward spontaneous (or "resting state") activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory, and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  9. Neuroimaging revolutionizes therapeutic approaches to chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsook David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.

  10. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  11. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  12. Tinnitus Neural Mechanisms and Structural Changes in the Brain: The Contribution of Neuroimaging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is an abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. Chronic tinnitus usually has a high impact in many aspects of patients' lives, such as emotional stress, sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, and so on. These strong reactions are usually attributed to central nervous system involvement. Neuroimaging has revealed the implication of brain structures in the auditory system. Objective This systematic review points out neuroimaging studies that contribute to identifying the structures involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of generation and persistence of various forms of tinnitus. Data Synthesis Functional imaging research reveals that tinnitus perception is associated with the involvement of the nonauditory brain areas, including the front parietal area; the limbic system, which consists of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala; and the hippocampal and parahippocampal area. Conclusion The neuroimaging research confirms the involvement of the mechanisms of memory and cognition in the persistence of perception, anxiety, distress, and suffering associated with tinnitus.

  13. Auditory Neuroimaging with fMRI and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavage, Thomas M.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Scott, Sophie K.

    2013-01-01

    For much of the past 30 years, investigations of auditory perception and language have been enhanced or even driven by the use of functional neuroimaging techniques that specialize in localization of central responses. Beginning with investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and gradually shifting primarily to usage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), auditory neuroimaging has greatly advanced our understanding of the organization and response properties of brain regions critical to the perception of and communication with the acoustic world in which we live. As the complexity of the questions being addressed has increased, the techniques, experiments and analyses applied have also become more nuanced and specialized. A brief review of the history of these investigations sets the stage for an overview and analysis of how these neuroimaging modalities are becoming ever more effective tools for understanding the auditory brain. We conclude with a brief discussion of open methodological issues as well as potential clinical applications for auditory neuroimaging. PMID:24076424

  14. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  16. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... movement-related activation in PD that were consistent across studies. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) of functional neuroimaging studies probing motor function in patients with PD. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 283 patients with PD reported in 24 functional neuroimaging studies...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex...

  17. Methodological review on functional neuroimaging using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Jeong [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Advance of neuroimaging technique has greatly influenced recent brain research field. Among various neuroimaging modalities, positron emission tomography has played a key role in molecular neuroimaging though functional MRI has taken over its role in the cognitive neuroscience. As the analysis technique for PET data is more sophisticated, the complexity of the method is more increasing. Despite the wide usage of the neuroimaging techniques, the assumption and limitation of procedures have not often been dealt with for the clinician and researchers, which might be critical for reliability and interpretation of the results. In the current paper, steps of voxel-based statistical analysis of PET including preprocessing, intensity normalization, spatial normalization, and partial volume correction will be revisited in terms of the principles and limitations. Additionally, new image analysis techniques such as surface-based PET analysis, correlational analysis and multimodal imaging by combining PET and DTI, PET and TMS or EEG will also be discussed.

  18. Modeling Latency and Shape Changes in Trial Based Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2011-01-01

    To overcome poor signal-to-noise ratios in neuroimaging, data sets are often acquired over repeated trials that form a three-way array of spacetimetrials. As neuroimaging data contain multiple inter-mixed signal components blind signal separation and decomposition methods are frequently invoked...... representation. We demonstrate how this alleviates degeneracy and helps to extract physiologically plausible components. The resulting convolutive multi-linear decomposition can model realistic trial variability as demonstrated in EEG and fMRI data....

  19. A Knowledge Representation and Reasoning System for Multimodal Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Coelho; Paulo Marques; Ricardo Magalhães; Nuno Sousa; José Neves; Victor Alves

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging analyses are of major interest for both research and clinical practice, enabling the combined evaluation of the structure and function of the human brain. These analyses generate large volumes of data and consequently increase the amount of possibly useful information. Indeed, BrainArchive was developed in order to organize, maintain and share this complex array of neuroimaging data. It stores all the information available for each participant/patient, being dynamic by...

  20. Paediatric population neuroimaging and the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tonya; Muetzel, Ryan L.; El Marroun, Hanan

    2018-01-01

    over time. Magnetic resonance imaging was included in 2009 with the scanning of 1070 6-to-9-year-old children. The second neuroimaging wave was initiated in April 2013 with a total of 4245 visiting the MRI suite and 4087 9-to-11-year-old children being scanned. The sequences included high...... first wave of neuroimaging, which highlights a diverse array of questions that can be addressed by merging the fields of developmental neuroscience and epidemiology....

  1. Neural Substrate of Group Mental Health: Insights from Multi-Brain Reference Frame in Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Ray

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary mental health practice primarily centers around the neurobiological and psychological processes at the individual level. However, a more careful consideration of interpersonal and other group-level attributes (e.g., interpersonal relationship, mutual trust/hostility, interdependence, and cooperation and a better grasp of their pathology can add a crucial dimension to our understanding of mental health problems. A few recent studies have delved into the interpersonal behavioral processes in the context of different psychiatric abnormalities. Neuroimaging can supplement these approaches by providing insight into the neurobiology of interpersonal functioning. Keeping this view in mind, we discuss a recently developed approach in functional neuroimaging that calls for a shift from a focus on neural information contained within brain space to a multi-brain framework exploring degree of similarity/dissimilarity of neural signals between multiple interacting brains. We hypothesize novel applications of quantitative neuroimaging markers like inter-subject correlation that might be able to evaluate the role of interpersonal attributes affecting an individual or a group. Empirical evidences of the usage of these markers in understanding the neurobiology of social interactions are provided to argue for their application in future mental health research.

  2. The Neuroscience of PowerPoint[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney

    2014-01-01

    Many concepts have been published relevant to improving the design of PowerPoint[TM] (PP) presentations for didactic purposes, including the redundancy, modality, and signaling principles of multimedia learning. In this article, we review the recent neuroimaging findings that have emerged elucidating the neural structures involved in many of these…

  3. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Neuroimaging in stroke and seizure as neurological emergencies (NISSAN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Nasar, Abu; Suri, M Fareed K; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2008-01-01

    To report the current national utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department for the two most common neurological emergencies; stroke and seizure. Patients were identified using primary International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM codes from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). NHAMCS is designed to collect data on the utilization and provision of care in emergency departments of hospitals in the United States. We analyzed the use of neuroimaging in patients presenting to the emergency department with seizure or stroke. About 60% of 1,190,219 patients with the diagnosis of stroke or seizure had neuroimaging performed emergently. Patients with any type of stroke were more likely to undergo neuroimaging compared to patients with seizure (78% vs. 37%, P emergency department among 100% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 79% with ischemic stroke, and 69% with intracerebral hemorrhage. In a nationally representative study, emergent neuroimaging appeared to be underutilized among patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. There is a need to increase the utilization of neuroimaging in the emergency department in anticipation of new acute stroke treatments.

  5. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

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    Irimia A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging

  6. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

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    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  7. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

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    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  8. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  9. Neuroimaging-Verfahren in der Adipositasforschung

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    Kabisch S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In den vergangenen Jahren wurden neurologische Korrelate der Adipositas intensiv diskutiert und erforscht. Der Einsatz neuroradiologischer Verfahren eröffnet der Adipositasforschung neue methodische Ansatzpunkte. Hierbei gelten die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT und die Positronen-Emissionstomographie (PET als die vielversprechendsten. Aufgrund der großen Vielfalt von Einflussfaktoren für Gehirnentwicklung und -funktion müssen für aussagekräftige Neuroimaging-Studien strenge Teilnahmekriterien gelten. Die Zahl leistungsfähiger MRTund PET-Zentren wächst daher gerade in den Großstädten und Ballungszentren, wo gut charakterisierte Probandengruppen rekrutiert werden können. Das menschliche Gehirn empfängt und sendet sowohl homöostatische als auch hedonische Impulse zur Steuerung des Essverhaltens. Hunger und Appetit sind eigenständige Facetten des Essantriebs, die in verschiedenen Hirnarealen entstehen, aber einem gemeinsamen Kontrollzentrum unterstehen. Die verantwortlichen Areale sind bei Adipositas strukturell verändert und in ihrer Funktion beeinträchtigt; insbesondere lassen sich weitreichende Veränderungen im „Belohnungssystem“ erkennen. Frauen und Männer (sowohl normal- als auch übergewichtig scheinen unterschiedlich auf homöostatische und hedonische Sättigungsund Hungerreize zu reagieren. Die „Hungernetzwerke“ stehen unter dem Einfluss genetischer, biochemischer, hormoneller, neuronaler und anderer Faktoren. So stellen z. B. Ghrelin, Peptid YY und Leptin endokrinologische Signale aus dem Verdauungstrakt und dem Fettgewebe dar, die nicht nur Stoffwechselaktivität und Nährstoffverteilung steuern, sondern auch zentralnervöse Effekte haben. Diese Hormone sprechen als Kurz- oder Langzeitmodulatoren Hirnareale mit homöostatischer oder hedonischer Bedeutung an und beeinflussen so die Nahrungsbewertung und das Essverhalten. Die Erkenntnisse über das Zusammenspiel der Hirnregionen bei der Steuerung von Hunger, Appetit

  10. Deposition of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on natural organic matter surfaces: microscopic evidence for secondary minimum deposition in a radial stagnation point flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Janjaroen, Dao; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2009-02-03

    A radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) system combined with a microscope was used to determine the deposition kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on quartz surfaces and silica surfaces coated with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) in solutions with different ionic strengths. Microscopic evidence of C. parvum oocysts entrapped in the secondary minimum energy well was presented to show that among the entrapped C. parvum oocysts some were washed away by the radial flow and some were able to transfer to deep primary minima and become irreversibly deposited. Experimental data were compared with simulation results obtained by the convective-diffusion equation and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The experimental results suggested that surface charge heterogeneity led to a higher attachment efficiency at low ionic strength. In addition, the maximum attachment efficiency was less than 1 at high ionic strength due to steric interaction.

  11. Evidence of low-density and high-density liquid phases and isochore end point for water confined to carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kentaro; Kaneko, Toshihiro; Bai, Jaeil; Francisco, Joseph S; Yasuoka, Kenji; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2017-04-18

    Possible transition between two phases of supercooled liquid water, namely the low- and high-density liquid water, has been only predicted to occur below 230 K from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. However, such a phase transition cannot be detected in the laboratory because of the so-called "no-man's land" under deeply supercooled condition, where only crystalline ices have been observed. Here, we show MD simulation evidence that, inside an isolated carbon nanotube (CNT) with a diameter of 1.25 nm, both low- and high-density liquid water states can be detected near ambient temperature and above ambient pressure. In the temperature-pressure phase diagram, the low- and high-density liquid water phases are separated by the hexagonal ice nanotube (hINT) phase, and the melting line terminates at the isochore end point near 292 K because of the retracting melting line from 292 to 278 K. Beyond the isochore end point (292 K), low- and high-density liquid becomes indistinguishable. When the pressure is increased from 10 to 600 MPa along the 280-K isotherm, we observe that water inside the 1.25-nm-diameter CNT can undergo low-density liquid to hINT to high-density liquid reentrant first-order transitions.

  12. Glaciotectonic deformation associated with the Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine, westernmost Block Island Sound: further evidence of readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Oldale, Robert N.; Foster, David S.; Smith, Shepard M.

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles collected across pro-glacial outwash deposits adjacent to the circa 18 ka b.p. Orient Point-Fishers Island end moraine segment in westernmost Block Island Sound reveal extensive deformation. A rhythmic seismic facies indicates the host outwash deposits are composed of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments. The deformation is variably brittle and ductile, but predominantly compressive in nature. Brittle deformation includes reverse faults and thrust faults that strike parallel to the moraine, and thrust sheets that extend from beneath the moraine. Ductile deformation includes folded sediments that overlie undisturbed deposits, showing that they are not drape features. Other seismic evidence for compression along the ice front consists of undisturbed glaciolacustrine strata that dip back toward and underneath the moraine, and angular unconformities on the sea floor where deformed sediments extend above the surrounding undisturbed correlative strata. Together, these ice-marginal glaciotectonic features indicate that the Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine marks a significant readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet, consistent with existing knowledge for neighboring coeval moraines, and not simply a stillstand as previously reported.

  13. Nipype: A flexible, lightweight and extensible neuroimaging data processing framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current neuroimaging software offer users an incredible opportunity to analyze their data in different ways, with different underlying assumptions. Several sophisticated software packages (e.g., AFNI, BrainVoyager, FSL, FreeSurfer, Nipy, R, SPM are used to process and analyze large and often diverse (highly multi-dimensional data. However, this heterogeneous collection of specialized applications creates several issues that hinder replicable, efficient and optimal use of neuroimaging analysis approaches: 1 No uniform access to neuroimaging analysis software and usage information; 2 No framework for comparative algorithm development and dissemination; 3 Personnel turnover in laboratories often limits methodological continuity and training new personnel takes time; 4 Neuroimaging software packages do not address computational efficiency; and 5 Methods sections in journal articles are inadequate for reproducing results. To address these issues, we present Nipype (Neuroimaging in Python: Pipelines and Interfaces; http://nipy.org/nipype, an open-source, community-developed, software package and scriptable library. Nipype solves the issues by providing Interfaces to existing neuroimaging software with uniform usage semantics and by facilitating interaction between these packages using Workflows. Nipype provides an environment that encourages interactive exploration of algorithms, eases the design of Workflows within and between packages, allows rapid comparative development of algorithms and reduces the learning curve necessary to use different packages. Nipype supports both local and remote execution on multi-core machines and clusters, without additional scripting. Nipype is BSD licensed, allowing anyone unrestricted usage. An open, community-driven development philosophy allows the software to quickly adapt and address the varied needs of the evolving neuroimaging community, especially in the context of increasing demand for reproducible research.

  14. Role of advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Michael; Meier, Timothy; Huber, Daniel; Ptito, Alain; Bigler, Erin; Debert, Chantel T; Manley, Geoff; Menon, David; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wall, Rachel; Schneider, Kathryn J; McAllister, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published literature on advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC). Computerised searches of Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 were done. There were 3222 articles identified. In addition to medical subject heading terms, a study was included if (1) published in English, (2) represented original research, (3) involved human research, (4) pertained to SRC and (5) involved data from neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers or genetic testing collected within 6 months of injury. Ninety-eight studies qualified for review (76 neuroimaging, 16 biomarkers and 6 genetic testing). Separate reviews were conducted for neuroimaging, biomarkers and genetic testing. A standardised data extraction tool was used to document study design, population, tests employed and key findings. Reviewers used a modified quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool to rate the risk of bias, and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the overall level of evidence for each search. Results from the three respective reviews are compiled in separate tables and an interpretive summary of the findings is provided. Advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing are important research tools, but require further validation to determine their ultimate clinical utility in the evaluation of SRC. Future research efforts should address current gaps that limit clinical translation. Ultimately, research on neurobiological and genetic aspects of SRC is predicted to have major translational significance to evidence-based approaches to clinical management of SRC, much like applied clinical research has had over the past 20 years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  15. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  16. The Co-evolution of Neuroimaging and Psychiatric Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyster, Timothy G; Mikell, Charles B; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    The role of neuroimaging in psychiatric neurosurgery has evolved significantly throughout the field's history. Psychiatric neurosurgery initially developed without the benefit of information provided by modern imaging modalities, and thus lesion targets were selected based on contemporary theories of frontal lobe dysfunction in psychiatric disease. However, by the end of the 20th century, the availability of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allowed for the development of mechanistic theories attempting to explain the anatamofunctional basis of these disorders, as well as the efficacy of stereotactic neuromodulatory treatments. Neuroimaging now plays a central and ever-expanding role in the neurosurgical management of psychiatric disorders, by influencing the determination of surgical candidates, allowing individualized surgical targeting and planning, and identifying network-level changes in the brain following surgery. In this review, we aim to describe the coevolution of psychiatric neurosurgery and neuroimaging, including ways in which neuroimaging has proved useful in elucidating the therapeutic mechanisms of neuromodulatory procedures. We focus on ablative over stimulation-based procedures given their historical precedence and the greater opportunity they afford for post-operative re-imaging, but also discuss important contributions from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) literature. We conclude with a discussion of how neuroimaging will transition the field of psychiatric neurosurgery into the era of precision medicine.

  17. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  18. Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.

  19. Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care: Voices in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Borgelt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Images of brain function, popularly called neuroimages, have become a mainstay of contemporary communication about neuroscience and mental health. Paralleling media coverage of neuroimaging research and the high visibility of clinics selling scans is pressure from sponsors to move basic research about brain function along the translational pathway. Indeed, neuroimaging benefit mental health care with early or tailored intervention, opportunities for education and planning, and access to resources afforded by objectification of disorder. However, risks of premature technology transfer, such as misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and increased stigmatization, could compromise patient care.Stakeholder views on neuroimaging for mental health care are a largely untapped resource of information and guidance for translational efforts. We argue that the insights of key stakeholders – researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and families - have an essential role to play upstream in professional, critical, and ethical discourse about neuroimaging in mental health. Here we integrate previously orthogonal lines of inquiry involving stakeholder research to describe the translational landscape as well as challenges on its horizon.

  20. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSundman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE. The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc., and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau, review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  1. Evidence of accessibility and utility of point-of-care diagnostics as an integral part of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services: systematic scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoba, Juliet; Hangulu, Lydia; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa

    2017-11-04

    Point-of-care (POC) testing has been shown to help improve healthcare access in resource-limited settings. However, there is paucity of evidence on accessibility of POC testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map the evidence on POC testing services for PMTCT. A scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, will guide the study. A comprehensive literature search will be performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar and databases within EBSCOhost (Medline and CINAHL). The primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and grey articles addressing our question will be included. One reviewer will conduct title screening and the results will be exported to endnote library. Two independent reviewers will perform abstract, then full article screening in parallel. The same process shall be employed to extract data from eligible studies. Data analysis will involve a narrative summary of included studies and thematic content analysis aided by NVIVO software V.11. The mixed methods assessment tool will be used to assess the quality of studies that will be included. Ethical approval is not applicable to this study. The study findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentations at conferences related to syphilis, HIV, PMTCT, bacterial infections and POC diagnostics. CRD42017056267. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products Do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Najnin, Nusrat; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. Methods We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Findings Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Conclusion Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce

  3. What point-of-use water treatment products do consumers use? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial among the urban poor in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Luoto

    Full Text Available There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why.We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard, sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs, a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water, and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter, and chlorine tests (for the other products. We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households.Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls.Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce morbidity and mortality substantially

  4. What point-of-use water treatment products do consumers use? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial among the urban poor in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Najnin, Nusrat; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce morbidity and mortality substantially in urban

  5. Evidence for Dry Needling in the Management of Myofascial Trigger Points Associated With Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Thitham, Nguyen; Li, Li-Hui; Ma, Yan-Tao; Zhao, Jia-Min

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the current evidence of the effectiveness of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) associated with low back pain (LBP). PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched until January 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that used dry needling as the main treatment and included participants diagnosed with LBP with the presence of MTrPs were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, scored methodologic quality, and extracted data. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and functional disability at postintervention and follow-up. A total of 11 RCTs involving 802 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggested that compared with other treatments, dry needling of MTrPs was more effective in alleviating the intensity of LBP (standardized mean difference [SMD], -1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.77 to -0.36; P=.003) and functional disability (SMD, -0.76; 95% CI, -1.46 to -0.06; P=.03); however, the significant effects of dry needling plus other treatments on pain intensity could be superior to dry needling alone for LBP at postintervention (SMD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.55-1.11; P<.00001). Moderate evidence showed that dry needling of MTrPs, especially if associated with other therapies, could be recommended to relieve the intensity of LBP at postintervention; however, the clinical superiority of dry needling in improving functional disability and its follow-up effects still remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Machine learning for neuroimaging with scikit-learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alexandre; Pedregosa, Fabian; Eickenberg, Michael; Gervais, Philippe; Mueller, Andreas; Kossaifi, Jean; Gramfort, Alexandre; Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g., multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g., resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  7. Looking inside the brain the power of neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is now possible to witness human brain activity while we are talking, reading, or thinking, thanks to revolutionary neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These groundbreaking advances have opened infinite fields of investigation—into such areas as musical perception, brain development in utero, and faulty brain connections leading to psychiatric disorders—and have raised unprecedented ethical issues. In Looking Inside the Brain, one of the leading pioneers of the field, Denis Le Bihan, offers an engaging account of the sophisticated interdisciplinary research in physics, neuroscience, and medicine that have led to the remarkable neuroimaging methods that give us a detailed look into the human brain. Introducing neurological anatomy and physiology, Le Bihan walks readers through the historical evolution of imaging technology—from the x-ray and CT scan to the PET scan and MRI—and he explains how neuroimaging uncovers afflictions like stroke or cancer and the workings of high...

  8. Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

  9. First Afebrile Seizure in Children: Which Patients Require Emergent Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülser Esen Besli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intra-cranial pathology in children presenting to emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and to determine patients at high risk for abnormal neuroimaging. Methods: The medical files of 173 children who presented to the emergency department with a first afebrile seizure and underwent neuroimaging within 24 hours of presentation were retrospectively evaluated. We defined clinically emergent intracranial pathology as any lesion requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention. The relationship of age, seizure characteristics, predisposing conditions, presence of new-onset neurologic deficits, and baseline neurological status with neuroimaging findings were compared. Results: There were 103 males (59.5% and 70 females. The mean age was 80±60.4 months (1-204. Of the 173 children, 87 (50.3% had a computed tomography scan, 50 (28.9% had magnetic resonance imaging, and 36 (20.8% underwent both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Neuroimaging results were abnormal in 24.3% of patients whereas 5.2% had an emergent intracranial pathology. The conditions associated with abnormal neuroimaging were: 1 focal seizures, 2 new-onset neurological deficits 3 pre-existing neurological abnormalities, 4 predisposing conditions, and 5 being younger than 24 months of age. Conclusion: Planning emergency neuroimaging in children with a first afebrile seizure seems rational if the child is younger than 24 moths of age, has focal seizure(s, abnormal neurologic status prior seizure, new-onset neurological symptoms, or predisposing conditions.

  10. Neuroimaging Findings in Cardiac Myxoma Patients: A Single-Center Case Series of 47 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Morris, Jonathan M; Brown, Robert D; Thielen, Kent R; Wald, John T; Giannini, Caterina; Cloft, Harry J; Wood, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas can present with a myriad of neurological complications including stroke, cerebral aneurysm formation and metastatic disease. Our study had two objectives: (1) to describe the neuroimaging findings of patients with cardiac myxomas and (2) to examine the relationship between a history of embolic complications secondary to myxoma and intracranial aneurysm formation, hemorrhage and metastatic disease. We hypothesized that patients who present with embolic complications related to myxoma would be more likely to have such complications. We searched our institutional database for all patients with pathologically proven cardiac myxomas from 1995 to 2014 who received neuroimaging. Neuroimaging findings were categorized as acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, oncotic aneurysm, and cerebral metastasis. Cardiac myxoma patients were divided into those presenting with embolic complications (i.e. lower extremity emboli or cerebral emboli) and those presenting with non-embolic complications prior to surgical resection of the myxoma. The prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage, myxomatous aneurysm formation, and cerebral metastases was compared in myxoma patients presenting with and without embolic complications using a Chi-squared test. Forty-seven consecutive patients were included in this study. Sixteen patients (34.0%) had imaging evidence of acute ischemic stroke. Of these, 13 had acute ischemic strokes directly attributed to the cardiac myxoma (27.7%) and 3 had acute ischemic strokes secondary to causes other than myxoma (6.4%). Seven patients (14.9%) had aneurysms. Two patients (4.3%) had parenchymal metastatic disease on long-term imaging. Fourteen patients (29.8%) presented with ischemic symptoms that were attributed to cardiac myxoma (1 with lower extremity ischemia, 1 with lower extremity ischemia and ischemic stroke, and 12 with ischemic stroke). Patients presenting with embolic complications related to the myxoma (ischemic stroke or lower

  11. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  12. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Isaacs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system, and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of programming where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism’s structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programing stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behaviour, in animal studies that were also able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomised controlled trials and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  13. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of "programming" where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  14. Point-of-care testing (POCT) and evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) - does it leverage any advantage in clinical decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Christopher; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Gimenez, Nuria; Rodriguez-Capote, Karina; Wils, Julien; Zemlin, Annalise

    2017-11-23

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is the analysis of patient specimens outside the clinical laboratory, near or at the site of patient care, usually performed by clinical staff without laboratory training, although it also encompasses patient self-monitoring. It is able to provide a rapid result near the patient and which can be acted upon immediately. The key driver is the concept that clinical decision making may be delayed when samples are sent to the clinical laboratory. Balanced against this are considerations of increased costs for purchase and maintenance of equipment, staff training, connectivity to the laboratory information system (LIS), quality control (QC) and external quality assurance (EQA) procedures, all required for accreditation under ISO 22870. The justification for POCT depends upon being able to demonstrate that a more timely result (shorter turnaround times (TATs)) is able to leverage a clinically important advantage in decision making compared with the central laboratory (CL). In the four decades since POCT was adapted for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by subjects with diabetes, numerous new POCT methodologies have become available, enabling the clinician to receive results and initiate treatment more rapidly. However, these instruments are often operated by staff not trained in laboratory medicine and hence are prone to errors in the analytical phase (as opposed to laboratory testing where the analytical phase has the least errors). In some environments, particularly remote rural settings, the CL may be at a considerable distance and timely availability of cardiac troponins and other analytes can triage referrals to the main centers, thus avoiding expensive unnecessary patient transportation costs. However, in the Emergency Department, availability of more rapid results with POCT does not always translate into shorter stays due to other barriers to implementation of care. In this review, we apply the principles of evidence

  15. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  16. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  17. Functional Neuroimaging of Appetite and Gut–Brain Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately, eating decisions are made in the brain, based on the integration
    of multiple neural and hormonal signals. Since the early 1990s the use of
    functional
    neuroimaging techniques has continued to increase. Their application
    in the study of the regulation of food intake and

  18. EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities in relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder although its defi nite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ...

  19. Neuroimaging in cerebral palsy - report from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Kr Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Only few Indian reports exist on neuroimaging abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) from India. We studied the clinico-radiological profile of 98 children diagnosed as CP at a tertiary centre in North India. Relevant investigations were carried out to determine the etiology. Among the 98 children studied, 80.5% were males and 22.2% were premature. History of birth asphyxia was present in 41.9%. Quadriplegic CP was seen in 77.5%, hemiplegic in 11.5%, and diplegic in 10.5%. Other abnormalities were microcephaly (60.5%), epilepsy (42%), visual abnormality (37%), and hearing abnormality (20%). Neuroimaging was abnormal in 94/98 (95.91%). Abnormalities were periventricular white matter abnormalities (34%), deep grey matter abnormalities (47.8%), malformations (11.7%), and miscellaneous lesions (6.4%). Neuroimaging findings did not relate to the presence of birth asphyxia, sex, epilepsy, gestation, type of CP, or microcephaly. Neuroimaging is helpful for etiological diagnosis, especially malformations.

  20. Online Open Neuroimaging Mass Meta-Analysis with a Wiki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C. R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for meta-analysis where a wiki stores numerical data in a simple comma-separated values format and a web service performs the numerical statistical computation. We initially apply the system on multiple meta-analyses of structural neuroimaging data results. The described system...

  1. Imaging stress effects on memory: a review of neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Method: An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic

  2. Spinocerebellar ataxia 17: Inconsistency between phenotype and neuroimage findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by the presence of cerebellar ataxia in combination with variable neurological symptoms. Here we report a Chinese SCA17 family which proband′s clinical manifestation was inconsistent with the neuroimage findings.

  3. Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); CHU Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department, Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium); Severino, Mariasavina [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Nguema-Edzang, Beatrice; Toure, Cisse; Soto Ares, Gustavo [University Hospital of Lille (CHRU), Department of Neuroradiology, MRI 3T Research, Plateforme Imagerie du vivant, IMPRT-IFR 114, Lille-Cedex (France); Barkovich, Anthony James [University of California, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies. (orig.)

  4. SHIWA workflow interoperability solutions for neuroimaging data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, Vladimir; Krefting, Dagmar; Montagnat, Johan; Truong Huu, Tram; Kukla, Tamas; Terstyanszky, Gabor; Manset, David; Caan, Matthan; Olabarriaga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a field that benefits from distributed computing infrastructures (DCIs) to perform data- and compute-intensive processing and analysis. Using grid workflow systems not only automates the processing pipelines, but also enables domain researchers to implement their expertise on how to

  5. 25 years of neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which a precise cause has not yet been identified. Standard CT or MRI evaluation does not demonstrate gross structural nervous system changes in ALS, so conventional neuroimaging techniques have provided little insight into the pathophysiology of this disease. Advanced neuroimaging techniques—such as structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy—allow evaluation of alterations of the nervous system in ALS. These alterations include focal loss of grey and white matter and reductions in white matter tract integrity, as well as changes in neural networks and in the chemistry, metabolism and receptor distribution in the brain. Given their potential for investigation of both brain structure and function, advanced neuroimaging methods offer important opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and direct future treatment strategies in ALS. In this article, we review the contributions made by various advanced neuroimaging techniques to our understanding of the impact of ALS on different brain regions, and the potential role of such measures in biomarker development. PMID:23917850

  6. Neuroimaging in Psychiatry: A Review of the Background and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers a selective literature review of neuroimaging in psychiatry, with the goal of offering a background and a summary of current trends. While not exhaustive, numerous publications are cited in an attempt to provide a reasonable cross-section of research activity in the field of brain imaging in psychiatry and how ...

  7. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case | Misser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-and-a-half-year-old male child was referred for neuroimaging under general anaesthesia for intractable seizures. A final diagnosis of probable tuberous sclerosis with associated left hippocampal sclerosis was made. Differential diagnosis of malformation of cortical development with hippocampal sclerosis (Type 3a) ...

  8. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werff, Steven J.A.; Susan M. van den Berg; Justine Nienke Pannekoek; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person’s resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant advers...

  9. Neuroimaging resilience to stress: a review

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werff, S. J. A.; van den Berg, S M; Pannekoek, J. N.; Elzinga, B.M.; van der Wee, N. J. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high degree of intra-individual variation in how individuals respond to stress. This becomes evident when exploring the development of posttraumatic symptoms or stress-related disorders after exposure to trauma. Whether or not an individual develops posttraumatic symptoms after experiencing a traumatic event is partly dependent on a person's resilience. Resilience can be broadly defined as the dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant advers...

  10. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitition and neuroimaging data in sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Marelli, S; Galbiati, A; Castronovo, C

    2013-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a broad range of neurocognitive difficulties. The current view is that the neurocognitive impairment in OSA is due to the adverse effects of sleep fragmentation and/or intermittent hypoxia. The overall picture of cognitive deficits in OSA is complex. On balance, there appears to be negative effects of OSA on cognition, most likely in the domains of attention/vigilance, verbal and visual delayed long-term memory, visuospatial/constructional abilities, and executive dysfunction. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment of OSA. In the majority of studies of OSA patients treated with CPAP, attention/vigilance improved, but changes in global functioning, executive functioning, and memory improved in about half of the studies. This may be due, in part, to variability in study design and sampling methodology across studies. Structural volume changes have been demonstrated in brain regions of OSA patients including areas that regulate memory and executive function (e.g., frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus). Growing evidence suggests that the OSA-related changes in brain morphology may improve with CPAP treatment. Neuroimaging studies performed during cognitive testing have provided insight into CPAP's effect on function of neuroanatomical circuits in the brain. Although neuroimaging can provide important insights into the structural and functional differences associated with OSA, one of the challenges is to interpret the findings in light of comorbid conditions that also cause neural injury. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the publications on cognition and neuroimaging in OSA before and after CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Anthony J Cleare,1 Andrés Herane,1,2 Allan H Young,1 Danilo Arnone1 1King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, United Kingdom; 2Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract: A growing number of studies have used neuroimaging to further our understanding of how brain structure and function are altered in major depression. More recently, these techniques have begun to show promise for the diagnosis and treatment of depression, both as aids to conventional methods and as methods in their own right. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings in the field that might aid diagnosis and improve treatment accuracy. Overall, major depression is associated with numerous structural and functional differences in neural systems involved in emotion processing and mood regulation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the structure and function of these systems is changed by pharmacological and psychological treatments of the condition and that these changes in candidate brain regions might predict clinical response. More recently, “machine learning” methods have used neuroimaging data to categorize individual patients according to their diagnostic status and predict treatment response. Despite being mostly limited to group-level comparisons at present, with the introduction of new methods and more naturalistic studies, neuroimaging has the potential to become part of the clinical armamentarium and may improve diagnostic accuracy and inform treatment choice at the patient level. Keywords: depression, mood disorder, neuroimaging, diagnosis, treatment

  12. Nonhuman Primate Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging in Drug Abuse Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354

  13. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  14. The link between cardiovascular risk, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment: support from recent functional neuroimaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz K. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review functional neuroimaging studies about the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify articles in the neuroimaging field addressing CVRF in AD and MCI. We included studies that used positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results: CVRFs have been considered risk factors for cognitive decline, MCI, and AD. Patterns of AD-like changes in brain function have been found in association with several CVRFs (both regarding individual risk factors and also composite CVRF measures. In vivo assessment of AD-related pathology with amyloid imaging techniques provided further evidence linking CVRFs and AD, but there is still limited information resulting from this new technology. Conclusion: There is a large body of evidence from functional neuroimaging studies supporting the hypothesis that CVRFs may play a causal role in the pathophysiology of AD. A major limitation of most studies is their cross-sectional design; future longitudinal studies using multiple imaging modalities are expected to better document changes in CVRF-related brain function patterns and provide a clearer picture of the complex relationship between aging, CVRFs, and AD.

  15. Using neuroimaging to resolve the psi debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Samuel T; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Parapsychology is the scientific investigation of apparently paranormal mental phenomena (such as telepathy, i.e., "mind reading"), also known as psi. Despite widespread public belief in such phenomena and over 75 years of experimentation, there is no compelling evidence that psi exists. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in an effort to document the existence of psi. If psi exists, it occurs in the brain, and hence, assessing the brain directly should be more sensitive than using indirect behavioral methods (as have been used previously). To increase sensitivity, this experiment was designed to produce positive results if telepathy, clairvoyance (i.e., direct sensing of remote events), or precognition (i.e., knowing future events) exist. Moreover, the study included biologically or emotionally related participants (e.g., twins) and emotional stimuli in an effort to maximize experimental conditions that are purportedly conducive to psi. In spite of these characteristics of the study, psi stimuli and non-psi stimuli evoked indistinguishable neuronal responses-although differences in stimulus arousal values of the same stimuli had the expected effects on patterns of brain activation. These findings are the strongest evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena.

  16. A systemic literature review of neuroimaging studies in women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Andryszak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx. First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx. We point out the direct and indirect neurotoxic effect of cytostatics, which may cause: a damage to neurons or glial cells, changes in neurotransmitter levels, deregulation of the immune system and/or cytokine release. Second, we focus on the results of neuroimaging studies on brain structure and function that revealed decreased: density of grey matter, integrity of white matter and volume of multiple brain regions, as well as their lower activation during cognitive task performance. Finally, we concentrate on compensatory mechanisms, which activate additional brain areas or neural connection to reach the premorbid cognitive efficiency.

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  18. Point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy in ReFeAsO 1-xF x (Re = La, Sm): Possible evidence for two nodeless gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Tortello, M.; Ummarino, G. A.; Stepanov, V. A.; Kremer, R. K.; Kim, J. S.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2009-05-01

    A deep understanding of the character of superconductivity in the recently discovered Fe-based oxypnictides ReFeAsO 1-xF x (Re = rare-earth) necessarily requires the determination of the number of the gaps and their symmetry in k space, which are fundamental ingredients of any model for the pairing mechanism in these new superconductors. In the present paper, we show that point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy experiments performed on LaFeAsO 1-xF x (La-1111) polycrystals with T c ∼ 27 K and SmFeAsO 0.8F 0.2 (Sm-1111) polycrystals with T c ∼ 53 K gave differential conductance curves exhibiting two peaks at low bias and two additional structures (peaks or shoulders) at higher bias voltages, an experimental situation quite similar to that observed by the same technique in pure and doped MgB 2. The single-band Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model is totally unable to properly fit the conductance curves, while the two-gap one accounts remarkably well for the shape of the whole experimental dI/ dV vs. V curves. These results give direct evidence of two nodeless gaps in the superconducting state of ReFeAsO 1-xF x (Re = La, Sm): a small gap, Δ1, smaller than the BCS value (2 Δ1/ kBT c ∼ 2.2-3.2) and a much larger gap Δ2 which gives a ratio 2 Δ2/ kBT c ∼ 6.5-9.0. In Sm-1111 both gaps close at the same temperature, very similar to the bulk T c, and follow a BCS-like behaviour, while in La-1111 the situation is more complex, the temperature dependence of the gaps showing remarkable deviations from the BCS behaviour at T close to T c. The normal-state conductance reproducibly shows an unusual, but different, shape in La-1111 and Sm-1111 with a depression or a hump at zero bias, respectively. These structures survive in the normal state up to T∗ ∼ 140 K, close to the temperatures at which structural and magnetic transitions occur in the parent, undoped compound.

  19. Computational Modeling and Neuroimaging Techniques for Targeting during Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jennifer A.; Pace, Jonathan; Girgis, Fady; Miller, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate surgical localization of the varied targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a process undergoing constant evolution, with increasingly sophisticated techniques to allow for highly precise targeting. However, despite the fastidious placement of electrodes into specific structures within the brain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that the clinical effects of DBS are likely due to the activation of widespread neuronal networks directly and indirectly influenced by the stimulation of a given target. Selective activation of these complex and inter-connected pathways may further improve the outcomes of currently treated diseases by targeting specific fiber tracts responsible for a particular symptom in a patient-specific manner. Moreover, the delivery of such focused stimulation may aid in the discovery of new targets for electrical stimulation to treat additional neurological, psychiatric, and even cognitive disorders. As such, advancements in surgical targeting, computational modeling, engineering designs, and neuroimaging techniques play a critical role in this process. This article reviews the progress of these applications, discussing the importance of target localization for DBS, and the role of computational modeling and novel neuroimaging in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases, and thus paving the way for improved selective target localization using DBS. PMID:27445709

  20. How Effective Are Non-monetary Instruments for Safe Driving? Panel Data Evidence on the Effect of the Demerit Point System in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2017-01-01

    Using unusually rich longitudinal traffic offense data, this paper exploits a reform that introduced a point recording scheme in Denmark to estimate the behavioral responses of drivers to a non-monetary penalty based on demerit points. We find that drivers exhibit substantial behavioral responses...

  1. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...... discriminant, and the SVM, and conclude that the sensitivity map is a versatile and computationally efficient tool for visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging...

  2. A review of feature reduction techniques in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Tian, Tian Siva; Soares, Jair C

    2014-04-01

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly being used in making relevant predictions and inferences on individual subjects neuroimaging scan data. Previous studies have mostly focused on categorical discrimination of patients and matched healthy controls and more recently, on prediction of individual continuous variables such as clinical scores or age. However, these studies are greatly hampered by the large number of predictor variables (voxels) and low observations (subjects) also known as the curse-of-dimensionality or small-n-large-p problem. As a result, feature reduction techniques such as feature subset selection and dimensionality reduction are used to remove redundant predictor variables and experimental noise, a process which mitigates the curse-of-dimensionality and small-n-large-p effects. Feature reduction is an essential step before training a machine learning model to avoid overfitting and therefore improving model prediction accuracy and generalization ability. In this review, we discuss feature reduction techniques used with machine learning in neuroimaging studies.

  3. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  4. Remembering the past: neuroimaging studies of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to find our way around an environment and to remember the events that occur within it are fundamental to normal functioning in daily life. Impairment of these abilities are among the first symptoms to be reported in patients with pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and anoxia that are linked to the hippocampus and other limbic structures. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the nature and neural bases of these memories. Findings from functional neuroimaging studies offer insights into the anatomy of memory and the presentation of memory impairments. In particular, neuroimaging is well placed to inform about the functionality of residual brain tissue, and the plasticity of memory anatomy in the context of hippocampal damage, and normal ageing.

  5. The utility of neuroimaging in the management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak E Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive domains associated with impairment of activities of daily living. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis is important in the pursuit of possible disease modifying therapy for dementia. Neuroimaging has greatly transformed this field of research as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This review focuses on the diagnostic utility of neuroimaging in the management of progressive dementias. Structural imaging techniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging focuses on chemistry, circulatory status and physiology of the different brain structures and regions.

  6. SchizConnect: Virtual Data Integration in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Tallis, Marcelo; Alpert, Kathryn; Keator, David B; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Konstantinidis, George; Calhoun, Vince D; Potkin, Steven G; Turner, Jessica A; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    In many scientific domains, including neuroimaging studies, there is a need to obtain increasingly larger cohorts to achieve the desired statistical power for discovery. However, the economics of imaging studies make it unlikely that any single study or consortia can achieve the desired sample sizes. What is needed is an architecture that can easily incorporate additional studies as they become available. We present such architecture based on a virtual data integration approach, where data remains at the original sources, and is retrieved and harmonized in response to user queries. This is in contrast to approaches that move the data to a central warehouse. We implemented our approach in the SchizConnect system that integrates data from three neuroimaging consortia on Schizophrenia: FBIRN's Human Imaging Database (HID), MRN's Collaborative Imaging and Neuroinformatics System (COINS), and the NUSDAST project at XNAT Central. A portal providing harmonized access to these sources is publicly deployed at schizconnect.org.

  7. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Pipitone, Nicolò

    2009-02-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Early recognition is important because timely thiamine supplementation can reverse the clinical features of the disease. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the typical and atypical neuroimaging findings of the acute phase of the disease. Wernicke's encephalopathy is characterized by a quite distinct pattern of MR alterations, which include symmetrical alterations in the thalami, mamillary bodies, tectal plate, and periaqueductal area, but atypical alterations may also been seen. A thorough knowledge of the neuroimaging findings of Wernicke's encephalopathy will assist in arriving at an early diagnosis, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  9. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  10. CATI: A Large Distributed Infrastructure for the Neuroimaging of Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.

  11. Post-stroke cognitive dysfunctions: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yuryevich Emelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging examinations were made in 65 patients (52 men and 13 women aged 65.6±10.1 years who had experienced ischemic stroke. Cognitive impairments (CI were heterogeneous; regulatory functions, attention, and counting were most significantly affected in moderate CI. In mild dementia, mainly poor attention and regulatory dysfunctions were added by clearly-cut impairments of memory, orientation, and visual-spatial function. Brain atrophy, white matter changes, and small focal gray matter damages along with focal post-stroke changes were revealed by neuroimaging in most patients. It was found that besides the volume and location of a damage focus, the signs of impaired integrated mental activity of the brain, regulatory dysfunctions in particular, should be a necessary condition for the verification of post-stroke CI.

  12. Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning and extinction are basic forms of associative learning that have gained considerable clinical relevance in enhancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and facilitating their treatment. Modern neuroimaging techniques have significantly aided the identification of anatomical structures and networks involved in fear conditioning. On closer inspection, there is considerable variation in methodology and results between studies. This systematic review provides an overview of the current neuroimaging literature on fear conditioning and extinction on healthy subjects, taking into account methodological issues such as the conditioning paradigm. A Pubmed search, as of December 2008, was performed and supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key articles. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection and data extraction. A total of 46 studies on cued fear conditioning and/or extinction on healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. The influence of specific experimental factors, such as contingency and timing parameters, assessment of conditioned responses, and characteristics of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, on cerebral activation patterns was examined. Results were summarized descriptively. A network consisting of fear-related brain areas, such as amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, is activated independently of design parameters. However, some neuroimaging studies do not report these findings in the presence of methodological heterogeneities. Furthermore, other brain areas are differentially activated, depending on specific design parameters. These include stronger hippocampal activation in trace conditioning and tactile stimulation. Furthermore, tactile unconditioned stimuli enhance activation of pain related, motor, and somatosensory areas. Differences concerning experimental factors may partly explain the variance

  13. Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-01-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, governments have waged a global campaign against terrorists groups in order to ensure national security. A crucial part of this campaign has been intelligence gathering with different methods of interrogation in order to extract allegedly necessary information from suspected terrorists. Similarly, it is not surprising that intelligence personnel have started recognizing that neuroimaging technologies—in particular, functional Magneti...

  14. Multiple Comparison Procedures for Neuroimaging Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ghosh, Debashis; Initiative, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neu...

  15. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  16. Partial Least Squares tutorial for analyzing neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Van Roon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial least squares (PLS has become a respected and meaningful soft modeling analysis technique that can be applied to very large datasets where the number of factors or variables is greater than the number of observations. Current biometric studies (e.g., eye movements, EKG, body movements, EEG are often of this nature. PLS eliminates the multiple linear regression issues of over-fitting data by finding a few underlying or latent variables (factors that account for most of the variation in the data. In real-world applications, where linear models do not always apply, PLS can model the non-linear relationship well. This tutorial introduces two PLS methods, PLS Correlation (PLSC and PLS Regression (PLSR and their applications in data analysis which are illustrated with neuroimaging examples. Both methods provide straightforward and comprehensible techniques for determining and modeling relationships between two multivariate data blocks by finding latent variables that best describes the relationships. In the examples, the PLSC will analyze the relationship between neuroimaging data such as Event-Related Potential (ERP amplitude averages from different locations on the scalp with their corresponding behavioural data. Using the same data, the PLSR will be used to model the relationship between neuroimaging and behavioural data. This model will be able to predict future behaviour solely from available neuroimaging data. To find latent variables, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for PLSC and Non-linear Iterative PArtial Least Squares (NIPALS for PLSR are implemented in this tutorial. SVD decomposes the large data block into three manageable matrices containing a diagonal set of singular values, as well as left and right singular vectors. For PLSR, NIPALS algorithms are used because it provides amore precise estimation of the latent variables. Mathematica notebooks are provided for each PLS method with clearly labeled sections and subsections. The

  17. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokde, Arun

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  18. Neuroimaging and clinical predictors of fatigue in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kelvin L; Kotagal, Vikas; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is disabling in Parkinson disease. It is often associated with other non-motor symptoms, but little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. To investigate neuroimaging (using dopaminergic and cholinergic PET) and clinical factors associated with fatigue severity in PD. 133 PD subjects (96M/37F) completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Movement Disorders Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Hoehn-Yahr staging, validated scales for depression, anxiety, apathy, sleep, and cognition, and underwent [(11)C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate (PMP) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) monoaminergic PET imaging. We explored contributions to PD fatigue using separate regression models based either on neuroimaging parameters or clinicometric scales. In a neuroimaging regression model, neither striatal DTBZ uptake nor AChE PMP uptake were predictors of fatigue in PD. In a post-hoc neuroimaging regression model, stratifying the total cohort into mild vs. moderate-to-severe PD, striatal DTBZ uptake was a significant predictor of fatigue in mild but not moderate-to-severe PD. In a clinicometric regression model, higher Beck Depression Inventory-somatic subscore, higher levodopa dose equivalents and younger age were all significant predictors of fatigue in PD, but the MDS-UPDRS non-motor experiences of daily living score was the best predictor overall. Cholinergic uptake was not a predictor of fatigue in PD, but nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation predicted fatigue in mild disease. Total non-motor symptom burden, somatic affective symptoms, levodopa dose equivalents, and younger age were independent clinical predictors of fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  20. Neuroimaging correlates of aggression in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Aggression in schizophrenia is associated with poor treatment outcomes, hospital admissions, and stigmatization of patients. As such it represents an important public health issue. This article reviews recent neuroimaging studies of aggression in schizophrenia, focusing on PET/single photon emission computed tomography and MRI methods. The neuroimaging literature on aggression in schizophrenia is in a period of development. This is attributable in part to the heterogeneous nature and basis of that aggression. Radiological methods have consistently shown reduced activity in frontal and temporal regions. MRI brain volumetric studies have been less consistent, with some studies finding increased volumes of inferior frontal structures, and others finding reduced volumes in aggressive individuals with schizophrenia. Functional MRI studies have also had inconsistent results, with most finding reduced activity in inferior frontal and temporal regions, but some also finding increased activity in other regions. Some studies have made a distinction between types of aggression in schizophrenia in the context of antisocial traits, and this appears to be useful in understanding the neuroimaging literature. Frontal and temporal abnormalities appear to be a consistent feature of aggression in schizophrenia, but their precise nature likely differs because of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior.

  1. Propionic acidemia: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jafari, Narjes; Ahmad Abadi, Farzad; Jabbedari, Sayena; Taghdiri, Mohammad-Mahdi; Alaee, Mohammad-Reza; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Nejad Biglari, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presented with life-threatening ketoacidosis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. The patients diagnosed as having propionic acidemia in Neurology Department of Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2002 and 2012 were include in our study. This disorder was confirmed by clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and neurometabolic assessment in the reference laboratory in Germany. Our study was conducted to define the sex, age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical findings, and neuroimaging manifestations in 10 patients with propionic acidemia. Seventy percent of patients were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In this study, only one patient had microcephaly at birth, but at detection time, 30% of patients had head circumference and weight below the 3rd percentile. The patients were followed for approximately 5 years and this follow-up showed that the patients with early diagnosis had a more favorable clinical response. Neuroimaging findings included brain atrophy, white matter and globus pallidus involvement. Finally we suggest that early diagnosis and treatment have an important role in the prevention of disease progression.

  2. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of database management systems suitable for neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-06-01

    This study comprises a technical assessment of Database Management Systems (DBMS), which may be of use in the analysis of data obtained from human brain mapping procedures. Due to the large expansion of the neuroimaging field, the use of specialized database software to store and process neuroimages and their attached components is inevitable. The advent of multiple software products, a wealth of technical terms and a wide variety of other applications make the choice of a suitable program sometimes difficult. Through the inclusion of some basic and pertinent criteria (e.g., performance, ease of opening, standardization and portability), we present a descriptive comparison of 12 DBMSs currently available in the commercial and public domain. We have compared and tested three main architecture models which are currently available and assessed their potential applications for imaging purposes: relational, object-oriented, and hybrid. The findings of our study demonstrated that the Illustra software was the best suited for a neuroimaging environment because of its intrinsic ability to handle complex and large objects, such as 3D volumes or geometric structures.

  4. Point Counts Underestimate the Importance of Arctic Foxes as Avian Nest Predators: Evidence from Remote Video Cameras in Arctic Alaskan Oil Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph R. Liebezeit; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We used video cameras to identify nest predators at active shorebird and passerine nests and conducted point count surveys separately to determine species richness and detection frequency of potential...

  5. Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definition, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder –ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG, are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  6. Neuroimaging after mild traumatic brain injury: Review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Eierud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper broadly reviews the study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, across the spectrum of neuroimaging modalities. Among the range of imaging methods, however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is unique in its applicability to studying both structure and function. Thus we additionally performed meta-analyses of MRI results to examine 1 the issue of anatomical variability and consistency for functional MRI (fMRI findings, 2 the analogous issue of anatomical consistency for white-matter findings, and 3 the importance of accounting for the time post injury in diffusion weighted imaging reports. As we discuss, the human neuroimaging literature consists of both small and large studies spanning acute to chronic time points that have examined both structural and functional changes with mTBI, using virtually every available medical imaging modality. Two key commonalities have been used across the majority of imaging studies. The first is the comparison between mTBI and control populations. The second is the attempt to link imaging results with neuropsychological assessments. Our fMRI meta-analysis demonstrates a frontal vulnerability to mTBI, demonstrated by decreased signal in prefrontal cortex compared to controls. This vulnerability is further highlighted by examining the frequency of reported mTBI white matter anisotropy, in which we show a strong anterior-to-posterior gradient (with anterior regions being more frequently reported in mTBI. Our final DTI meta-analysis examines a debated topic arising from inconsistent anisotropy findings across studies. Our results support the hypothesis that acute mTBI is associated with elevated anisotropy values and chronic mTBI complaints are correlated with depressed anisotropy. Thus, this review and set of meta-analyses demonstrate several important points about the ongoing use of neuroimaging to understand the functional and structural changes that occur throughout the time course of mTBI recovery

  7. The Points Of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Richard P.; Lillo-Martin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Signed languages display a variety of pointing signs that serve the functions of deictic and anaphoric pronouns, possessive and reflexive pronouns, demonstratives, locatives, determiners, body part labels, and verb agreement. We consider criteria for determining the linguistic status of pointing signs. Among those criteria are conventionality, indexicality, phonological compositionality, being subject to grammatical constraints, and marking the kinds of grammatical distinctions expected of pronouns. We conclude that first-person points meet all these proposed criteria, but that nonfirst person points are in part gestural. Lastly, we review evidence for the grammaticization over time of systems of pointing signs within signed languages. PMID:28603596

  8. [Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: Functional neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  9. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym eLockwood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism — from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to 21st century product naming. It synthesises recent behavioural, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. It describes how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.

  10. Animal minds and neuroimaging--bridging the gap between science and ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Tom

    2014-04-01

    As Colin Allen has argued, discussions between science and ethics about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals often stall on account of the fact that the properties that ethics presents as evidence of animal mentality and moral status, namely consciousness and sentience, are not observable "scientifically respectable" properties. In order to further discussion between science and ethics, it seems, therefore, that we need to identify properties that would satisfy both domains. In this article I examine the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals from the perspective of neuroethics. By adopting this perspective, we can see how advances in neuroimaging regarding (1) research into the neurobiology of pain, (2) "brain reading," and (3) the minimally conscious state may enable us to identify properties that help bridge the gap between science and ethics, and hence help further the debate about the mentality and moral status of nonhuman animals.

  11. Posttranslational Modifications of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI): Evidence for a large shift in isoelectric point and reduced solubility upon activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is distinct from pancreatic procarboxypeptidase B in several ways. The enzymatic activity of TAFIa is unstable and decays with a half-life of a few minutes. During this study, we observed that (i) the isoelectric point (pI) of TAFI shifts dramatica......Thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is distinct from pancreatic procarboxypeptidase B in several ways. The enzymatic activity of TAFIa is unstable and decays with a half-life of a few minutes. During this study, we observed that (i) the isoelectric point (pI) of TAFI shifts...

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  13. Decoding the complex brain: multivariate and multimodal analyses of neuroimaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salami, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    Functional brain images are extraordinarily rich data sets that reveal distributed brain networks engaged in a wide variety of cognitive operations. It is a substantial challenge both to create models of cognition that mimic behavior and underlying cognitive processes and to choose a suitable analytic method to identify underlying brain networks. Most of the contemporary techniques used in analyses of functional neuroimaging data are based on univariate approaches in which single image elements (i.e. voxels) are considered to be computationally independent measures. Beyond univariate methods (e.g. statistical parametric mapping), multivariate approaches, which identify a network across all regions of the brain rather than a tessellation of regions, are potentially well suited for analyses of brain imaging data. A multivariate method (e.g. partial least squares) is a computational strategy that determines time-varying distributed patterns of the brain (as a function of a cognitive task). Compared to its univariate counterparts, a multivariate approach provides greater levels of sensitivity and reflects cooperative interactions among brain regions. Thus, by considering information across more than one measuring point, additional information on brain function can be revealed. Similarly, by considering information across more than one measuring technique, the nature of underlying cognitive processes become well-understood. Cognitive processes have been investigated in conjunction with multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, sMRI, EEG, DTI), whereas the typical method has been to analyze each modality separately. Accordingly, little work has been carried out to examine the relation between different modalities. Indeed, due to the interconnected nature of brain processing, it is plausible that changes in one modality locally or distally modulate changes in another modality. This thesis focuses on multivariate and multimodal methods of image analysis applied to

  14. Posttranslational Modifications of Human Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI): Evidence for a large shift in isoelectric point and reduced solubility upon activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Christensen, Trine; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is distinct from pancreatic procarboxypeptidase B in several ways. The enzymatic activity of TAFIa is unstable and decays with a half-life of a few minutes. During this study, we observed that (i) the isoelectric point (pI) of TAFI shifts dramatica...

  15. Point-of-Care International Normalized Ratio (INR) Monitoring Devices for Patients on Long-term Oral Anticoagulation Therapy: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    SUBJECT OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: The purpose of this evidence based analysis report is to examine the safety and effectiveness of point-of-care (POC) international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices for patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Long-term OAT is typically required by patients with mechanical heart valves, chronic atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or peripheral arterial occlusion. It is estimated that approximately 1% of the population receives anticoagulation treatment and, by applying this value to Ontario, there are an estimated 132,000 patients on OAT in the province, a figure that is expected to increase with the aging population. Patients on OAT are regularly monitored and their medications adjusted to ensure that their INR scores remain in the therapeutic range. This can be challenging due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and variation in individual responses. Optimal INR scores depend on the underlying indication for treatment and patient level characteristics, but for most patients the therapeutic range is an INR score of between 2.0 and 3.0. The current standard of care in Ontario for patients on long-term OAT is laboratory-based INR determination with management carried out by primary care physicians or anticoagulation clinics (ACCs). Patients also regularly visit a hospital or community-based facility to provide a venous blood samples (venipuncture) that are then sent to a laboratory for INR analysis. Experts, however, have commented that there may be under-utilization of OAT due to patient factors, physician factors, or regional practice variations and that sub-optimal patient management may also occur. There is currently no population-based Ontario data to permit the assessment of patient care, but recent systematic reviews have estimated that less that 50% of patients receive OAT on a routine basis and that patients

  16. Data sharing and publishing in the field of neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breeze Janis L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing recognition of the importance of data sharing in the neurosciences, and in particular in the field of neuroimaging research, in order to best make use of the volumes of human subject data that have been acquired to date. However, a number of barriers, both practical and cultural, continue to impede the widespread practice of data sharing; these include: lack of standard infrastructure and tools for data sharing, uncertainty about how to organize and prepare the data for sharing, and researchers’ fears about unattributed data use or missed opportunities for publication. A further challenge is how the scientific community should best describe and/or reference shared data that is used in secondary analyses. Finally, issues of human research subject protections and the ethical use of such data are an ongoing source of concern for neuroimaging researchers. One crucial issue is how producers of shared data can and should be acknowledged and how this important component of science will benefit individuals in their academic careers. While we encourage the field to make use of these opportunities for data publishing, it is critical that standards for metadata, provenance, and other descriptors are used. This commentary outlines the efforts of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing to coordinate and establish such standards, as well as potential ways forward to relieve the issues that researchers who produce these massive, reusable community resources face when making the data rapidly and freely available to the public. Both the technical and human aspects of data sharing must be addressed if we are to go forward.

  17. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  18. High-Throughput Neuroimaging-Genetics Computational Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo D Dinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical and phenotypic data and meta-data. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI at University of Southern California (USC. INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize diverse suites of software tools and web-services. These pipeline workflows are represented as portable XML objects which transfer the execution instructions and user specifications from the client user machine to remote pipeline servers for distributed computing. Using Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s data, we provide several examples of translational applications using this infrastructure.

  19. Shift Invariant Multi-linear Decomposition of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2008-01-01

    with a fixed time course that may vary across either trials or space in its overall intensity and latency. Its utility is demonstrated on simulated data as well as actual EEG, and fMRI data. We show how shift-invariant multilinear decompositions of multiway data can successfully cope with variable latencies...... in data derived from neural activity--a problem that has caused degenerate solutions especially in modeling neuroimaging data with instantaneous multilinear decompositions. Our algorithm is available for download at www.erpwavelab.org....

  20. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; JAFARI, Narjes; AHMAD ABADI, Farzad; JABBEHDARI, Sayena; Mohammad-Mahdi TAGHDIRI; Mohammad-Reza ALAEE; GHOFRANI, Mohammad; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; Habibeh NEJAD BIGLARI*

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Ahmad Abadi F, Jabbehdari S, Taghdiri MM, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonekaboni SH, Nejad Biglari H. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):58-61. ObjectivePropionic acidemia is one of the rare congenital neurometabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. This disorder is caused by a defect in the propionyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme and can be presente...

  1. Multimodal neuroimaging-informed clinical applications in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eO'Halloran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS. We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically-informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key grey matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability

  2. Frequency Constrained ShiftCP Modeling of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2011-01-01

    The shift invariant multi-linear model based on the CandeComp/PARAFAC (CP) model denoted ShiftCP has proven useful for the modeling of latency changes in trial based neuroimaging data[17]. In order to facilitate component interpretation we presently extend the shiftCP model such that the extracted...... components can be constrained to pertain to predefined frequency ranges such as alpha, beta and gamma activity. To infer the number of components in the model we propose to apply automatic relevance determination by imposing priors that define the range of variation of each component of the shiftCP model...

  3. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  4. Neuroimaging and other investigations in patients presenting with headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum W Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is very common. In the United Kingdom, it accounts for 4.4% of primary care consultations, 30% of referrals to neurology services and 0.5-0.8% of alert patients presenting to emergency departments. Primary headache disorders account for the majority of patients and most patients do not require investigation. Warning features (red flags in the history and on examination help target those who need investigation and what investigations are required. This article summarizes the typical presentations of the common secondary headaches and what neuroimaging and other investigations are appropriate for each headache type.

  5. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.M.; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Lund, T.E.

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  6. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  7. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    compared to controls. Increases in activation were greater in those mTBI subjects without cognitive recovery. As workload increased in mTBI subjects, activation increased in cortical regions in the right hemisphere. In summary, we found neuroimaging evidence for working memory deficits during the first week following mild traumatic brain injury. Subjects with persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI had increased requirement for posterior cingulate activation to complete memory tasks at 1 week following a brain injury. These results provide insight into functional activation patterns during initial recovery from mTBI and expose the regional activation networks that may be involved in working memory deficits.

  8. Prefrontal control and Internet addiction: A theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most people use the Internet as a functional tool to perform their personal goals in everyday-life such as making airline or hotel reservations. However, some individuals suffer from a loss of control over their Internet use resulting in personal distress, symptoms of psychological dependence, and diverse negative consequences. This phenomenon is often referred to as Internet addiction. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other applications with cybersex, online relations, shopping, and information search being Internet facets at risk for developing an addictive behavior. Neuropsychological investigations have pointed out that certain prefrontal functions in particular executive control functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction, which is in line with recent theoretical models on the development and maintenance of the addictive use of the Internet. Control processes are particularly reduced when individuals with Internet addiction are confronted with Internet-related cues representing their first choice use. For example, processing Internet-related cues interferes with working memory performance and decision making. Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency. The neuropsychological and neuroimaging results have important clinical impact, as one therapy goal should be to enhance control over the Internet use by modifying specific cognitions and

  9. Prefrontal Control and Internet Addiction: A Theoretical Model and Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S.; Laier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Most people use the Internet as a functional tool to perform their personal goals in everyday-life such as making airline or hotel reservations. However, some individuals suffer from a loss of control over their Internet use resulting in personal distress, symptoms of psychological dependence, and diverse negative consequences. This phenomenon is often referred to as Internet addiction. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other applications with cybersex, online relations, shopping, and information search being Internet facets at risk for developing an addictive behavior. Neuropsychological investigations have pointed out that certain prefrontal functions in particular executive control functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction, which is in line with recent theoretical models on the development and maintenance of the addictive use of the Internet. Control processes are particularly reduced when individuals with Internet addiction are confronted with Internet-related cues representing their first choice use. For example, processing Internet-related cues interferes with working memory performance and decision making. Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency. The neuropsychological and neuroimaging results have important clinical impact, as one therapy goal should enhance control over the Internet use by modifying specific cognitions and Internet use expectancies

  10. Prefrontal control and internet addiction: a theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Most people use the Internet as a functional tool to perform their personal goals in everyday-life such as making airline or hotel reservations. However, some individuals suffer from a loss of control over their Internet use resulting in personal distress, symptoms of psychological dependence, and diverse negative consequences. This phenomenon is often referred to as Internet addiction. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other applications with cybersex, online relations, shopping, and information search being Internet facets at risk for developing an addictive behavior. Neuropsychological investigations have pointed out that certain prefrontal functions in particular executive control functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction, which is in line with recent theoretical models on the development and maintenance of the addictive use of the Internet. Control processes are particularly reduced when individuals with Internet addiction are confronted with Internet-related cues representing their first choice use. For example, processing Internet-related cues interferes with working memory performance and decision making. Consistent with this, results from functional neuroimaging and other neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cue-reactivity, craving, and decision making are important concepts for understanding Internet addiction. The findings on reductions in executive control are consistent with other behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling. They also emphasize the classification of the phenomenon as an addiction, because there are also several similarities with findings in substance dependency. The neuropsychological and neuroimaging results have important clinical impact, as one therapy goal should enhance control over the Internet use by modifying specific cognitions and Internet use expectancies.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Speed Profile Models for Ankle Pointing Movements: Evidence that Lower and Upper Extremity Discrete Movements are controlled by a Single Invariant Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eMichmizos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about whether our knowledge of how the central nervous system controls the upper extremities, can generalize, and to what extent to the lower limbs. Our continuous efforts to design the ideal adaptive robotic therapy for the lower limbs of stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy highlighted the importance of analyzing and modeling the kinematics of the lower limbs, in general, and those of the ankle joints, in particular. We recruited 15 young healthy adults that performed in total 1,386 visually-evoked, visually-guided and target-directed discrete pointing movements with their ankle in dorsal–plantar and inversion–eversion directions. Using a nonlinear, least-squares error-minimization procedure, we estimated the parameters for 19 models which were initially designed to capture the dynamics of upper limb movements of various complexity. We validated our models based on their ability to reconstruct the experimental data. Our results suggest a remarkable similarity between the top performing models that described the speed profiles of ankle pointing movements and the ones previously found for the upper extremities both during arm reaching and wrist pointing movements. Among the top performers were the support-bounded lognormal and the beta models that have a neurophysiological basis and have been successfully used in upper extremity studies with normal subjects and patients. Our findings suggest that the same model can be applied to different human hardware, perhaps revealing a key invariant in human motor control. These findings have a great potential to enhance our rehabilitation efforts in any population with lower extremity deficits by, for example, assessing the level of motor impairment and improvement as well as informing the design of control algorithms for therapeutic ankle robots.

  12. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  14. Hand Motion Detection in fNIRS Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Amir Mohammad; Byrd, Dennis; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2017-04-15

    As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, we have conducted fNIRS neuroimaging of seven healthy subjects while they were performing wrist tasks such as flipping their hand with the periods of rest (no movement). Different models of support vector machine is applied to these fNIRS neuroimaging data and the results show that we could classify the action and rest periods with the accuracy of over 80% for the fNIRS data of individual participants. Our results are promising and suggest that the presented classification method for fNIRS could further be applied to real-time applications such as brain computer interfacing (BCI), and into the future steps of this research to record brain activity from fNIRS and EEG, and fuse them with the body motion sensors to correlate the activities.

  15. [Neuropsychology of Tourette's disorder: cognition, neuroimaging and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espert, R; Gadea, M; Alino, M; Oltra-Cucarella, J

    2017-02-24

    Tourette's disorder is the result of fronto-striatal brain dysfunction affecting people of all ages, with a debut in early childhood and continuing into adolescence and adulthood. This article reviews the main cognitive, functional neuroimaging and creativity-related studies in a disorder characterized by an excess of dopamine in the brain. Given the special cerebral configuration of these patients, neuropsychological alterations, especially in executive functions, should be expected. However, the findings are inconclusive and are conditioned by factors such as comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, age or methodological variables. On the other hand, the neuroimaging studies carried out over the last decade have been able to explain the clinical symptoms of Tourette's disorder patients, with special relevance for the supplementary motor area and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Finally, although there is no linear relationship between excess of dopamine and creativity, the scientific literature emphasizes an association between Tourette's disorder and musical creativity, which could be translated into intervention programs based on music.

  16. Publication trends in neuroimaging of minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Garnett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We used existing and customized bibliometric and scientometric methods to analyze publication trends in neuroimaging research of minimally conscious states and describe the domain in terms of its geographic, contributor, and content features. We considered publication rates for the years 2002–2011, author interconnections, the rate at which new authors are added, and the domains that inform the work of author contributors. We also provided a content analysis of clinical and ethical themes within the relevant literature. We found a 27% growth in the number of papers over the period of study, professional diversity among a wide range of peripheral author contributors but only few authors who dominate the field, and few new technical paradigms and clinical themes that would fundamentally expand the landscape. The results inform both the science of consciousness as well as parallel ethics and policy studies of the potential for translational challenges of neuroimaging in research and health care of people with disordered states of consciousness.

  17. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  18. Multimodal neuroimaging based classification of autism spectrum disorder using anatomical, neurochemical, and white matter correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; DeRamus, Thomas P; Lahti, Adrienne C; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-05-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals. The current study aims to bring together multiple brain imaging modalities (structural MRI, DTI, and 1H-MRS) to investigate the neural architecture in the same set of individuals (19 high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) peers). Morphometry analysis revealed increased cortical thickness in ASD participants, relative to typical controls, across the left cingulate, left pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal cortex, and right precuneus, and reduced cortical thickness in right cuneus and right precentral gyrus. ASD adults also had reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) for two clusters on the forceps minor of the corpus callosum, revealed by DTI analyses. 1H-MRS results showed a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/Creatine ratio in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in ASD participants. A decision tree classification analysis across the three modalities resulted in classification accuracy of 91.9% with FA, RD, and cortical thickness as key predictors. Examining the same cohort of adults with ASD and their TD peers, this study found alterations in cortical thickness, white matter (WM) connectivity, and neurochemical concentration in ASD. These findings underscore the potential for multimodal imaging to better inform on the neural characteristics most relevant to the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  20. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  1. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  2. The search for the number form area: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Darren J; Wilkey, Eric D; Price, Gavin R

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies report a putative "number form area" (NFA) in the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) suggested to be specialized for Arabic numeral processing. However, a number of earlier studies report no such NFA. The reasons for such discrepancies across studies are unclear. To examine evidence for a convergent NFA across studies, we conducted two activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on 31 and a subset of 20 neuroimaging studies that have contrasted digits with other meaningful symbols. Results suggest the potential existence of an NFA in the right ITG, in addition to a 'symbolic number processing network' comprising bilateral parietal regions, and right-lateralized superior and inferior frontal regions. Critically, convergent localization for the NFA was only evident when contrasts were appropriately controlled for task demands, and does not appear to depend on employing methods designed to overcome fMRI signal dropout in the ITG. Importantly, only five studies had foci within the identified ITG NFA cluster boundary, indicating that more empirical evidence is necessary to determine the true functional specialization and regional specificity of the putative NFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Jane Austen's lifelong health problems and final illness: New evidence points to a fatal Hodgkin's disease and excludes the widely accepted Addison's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upfal, A

    2005-06-01

    Jane Austen is typically described as having excellent health until the age of 40 and the onset of a mysterious and fatal illness, initially identified by Sir Zachary Cope in 1964 as Addison's disease. Her biographers, deceived both by Cassandra Austen's destruction of letters containing medical detail, and the cheerful high spirits of the existing letters, have seriously underestimated the extent to which illness affected Austen's life. A medical history reveals that she was particularly susceptible to infection, and suffered unusually severe infective illnesses, as well as a chronic conjunctivitis that impeded her ability to write. There is evidence that Austen was already suffering from an immune deficiency and fatal lymphoma in January 1813, when her second and most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice, was published. Four more novels would follow, written or revised in the shadow of her increasing illness and debility. Whilst it is impossible now to conclusively establish the cause of her death, the existing medical evidence tends to exclude Addison's disease, and suggests there is a high possibility that Jane Austen's fatal illness was Hodgkin's disease, a form of lymphoma.

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  5. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  6. Clinical presentation and spectrum of neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltirovska Salamon, Aneta; Lichtenbelt, Klaske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481816X; Cowan, Frances M; Casaer, Alexandra; Dudink, Jeroen; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Paro-Panjan, Darja; Groenendaal, Floris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073282596; de Vries, Linda S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report on the neurological presentation and neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti. METHOD: The clinical and neurological course including neuroimaging and follow-up data of eight newborn infants with the neurological phenotype of incontinentia pigmenti were

  7. Influence of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Displays and Graphic Health Warning Signs on Adults: Evidence From a Virtual Store Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Loomis, Brett R.; Shafer, Paul R.; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). Methods. We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. Results. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers’ (B = −7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −13.20, −0.91; P < .05) and recent quitters’ (Β = −6.00, 95% CI = −11.00, −1.00; P < .01) urge to smoke and current smokers’ purchase attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.11; P < .01). The warning sign had no significant main effect on study outcomes or interaction with enclosed display. Conclusions. These data show that POS tobacco displays influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases. PMID:24625149

  8. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and graphic health warning signs on adults: evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Loomis, Brett R; Shafer, Paul R; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers' (B = -7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -13.20, -0.91; P < .05) and recent quitters' (Β = -6.00, 95% CI = -11.00, -1.00; P < .01) urge to smoke and current smokers' purchase attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.11; P < .01). The warning sign had no significant main effect on study outcomes or interaction with enclosed display. These data show that POS tobacco displays influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases.

  9. Right brain, left brain in depressive disorders: Clinical and theoretical implications of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J

    2017-07-01

    The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information. Dichotic listening and visual hemifield findings for non-verbal or emotional processing have revealed abnormal perceptual asymmetry in depressive disorders, and electrophysiological findings have shown reduced right-lateralized responsivity to emotional stimuli in occipitotemporal or parietotemporal cortex. We discuss models of neural networks underlying these alterations. Of clinical relevance, individual differences among depressed patients on measures of right-left brain function are related to diagnostic subtype of depression, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and clinical response to antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of mitochondrial mutation spectra in ageing human colonic epithelium and disease: absence of evidence for purifying selection in somatic mitochondrial DNA point mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Greaves

    Full Text Available Human ageing has been predicted to be caused by the accumulation of molecular damage in cells and tissues. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations have been documented in a number of ageing tissues and have been shown to be associated with cellular mitochondrial dysfunction. It is unknown whether there are selective constraints, which have been shown to occur in the germline, on the occurrence and expansion of these mtDNA mutations within individual somatic cells. Here we compared the pattern and spectrum of mutations observed in ageing human colon to those observed in the general population (germline variants and those associated with primary mtDNA disease. The pathogenicity of the protein encoding mutations was predicted using a computational programme, MutPred, and the scores obtained for the three groups compared. We show that the mutations associated with ageing are randomly distributed throughout the genome, are more frequently non-synonymous or frameshift mutations than the general population, and are significantly more pathogenic than population variants. Mutations associated with primary mtDNA disease were significantly more pathogenic than ageing or population mutations. These data provide little evidence for any selective constraints on the occurrence and expansion of mtDNA mutations in somatic cells of the human colon during human ageing in contrast to germline mutations seen in the general population.

  11. Comparison of mitochondrial mutation spectra in ageing human colonic epithelium and disease: absence of evidence for purifying selection in somatic mitochondrial DNA point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Laura C; Elson, Joanna L; Nooteboom, Marco; Grady, John P; Taylor, Geoffrey A; Taylor, Robert W; Mathers, John C; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Turnbull, Doug M

    2012-01-01

    Human ageing has been predicted to be caused by the accumulation of molecular damage in cells and tissues. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been documented in a number of ageing tissues and have been shown to be associated with cellular mitochondrial dysfunction. It is unknown whether there are selective constraints, which have been shown to occur in the germline, on the occurrence and expansion of these mtDNA mutations within individual somatic cells. Here we compared the pattern and spectrum of mutations observed in ageing human colon to those observed in the general population (germline variants) and those associated with primary mtDNA disease. The pathogenicity of the protein encoding mutations was predicted using a computational programme, MutPred, and the scores obtained for the three groups compared. We show that the mutations associated with ageing are randomly distributed throughout the genome, are more frequently non-synonymous or frameshift mutations than the general population, and are significantly more pathogenic than population variants. Mutations associated with primary mtDNA disease were significantly more pathogenic than ageing or population mutations. These data provide little evidence for any selective constraints on the occurrence and expansion of mtDNA mutations in somatic cells of the human colon during human ageing in contrast to germline mutations seen in the general population.

  12. Glaciotectonic deformation associated with the Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine, westernmost Block Island Sound: further evidence of readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Oldale, Robert N.; Foster, David S.; Smith, Shepard M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles collected across pro-glacial outwash deposits adjacent to the circa 18 ka b.p. Orient Point–Fishers Island end moraine segment in westernmost Block Island Sound reveal extensive deformation. A rhythmic seismic facies indicates the host outwash deposits are composed of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments. The deformation is variably brittle and ductile, but predominantly compressive in nature. Brittle deformation includes reverse faults and thrust faults that strike parallel to the moraine, and thrust sheets that extend from beneath the moraine. Ductile deformation includes folded sediments that overlie undisturbed deposits, showing that they are not drape features. Other seismic evidence for compression along the ice front consists of undisturbed glaciolacustrine strata that dip back toward and underneath the moraine, and angular unconformities on the sea floor where deformed sediments extend above the surrounding undisturbed correlative strata. Together, these ice-marginal glaciotectonic features indicate that the Orient Point–Fishers Island moraine marks a significant readvance of the Laurentide ice sheet, consistent with existing knowledge for neighboring coeval moraines, and not simply a stillstand as previously reported.

  13. Multimodal neuroimaging computing: a review of the applications in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Fan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron

    2015-09-01

    Multimodal neuroimaging is increasingly used in neuroscience research, as it overcomes the limitations of individual modalities. One of the most important applications of multimodal neuroimaging is the provision of vital diagnostic data for neuropsychiatric disorders. Multimodal neuroimaging computing enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations in brain structure and function, and has reshaped how neuroscience research is carried out. Research in this area is growing exponentially, and so it is an appropriate time to review the current and future development of this emerging area. Hence, in this paper, we review the recent advances in multimodal neuroimaging (MRI, PET) and electrophysiological (EEG, MEG) technologies, and their applications to the neuropsychiatric disorders. We also outline some future directions for multimodal neuroimaging where researchers will design more advanced methods and models for neuropsychiatric research.

  14. More education, less administration: reflections of neuroimagers' attitudes to ethics through the qualitative looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, A A; Tairyan, K; Federico, C; Glover, G H; Illes, J

    2012-12-01

    In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and virtue were key motivators for incorporating ethics into neuroimaging research. Managing incidental findings emerged as a predominant daily challenge for faculty, while student reports focused on the malleability of neuroimaging data and scientific integrity. The most frequently cited barrier was time and administrative burden associated with the ethics review process. Lack of scholarly training in ethics also emerged as a major barrier. Participants constructively offered remedies to these challenges: development and dissemination of best practices and standardized ethics review for minimally invasive neuroimaging protocols. Students in particular, urged changes to curricula to include early, focused training in ethics.

  15. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, p<0.01). Compared with current smokers in the status quo conditions, smokers in the display ban conditions were less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes in the virtual store (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.03-0.08, P<0.01). Smokers exposed to plain packs and ads were significantly less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.47, P<0.01) than those exposed to color packs and ads. Policies that ban the display of tobacco products or require plain packaging and advertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  17. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  18. Human Neuroimaging of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on human social behaviors. Here we review the findings to-date from investigations of the acute and chronic effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity underlying social cognitive processes using “pharmacological fMRI” and “imaging genetics”, respectively. PMID:22326707

  19. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2012-01-01

    visualization. Specifically we focus on the generation of summary maps of a nonlinear classifier, that reveal how the classifier works in different parts of the input domain. Each of the maps includes sign information, unlike earlier related methods. The sign information allows the researcher to assess in which......Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...

  20. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  1. Neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, G; Friberg, L; Jänig, W

    2004-01-01

    be recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. 5 In adult and paediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other focal neurological signs or symptoms, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with atypical headache patterns......, a history of seizures and/or focal neurological signs or symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated. 6 If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification [International Headache Society (IHS)], a positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission...... computerized tomography (SPECT) and scan will generally be of no further diagnostic value. 7 Nuclear medicine examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in subgroups of headache patients for diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe...

  2. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  3. Neuroimaging in stroke and non-stroke pusher patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Elaine Grespan Santos-Pontelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pusher behavior (PB is a disorder of postural control affecting patients with encephalic lesions. This study has aimed to identify the brain substrates that are critical for the occurrence of PB, to analyze the influence of the midline shift (MS and hemorrhagic stroke volume (HSV on the severity and prognosis of the PB. We identified 31 pusher patients of a neurological unit, mean age 67.4±11.89, 61.3% male. Additional neurological and functional examinations were assessed. Neuroimaging workup included measurement of the MS, the HSV in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the analysis of the vascular territory, etiology and side of the lesion. Lesions in the parietal region (p=0.041 and thalamus (p=0.001 were significantly more frequent in PB patients. Neither the MS nor the HSV were correlated with the PB severity or recovery time.

  4. Genetics and neuroimaging of attention and hypnotizability may elucidate placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and hypnosis. Because attention can modulate both cognitive and affective processes, genetic assays together with neuroimaging data have begun to elucidate individual differences. Findings from genetic assays of both attention and hypnotizability pave the way to answering questions such as how high hypnotizable individuals may differ from less-hypnotizable persons. These exploratory findings may extend to the identification of placebo responders.

  5. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preclinical PET Neuroimaging of [11C]Bexarotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Rotstein PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of retinoid X receptors (RXRs has been proposed as a therapeutic mechanism for the treatment of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We previously reported radiolabeling of a Food and Drug Administration-approved RXR agonist, bexarotene, by copper-mediated [11C]CO2 fixation and preliminary positron emission tomography (PET neuroimaging that demonstrated brain permeability in nonhuman primate with regional binding distribution consistent with RXRs. In this study, the brain uptake and saturability of [11C]bexarotene were studied in rats and nonhuman primates by PET imaging under baseline and greater target occupancy conditions. [11C]Bexarotene displays a high proportion of nonsaturable uptake in the brain and is unsuitable for RXR occupancy measurements in the central nervous system.

  7. A review of longitudinal electroconvulsive therapy: neuroimaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Christopher C; Gallegos, Patrick; Rediske, Nathan; Lemke, Nicholas T; Quinn, Davin K

    2014-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for a depressive episode but the mechanism of action and neural correlates of response are poorly understood. Different theories have suggested that anticonvulsant properties or neurotrophic effects are related to the unique mechanism of action of ECT. This review assessed longitudinal imaging investigations (both structural and functional) associated with ECT response published from 2002 to August 2013. We identified 26 investigations that used a variety of different imaging modalities and data analysis methods. Despite these methodological differences, we summarized the major findings of each investigation and identified common patterns that exist across multiple investigations. The ECT response is associated with decreased frontal perfusion, metabolism, and functional connectivity and increased volume and neuronal chemical metabolites. The general collective of longitudinal neuroimaging investigations support both the anticonvulsant and the neurotrophic effects of ECT. We propose a conceptual framework that integrates these seemingly contradictory hypotheses.

  8. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K; Steffener, J; Turner, J A; Van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G A; Nichols, B N

    2013-11-15

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) and the International Neuroimaging Coordinating Facility (INCF) focused on practical tools for distributed access to neuroimaging data. The working group develops models and tools facilitating the structured interchange of neuroimaging meta-data and is making progress towards a unified set of tools for such data and meta-data exchange. We report on the key components required for integrated access to raw and derived neuroimaging data as well as associated meta-data and provenance across neuroimaging resources. The components include (1) a structured terminology that provides semantic context to data, (2) a formal data model for neuroimaging with robust tracking of data provenance, (3) a web service-based application programming interface (API) that provides a consistent mechanism to access and query the data model, and (4) a provenance library that can be used for the extraction of provenance data by image analysts and imaging software developers. We believe that the framework and set of tools outlined in this manuscript have great potential for solving many of the issues the neuroimaging community faces when sharing raw and derived neuroimaging data across the various existing database systems for the purpose of accelerating scientific discovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Integration of network topological and connectivity properties for neuroimaging classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Gao, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided an efficient and noninvasive way for exploring the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain. Quantitative measurement of abnormality of brain connectivity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), have also been widely reported, especially at a group level. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to the study of AD and MCI, i.e., to identify the individuals with AD/MCI from the healthy controls (HCs). However, most existing methods focus on using only a single property of a connectivity network, although multiple network properties, such as local connectivity and global topological properties, can potentially be used. In this paper, by employing multikernel based approach, we propose a novel connectivity based framework to integrate multiple properties of connectivity network for improving the classification performance. Specifically, two different types of kernels (i.e., vector-based kernel and graph kernel) are used to quantify two different yet complementary properties of the network, i.e., local connectivity and global topological properties. Then, multikernel learning (MKL) technique is adopted to fuse these heterogeneous kernels for neuroimaging classification. We test the performance of our proposed method on two different data sets. First, we test it on the functional connectivity networks of 12 MCI and 25 HC subjects. The results show that our method achieves significant performance improvement over those using only one type of network property. Specifically, our method achieves a classification accuracy of 91.9%, which is 10.8% better than those by single network-property-based methods. Then, we test our method for gender classification on a large set of functional connectivity networks with 133 infants scanned at birth, 1 year, and 2 years, also demonstrating very promising results.

  10. Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has been used in humans to noninvasively investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of sleep stages. On the one hand, REM sleep has been associated with the activation of the pons, thalamus, limbic areas, and temporo-occipital cortices, and the deactivation of prefrontal areas, in line with theories of REM sleep generation and dreaming properties. On the other hand, during non-REM (NREM) sleep, decreases in brain activity have been consistently found in the brainstem, thalamus, and in several cortical areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in agreement with a homeostatic need for brain energy recovery. Benefiting from a better temporal resolution, more recent studies have characterized the brain activations related to phasic events within specific sleep stages. In particular, they have demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves. These data highlight that, even during NREM sleep, brain activity is increased, yet regionally specific and transient. Besides refining the understanding of sleep mechanisms, functional brain imaging has also advanced the description of the functional properties of sleep. For instance, it has been shown that the sleeping brain is still able to process external information and even detect the pertinence of its content. The relationship between sleep and memory has also been refined using neuroimaging, demonstrating post-learning reactivation during sleep, as well as the reorganization of memory representation on the systems level, sometimes with long-lasting effects on subsequent memory performance. Further imaging studies should focus on clarifying the role of specific sleep patterns for the processing of external stimuli, as well as the consolidation of freshly encoded information during sleep. Citation: Dang

  11. Neuroimaging Findings in Pediatric Genetic Skeletal Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Poretti, Andrea; Benson, Jane E; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) are a heterogeneous group characterized by an intrinsic abnormality in growth and (re-)modeling of cartilage and bone. A large subgroup of GSDs has additional involvement of other structures/organs beside the skeleton, such as the central nervous system (CNS). CNS abnormalities have an important role in long-term prognosis of children with GSDs and should consequently not be missed. Sensitive and specific identification of CNS lesions while evaluating a child with a GSD requires a detailed knowledge of the possible associated CNS abnormalities. Here, we provide a pattern-recognition approach for neuroimaging findings in GSDs guided by the obvious skeletal manifestations of GSD. In particular, we summarize which CNS findings should be ruled out with each GSD. The diseases (n = 180) are classified based on the skeletal involvement (1. abnormal metaphysis or epiphysis, 2. abnormal size/number of bones, 3. abnormal shape of bones and joints, and 4. abnormal dynamic or structural changes). For each disease, skeletal involvement was defined in accordance with Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Morphological CNS involvement has been described based on extensive literature search. Selected examples will be shown based on prevalence of the diseases and significance of the CNS involvement. CNS involvement is common in GSDs. A wide spectrum of morphological abnormalities is associated with GSDs. Early diagnosis of CNS involvement is important in the management of children with GSDs. This pattern-recognition approach aims to assist and guide physicians in the diagnostic work-up of CNS involvement in children with GSDs and their management. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  12. In Vivo Neuroimaging of Exosomes Using Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzer, Oshra; Perets, Nisim; Angel, Ariel; Motiei, Menachem; Sadan, Tamar; Yadid, Gal; Offen, Daniel; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2017-11-28

    Exosomes are emerging as effective therapeutic tools for various pathologies. These extracellular vesicles can bypass biological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and can serve as powerful drug and gene therapy transporters. However, the progress of therapy development is impeded by several challenges, including insufficient data on exosome trafficking and biodistribution and the difficulty to image deep brain structures in vivo. Herein, we established a method for noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging and tracking of exosomes, based on glucose-coated gold nanoparticle (GNP) labeling and computed tomography imaging. Labeling of exosomes with the GNPs was achieved directly, as opposed to the typical and less efficient indirect labeling mode through parent cells. On the mechanistic level, we found that the glucose-coated GNPs were uptaken into MSC-derived exosomes via an active, energy-dependent mechanism that is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and involves endocytic proteins. Next, we determined optimal parameters of size and administration route; we demonstrated that 5 nm GNPs enabled improved exosome labeling and that intranasal, compared to intravenous, administration led to superior brain accumulation and thus enhanced in vivo neuroimaging. Furthermore, using a mouse model of focal brain ischemia, we noninvasively tracked intranasally administered GNP-labeled exosomes, which showed increased accumulation at the lesion site over 24 h, as compared to nonspecific migration and clearance from control brains over the same period. Thus, this exosome labeling technique can serve as a powerful diagnostic tool for various brain disorders and could potentially enhance exosome-based treatments for neuronal recovery.

  13. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  14. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD’s marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug’s other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of “ego-dissolution” and “altered meaning,” implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of “self” or “ego” and its processing of “meaning.” Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  15. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Turner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and reuse is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus. This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are “part of” which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a sub-part of the middle frontal gyrus to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?. In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuranatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website at http://rest.bioontology.org/bioportal/ontologies/download/10005. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  16. Application of neuroanatomical ontologies for neuroimaging data annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Mejino, Jose L V; Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T; Lee, Hyo Jong; Martone, Maryann E; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    The annotation of functional neuroimaging results for data sharing and re-use is particularly challenging, due to the diversity of terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. To address this challenge, we extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) to include cytoarchitectural, Brodmann area labels, and a morphological cortical labeling scheme (e.g., the part of Brodmann area 6 in the left precentral gyrus). This representation was also used to augment the neuroanatomical axis of RadLex, the ontology for clinical imaging. The resulting neuroanatomical ontology contains explicit relationships indicating which brain regions are "part of" which other regions, across cytoarchitectural and morphological labeling schemas. We annotated a large functional neuroimaging dataset with terms from the ontology and applied a reasoning engine to analyze this dataset in conjunction with the ontology, and achieved successful inferences from the most specific level (e.g., how many subjects showed activation in a subpart of the middle frontal gyrus) to more general (how many activations were found in areas connected via a known white matter tract?). In summary, we have produced a neuroanatomical ontology that harmonizes several different terminologies of neuroanatomical structures and cortical parcellation schemes. This neuroanatomical ontology is publicly available as a view of FMA at the Bioportal website. The ontological encoding of anatomic knowledge can be exploited by computer reasoning engines to make inferences about neuroanatomical relationships described in imaging datasets using different terminologies. This approach could ultimately enable knowledge discovery from large, distributed fMRI studies or medical record mining.

  17. What can functional neuroimaging tell the experimental psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard

    2005-02-01

    I argue here that functional neuroimaging data--which I restrict to the haemodynamic techniques of fMRI and PET--can inform psychological theorizing, provided one assumes a "systematic" function-structure mapping in the brain. In this case, imaging data simply comprise another dependent variable, along with behavioural data, that can be used to test competing theories. In particular, I distinguish two types of inference: function-to-structure deduction and structure-to-function induction. With the former inference, a qualitatively different pattern of activity over the brain under two experimental conditions implies at least one different function associated with changes in the independent variable. With the second type of inference, activity of the same brain region(s) under two conditions implies a common function, possibly not predicted a priori. I illustrate these inferences with imaging studies of recognition memory, short-term memory, and repetition priming. I then consider in greater detail what is meant by a "systematic" function-structure mapping and argue that, particularly for structure-to-function induction, this entails a one-to-one mapping between functional and structural units, although the structural unit may be a network of interacting regions and care must be taken over the appropriate level of functional/structural abstraction. Nonetheless, the assumption of a systematic function-structure mapping is a "working hypothesis" that, in common with other scientific fields, cannot be proved on independent grounds and is probably best evaluated by the success of the enterprise as a whole. I also consider statistical issues such as the definition of a qualitative difference and methodological issues such as the relationship between imaging and behavioural data. I finish by reviewing various objections to neuroimaging, including neophrenology, functionalism, and equipotentiality, and by observing some criticisms of current practice in the imaging

  18. Myofascial trigger points in neck and shoulder muscles and widespread pressure pain hypersensitivtiy in patients with postmastectomy pain: evidence of peripheral and central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Del-Moral-Ávila, Rosario; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the presence of widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia and myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in neck and shoulder muscles in patients with postmastectomy pain. Twenty-nine women (mean age: 50±8 y) with postmastectomy pain and 23 matched healthy controls (mean age: 50±9 y) participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were bilaterally assessed over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal, and the tibialis anterior muscle. TrPs in the upper trapezius, suboccipital, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, scalene, infraspinatus, and pectoralis major muscles were explored. TrPs were considered active if the local and referred pain reproduced symptoms and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. Twenty-five (86%) patients reported neck pain whereas 20 (69%) patients showed shoulder/axillary pain. The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle in patients with postmastectomy pain as compared with controls (all sites, Pactive TrPs for each woman with postmastectomy pain was 5.4±1.8. Healthy controls only had latent TrPs (0.5±0.6). Patients with postmastectomy pain showed a greater number of TrPs than controls (Pactive TrPs in patients with postmastectomy pain as compared with controls (PActive TrPs in the pectoralis major (n=27, 93%), infraspinatus (n=23, 79%), and upper trapezius (n=19, 65%) muscles were the most prevalent in the affected side in the postmastectomy group. The number of active TrPs was positively correlated with neck (rs=0.392, P=0.036) and shoulder/axillary (rs=0.437, P=0.018) pain intensity. Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity in patients with postmastectomy pain. In addition, the local and referred pain elicited by active TrPs reproduced neck and shoulder/axillary complaints in these patients. These results suggest peripheral and

  19. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, Danielle A; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-12-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies), white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional connectivity. In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning. The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  20. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. Methods: A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies, white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging and functional connectivity. Results: In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning.Conclusions: The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  1. From the genome to the phenome and back: linking genes with human brain function and structure using genetically informed neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, H R; Callicott, J H; Sommer, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain......, the integration of genetic and neuroimaging data also poses major methodological and conceptual challenges. Therefore, this special issue also focuses on how these challenges can be met to fully exploit the synergism of genetically informed brain imaging.......In recent years, an array of brain mapping techniques has been successfully employed to link individual differences in circuit function or structure in the living human brain with individual variations in the human genome. Several proof-of-principle studies provided converging evidence that brain...

  2. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Koh, Natalie; Day, Trevor K M; Hernández-Fernández, Moises; Kelley, Austin; Peterson, Daniel J; Rajan, Sabreena; Woelfer, Karl A; Wolf, Jonathan; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  3. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  4. The role of neuroimaging in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches--multicenter study.

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    Rho, Young-Il; Chung, Hee-Jung; Suh, Eun-Sook; Lee, Kon-Hee; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang-Ook; Kim, Won-Seop; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neuroimaging and to estimate the prevalence of significant and treatable intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches. Neuroimaging studies are commonly performed in children and adolescent patients with headache because of increasing demands by parents and physicians, although objective data and studies to support this widespread practice are minimal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1562 (male 724, female 838) new patients presenting with recurrent headaches to 9 Pediatric Neurology Clinics of tertiary Hospitals. Data regarding age of onset, duration of symptoms before presentation, frequency, duration of each episode, intensity, location and quality of headache, associated neurologic symptoms and a comprehensive neurological examination were obtained for each patient. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, was used to classify headache types. Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 77.1% of the patients. Overall, 9.3% (112/1204) of the patients had abnormal findings from neuroimaging. The highest yield was in patients with an abnormal neurological examination wherein abnormal findings on neuroimaging were seen in 50.0% (9/18) of patients (P parent and physicians (10.1% [21/208]). Eleven patients underwent surgery based on neuroimaging results. There was no significant relation between abnormality on neuroimaging and age, sex, headache type, age of onset of headache, duration of symptoms before presentation, duration, frequency, location and intensity of headache (P > .05). Neuroimaging procedures in children and adolescents with headaches, although not always required, are very commonly performed. We suggest that more strict guidelines for rational use of neuroimaging are needed for pediatric headache patients. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  5. EXECUTIVE AND SEMANTIC PROCESSES IN REAPPRAISAL OF NEGATIVE STIMULI: INSIGHTS FROM A META-ANALISYS OF NEUROIMAGING STUDIES

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    Irene eMessina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled process, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT. We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas are activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found on parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant cluster in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought..

  6. Meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence and neuroimaging of addiction vulnerability and resilience.

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    Ersche, Karen D; Williams, Guy B; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2013-08-01

    Since the first study in stimulant-dependent individuals using structural MRI was published fifteen years ago, much evidence has accumulated on brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence. Here we conducted a voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of published MRI data in stimulant-dependent individuals to clarify the most robust abnormalities underlying the disorder. We found that neuroimaging studies in stimulant-dependent individuals consistently report a gray matter decline in the prefrontal cortex regions associated with self-regulation and self-awareness. One of the next key questions that neuroimaging research today needs to address is the question of causality, namely to what extent these brain abnormalities are caused by the toxic effects of drug exposure, or the possibility that these may have predated drug-taking and even predisposed individuals for the development of drug dependence. Although the question of causality has not yet been answered completely, there has been significant progress made to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

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    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Prosody refers to the melodic and rhythmic aspects of speech. Two forms of prosody are typically distinguished: 'affective prosody' refers to the expression of emotion in speech, whereas 'linguistic prosody' relates to the intonation of sentences, including the specification of focus within sentences and stress within polysyllabic words. While these two processes are united by their use of vocal pitch modulation, they are functionally distinct. In order to examine the localization and lateralization of speech prosody in the brain, we performed two voxel-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the perception of affective and linguistic prosody. There was substantial sharing of brain activations between analyses, particularly in right-hemisphere auditory areas. However, a major point of divergence was observed in the inferior frontal gyrus: affective prosody was more likely to activate Brodmann area 47, while linguistic prosody was more likely to activate the ventral part of area 44. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

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    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    optimization framework to the new dataset, out-performing the parameters optimized for the initial training dataset. Our study outlines the proof-of-principle that neuroimaging models for brain-age prediction can use Bayesian optimization to derive case-specific pre-processing parameters. Our results suggest that different pre-processing parameters are selected when optimization is conducted in specific contexts. This potentially motivates use of optimization techniques at many different points during the experimental process, which may improve statistical sensitivity and reduce opportunities for experimenter-led bias.

  9. Applications of Neuroimaging to Disease-Modification Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Adam S. Fleisher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical to development of new therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the ability to detect clinical or pathological change over time. Clinical outcome measures typically used in therapeutic trials have unfortunately proven to be relatively variable and somewhat insensitive to change in this slowly progressive disease. For this reason, development of surrogate biomarkers that identify significant disease-associated brain changes are necessary to expedite treatment development in AD. Since AD pathology is present in the brain many years prior to clinical manifestation, ideally we want to develop biomarkers of disease that identify abnormal brain structure or function even prior to cognitive decline. Magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, new amyloid imaging techniques, and spinal fluid markers of AD all have great potential to provide surrogate endpoint measures for AD pathology. The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI was developed for the distinct purpose of evaluating surrogate biomarkers for drug development in AD. Recent evidence from ADNI demonstrates that imaging may provide more sensitive, and earlier, measures of disease progression than traditional clinical measures for powering clinical drug trials in Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses recently presented data from the ADNI dataset, and the importance of imaging in the future of drug development in AD.

  10. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  11. Emotion and Cognition Interactions in PTSD: A Review of Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Studies

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    Jasmeet P Hayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric syndrome that develops after exposure to terrifying and life-threatening events including warfare, motor-vehicle accidents, and physical and sexual assault. The emotional experience of psychological trauma can have long-term cognitive effects. The hallmark symptoms of PTSD involve alterations to cognitive processes such as memory, attention, planning and problem solving, underscoring the detrimental impact that negative emotionality has on cognitive functioning. As such, an important challenge for PTSD researchers and treatment providers is to understand the dynamic interplay between emotion and cognition. Contemporary cognitive models of PTSD theorize that a preponderance of information processing resources are allocated towards threat detection and interpretation of innocuous stimuli as threatening, narrowing one’s attentional focus at the expense of other cognitive operations. Decades of research have shown support for these cognitive models of PTSD using a variety of tasks and methodological approaches. The primary goal of this review is to summarize the latest neurocognitive and neuroimaging research of emotion-cognition interactions in PTSD. To directly assess the influence of emotion on cognition and vice versa, the studies reviewed employed challenge tasks that included both cognitive and emotional components. The findings provide evidence for memory and attention deficits in PTSD that are often associated with changes in functional brain activity. The results are reviewed to provide future directions for research that may direct better and more effective treatments for PTSD.

  12. Is correction for age necessary in neuroimaging studies of the central serotonin transporter?

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    Hesse, Swen; Mueller, Dominic; Seese, Anita; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); Barthel, Henryk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20a, 04103, Leipzig (Germany); MRC Cyclotron Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Murai, Toshiya [Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Mueller, Ulrich [Psychiatry, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The central neurotransmitter serotonin plays a major role in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results from post-mortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the influence of age on the number of presynaptic serotonin transporters (SERT) are controversial. To provide further evidence of relevance for this ongoing discussion, SERT were imaged in 22 persons without neuropsychiatric impairment using [{sup 123}I]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]β-CIT) and high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The SPET analysis method was based on magnetic resonance image co-registration in order to quantify SERT with acceptable inter- and intra-observer variability. Using this technique, we found a significant age-related decline in the thalamic/hypothalamic and midbrain/upper brainstem SERT density, which was more pronounced than that previously reported in the literature. From these results we conclude that age-related changes in SERT density need to be considered in future clinical studies. (orig.)

  13. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-12-01

    In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of neuroimaging to social inequity and language disparity: A cautionary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES, researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children’s neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children’s developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children’s language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences. This issue is complicated by the fact that SES is confounded with such linguistic factors as cultural language use, first language, and bilingualism. Thus, SES-associated differences in brain regions that support language may not necessarily indicate differences in neurocognitive abilities. In this review we consider the multidimensionality of SES, discuss studies that have found SES-related differences in structure and function in brain regions that support language, and suggest future directions for studies in the area of cognitive neuroscience of SES that are less reliant on reverse inference.

  15. Effects of cannabis on impulsivity: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, Andre; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted.

  16. The Neuropsychiatry of Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders: Insights from Neuroimaging into the Neural Circuit Bases of Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh D. Hayhow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Movement disorders, particularly those associated with basal ganglia disease, have a high rate of comorbid neuropsychiatric illness.Methods: We consider the pathophysiological basis of the comorbidity between movement disorders and neuropsychiatric illness by 1 reviewing the epidemiology of neuropsychiatric illness in a range of hyperkinetic movement disorders, and 2 correlating findings to evidence from studies that have utilized modern neuroimaging techniques to investigate these disorders. In addition to diseases classically associated with basal ganglia pathology, such as Huntington disease, Wilson disease, the neuroacanthocytoses, and diseases of brain iron accumulation, we include diseases associated with pathology of subcortical white matter tracts, brain stem nuclei, and the cerebellum, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, and the spinocerebellar ataxias.Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are integral to a thorough phenomenological account of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Drawing on modern theories of cortico-subcortical circuits, we argue that these disorders can be conceptualized as disorders of complex subcortical networks with distinct functional architectures. Damage to any component of these complex information-processing networks can have variable and often profound consequences for the function of more remote neural structures, creating a diverse but nonetheless rational pattern of clinical symptomatology.

  17. Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Correlates of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia

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    Elisabeth M. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. Although aggressive acts can have numerous causes, research about the underlying neurobiology of violence and aggression in schizophrenia can lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior and can assist in developing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and discuss some of the neurobiological correlates of aggression and violence. The focus will be on schizophrenia, and the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies that have directly investigated brain functioning and/or structure in aggressive and violent samples will be discussed as well as other domains that might predispose to aggression and violence such as deficits in responding to the emotional expressions of others, impulsivity, and psychopathological symptoms. Finally gender differences regarding aggression and violence are discussed. In this context several methodological and conceptional issues that limited the comparison of these studies will be addressed.

  18. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

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    Honce, Justin Morris

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of gray matter atrophy. Gray matter demyelination (both focal and diffuse) and gray matter atrophy are found in the very earliest stages of multiple sclerosis and are progressive over time. Accumulation of gray matter damage has substantial impact on the lives of multiple sclerosis patients; a growing body of the literature demonstrates correlations between gray matter pathology and various measures of both clinical disability and cognitive impairment. The effect of disease modifying therapies on the rate accumulation of gray matter pathology in MS has been investigated. This review focuses on the neuroimaging of gray matter pathology in MS, the effect of the accumulation of gray matter pathology on clinical and cognitive disability, and the effect of disease-modifying agents on various measures of gray matter damage. PMID:23878736

  19. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

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    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  20. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Barnes, Josephine; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Brewer, James; Clegg, Shona; Dale, Anders M; Carmichael, Owen; Ching, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Desikan, Rahul S; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fjell, Anders M; Fletcher, Evan; Fox, Nick C; Gunter, Jeff; Gutman, Boris A; Holland, Dominic; Hua, Xue; Insel, Philip; Kantarci, Kejal; Killiany, Ron J; Krueger, Gunnar; Leung, Kelvin K; Mackin, Scott; Maillard, Pauline; Malone, Ian B; Mattsson, Niklas; McEvoy, Linda; Modat, Marc; Mueller, Susanne; Nosheny, Rachel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schuff, Norbert; Senjem, Matthew L; Simonson, Alix; Thompson, Paul M; Rettmann, Dan; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Walhovd, Kristine; Zhao, Yansong; Zuk, Samantha; Weiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is now in its 10th year. The primary objective of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) core of ADNI has been to improve methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. We review the contributions of the MRI core from present and past cycles of ADNI (ADNI-1, -Grand Opportunity and -2). We also review plans for the future-ADNI-3. Contributions of the MRI core include creating standardized acquisition protocols and quality control methods; examining the effect of technical features of image acquisition and analysis on outcome metrics; deriving sample size estimates for future trials based on those outcomes; and piloting the potential utility of MR perfusion, diffusion, and functional connectivity measures in multicenter clinical trials. Over the past decade the MRI core of ADNI has fulfilled its mandate of improving methods for clinical trials in AD and will continue to do so in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroimaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Werner, Heron; Keshavarz, Elham; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses. Postnatal (acquired) ZIKV infection usually has an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course, while prenatal (congenital) ZIKV infection has a more severe course and may cause severe brain anomalies that are described as congenital Zika syndrome. In this pictorial essay, we aim to illustrate the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging findings that may be seen in fetuses and neonates with congenital Zika syndrome, and will discuss possible radiological differential diagnoses. A detailed knowledge of these findings is paramount for an early correct diagnosis, prognosis determination, and counseling of the affected children and families.

  3. Cognitive and neuroimaging predictors of instrumental activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Julian, Laura; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Reed, Bruce R.; Mungas, Dan; Wetzel, Margaret; Chui, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Impaired ability to conduct daily activities is a diagnostic criterion for dementia and a determinant of healthcare services utilization and caregiver burden. What predicts decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is not well understood. This study examined measures of episodic memory, executive function, and MRI brain volumes in relation to baseline IADLs and as predictors of rate of IADL change. Participants were 124 elderly persons with cognitive function between normal and moderate dementia both with and without significant small vessel cerebrovascular disease. Random effects modeling showed that baseline memory and executive function (EXEC) were associated with baseline IADL scores, but only EXEC was independently associated with rate of change in IADLs. Whereas hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes were significantly associated with baseline IADL scores, only hippocampal volume was associated with IADL change. In a model including cognitive and neuroimaging predictors, only EXEC independently predicted rate of decline in IADL scores. These findings indicate that greater executive dysfunction at initial assessment is associated with more rapid decline in IADLs. Perhaps executive function is particularly important with respect to maintaining IADLs. Alternatively, executive dysfunction may be a sentinel event indicating widespread cortical involvement and poor prognosis. PMID:17521485

  4. A Review of Neuroimaging Findings in Repetitive Brain Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K.; Lin, Alexander P.; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J.; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D.; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at post-mortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically-confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma versus those who go on to develop CTE. PMID:25904047

  5. Neuroimaging predictors of AED resistance in new-onset epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The best prognostic factors in early-onset epilepsies are the response to the first antiepileptic drug (AED) trial, age at seizure onset, number of seizures prior to treatment, and the presence of a lesion or abnormal neurologic examination. However, early and adequate response to AED is most likely an epiphenomenon reflecting the nature of underlying epileptogenicity, which may be defined as a complex interaction of underlying pathology, genetics, and environment. Patients with the same type of epileptogenic lesion, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, may have a varying response to AED. Modern neuroimaging, in particular quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be helpful to better understand this complex interaction of factors leading to refractoriness. Patients who respond well to AEDs have no or minor MRI abnormalities, and among those with underlying lesions there is an inverse correlation between outcome and the extent of MRI-defined neuronal damage outside the main lesion, which may be undetectable by visual analyses of routine MRI. The extent of neuronal damage appears to be related to the severity of initial precipitating injuries, probably interacts with genetic factors, and may progress over time when seizures are uncontrolled. The presence and extent of abnormalities detected by quantitative MRI may also be helpful to guide AED withdrawal in those patients who are seizure free for >2 years. Combined MRI measures may have potential clinical value for predicting AED response in near future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Goh, Wilson; Wong, Limsoon; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity that can be directly

  7. Random forests on Hadoop for genome-wide association studies of multivariate neuroimaging phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Multivariate quantitative traits arise naturally in recent neuroimaging genetics studies, in which both structural and functional variability of the human brain is measured non-invasively through techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is growing interest in detecting genetic variants associated with such multivariate traits, especially in genome-wide studies. Random forests (RFs) classifiers, which are ensembles of decision trees, are amongst the best performing machine learning algorithms and have been successfully employed for the prioritisation of genetic variants in case-control studies. RFs can also be applied to produce gene rankings in association studies with multivariate quantitative traits, and to estimate genetic similarities measures that are predictive of the trait. However, in studies involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs and high-dimensional traits, a very large ensemble of trees must be inferred from the data in order to obtain reliable rankings, which makes the application of these algorithms computationally prohibitive. Results We have developed a parallel version of the RF algorithm for regression and genetic similarity learning tasks in large-scale population genetic association studies involving multivariate traits, called PaRFR (Parallel Random Forest Regression). Our implementation takes advantage of the MapReduce programming model and is deployed on Hadoop, an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. Notable speed-ups are obtained by introducing a distance-based criterion for node splitting in the tree estimation process. PaRFR has been applied to a genome-wide association study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which the quantitative trait consists of a high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotype describing longitudinal changes in the human brain structure. PaRFR provides a ranking of SNPs associated to this trait, and produces pair-wise measures of genetic proximity

  8. Neurobiological narratives: Experiences of mood disorder through the lens of neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchman, Daniel Z; Borgelt, Emily L; Whiteley, Louise Emma

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists, healthcare providers, policymakers and patients are awaiting in anticipation the application of biomedical technologies such as functional neuroimaging for the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. The potential efficacy of such applications is controversial, a...

  9. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding their under...

  10. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD...

  11. Responsible Reporting : Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline; Kupper, J.F.H.

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into

  12. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  13. Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian K C; Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, a range of different neuroimaging tools have been used to study human auditory attention, spanning from classic event-related potential studies using electroencephalography to modern multimodal imaging approaches (e.g., combining anatomical information based on magnetic resonance imaging with magneto- and electroencephalography). This review begins by exploring the different strengths and limitations inherent to different neuroimaging methods, and then outlines some common behavioral paradigms that have been adopted to study auditory attention. We argue that in order to design a neuroimaging experiment that produces interpretable, unambiguous results, the experimenter must not only have a deep appreciation of the imaging technique employed, but also a sophisticated understanding of perception and behavior. Only with the proper caveats in mind can one begin to infer how the cortex supports a human in solving the "cocktail party" problem. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology in cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Lars; Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the path......Clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging are two non-invasive approaches used to investigate the pathophysiological basis of primary headaches, including cluster headache (CH) and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Modern neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding...... treatments Trigeminofacial reflexes, the nociceptive flexion reflex, and evoked potentials have been used in TACs to explore the functional state of brainstem and spinal structures involved in pain processing, contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these primary headaches....

  15. Towards structured sharing of raw and derived neuroimaging data across existing resources

    OpenAIRE

    Keator, D B; Helmer, K.; Steffener, J.; Turner, J. A.; van Erp, T G M; Gadde, S; Ashish, N; Burns, G. A.; Nichols, B.N.; Ghosh, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Data sharing efforts increasingly contribute to the acceleration of scientific discovery. Neuroimaging data is accumulating in distributed domain-specific databases and there is currently no integrated access mechanism nor an accepted format for the critically important meta-data that is necessary for making use of the combined, available neuroimaging data. In this manuscript, we present work from the Derived Data Working Group, an open-access group sponsored by the Biomedical Informatics Res...

  16. Yield of emergent neuroimaging in children with new-onset seizure and status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Todd W; Johnson, Kara B; Michelson, Kenneth A; Nigrovic, Lise E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Kimia, Amir A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the yield of emergent neuroimaging among children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus. We performed a cross-sectional study of children seen at a single ED between 1995 and 2012 with new-onset seizure presenting with status epilepticus. We defined status epilepticus as a single seizure or multiple seizures without regaining consciousness lasting 30 min or longer. Our primary outcome was urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. We categorized neuroimaging results as emergent if they would have changed acute management as assessed by a blinded neuroradiologist and neurologist. To ensure abnormalities were not missed, we review neuroimaging results for 30 days following the initial episode of SE. We included 177 children presenting with new-onset seizure with status epilepticus, of whom 170 (96%) had neuroimaging performed. Abnormal findings were identified on neuroimaging in 64/177 (36%, 95% confidence interval 29-43%) children with 15 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval 5.2-14%) children having urgent or emergent pathology. Four (27%) of the 15 children with urgent or emergent findings had a normal non-contrast computed tomography scan and a subsequently abnormal magnetic resonance image. Longer seizure duration and older age were associated with urgent or emergent intracranial pathology. A substantial minority of children with new-onset seizures presenting with status epilepticus have urgent or emergent intracranial pathology identified on neuroimaging. Clinicians should strongly consider emergent neuroimaging in these children. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality when available and safe. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Federating distributed and heterogeneous information sources in neuroimaging: the NeuroBase Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...

  18. No evidence for association of autism with rare heterozygous point mutations in Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 2 (CNTNAP2, or in Other Contactin-Associated Proteins or Contactins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Murdoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contactins and Contactin-Associated Proteins, and Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 2 (CNTNAP2 in particular, have been widely cited as autism risk genes based on findings from homozygosity mapping, molecular cytogenetics, copy number variation analyses, and both common and rare single nucleotide association studies. However, data specifically with regard to the contribution of heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs have been inconsistent. In an effort to clarify the role of rare point mutations in CNTNAP2 and related gene families, we have conducted targeted next-generation sequencing and evaluated existing sequence data in cohorts totaling 2704 cases and 2747 controls. We find no evidence for statistically significant association of rare heterozygous mutations in any of the CNTN or CNTNAP genes, including CNTNAP2, placing marked limits on the scale of their plausible contribution to risk.

  19. Cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson´s disease: evidences from neuroimaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eNombela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD has received little attention and as such, there are currently very few treatment options available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the attention impairment in PD patients and to determine whether cognitive training might alleviate any such symptoms. The study, which included a pilot and experimental phase, involved assessing performance in a modified version of the Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The study was carried out in ten PD patients and ten paired healthy controls, half of the PD patients undergoing 6 months of cognitive training based on Sudoku exercises. The brain training programme improved the cognitive performance of the Parkinson’s patients in attention tasks and it provoked comparable patterns of cortical activation to those observed in controls. Based on these findings, we propose that cognitive training can contribute significantly to save brain resources in PD patients, maybe by readdressing the imbalance caused by the alterations to inhibitory circuitry.

  20. Experimental Evidence for Improved Neuroimaging Interpretation Using Three-Dimensional Graphic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan Antonio; Contador, Israel; Mayoral, Paula; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) or volumetric visualization is a useful resource for learning about the anatomy of the human brain. However, the effectiveness of 3D spatial visualization has not yet been assessed systematically. This report analyzes whether 3D volumetric visualization helps learners to identify and locate subcortical structures more…

  1. Evidence from neuroimaging to explore brain plasticity in humans during an ultra-endurance burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrey Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity, likely through induction of neuroplasticity, is a promising intervention to promote brain health. In athletes it is clear that training can and does, by physiological adaptations, extend the frontiers of performance capacity. The limits of our endurance capacity lie deeply in the human brain, determined by various personal factors yet to be explored. The human brain, with its vast neural connections and its potential for seemingly endless behaviors, constitutes one of the final frontiers of medicine. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, the TransEurope FootRace Project followed 10 ultra-endurance runners over around 4,500 km across Europe and recorded a large data collection of brain imaging scans. This study indicates that the cerebral atrophy amounting to a reduction of approximately 6% throughout the two months of the race is reversed upon follow-up. While this study will contribute to advances in the limits of human performance on the neurophysiological processes in sports scientists, it will also bring important understanding to clinicians about cerebral atrophy in people who are vulnerable to physical and psychological stress long term. See related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/170

  2. The contribution of color during object recognition: behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bramão, Inês

    2011-01-01

    Tese de dout., Psicologia, Faculdade de Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Univ. do Algarve, 2011 In this thesis, we present six studies that investigated the role of color information during visual object recognition. The interactions between surface color and color knowledge information were investigated in two studies (chapters 2 and 3). In chapters 4 and 5, we present data that identify the visual processing stage at which color information improves color and non-color diagnostic object recog...

  3. Enhanced Left Frontal Involvement during Novel Metaphor Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Functional Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Vishne, T.; Laor, N.; Titone, D.

    2013-01-01

    The neural basis involved in novel metaphor comprehension in schizophrenia is relatively unknown. Fourteen people with schizophrenia and fourteen controls were scanned while they silently read novel metaphors, conventional metaphors, literal expressions, and meaningless word-pairs. People with schizophrenia showed reduced comprehension of both…

  4. Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence : evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Soelch, C; Leenders, KL; Chevalley, AF; Missimer, J; Kunig, G; Magyar, S; Mino, A; Schultz, W

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews neuronal activity related to reward processing in primate and human brains. In the primate brain, neurophysiological methods provide a differentiated view of reward processing in a limited number of brain structures. Dopamine neurons respond to unpredictable rewards and produce

  5. Remembering the Specific Visual Details of Presented Objects: Neuroimaging Evidence for Effects of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Memories can be retrieved with varied amounts of visual detail, and the emotional content of information can influence the likelihood that visual detail is remembered. In the present fMRI experiment (conducted with 19 adults scanned using a 3T magnet), we examined the neural processes that correspond with recognition of the visual details of…

  6. Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R

    2015-01-01

    With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.

  7. Alleyway Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    topografier. Alleyway Points består af en række eksperimenter, som søger at udforske denne sammenvævning af disse to parallelle domæner gennem en pendulering imellem det fysiske og det digitale. En gyde danner rammen om disse forsøg, hvor den etablerede punktsky i sig selv bliver anskuet som en digital......Forskelligartede former for fotogrammetri og 3D-scanning muliggør indfangelse af den fysiske verden i det digitale domæne. Dette har vist sig instrumentelt i et utal af forskellige henseender. Når virkeligheden bliver digitaliseret, bliver den frigjort fra sine materielle forpligtigelser: der er...... dialog og pendulering mellem de to domæner, hvor grænsen mellem, hvad der kan anskues som det virkelige og repræsentionen deraf, bliver gradvis mere utydelig. Dette adskiller sig fra to dominerende diskurser inden for arbejdsgange mellem det virkelige og det digitale, der ofte er ensrettede bevægelser...

  8. Single-subject anxiety treatment outcome prediction using functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tali M; Stein, Murray B; Ramsawh, Holly J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Paulus, Martin P

    2014-04-01

    The possibility of individualized treatment prediction has profound implications for the development of personalized interventions for patients with anxiety disorders. Here we utilize random forest classification and pre-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) to generate individual subject treatment outcome predictions. Before cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 48 adults (25 GAD and 23 PD) reduced (via cognitive reappraisal) or maintained their emotional responses to negative images during fMRI scanning. CBT responder status was predicted using activations from 70 anatomically defined regions. The final random forest model included 10 predictors contributing most to classification accuracy. A similar analysis was conducted using the clinical and demographic variables. Activations in the hippocampus during maintenance and anterior insula, superior temporal, supramarginal, and superior frontal gyri during reappraisal were among the best predictors, with greater activation in responders than non-responders. The final fMRI-based model yielded 79% accuracy, with good sensitivity (0.86), specificity (0.68), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (2.73, 0.20). Clinical and demographic variables yielded poorer accuracy (69%), sensitivity (0.79), specificity (0.53), and likelihood ratios (1.67, 0.39). This is the first use of random forest models to predict treatment outcome from pre-treatment neuroimaging data in psychiatry. Together, random forest models and fMRI can provide single-subject predictions with good test characteristics. Moreover, activation patterns are consistent with the notion that greater activation in cortico-limbic circuitry predicts better CBT response in GAD and PD.

  9. DeID - a data sharing tool for neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  10. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  11. Variability in clinical assessment of neuroimaging in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Westover, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    Neuroimaging is critical in deciding candidacy for epilepsy surgery. Currently imaging is primarily assessed qualitatively, which may affect patient selection and outcomes. The epilepsy surgery database at MGH was reviewed for temporal lobectomy patients from the last 10 years. Radiology reports for MRI and FDG-PET were compared to the epilepsy conference consensus. First, specific findings of ipsi/contra hippocampal atrophy and T2 signal changes were directly compared. Next the overall impression of presence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) for MRI and temporal hypometabolism for PET was used for sensitivity/specificity analysis. To assess predictive power of imaging findings logistic regression was used. 104 subjects were identified. 70% of subjects were ILAE class I at 1-year. Radiology reports and the conference consensus differed in 31% of FDG-PET studies and 41% of MRIs. For PET most disagreement (50%) stemmed for discrepancy regarding contralateral temporal hypometabolism. For MRI discrepancy in ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy/T2 signal accounted for 59% of disagreements. When overall impression of the image was used the overall reliability between groups was high with only MRI sensitivity to detect HS (0.75 radiology, 0.91 conference, p=0.02) was significantly different between groups. On logistic regression MRI was a significant predictor of HS, but still 36% of patients with normal MRI as read by both groups had HS on pathology. Despite some difference in specific radiologic findings, overall accuracy for MRI and PET is similar in clinical practice between radiology and conference; nonetheless there are still cases of hippocampal pathology not detected by standard imaging methods. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimaging and the search for a cure for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    As radiologists, our role in the workup of the dementia patient has long been limited by the sensitivity of our imaging tools and lack of effective treatment options. Over the past 30 years, we have made tremendous strides in understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). We now know that the pathologic features of AD are present 1 to 2 decades prior to development of symptoms, though currently approved symptomatic therapies are administered much later in the disease course. The search for true disease-modifying therapy continues and many clinical trials are underway. Current outcome measures, based on cognitive tests, are relatively insensitive to pathologic disease progression, requiring long, expensive trials with large numbers of participants. Biomarkers, including neuroimaging, have great potential to increase the power of trials by matching imaging methodology with therapeutic mechanism. One of the most important advances over the past decade has been the development of in vivo imaging probes targeted to amyloid beta protein, and one agent is already available for clinical use. Additional advances include automated volumetric imaging methods to quantitate cerebral volume loss. Use of such techniques in small, early phase trials are expected to significantly increase the number and quality of candidate drugs for testing in larger trials. In addition to a critical role in trials, structural, molecular, and functional imaging techniques can give us a window on the etiology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This combination of developments has potential to bring diagnostic radiology to the forefront in AD research, therapeutic trials, and patient care. ©RSNA, 2013.

  13. Neuroimaging study of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasugi, Hiroko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) has been attracting attention in recent years because of its brain malformation and progressive muscular dystrophy. The intravitam recognition of brain malformation has been remarkably enhanced by the advent of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI. In this study, 87 cranial CT scans and 22 MRIs of the brain, carried out on 60 patients with FCMD, were systematically surveyed, and the correlation between neuroradiological findings and clinical disabilities, and, in two autopsy cases, neuropathological findings was evaluated. Four cases of lissencephalic, 29 of pachygyric, and one of polymicrogyric (suspected) brain surface, and 2 normal brain surfaces were recognized. The patients with lissencephalic brain surface were compared using Dobyns' criteria. Grading of pachygyria was judged as bilateral II in 52% of cases and bilateral I in 48%. The surface of the occipital lobe could not be confirmed with either CT or MRI. Polymicrogyria was suspected using MRI but could not confirmed with CT. Five caces of lissencephaly had never learned any meaningful words and all but one were bedridden because of poor head control. The abilities of patients were better when the grading of pachygyria was milder. Mental disability and peak motor function correlate more closely with the degree and extent of brain malformation than with muscle degeneration. The decrease in radiodensity in the white matter was remarkable in 12 out of 19 cases (63%), and was usually bilaterally symmetrical. An increase in radiodensity in the white matter with age was observed in 3 patients. The rate of myelination was slower than normal in 3 out of the 6 cases. (author).

  14. The Extended Fronto-Striatal Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Convergence from Event-Related Potentials, Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eMelloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, basal ganglia (BG and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC- and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN, N200 and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement, neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD.

  15. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  16. The Appropriate Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Work-Up of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia is challenging and requires both ruling out potentially treatable underlying causes and ruling in a diagnosis of dementia subtype to manage patients and suitably plan for the future. Objectives This analysis sought to determine the appropriate use of neuroimaging during the diagnostic work-up of dementia, including indications for neuroimaging and comparative accuracy of alternative technologies. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published between 2000 and 2013. Review Methods Data on diagnostic accuracy and impact on clinical decision making were abstracted from included studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results The search yielded 5,374 citations and 15 studies were included. Approximately 10% of dementia cases are potentially treatable, though less than 1% reverse partially or fully. Neither prediction rules nor clinical indications reliably select the subset of patients who will likely benefit from neuroimaging. Clinical utility is highest in ambiguous cases or where dementia may be mixed, and lowest for clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease or clinically excluded vascular dementia. There is a lack of evidence that MRI is superior to CT in detecting a vascular component to dementia. Accuracy of structural imaging is moderate to high for discriminating different types of dementia. Limitations There was significant heterogeneity in estimates of diagnostic accuracy, which often prohibited a statistical summary of findings. The quality of data reported by studies prohibited calculation of likelihood ratios in the present analysis. No studies from primary care were found; thus, generalizability beyond tertiary care settings may be limited. Conclusions A diagnosis of reversible dementia is rare. Imaging has the most

  17. Neurofunctional systems. 3D reconstructions with correlated neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Fiekert, W.; Gerke, M.; Vogt, H.; Weirich, D.; Wesemann, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie; Weinrich, W. [Staedtisches Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie

    1998-12-31

    This book introduces, for the first time, computer-generated images of the neurofunctional systems of the human brain. These images are more accurate than drawings. The main views presented are of the medial lemniscus system, auditory system, visual system, basal ganglia, corticospinal system, and the limbic system. The arteries and sulci of the cerebral hemispheres are also illustrated by computer. These images provide a three-dimensional orientation of the intracranial space and help, for example, to assess vascular functional disturbance of the brain. Clinicians will find these images valuable for the spatial interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) images since many neurofunctional systems cannot be visualized as isolated structures in neuroimaging. Computer-assisted surface reconstructions of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries serve as a basis for constructing these computer-generated images. The surface reconstructions are anatomically realistic having been created from brain sections with minimal deformations. The method of computer graphics, known as ray tracing, produces digital images form these reconstructions. The computer-generated methods are explained. The computer-generated images are accompanied by illustrations and texts on neuroanatomy and clinical practice. The neurofunctional systems of the human brain are also shown in sections so that the reader can mentally reconstruct the neurofunctional systems, thus facilitating the transformation of information into textbooks and atlantes of MR and CT imaging. The aim of this book is acquaint the reader with the three-dimensional aspects of the neurofunctional systems and the cerebral arteries of the human brain using methods of computer graphics. Computer scientists and those interested in this technique are provided with basic neuroanatomic and neurofunctional information. Physicians will have a clearer understanding

  18. Toward a neuroimaging treatment selection biomarker for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Callie L; Kelley, Mary E; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Dunlop, Boadie W; Craighead, W Edward; Franco, Alexandre R; Craddock, R Cameron; Mayberg, Helen S

    2013-08-01

    Currently, fewer than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder achieve remission with initial treatment. Identification of a biological marker that might improve these odds could have significant health and economic impact. To identify a candidate neuroimaging "treatment-specific biomarker" that predicts differential outcome to either medication or psychotherapy. Brain glucose metabolism was measured with positron emission tomography prior to treatment randomization to either escitalopram oxalate or cognitive behavior therapy for 12 weeks. Patients who did not remit on completion of their phase 1 treatment were offered enrollment in phase 2 comprising an additional 12 weeks of treatment with combination escitalopram and cognitive behavior therapy. Mood and anxiety disorders research program at an academic medical center. Men and women aged 18 to 60 years with currently untreated major depressive disorder. Randomized assignment to 12 weeks of treatment with either escitalopram oxalate (10-20 mg/d) or 16 sessions of manual-based cognitive behavior therapy. Remission, defined as a 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale score of 7 or less at both weeks 10 and 12, as assessed by raters blinded to treatment. Positive and negative predictors of remission were identified with a 2-way analysis of variance treatment (escitalopram or cognitive behavior therapy) × outcome (remission or nonresponse) interaction. Of 65 protocol completers, 38 patients with clear outcomes and usable positron emission tomography scans were included in the primary analysis: 12 remitters to cognitive behavior therapy, 11 remitters to escitalopram, 9 nonresponders to cognitive behavior therapy, and 6 nonresponders to escitalopram. Six limbic and cortical regions were identified, with the right anterior insula showing the most robust discriminant properties across groups (effect size = 1.43). Insula hypometabolism (relative to whole-brain mean) was associated with remission to

  19. Evaluation of Metallic Artifacts Caused by Nonpenetrating Titanium Clips in Postoperative Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Takuya; Chiba, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Takatoshi; Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Nonpenetrating titanium clips create no suture holes and thereby reduce cerebrospinal fluid leakage after dural closure. However, no data exist regarding metallic artifacts caused by these clips during postoperative neuroimaging. We aimed to evaluate clip-related artifacts on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images of 17 patients who underwent spinal surgery. A phantom study evaluated the size of metallic artifacts, and a clinical study evaluated the quality of postoperative spinal MR images. Both 1.5-T studies used T1-weighted and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences. The phantom study compared clip and artifact size for 10 clips. Artifacts were defined as signal voids surrounded by high signal amplitude that followed the clip shape. In the clinical study, 2 neurosurgeons assessed 22 images from 17 patients of the spinal cord, cauda equina, and paravertebral muscles adjacent to the nonpenetrating titanium clips, using 5-point scales. Mean metallic artifact sizes were 4.82 ± 0.16 mm (T1) and 4.66 ± 0.25 mm (T2; P < 0.001 vs. control). The former and latter were respectively 207% and 200% larger than the clip size. Both readers graded spinal cord and paravertebral muscles images as 3 or 4, indicating very good image quality regardless of clip-related artifacts, with excellent interobserver agreement (κ = 0.99 and 0.98, respectively). Metallic artifacts caused by nonpenetrating titanium clips were 200% larger than the actual clip but did not affect spinal cord and extradural tissue visualization. The use of these clips for closing the spinal dura mater does not alter postoperative radiologic evaluation quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of "primary states" is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit "criticality," i.e., the property of being poised at a "critical" point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with

  1. The entropic brain:A theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Lester Carhart-Harris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neural dynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of ‘primary states’ is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. It is noted that elevated entropy in this sense, is a characteristic of systems exhibiting ‘self-organised criticality’, i.e., a property of systems that gravitate towards a ‘critical’ point in a transition zone between order and disorder in which certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. This implies that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organised activity within the default-mode network (DMN and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled. These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as REM sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with non-primary states such as normal waking consciousness and the anaesthetised state.

  2. Update on the magnetic resonance imaging core of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fox, Nick C; Thompson, Paul M; Schuff, Norbert; Krueger, Gunnar; Killiany, Ronald J; Decarli, Charles S; Dale, Anders M; Carmichael, Owen W; Tosun, Duygu; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-05-01

    Functions of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) core fall into three categories: (1) those of the central MRI core laboratory at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, needed to generate high quality MRI data in all subjects at each time point; (2) those of the funded ADNI MRI core imaging analysis groups responsible for analyzing the MRI data; and (3) the joint function of the entire MRI core in designing and problem solving MR image acquisition, pre-processing, and analyses methods. The primary objective of ADNI was and continues to be improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. Our approach to the present ("ADNI-GO") and future ("ADNI-2," if funded) MRI protocol will be to maintain MRI methodological consistency in the previously enrolled "ADNI-1" subjects who are followed up longitudinally in ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. We will modernize and expand the MRI protocol for all newly enrolled ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 subjects. All newly enrolled subjects will be scanned at 3T with a core set of three sequence types: 3D T1-weighted volume, FLAIR, and a long TE gradient echo volumetric acquisition for micro hemorrhage detection. In addition to this core ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 protocol, we will perform vendor-specific pilot sub-studies of arterial spin-labeling perfusion, resting state functional connectivity, and diffusion tensor imaging. One of these sequences will be added to the core protocol on systems from each MRI vendor. These experimental sub-studies are designed to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring useful data in a multicenter (but single vendor) setting for these three emerging MRI applications. Copyright 2010 The Alzheimer

  3. A global metric to detect motion artifacts in optical neuroimaging data (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Arefeh; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Burns-Yocum, Tracy M.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2017-02-01

    As with other imaging modalities, motion induces artifacts that can significantly corrupt optical neuroimaging data. While multiple methods have been developed for motion detection in individual NIRS measurement channels, the large measurement numbers present in multichannel fNIRS or high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) systems, create an opportunity for detection methods that integrate over the entire field of view. Here, we leverage the inherent covariance among multiple NIRS measurements after pre-processing, to quantify motion artifacts by calculating the global variance in the temporal derivative (GV-TD) across all measurements (e.g. from the temporal derivative of each time-course, the method calculates root mean square across all measurements for each time point). This calculation is fast, automated, and identifies motion by incorporating global aspects of data instead of individual channels. To test the performance, we designed an experimental paradigm that intermixed controlled epochs of motion artifact with relatively motion-free epochs during a block design hearing-words language paradigm using a previously described HD-DOT system. We categorized 348 blocks by sorting the blocks based on the maximum of their GV-TD time-courses. Our results show that with a modest thresholding of the data, wherein we keep data with 0.66 of the full data set average GV-TD, we obtain a 50% increase in the signal-to-noise. With noisier data, we expect the performance gains to increase. Further, the impact on resting state functional connectivity may also be more significant. In summary, a censoring threshold based on the GV-TD metric provides a fast and direct way for identifying motion artifacts.

  4. Integration of a neuroimaging processing pipeline into a pan-canadian computing grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Courchesne, S.; Rioux, P.; Chouinard-Decorte, F.; Sherif, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Das, S.; Adalat, R.; Doyon, J.; Craddock, C.; Margulies, D.; Chu, C.; Lyttelton, O.; Evans, A. C.; Bellec, P.

    2012-02-01

    The ethos of the neuroimaging field is quickly moving towards the open sharing of resources, including both imaging databases and processing tools. As a neuroimaging database represents a large volume of datasets and as neuroimaging processing pipelines are composed of heterogeneous, computationally intensive tools, such open sharing raises specific computational challenges. This motivates the design of novel dedicated computing infrastructures. This paper describes an interface between PSOM, a code-oriented pipeline development framework, and CBRAIN, a web-oriented platform for grid computing. This interface was used to integrate a PSOM-compliant pipeline for preprocessing of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging into CBRAIN. We further tested the capacity of our infrastructure to handle a real large-scale project. A neuroimaging database including close to 1000 subjects was preprocessed using our interface and publicly released to help the participants of the ADHD-200 international competition. This successful experiment demonstrated that our integrated grid-computing platform is a powerful solution for high-throughput pipeline analysis in the field of neuroimaging.

  5. Relationships between Cognitive Performance, Neuroimaging and Vascular Disease: The DHS-MIND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Raffield, Laura M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Cox, Amanda; Xu, Jianzhao; Carr, J Jeffery; Freedman, Barry I; Maldjian, Joseph A; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance. Associations were examined using marginal models in this family-based cohort of 572 European Americans from 263 families. All models were adjusted for age, gender, education, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, with some neuroimaging measures additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Higher total brain volume was associated with better performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 7.0 × 10(-4)). Higher gray matter volume was associated with better performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Semantic Fluency (both p ≤ 9.0 × 10(-4)). Adjusting for CAC caused minimal changes to the results. Relationships exist between neuroimaging measures and cognitive performance in a type 2 diabetes-enriched European American cohort. Associations were minimally attenuated after adjusting for subclinical CVD. Additional work is needed to understand how subclinical CVD burden interacts with other factors and impacts relationships between neuroimaging and cognitive testing measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi

    2011-01-25

    A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  7. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. Results The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. Conclusions With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  8. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  9. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwanseop; Bae, Jong Seok; Lee, Ju-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 669 journals that were considered as potential outlets for neuroimaging articles. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the 100 most-cited articles relevant to neuroimaging within the selected journals. The following information was recorded for each article: publication year, journal, category and impact factor of journal, number of citations, number of annual citations, authorship, department, institution, country, article type, imaging technique used, and topic. The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging were published between 1980 and 2012, with 1995-2004 producing 69 articles. Citations ranged from 4384 to 673 and annual citations ranged from 313.1 to 24.9. The majority of articles were published in radiology/imaging journals (n=75), originated in the United States (n=58), were original articles (n=63), used MRI as imaging modality (n=85), and dealt with imaging technique (n=45). The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain at John Radcliffe Hospital (n=10) was the leading institutions and Karl J. Friston (n=11) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and an analysis of the 100 most-cited articles in the field of neuroimaging, which provides an insight into historical developments and allows for recognition of the important advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging criteria and cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Tiel, Chan; Ericeira-Valente, Letice; Moreira, Denise Madeira; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) at earlier clinical stages may favor the control of vascular risk factors and prevention of dementia. However, operational criteria for symptomatic phases at non-dementia stages are often difficult, as the current criteria normally require the evidence of extensive subcortical disease. Objective To identify the neuroimaging profile of Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI), the impact of those aspects over cognition and the neuropsychological tests that distinguished VaMCI from other groups. Methods Searches were performed in Scopus, ISI and PsycINFO, using the following key terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular cognitive impairment not demented" OR "subcortical mild cognitive impairment". Results Of 249 papers, 20 studies were selected. Ten of those included only patients with severe White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH), whereas 10 others admitted subjects with moderate-to-severe WMH. Both groups showed poor performances in Executive Function (EF) tasks in comparison to normal controls and other diagnostic groups. Among EF tests, those assessing "complex" EF abilities consistently distinguished VaMCI from other groups, regardless of the severity of WMH. VaMCI subjects with severe or moderate-to-severe WMH showed cognitive deficits in comparison with other groups. "Complex" EF tests were the most useful in differentiating those patients from the other groups. Conclusion The occurrence of VaMCI may be associated with the presence of CVD at moderate levels; the detection of vascular damage at earlier stages may allow the adoption of therapeutic actions with significant effect-sizes. PMID:29213989

  11. Neuroimaging criteria and cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recognition of Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD at earlier clinical stages may favor the control of vascular risk factors and prevention of dementia. However, operational criteria for symptomatic phases at non-dementia stages are often difficult, as the current criteria normally require the evidence of extensive subcortical disease. OBJECTIVE To identify the neuroimaging profile of Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI, the impact of those aspects over cognition and the neuropsychological tests that distinguished VaMCI from other groups. METHODS Searches were performed in Scopus, ISI and PsycINFO, using the following key terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular cognitive impairment not demented" OR "subcortical mild cognitive impairment". RESULTS Of 249 papers, 20 studies were selected. Ten of those included only patients with severe White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH, whereas 10 others admitted subjects with moderate-to-severe WMH. Both groups showed poor performances in Executive Function (EF tasks in comparison to normal controls and other diagnostic groups. Among EF tests, those assessing "complex" EF abilities consistently distinguished VaMCI from other groups, regardless of the severity of WMH. VaMCI subjects with severe or moderate-to-severe WMH showed cognitive deficits in comparison with other groups. "Complex" EF tests were the most useful in differentiating those patients from the other groups. CONCLUSION The occurrence of VaMCI may be associated with the presence of CVD at moderate levels; the detection of vascular damage at earlier stages may allow the adoption of therapeutic actions with significant effect-sizes.

  12. Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araújo, David; Alexandre, Veriano; Scornavacca, Francisco; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Carlotti, Carlos G; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2015-10-01

    To test if chronic calcificed neurocysticercosis (cNCC) and hippocampal sclerosis occur more often than by chance ipsilateral to the same brain hemisphere or brain region in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) plus neurocysticercosis. This proof-of-concept would provide important evidence of a direct pathogenic relationship between neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS. A cohort of 290 consecutive MTLE-HS surgical patients was studied. A test of proportions was used to analyze if the proportion of patients with a single cNCC lesion matching the same brain hemisphere or region of hippocampal sclerosis was significantly greater than 50%, as expected by the chance. Neuroimaging findings of cNCC were observed in 112 (38.6%) of 290 MTLE-HS patients and a single cNCC lesion occurred in 58 (51.8%) of them. There were no differences in main basal clinical characteristics of MTLE-HS patients with single or multiple cNCC lesions. In patients with single cNCC lesions, the lesion matched the side in which hippocampal sclerosis was observed in 43 (74.1%) patients, a proportion significantly greater than that expected to occur by chance (p=0.008). Neurocysticercosis in temporal lobe was ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis in 85.0% of patients and accounted mostly for this result. This work is a proof-of-concept that the association of neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS cannot be explained exclusively by patients sharing common biological or socio-economic predisposing variables. Instead, our results suggest the involvement of more direct pathogenic mechanisms like regional inflammation, repetitive seizures or both. Neurocysticercosis within temporal lobes was particularly related with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis in MTLE-HS, a finding adding new contributions for understanding MTLE-HS plus cNCC or perhaps to other forms of dual pathology in MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Physiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Pavel; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Manto, Mario-Ubaldo; Bareš, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Essential tremor (ET), clinically characterized by postural and kinetic tremors, predominantly in the upper extremities, originates from pathological activity in the dynamic oscillatory network comprising the majority of nodes in the central motor network. Evidence indicates dysfunction in the thalamus, the olivocerebellar loops, and intermittent cortical engagement. Pathology of the cerebellum, a structure with architecture intrinsically predisposed to oscillatory activity, has also been implicated in ET as shown by clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological studies. Despite electrophysiological studies assessing cerebellar impairment in ET being scarce, their impact is tangible, as summarized in this review. The electromyography-magnetoencephalography combination provided the first direct evidence of pathological alteration in cortico-subcortical communication, with a significant emphasis on the cerebellum. Furthermore, complex electromyography studies showed disruptions in the timing of agonist and antagonist muscle activation, a process generally attributed to the cerebellum. Evidence pointing to cerebellar engagement in ET has also been found in electrooculography measurements, cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, and, indirectly, in complex analyses of the activity of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (an area primarily receiving inputs from the cerebellum), which is also used in the advanced treatment of ET. In summary, further progress in therapy will require comprehensive electrophysiological and physiological analyses to elucidate the precise mechanisms leading to disease symptoms. The cerebellum, as a major node of this dynamic oscillatory network, requires further study to aid this endeavor.

  14. A general XML schema and SPM toolbox for storage of neuro-imaging results and anatomical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David Bryant; Gadde, Syam; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Taylor, Derek V; Potkin, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    With the increased frequency of multisite, large-scale collaborative neuro-imaging studies, the need for a general, self-documenting framework for the storage and retrieval of activation maps and anatomical labels becomes evident. To address this need, we have developed and extensible markup language (XML) schema and associated tools for the storage of neuro-imaging activation maps and anatomical labels. This schema, as part of the XML-based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE) schema, provides storage capabilities for analysis annotations, activation threshold parameters, and cluster and voxel-level statistics. Activation parameters contain information describing the threshold, degrees of freedom, FWHM smoothness, search volumes, voxel sizes, expected voxels per cluster, and expected number of clusters in the statistical map. Cluster and voxel statistics can be stored along with the coordinates, threshold, and anatomical label information. Multiple threshold types can be documented for a given cluster or voxel along with the uncorrected and corrected probability values. Multiple atlases can be used to generate anatomical labels and stored for each significant voxel or cluter. Additionally, a toolbox for Statistical Parametric Mapping software (http://www. fil. ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/) was created to capture the results from activation maps using the XML schema that supports both SPM99 and SPM2 versions (http://nbirn.net/Resources/Users/ Applications/xcede/SPM_XMLTools.htm). Support for anatomical labeling is available via the Talairach Daemon (http://ric.uthscsa. edu/projects/talairachdaemon.html) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (http://www. cyceron.fr/freeware/).

  15. The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzdok Danilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed.

  16. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  17. Neuroimaging chronic pain: what have we learned and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Ng, Pamela; Mackey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have helped illuminate our understanding of how the brain works in the presence of chronic pain, which often persists with unknown etiology or after the painful stimulus has been removed and any wounds have healed. Neuroimaging has enabled us to make great progress in identifying many of the neural mechanisms that contribute to chronic pain, and to pinpoint the specific regions of the brain that are activated in the presence of chronic pain. It has provided us with a new perception of the nature of chronic pain in general, leading researchers to move toward a whole-brain approach to the study and treatment of chronic pain, and to develop novel technologies and analysis techniques, with real potential for developing new diagnostics and more effective therapies. We review the use of neuroimaging in the study of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:28163658

  18. B-SPID: an object-relational database architecture to store, retrieve, and manipulate neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, B; Dolidon, F; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a hardware and software architecture to respond to crucial problems in the neuroimaging field: storage, retrieval, and processing of large datasets. The B-SPID project, here discussed, concerns the processing of neuroimages and attached components stored in an object-relational multimedia database management system (DBMS). Advanced bioinformation concepts are exploited in this project such as large scale data storage, high level graphical user interfaces and 3D graphical processing and display of data. Our database implementation is based on standard programming components, runs on several UNIX platforms and is written to be evolutive. Queries on this database are designed to obtain and display from neuroimaging data several types of results (pictures, text, or 3D graphical shapes) on heterogeneous systems.

  19. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  20. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  1. Neuroimaging in children, adolescents and young adults with psychological trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne-Albers, M.A.W; van der Wee, N.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the

  2. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S.; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Mullins, Paul G.; McNulty, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. Results 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). Conclusions The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia. PMID:27007435

  3. Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciblis, Aurelia S; Butler, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Bokde, Arun L W; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia.

  4. COORDINATE-BASED META-ANALYTIC SEARCH FOR THE SPM NEUROIMAGING PIPELINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of neuroimaging studies are collected and have changed our view on human brain function. By integrating multiple studies in meta-analysis a more complete picture is emerging. Brain locations are usually reported as coordinates with reference to a specific brain atlas, thus some of t...... directly to some popular bibliographic file formats (BibTeX, Reference Manager, etc)....

  5. Restoring the Generalizability of SVM Based Decoding in High Dimensional Neuroimage Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    for Support Vector Machines. However, good generalization may be recovered in part by a simple renormalization procedure. We show that with proper renormalization, cross-validation based parameter optimization leads to the acceptance of more non-linearity in neuroimage classifiers than would have been...

  6. Attention to pain! A neurocognitive perspective on attentional modulation of pain in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Mouraux, A; Valentini, E

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results. We conclude that load and motivational/affective theories are particularly relevant to study the attentional modulation of pain and should be carefully integrated in functional neuroimaging studies. Then, we summarize previous findings and discuss the possible neural correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. We discuss whether classical functional neuroimaging techniques are suitable to measure the effect of a fluctuating process like attention, and in which circumstances functional neuroimaging can be reliably used to measure the attentional modulation of pain. Finally, we argue that the analysis of brain networks and spontaneous oscillations may be a crucial future development in the study of attentional modulation of pain, and why the interplay between attention and pain, as examined so far, may rely on neural mechanisms shared with other sensory modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bayesian multi-task learning for decoding multi-subject neuroimaging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Brammer, M.; Williams, S.C.; Doyle, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Decoding models based on pattern recognition (PR) are becoming increasingly important tools for neuroimaging data analysis. In contrast to alternative (mass-univariate) encoding approaches that use hierarchical models to capture inter-subject variability, inter-subject differences are not typically

  8. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  9. Synaptic signals: time travelling through the brain in the neuro-image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents some thoughts on schizoanalysis and visual culture around the proposition that cinema survives in the digital age as a type of image that, after the movement-image and the time-image, could be called the neuro-image. By considering clinical schizophrenia as ‘degree zero’ of

  10. Model sparsity and brain pattern interpretation of classification models in neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan W

    2012-01-01

    Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model. In this ......Interest is increasing in applying discriminative multivariate analysis techniques to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Model interpretation is of great importance in the neuroimaging context, and is conventionally based on a ‘brain map’ derived from the classification model...... encoding of the experiment. For a support vector machine, logistic regression and Fisher's discriminant analysis we demonstrate that selection of model regularization parameters has a strong but consistent impact on the generalizability and both the reproducibility and interpretable sparsity of the models....... This supports the view that the quality of spatial patterns extracted from models cannot be assessed purely by focusing on prediction accuracy. Our results instead suggest that model regularization parameters must be carefully selected, so that the model and its visualization enhance our ability to interpret...

  11. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  12. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Cappe Céline; Murray Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub types. Here we paired images with unique meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic single trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging...

  13. Visualization and unsupervised predictive clustering of high-dimensional multimodal neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Benson; Soares, Jair C; Hasan, Khader M

    2014-10-30

    Neuroimaging machine learning studies have largely utilized supervised algorithms - meaning they require both neuroimaging scan data and corresponding target variables (e.g. healthy vs. diseased) to be successfully 'trained' for a prediction task. Noticeably, this approach may not be optimal or possible when the global structure of the data is not well known and the researcher does not have an a priori model to fit the data. We set out to investigate the utility of an unsupervised machine learning technique; t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t-SNE) in identifying 'unseen' sample population patterns that may exist in high-dimensional neuroimaging data. Multimodal neuroimaging scans from 92 healthy subjects were pre-processed using atlas-based methods, integrated and input into the t-SNE algorithm. Patterns and clusters discovered by the algorithm were visualized using a 2D scatter plot and further analyzed using the K-means clustering algorithm. t-SNE was evaluated against classical principal component analysis. Remarkably, based on unlabelled multimodal scan data, t-SNE separated study subjects into two very distinct clusters which corresponded to subjects' gender labels (cluster silhouette index value=0.79). The resulting clusters were used to develop an unsupervised minimum distance clustering model which identified 93.5% of subjects' gender. Notably, from a neuropsychiatric perspective this method may allow discovery of data-driven disease phenotypes or sub-types of treatment responders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The hallucinating brain : A review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Paul; Laroi, Frank; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Hallucinations remains one of the most intriguing phenomena in psychopathology. In the past two decades the advent of neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers to investigate what is happening in the brain of those who experience hallucinations. In this article we review both structural and

  15. Is advanced neuroimaging for neuroradiologists? A systematic review of the scientific literature of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Camilla; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Macera, Antonio; Cervo, Amedeo; De Liso, Maria; Di Paolo, Nilde; Ginocchio, Maria Isabella; Giordano, Flavio; Leone, Giuseppe; Rusconi, Giovanni; Stanzione, Arnaldo; Briganti, Francesco; Quarantelli, Mario; Caranci, Ferdinando; D'Amico, Alessandra; Elefante, Andrea; Tedeschi, Enrico; Brunetti, Arturo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate if advanced neuroimaging research is mainly conducted by imaging specialists, we investigated the number of first authorships by radiologists and non-radiologist scientists in articles published in the field of advanced neuroimaging in the past 10 years. Articles in the field of advanced neuroimaging identified in this retrospective bibliometric analysis were divided in four groups, depending on the imaging technique used. For all included studies, educational background of the first authors was recorded (based on available online curriculum vitae) and classified in subgroups, depending on their specialty. Finally, journal impact factors were recorded and comparatively assessed among subgroups as a metric of research quality. A total number of 3831 articles were included in the study. Radiologists accounted as first authors for only 12.8 % of these publications, while 56.9 % of first authors were researchers without a medical degree. Mean impact factor (IF) of journals with non-MD researchers as first authors was significantly higher than the MD subgroup (p articles authored by other MD specialists (p articles was the lowest among all subgroups. These results, taken together, should question the radiology community about its future role in the development of advanced neuroimaging.

  16. The ENIGMA Consortium: Large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Thompson (Paul); J.L. Stein; S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); D.P. Hibar (Derrek); A.A. Vásquez (Arias); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); R. Toro (Roberto); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); M.J. Wright (Margaret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Agartz (Ingrid); M. Alda (Martin); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Almasy (Laura); K. Alpert (Kathryn); N.C. Andreasen; O.A. Andreassen (Ole); L.G. Apostolova (Liana); K. Appel (Katja); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); M.E. Bastin (Mark); M. Bauer (Michael); C.E. Bearden (Carrie); Ø. Bergmann (Ørjan); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); J. Blangero (John); H.J. Bockholt; E. Bøen (Erlend); M. Bois (Monique); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); T. Booth (Tom); I.J. Bowman (Ian); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; D.G. Brohawn (David); M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); J. Bustillo; V.D. Calhoun (Vince); D.M. Cannon (Dara); R.M. Cantor; M.A. Carless (Melanie); X. Caseras (Xavier); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); K.D. Chang (Kiki); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); A. Christoforou (Andrea); S. Cichon (Sven); V.P. Clark; P. Conrod (Patricia); D. Coppola (Domenico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); I.J. Deary (Ian); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. den Braber (Anouk); G. Delvecchio (Giuseppe); C. Depondt (Chantal); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); D. Dima (Danai); R. Dimitrova (Rali); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); H. Dong (Hongwei); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S.M. Ehrli