WorldWideScience

Sample records for neurogenically mediated leakage

  1. Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Neurogenic Stuttering Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Pathologists Physicians Employers Download brochure What is neurogenic stuttering? Neurogenic stuttering is a type of fluency disorder ...

  2. Kinin B1 Receptor Promotes Neurogenic Hypertension Through Activation of Centrally Mediated Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment in wild-type mice led to significant increases in B1R mRNA and protein levels and bradykinin levels, enhanced gene expression of carboxypeptidase N supporting an increase in the B1R ligand, associated with enhanced blood pressure, inflammation, sympathoexcitation, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity, whereas these changes were blunted or prevented in B1R knockout mice. B1R stimulation was further shown to involve activation of the ASK1-JNK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the brain. To dismiss potential developmental alterations in knockout mice, we further used B1R blockade selectively in the brain of wild-type mice. Supporting the central origin of this mechanism, intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific B1R antagonist, attenuated the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced increase in blood pressure in wild-type mice. Our data provide the first evidence of a central role for B1R-mediated inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and offer novel insights into possible B1R-targeted therapies for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  4. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  5. Neurogenic mediators contribute to local edema induced by Micrurus lemniscatus venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV) to induce local edema. We also explored mechanisms underlying this effect, focusing on participation of neuropeptides and mast cells. Methodology/Principal findings Intraplantar injection of MLV (1–10 μg/paw) in rats caused dose- and time-dependent edema with a peak between 15 min and 1 h after injection. MLV also induced degranulation of peritoneal mast cells (MCs). MC depletion by compound 48/80 markedly reduced MLV-induced edema. Pre-treatment (30 min) of rats with either promethazine a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or methysergide, a nonselective 5-HT receptor antagonist, reduced MLV-induced edema. However, neither thioperamide, a histamine H3/H4 receptor antagonist, nor co-injection of MLV with HOE-140, a BK2 receptor antagonist, altered the response. Depletion of neuropeptides by capsaicin or treatment of animals with NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists (SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively) markedly reduced MLV-induced edema. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, MLV induces paw edema in rats by mechanisms involving activation of mast cells and substance P-releasing sensory C-fibers. Tachykinins NKA and NKB, histamine, and serotonin are major mediators of the MLV-induced edematogenic response. Targeting mast cell- and sensory C-fiber-derived mediators should be considered as potential therapeutic approaches to interrupt development of local edema induced by Micrurus venoms. PMID:29161255

  6. Neurogenic mediators contribute to local edema induced by Micrurus lemniscatus venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lyra Casais-E-Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV to induce local edema. We also explored mechanisms underlying this effect, focusing on participation of neuropeptides and mast cells.Intraplantar injection of MLV (1-10 μg/paw in rats caused dose- and time-dependent edema with a peak between 15 min and 1 h after injection. MLV also induced degranulation of peritoneal mast cells (MCs. MC depletion by compound 48/80 markedly reduced MLV-induced edema. Pre-treatment (30 min of rats with either promethazine a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or methysergide, a nonselective 5-HT receptor antagonist, reduced MLV-induced edema. However, neither thioperamide, a histamine H3/H4 receptor antagonist, nor co-injection of MLV with HOE-140, a BK2 receptor antagonist, altered the response. Depletion of neuropeptides by capsaicin or treatment of animals with NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists (SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively markedly reduced MLV-induced edema.In conclusion, MLV induces paw edema in rats by mechanisms involving activation of mast cells and substance P-releasing sensory C-fibers. Tachykinins NKA and NKB, histamine, and serotonin are major mediators of the MLV-induced edematogenic response. Targeting mast cell- and sensory C-fiber-derived mediators should be considered as potential therapeutic approaches to interrupt development of local edema induced by Micrurus venoms.

  7. Deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b in proopiomelanocortin neurons reduces neurogenic control of blood pressure and protects mice from leptin- and sympatho-mediated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Butler, Benjamin R; Herren, David J; Brands, Michael W; Bence, Kendra K; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (Ptp1b), which represses leptin signaling, is a promising therapeutic target for obesity. Genome wide deletion of Ptp1b, increases leptin sensitivity, protects mice from obesity and diabetes, but alters cardiovascular function by increasing blood pressure (BP). Leptin-control of metabolism is centrally mediated and involves proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Whether these neurons contribute to leptin-mediated increases in BP remain unclear. We hypothesized that increasing leptin signaling in POMC neurons with Ptp1b deletion will sensitize the cardiovascular system to leptin and enhance neurogenic control of BP. We analyzed the cardiovascular phenotype of Ptp1b+/+ and POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice, at baseline and after 7 days of leptin infusion or sympatho-activation with phenylephrine. POMCPtp1b deletion did not alter baseline cardiovascular hemodynamics (BP, heart rate) but reduced BP response to ganglionic blockade and plasma catecholamine levels that suggests a decreased neurogenic control of BP. In contrast, POMC-Ptp1b deletion increased vascular adrenergic reactivity and aortic α-adrenergic receptors expression. Chronic leptin treatment reduced vascular adrenergic reactivity and blunted diastolic and mean BP increases in POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice only. Similarly POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice exhibited a blunted increased in diastolic and mean BP accompanied by a gradual reduction in adrenergic reactivity in response to chronic vascular sympatho-activation with phenylephrine. Together these data rule out our hypothesis but suggest that deletion of Ptp1b in POMC neurons protects from leptin- and sympatho-mediated increases in BP. Vascular adrenergic desensitization appears as a protective mechanism against hypertension, and POMC-Ptp1b as a key therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions associated with obesity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis in the detection of intraoperative bile leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshiro; Fujii, Kensuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of the new intraoperative bile leakage test as a preventive measure of postoperative bile leakage. 737 patients were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the management of intra- and post-operative bile leakage. Nine (8.3%) of 109 patients evaluated using conventional white light fluorescent imaging were recognized as having intra-operative bile leakage. However, performance of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated PDD detected bile leakage intraoperatively not only in these 9 patients, but also in an additional 6 patients, such that 'red fluorescence' at the cut surface of the liver, was visualized in a total of 15 patients. The postoperative courses of most patients were uneventful, and postoperative bile leakages occurred in only one (0.9%) patient. 5-ALA fluorescence imaging may be needed to prevent postoperative bile leakage in patients at high risk for this surgical complication after hepatic resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acute neurogenic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquefeuil, B

    1975-01-01

    Neurogenic edema, in the strict sense of the term, has at the present time practically not benefitted from precise hemodynamic investigations in human clinical practice, and owing to this fact, authors still classify them under the heading "mixed edema or of unknown pathogenesis". In contrast with this lack of information in man, animal experimental works are surprising by their coherence and the experimental facility of producing neurogenic edema (cranial hypertension by a small inflatable balloon and cisternal infection of fibrin). If one excludes the now ancient vagal theories (CAMERON 1949; CAMPBELL, 1949) which were never confirmed, all of the most recent experimental works (SARNOFF, 1952; DUCKER, 1968; LUISADA, 1967; MORITZ, 1974) confirm the adrenergic disorder of central origin during neurogenic A.P.E. which from the hemodynamic standpoint is like an authentic hemodynamic A.P.E. with raised left atrial pressure, pulmonary venous pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure.

  10. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Najas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome.

  11. Etiopathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 5-6 (2010), s. 152-154 ISSN 0043-5341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * intracranial pressure * sympathetic system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  12. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  13. Vagotomy decreases the neuronal activities of medulla oblongata and alleviates neurogenic inflammation of airways induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of HCl in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Hui; Chen, Fagui; Gu, Dachuan; Sun, Lejia; Zhang, Weitao; Fan, Linfeng; Lin, Yong; Dong, Rong; Lai, Kefang

    2017-12-20

    Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). Substance P was examined by IHC and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Airway microvascular permeability was detected by evans blue dye (EBD) fluorescence. Inflammation of airway was observed in the trachea and bronchi after chronic HCl perfusion into the lower esophagus, and was alleviated after unilateral vagotomy. C-fos expression in the medulla oblongata was lower in the vagotomy group compared to the sham control and sham groups. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-li), concentration and microvascular leakage in airway were lower in the vagotomy group than that in the other groups. Our results suggest that vagotomy improved neurogenic inflammation of airways and decreased neuronal activities, the afferent nerves and neurons in medulla oblongata may be involved in neurogenic inflammation of airways mediated by esophageal-bronchial reflex.

  14. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-06-06

    This review explains symptoms and nature of neuropeptide signaling and its importance for clinical symptoms of CRPS. Neurogenic inflammation regularly accompanies excitation of primary afferent nociceptors. It has two major components-plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The most important mediators are the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). After peripheral trauma immune reaction (e.g. cytokines) and the attempts of the tissue to regenerate (e.g. growth factors) sensitize nociceptors and amplify neurogenic inflammation. This cascade of events has been demonstrated in rat models of CRPS. Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anti-cytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation. Very recently even "non-inflammatory" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further unravel the "mystery" CRPS.

  15. Sarcopenia, a Neurogenic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is an aging-associated condition, which is currently characterized by the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. However, there is no consensus regarding its characterization hitherto. As the world older adult population is on the rise, the impact of sarcopenia becomes greater. Due to the lack of effective treatments, sarcopenia is still a persisting problem among the global older adults and should not be overlooked. As a result, it is vital to investigate deeper into the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in order to develop more effective therapeutic interventions and to inscribe a more uniform characterization. The etiology of sarcopenia is currently found to be multifactorial, and most of the pharmacological researches are focused on the muscular factors in aging. Although the complete mechanism underlying the development of sarcopenia is still waiting to be elucidated, we propose in this article that the primary trigger of sarcopenia may be neurogenic in origin based on the intimate relationship between the nervous and muscular system, namely, the motor neuron and its underlying muscle fibers. Both of them are affected by the cellular environment and their physiological activity.

  16. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells.......The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...

  18. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study with postal survey was to describe changes in the patterns of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and bowel management in a population of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) followed for two decades. In 1996, a validated questionnaire on bowel function was sent to the...

  19. On Probability Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The probability leakage of model M with respect to evidence E is defined. Probability leakage is a kind of model error. It occurs when M implies that events $y$, which are impossible given E, have positive probability. Leakage does not imply model falsification. Models with probability leakage cannot be calibrated empirically. Regression models, which are ubiquitous in statistical practice, often evince probability leakage.

  20. Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hwa Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day. The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder.

  1. Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Amorim, H; Beca, G; Nunes, R

    2018-01-16

    Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed. Thirty-three publications were analyzed. Neurogenic stuttering is a rare entity whose epidemiological incidence is yet not fully established. It is correlated with several neurological diseases and with several possible localizations within the nervous system. Notwithstanding the recent advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism, it is not yet possible to establish a single pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic stuttering. The differential diagnosis is complex and requires the detailed knowledge of other language disorders. The treatment is currently based on specific speech language therapy strategies. Neurogenic stuttering is a complex disorder which is not fully understood. Additional studies might help to better explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to open doors to novel therapeutic methods.

  2. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gümüş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a life threatening complication of severe central nervous system injury. The most common cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema is subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by head trauma and epilepsy. The rare causes are cervical spine trauma, multiplesclerosis, cerebellar hemorrhage and intracranial tumors. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is characterized by an increase in extravascular lung water in patients who have sustained a sudden change in neurologic condition. The exact pathophysiology is unclear but it probably involves an adrenergic response to the central nervous system injury which leads to increased catecholamine, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure and increased lung capillary permeability. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and often include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, pinkfroty secretion, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and crackles. These symptoms start within minutes or hours and resolves 48-72 hours that typically for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Basic principles of treatment, surgical decompression, reduce intracranial pressure, controlled ventilation with suplemental oxygen, positive end expiratory pressure and diuresis. We report a case with neurogenic pulmonary edema that occured after head trauma. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 59-62

  3. Neurogenic Stuttering and Lateralized Motor Deficits Induced by Tranylcypromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Duffy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of neurogenic stuttering induced by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine is described. The association of neurogenic stuttering with acquired lateralized motor deficits in the patient described is discussed with reference to current theories regarding the pathogenesis of neurogenic stuttering.

  4. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Lai, Su-Yu; Kung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yo-Cheng; Yang, Hui-I; Chen, Po-Yi; Liu, Ingrid Y.; Lua, Ahai Chang; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O 2 demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100 μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine > methamphetamine > hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished neurogenic

  5. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2015), s. 1135-1145 ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : baroreflex-induced bradycardia * blood pressure rise * blood volume redistribution * neurogenic pulmonary edema * spinal cord injury * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.377, year: 2015

  7. Introduction to Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Robert H.

    This book provides an overview of the causes and symptoms, and the typical courses, treatments, and outcomes of neurogenic communication disorders. Chapter 1 reviews the human nervous system and neurologic causes of adult communication disorders. Chapter 2 discusses the neurologic assessment and arriving at a diagnosis, including the neurologist's…

  8. What determines neurogenic competence in glia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcos Romualdo; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt

    2010-05-01

    One of the most intriguing discoveries during the last decade of developmental neurobiology is the fact that both in the developing and adult nervous system neural stem cells often turn out to have a glial identity: Radial glia generates neurons in the developing telencephalon of fish, birds and mammals and astro/radial glial stem cells in specialized neurogenic zones give rise to new neurons throughout life. What are the extrinsic signals acting on and the intrinsic signals acting within these glial populations endowing these with a neurogenic potential, whilst most other glia seemingly lack it? Studies on postnatal astroglia shed interesting light on this question as they are the intermediate between neurogenic radial glia and mature parenchymal astrocytes. At least in vitro their decision to acquire a glial fate is not yet irrevocable as forced expression of a single neurogenic transcription factor enables them to transgress their lineage and to give rise to fully functional neurons acquiring specific subtype characteristics. But even bona fide non-neurogenic glia in the adult nervous system can regain some of their radial glial heritage following injury as exemplified by reactive astroglia in the cerebral cortex and Müller glia in the retina. In this review first we will follow the direction of the physiological times' arrow, along which radial glia become transformed on one side into mature astrocytes gradually losing their neurogenic potential, while some of them seem to escape this dire destiny to settle in the few neurogenic oases of the adult brain where they generate neurons and glia throughout life. But we will also see how pathophysiological conditions partially can reverse the arrow of time reactivating the parenchymal astroglia to re-acquire some of the hallmarks of neural stem cells or progenitors. We will close this review with some thoughts on the surprising compatibility of the co-existence of a neural stem cell and glial identity within the very

  9. Microglia from neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions display differential proliferative potential and neuroblast support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Paul Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia isolated from the neurogenic subependymal zone (SEZ and hippocampus (HC are capable of massive in vitro population expansion that is not possible with microglia isolated from non-neurogenic regions. We asked if this regional heterogeneity in microglial proliferative capacity is cell intrinsic, or is conferred by interaction with respective neurogenic or non-neurogenic niches. By combining SEZ and cerebral cortex (CTX primary tissue dissociates to generate heterospatial cultures, we find that exposure to the SEZ environment does not enhance CTX microglia expansion; however, the CTX environment exerts a suppressive effect on SEZ microglia expansion. Furthermore, addition of purified donor SEZ microglia to either CTX- or SEZ-derived cultures suppresses the expansion of host microglia, while the addition of donor CTX microglia enhances the over-all microglia yield. These data suggest that SEZ and CTX microglia possess intrinsic, spatially restricted characteristics that are independent of their in vitro environment, and that they represent unique and functionally distinct populations. Finally, we determined that the repeated supplementation of neurogenic SEZ cultures with expanded SEZ microglia allows for sustained levels of inducible neurogenesis, provided that the ratio of microglia to total cells remains within a fairly narrow range.

  10. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  11. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkireddigari, Siva Kumar Reddy; Durga, Padmaja; Nayak, Madhukar; Ramchandran, Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the iss...

  12. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  13. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar Reddy Lakkireddigari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the issues involved with anesthetic management of co-existing neurogenic pulmonary edema and intracranial hypertension.

  14. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  15. Data leakage quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavilis, S.; Petkovic, M.; Zannone, N.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    The detection and handling of data leakages is becoming a critical issue for organizations. To this end, data leakage solutions are usually employed by organizations to monitor network traffic and the use of portable storage devices. These solutions often produce a large number of alerts, whose

  16. Modeling valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.R.; Rohrscheib, R.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code requires individual valve leakage testing for Category A valves. Although the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has recognized that it is more appropriate to test containment isolation valves in groups, as allowed by 10 CFR 50, Appendix J, a utility seeking relief from these Code requirements must provide technical justification for the relief and establish a conservative alternate acceptance criteria. In order to provide technical justification for group testing of containment isolation valves, Illinois Power developed a calculation (model) for determining the size of a leakage pathway in a valve disc or seat for a given leakage rate. The model was verified experimentally by machining leakage pathways of known size and then measuring the leakage and comparing this value to the calculated value. For the range of values typical of leakage rate testing, the correlation between the experimental values and calculated values was quote good. Based upon these results, Illinois Power established a conservative acceptance criteria for all valves in the inservice testing (IST) program and was granted relief by the USNRC from the individual leakage testing requirements of the ASME Code. This paper presents the results of Illinois Power's work in the area of valve leakage rate testing

  17. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  18. Radioactivity leakage monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takuichiro; Noguchi, Noboru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for detecting the leakage ratio of a primary coolant by utilizing the variation in the radioactivity concentration in a reactor container when the coolant is leaked. Constitution: A measurement signal is produced from a radioactivity measuring instrument, and is continuously input to a malfunction discriminator. The discriminator inputs a measurement signal to a concentration variation discriminator when the malfunction is recognized and simultaneously inputs a measurement starting time from the inputting time to a concentration measuring instrument. On the other hand, reactor water radioactivity concentration data obtained by sampling the primary coolant is input to a concentration variation computing device. A comparator obtains the ratio of the measurement signal from the measuring instrument and the computed data signal from the computing device at the same time and hence the leakage rate, indicates the average leakage rate by averaging the leakage rate signals and also indicates the total leakage amount. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  20. Mechanisms of neurogenic pulmonary edema development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 499-506 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Neurogenic pulmonary edema * Rat * Lung Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  1. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  3. Universal leakage elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions

  4. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei-Fang [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi Center for Vascular Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lai, Su-Yu; Kung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yo-Cheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hui-I [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yi [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Liu, Ingrid Y. [Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lua, Ahai Chang [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology & Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tony Jer-Fu, E-mail: tlee@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi Center for Vascular Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O{sub 2} demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100 μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine > methamphetamine > hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished neurogenic

  5. Coolant leakage detecting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Katsunori; Ishihara, Yoshinao.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges an amount of leakage of primary coolants of a PWR power plant at high speed. Namely, a mass of coolants contained in a pressurizer, a volume controlling tank and loop regions is obtained based on a preset relational formula and signals of each of process amount, summed up to determine the total mass of coolants for every period of time. The amount of leakage for every period of time is calculated by a formula of Karman's filter based on the total mass of the primary coolants for every predetermined period of time, and displays it on CRT. The Karman's filter is formed on every formula for several kinds of states formed based on the preset amount of the leakage, to calculate forecasting values for every mass of coolants. An adaptable probability for every preset leakage amount is determined based on the difference between the forecast value and the observed value and the scattering thereof. The adaptable probability is compared with a predetermined threshold value, which is displayed on the CRT. This device enables earlier detection of leakage and identification of minute leakage amount as compared with the prior device. (I.S.)

  6. [Clonazepam in therapy of neurogenic syncopal states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, Z A

    2001-01-01

    27 patients with frequent neurogenic syncopes (NS) resistant to conventional therapy were treated with clonazepam. The average age of the patients was 29.8 +/- 11.6 years. There were 1-2 syncopes in a month. Both before and after the treatment an active orthostatic test was performed with ECG registration and following analysis of variability of the cardiac rhythm. Clonazepam was administered in a dose of 2-2.5 mg/day during 8-9 weeks. Clinical improvement in the form of a lack of syncopes was observed in 20 patients (74%); 3 patients (10%) had isolated lipothymic states; 2 patients discontinued the treatment because of side-effects (dizziness). The results of the examination of 23 patients 6 months after clonazepam therapy testified the stability of the therapeutic effect.

  7. Neurogenic stunned myocardium following hemorrhagic cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleu, D.; Miyares, F.; Kettern, M.; Kumar, S.; Hassens, Y.; Salim, K.

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium NSM is a well-known complication of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but has been reported rarely in association with other central nervous system disorders. A case of NSM is described in a patient with hemorrhagic brain contusion associated with cerebral edema. An 18-year-old man was admitted with severe cranial trauma following a car roll-over. Six days after admission, he developed findings suggestive for NSM. The troponin T and creatine kinase-MB level were elevated and echocardiogram showed apical and inferoposterior hypokinesis and diffuse left ventricular akinesis with severely reduced ejection fraction 18%. Invasive measurements confirmed low cardiac output. His cardiac function resolved completely within 6 days after decompressive craniotomy. This case supports the presumed unifying role of the increased intracranial pressure, probably triggering a vigorous sympathetic outflow hyperactivity leading to NSM. (author)

  8. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  9. Coolant leakage detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely detect the coolant leakage at a time when the leakage amount is still low in the intra-reactor inlet pipeway of FBR type reactor. Constitution: Outside of the intra-reactor inlet piping for introducing coolants at low temperature into a reactor core, an outer closure pipe is furnished. The upper end of the outer closure pipe opens above the liquid level of the coolants in the reactor, and a thermocouple is inserted to the opening of the upper end. In such a structure, if the coolants in the in-reactor piping should leak to the outer closure pipe, coolants over-flows from the opening thereof, at which the thermocouple detects the temperature of the coolants at a low temperature, thereby enabling to detect the leakage of the coolants at a time when it is still low. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  11. Assessing Agulhas leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, E.

    2009-01-01

    Agulhas leakage, the water that flows from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, plays an important role in the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. The magnitude of this flux of warm and saline Indian Ocean water into the much colder and fresher Atlantic Ocean can be related to the strength of the

  12. Roxby Downs water leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Environment, Resource and development Committee has been asked by Parliament to examine 'a massive leakage of water at Roxby Downs' and to make recommendations 'as to further action'. It has also been specifically asked to comment on 'the desirability of the Department of Mines and Energy having prime responsibility for environmental matters in relation to mining operations'. This report begins with a description of the Olympic Dam operations near Roxby Downs and with a brief overview of the regulations controlling those operations. The site of the leakage the Olympic Dam tailings retention system is then described in greater detail. Part 3 describes how the system was originally designed, modified and approved. It ends with a series of findings about the adequacy of the original design (including the monitoring systems built into it) and of the approvals process. Recommendations are then made about how future approvals should be handled. Part 4 of the report outlines how the tailings retention system was built and operated and how the massive leakage from it was detected and reported. Findings about the adequacy of the management of the system and about the initial reactions to the leakage are then made, together with recommendations designed to improve future management of the system. 25 refs., 15 figs

  13. Neurogenic myopathies and imaging of muscle denervation; Neurogene Myopathien und Bildgebung der Muskeldenervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wolf, C. [Reha-Zentrum Gernsbach, Neurologie, Gernsbach (Germany); Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Neurogenic myopathies are primary diseases of the nervous system, which secondarily result in denervation of the target musculature. The spectrum of potential causes is manifold ranging from acute traumatic injuries and chronic compression to neurodegenerative, inflammatory, metabolic and neoplastic processes. The medical history, clinical neurological examination, and electrophysiological tests including electromyography and nerve conduction studies are crucial in diagnosing neuropathic myopathies. Electromyography is the gold standard for diagnosing muscle denervation. Additional imaging methods and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular, are capable of contributing valuable information. The MRI examination of denervated musculature shows edema, an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hyperperfusion. Chronic denervation results in fatty degeneration and atrophy of affected muscles, which are also detectable by MRI. Although the MRI findings in muscle denervation are relatively unspecific, they show a high sensitivity, comparable to electromyography. Dedicated MR neurography may often visualize the underlying lesion(s) of the innervating nerve(s). Besides high sensitivity, comparable to electromyography, MRI is capable of evaluating muscles which are inaccessible for needle electromyography. Due to its non-invasive character, MRI is ideal for follow-up examinations. The use of MRI is often a meaningful addition to the diagnostics of neurogenic myopathies. The extent and distribution pattern of muscular alterations often provide information on the localization of the causative nerve damage. A correct diagnosis or at least a narrowing down of possible differential diagnoses can often be achieved using MRI. (orig.) [German] Neurogene Myopathien sind Erkrankungen des Nervensystems, die sekundaer zur Denervierung der Zielmuskulatur fuehren. Das Spektrum potenzieller Ursachen ist vielfaeltig und umfasst akute traumatische Verletzungen

  14. Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage: New perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis provides new perspectives on colorectal anastomotic leakages. In both experimental and clinical studies, aspects of prevention, early identification, treatment and consequences of anastomotic leakage are discussed.

  15. Botulinum Toxin in Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Methods Thirty four adult patients with spinal cord injury and detrusor overactivity were selected. The patients received 300 units of botulinum toxin type A. The endpoints evaluated with the episodes of urinary incontinence and measured the maximum cystometric capacity, maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure and bladder compliance at the beginning and end of the study (24 weeks and evaluated the quality of life by applying the Qualiveen questionnaire. Results A significant decrease in the episodes of urinary incontinence was observed. All urodynamic parameters presented a significant improvement. The same was observed in the quality of life index and the specific impact of urinary problems scores from the Qualiveen questionnaire. Six patients did not complete the study, two due to incomplete follow-up, and four violated protocol and were excluded from the analyses. No systemic adverse events of botulinum toxin type A were reported. Conclusions A botulinum toxin type A showed a significantly improved response in urodynamics parameters and specific and general quality of life.

  16. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel localized to non-neuronal airway cells promotes non-neurogenic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassini, Romina; Pedretti, Pamela; Moretto, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, localized to airway sensory nerves, has been proposed to mediate airway inflammation evoked by allergen and cigarette smoke (CS) in rodents, via a neurogenic mechanism. However the limited clinical evidence for the role of neurogenic...... inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1.By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express...... functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells...

  17. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices

  18. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  19. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  20. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  1. Leakage monitoring device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1995-01-01

    In a water leakage monitor for a steam generator, output signals from an acoustic sensor disposed in the vicinity of a region to be monitored is subjected to phasing calculation (beam forming calculation) to determine the distribution of a sound source intensity distribution. A peak is retrieved based on the distribution of the sound source intensity distribution. A correction coefficient depending on the position of the peak is multiplied to the sound source intensity. The presence or absence of leakage is determined based on the degree of the sound source intensity after the completion of correction. Namely, a relative value of sound source intensity for each of the portions in the region to be monitored is determined, and the point of the greatest sound source intensity is assumed as a leaking point, to determine the position of the leakage. An absolute value of the sound source intensity at the leaking point is determined by such a constitution that a correction coefficient depending on the position is multiplied to the intensity of the position of the peak in the distribution of the sound intensity. A threshold value for the determination of the presence or absence of the leakage can be set if a relation between an amount of the leakage previously determined experimentally and the intensity of the sound source. Then, a countermeasure can easily be taken after the detection of the leakage and a restoring operation can be carried out rapidly after the occurrence of leakage while avoiding unnecessary shutdown. (N.H.)

  2. Inner volume leakage during integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    During an integrated leak rate test (ILRT), the containment structure is maintained at test pressure with most penetrations isolated. Since penetrations typically employ dual isolation, the possibility exists for the inner isolation to leak while the outer holds. In this case, the ILRT instrumentation system would indicate containment out-leakage when, in fact, only the inner volume between closures is being pressurized. The problem is compounded because this false leakage is not readily observable outside of containment by standard leak inspection techniques. The inner volume leakage eventually subsides after the affected volumes reach test pressure. Depending on the magnitude of leakage and the size of the volumes, equalization could occur prior to the end of the pretest stabilization period, or significant false leakages may persist throughout the entire test. Two simple analyses were performed to quantify the effects of inside volume leakages. First, a lower bound for the equalization time was found. A second analysis was performed to find an approximate upper bound for the stabilization time. The results of both analyses are shown

  3. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Anand N; Brant, William O

    2016-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED.

  4. [Neurogenic communication disorders: how effective are relaxation therapy and acupuncture?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M

    2008-12-01

    Not only neurologists but also ENT-physicians and phoniatricians have to prescribe speech and language therapy for patients with communication disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity among patients. Many studies have investigated these procedures and positive effects on certain physical e. g., chronic pain and anxiety disorders could be validated. Unfortunately only few empirical investigations have targeted the use of CAM to treat neurogenic disorders of communication or cognition. In this review we provide an overview over general therapeutical principals of two widely used approaches, relaxation therapy and acupuncture. Then we survey the literature and summarize existent research literature regarding the effects of the treatment of neurogenic disorders including dementia.

  5. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  6. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  7. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... to these general questions by distinguishing between two concepts: mediation and mediatization. The media effects tradition generally considers the effects of the media to be a result of individuals being exposed to media content, i.e. effects are seen as an outcome of mediated communication. Mediatization...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction...

  8. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates.

  9. Exosomes as novel regulators of adult neurogenic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Batiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles. SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate rostrally into the olfactory bulb. The process of adult neurogenesis persists throughout life and is supported by a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs, which reside in a unique and specialized microenvironment known as neurogenic niche. Neurogenic niches are structured by a complex organization of different cell types, including the NSC-neuron lineage, glial cells and vascular cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication plays a key role in the dynamic modulation of homeostasis and plasticity of the adult neurogenic process. Specific cell-cell contacts and extracellular signals originated locally provide the necessary support and regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Furthermore, extracellular signals originated at distant locations, including other brain regions or systemic organs, may reach the niche through the cerebrospinal fluid or the vasculature and influence its nature. The role of several secreted molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, in the biology of adult NSCs, has been systematically addressed. Interestingly, in addition to these well-recognized signals, a novel type of intercellular messengers has been identified recently: the extracellular vesicles (EVs. EVs, and particularly exosomes, are implicated in the transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, proteins and lipids between cells and thus are able to modify the function of recipient cells. Exosomes appear to play a significant role in different stem cell niches such as the mesenchymal stem cell niche, cancer stem cell niche and pre-metastatic niche; however, their roles in adult

  10. CRMP5 regulates generation and survival of newborn neurons in olfactory and hippocampal neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Veyrac

    Full Text Available The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate gyrus (DG. During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/- mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  11. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  12. Clinical and Treatment Features of Orbital Neurogenic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and treatment features of orbital neurogenic tumors. Material and Method: The records of 35 patients with orbital neurogenic tumors who were diagnosed and treated at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, between 1998 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Orbitotomy via a cutaneous approach was performed in 21 (60% cases and orbitotomy via a transconjunctival approach was performed in 7 (20% cases. Three (8% cases had been operated at different centers. Four (12% cases were diagnosed clinically. Total excisional biopsy was performed in 11 (31.4% cases, subtotal excisional biopsy was performed in 7 (20%, and incisional biopsy was performed in 10 (28.6% cases. 14 (40% 35 cases were diagnosed as meningioma, 12 (34% as peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and 9 (26% cases were diagnosed as optic nerve glioma. Six (43% meningioma cases were optic nerve sheath meningioma, 5 (36% were sphenoid wing meningioma, 2 (14% were ectopic meningioma, and 1 (7% was perisellar meningioma. Six (50% of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were schwannoma, 2 (16% were solitary neurofibroma, 4 (34% were plexiform neurofibroma. External beam radiotherapy was performed in 15 (42.8% cases, cyberknife radiosurgery in 1 (2.8% , chemotherapy in 1 (2.8%, and enucleation ( because of neovascular glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage was performed in 1 (2.8% case. Discussion: The most common orbital neurogenic tumors are meningioma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and optic nerve glioma. For meningioma and glioma, external beam radiotherapy is required; for schwannoma and solitary neurofibroma, total excisional biopsy is the preferred treatment. The success of visual and anatomic results are high after treatment. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 335-9

  13. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... cells (SGC) and Schwann cells; the first two have before been studied in vitro separately. Culture of rat TG provides a method to induce inflammation and the possibility to evaluate the different cell types in the TG simultaneously. We investigated expression levels of various inflammatory cytokines...

  14. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scola Rosana Herminia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 3-1/2-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA. The serum muscle enzimes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.

  15. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  16. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  17. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  19. Automation of unit for leakage test

    OpenAIRE

    LYCHKOVSKAYA V.S.; TSYGANKOV A.S.; GRINBERG G.M.; STANOVOVA O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Federal state educational standard requirements for training of university students have been considered. Leakage test procedures for components of aerospace vehicles have been described. Automation procedures of existing laboratory leakage test units have been outlined.

  20. The effect of intravesical oxybutynin on the ice water test and on electrical perception thresholds in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Tom David; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The C-fiber-mediated bladder-cooling reflex and the determination of the current perception thresholds (CPTs) permit to investigate afferent LUT pathways. They have both been proposed to detect and differentiate neurologic bladder dysfunction. This study evaluates, prospectively, the effect of oxybutynin, an antimuscarinic with direct antispasmodic effect on smooth muscle, on repeated ice water test (IWT) and CPTs in patients with a known incomplete neurogenic bladder. Patients with a known incomplete lesion of the bladder innervation, detrusor overactivity during cystometric bladder filling and a continuous positive response to repeated IWT were included. After the initial tests, 30 mg intravesical oxybutynin (1 mg/ml) was instilled and left in the bladder for 15 min. Afterwards CPTs and IWT were re-assessed. After the drug application, the bladder-cooling reflex could not be initiated, even after three instillations, in 16/17 patients. The bladder CPT increased from 29.7 +/- 11.3 to 39.1 +/- 15.7 mA after oxybutynin (P = 0.001). No difference was found in CPT of the left forearm (P = 0.208). Intravesical oxybutynin blocks the bladder-cooling reflex and increases but does not block CPT sensation in the bladder in most patients with incomplete neurogenic lesion and detrusor overactivity. These results help explain the clinical effect of intravesical oxybutynin in neurogenic patients. They also indicate that a pharmacological local influence on C-fiber-related activity can give different clinical effects. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Issues behind Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the vulnerability of heavy industry to carbon leakage and competitiveness loss. It reviews the existing literature on competitiveness and carbon leakage under uneven climate policies. It also suggests a statistical method to track carbon leakage, and applies this methodology to Phase I of the EU emissions trading scheme, for various industrial activities: iron and steel, cement, aluminium and refineries. Finally, it reviews measures to mitigate carbon leakage, as discussed in Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and the US.

  2. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  3. Simulation of leakage through mechanical sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomorov, V. P.; Gorlenko, O. A.; Izmerov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The procedure of mathematical modeling of leakage through the mechanical seal taking into account waviness and roughness is considered. The percolation process is represented as the sum of leakages through a gap between wavy surfaces and percolation through gaps formed by fractal roughness, i.e. the total leakage is determined by the slot model and filtration leakage. Dependences of leaks on the contact pressure of corrugated and rough surfaces of the mechanical seal elements are presented.

  4. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  5. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  6. Bibliometric profile of neurogenic bladder in the literature: a 20-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction of the lower urinary tract caused by nervous system disorder. We investigated the trends in publication of articles under the topic "neurogenic bladder" using bibliometric analysis. Articles on neurogenic bladder, published between 1995 and 2014, were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science citation database. We analyzed the search results for authors, countries, institutions, journals, and top-cited papers. A total of 1,904 articles were retrieved. There was a small increase in the number of articles on neurogenic bladder from 1995 (n = 43 to 2014 (n = 117. The USA was the leading country in the total number of articles (n = 598. However, the number of publications from China has rapidly increased, and China was ranked second in 2014. Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler (n = 65 was the most productive author, and University of Paris VI (Paris 6 (n = 61 was the most productive institution. The Journal of Urology published the greatest number of articles on this topic (n = 285. Articles on neurogenic bladder were often published in a professional journal under the category Urology & Nephrology, Neurosciences & Neurology, or Rehabilitation. Visualization analysis based on co-citation networks was conducted using CiteSpace III. Visualization analysis revealed that the hot spots in neurogenic bladder were botulinum toxin-A, prazosin, bethanechol, and afferent pathways. These findings provide new insight into the publication trends and hot spots in neurogenic bladder.

  7. Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Stamatiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.

  8. Endobronchial neurogenic tumor: A combination of traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuromas are uncommon and benign lesions arising from a peripheral nerve injury during surgery. Here we describe a case with histopathologic features of both a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma in a patient without integumentary physical exam findings nor prior surgical history. A 54 year old male was admitted for surgical debridement of a foot ulcer. During pre-operative evaluation and review of imaging multiple CT scans revealed a stable, 4 mm endobronchial lesion in the left lower lobe. Given history of nicotine abuse, bronchoscopy was performed. Bronchoscopy showed a pearly, polypoid lesion. Histopathological results showed strong positivity for S-100 protein and spindle cell proliferation. Repeat CT chest showed no new lesions in the bronchial tree. The rarity of this case is noted not only by the limited number of bronchial neurogenic tumors, but the combined features in this case of a traumatic neuroma and neurofibroma which has not been described.

  9. Surgical Management of Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Elliott, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function. Complications are common in this subgroup of patients requiring enduring commitments from surgeons, patients, and their caretakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients with neurogenic bladder that were treated at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in the period 2003-2008. The first group of children received medicamentous therapy and the second group received medicamentous therapy with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. In both groups we evaluated 4 symptoms: daily enuresis, enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency and 4 urodynamic parameters: lower bladder capacity, unstable contractions and residual urine and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Follow-up urodynamic evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results Our findings pointed out a high statistical significance of improvement in all evaluated urodynamic parameters of neurogenic bladder (predominantly in bladder capacity in the group of children with combined therapy as well in resolution of symptoms (predominantly enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency. Conclusion Combined therapy is more efficient in treatment of children with neurogenic bladder. Electrotherapy is non-invasive, easily applicable and has had a significant place in treatment of children with dysfunctional voiding.

  11. Synostosis Between Pubic Bones due to Neurogenic, Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1 temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2 occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3 complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4 synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification..Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this

  12. Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, S.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative competitive disadvantage to Annex B countries of restricting greenhouse gas emissions. The economic intuition behind this mechanism is explored in a theoretical analysis. It is then analyzed numerically using a CGE model. The results indicate that, assuming appropriate accounting for leakage and under realistic assumptions on CDM activity, the CDM has the potential to reduce the magnitude of carbon leakage by around three fifths

  13. Valve packing leakage monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    A device for monitoring leakage of fluid across a seal in a component connected to a pressurized fluid system including a housing having a chamber with an inlet for receiving fluid leaking across the seal and an outlet. A positioning means is connected to an orifice plug so as to move the plug for permitting the fluid to be discharged through the orifice at the same rate at which it enters the first chamber and means for detecting the movement of the plug is provided to produce and output signal corresponding to the distance moved by the plug and thereby indicate flow rate. The positioning means compromise a piston attached to the plug by a hollow tube and springs, which at low flow rates locate the piston. When flow increases sufficiently pressure increases and urges the piston upwards. A magnetic portion of tube actuates a succession of proximity switches to indicate flow rate. (author)

  14. Myopathy in CRPS-I: disuse or neurogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, Natalie M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van den Dungen, Jan J A M; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A

    2009-08-01

    The diagnosis Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is based on clinical symptoms, including motor symptoms. Histological changes in muscle tissue may be present in the chronic phase of CRPS-I. Aim of this study was to analyze skeletal muscle tissue from amputated limbs of patients with CRPS-I, in order to gain more insight in factors that may play a role in changes in muscles in CRPS-I. These changes may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of CRPS-I. Fourteen patients with therapy resistant and longstanding CRPS-I, underwent an amputation of the affected limb. In all patients histological analysis showed extensive changes in muscle tissue, such as fatty degeneration, fibre atrophy and nuclear clumping, which was not related to duration of CRPS-I prior to amputation. In all muscles affected, both type 1 and type 2 fibre atrophy was found, without selective type 2 fibre atrophy. In four patients, type grouping was observed, indicating a sequence of denervation and reinnervation of muscle tissue. In two patients even large group atrophy was present, suggesting new denervation after reinnervation. Comparison between subgroups in arms and legs showed no difference in the number of changes in muscle tissue. Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were affected equally. Our findings show that in the chronic phase of CRPS-I extensive changes can be seen in muscle tissue, not related to duration of CRPS-I symptoms. Signs of neurogenic myopathy were present in five patients.

  15. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  16. Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Henders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  17. Dorsal Vagal Complex Modulates Neurogenic Airway Inflammation in a Guinea Pig Model With Esophageal Perfusion of HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER is involved in the esophageal–bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD and substance P (SP expression in the airway. Neuronal activity was indicated by Fos expression in the DVC. The neural pathways from the lower esophagus to the DVC and the DVC to the airway were identified using DiI tracing and pseudorabies virus Bartha (PRV-Bartha retrograde tracing, respectively. HCl perfusion significantly increased plasma extravasation, SP expression in the trachea, and the expression of SP and Fos in the medulla oblongata nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. The microinjection of glutamic acid (Glu or exogenous SP to enhance neuronal activity in the DVC significantly potentiated plasma extravasation and SP release induced by intra-esophageal perfusion. The microinjection of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, lidocaine to inhibit neuronal activity or anti-SP serum in the DVC alleviated plasma extravasation and SP release. In conclusion, airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of HCl is regulated by DVC. This study provides new insight for the mechanism of airway neurogenic inflammation related to GER.

  18. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahham, A.; Sharabati, A.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm -1 with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm -2 . Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm -2 . The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm -2 , and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 μWcm -1 recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age. (authors)

  19. Leakage-resilient cryptography from minimal assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; López-Alt, Adriana; Wee, Hoeteck

    2013-01-01

    We present new constructions of leakage-resilient cryptosystems, which remain provably secure even if the attacker learns some arbitrary partial information about their internal secret key. For any polynomial ℓ, we can instantiate these schemes so as to tolerate up to ℓ bits of leakage. While the...

  20. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  1. Actions of rilmenidine on neurogenic hypertension in BPH/2J genetically hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristy L; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Nguyen-Huu, Thu-Phuc; Davern, Pamela J; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-03-01

    BPH/2J hypertensive mice have an exaggerated sympathetic contribution to blood pressure (BP). Premotor sympathetic neurons within the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are a major source of sympathetic vasomotor tone and major site of action of the centrally acting sympatholytic agent, rilmenidine. The relative cardiovascular effect of rilmenidine in BPH/2J versus normotensive BPN/3J mice was used as an indicator of the involvement of the RVLM in the sympathetic contribution to hypertension in BPH/2J mice. BPH/2J and BPN/3J mice were pre-implanted with telemetry devices to measure BP in conscious unrestrained mice. Rilmenidine was administered acutely (n=7-9/group), orally for 14 days, at a wide range of doses (n=5/group), and also infused intracerebroventricularly for 7 days (n=6/group). Acute intraperitoneal rilmenidine induced greater depressor and bradycardic responses in BPH/2J than BPN/3J mice (PstrainBPH/2J mice during the dark (active) period (-6.5 ± 2 mmHg; P=0.006). Chronic orally administered rilmenidine (1-12 mg/kg per day) also had minimal effect on 24-h BP in both strains (P>0.16). The sympathetic vasomotor inhibitory effect of rilmenidine is minimal in both strains and similar in hypertensive BPH/2J and BPN/3J mice. Thus, hypertension in BPH/2J mice is not likely mediated by greater neuronal activity in the RVLM, and agents such as rilmenidine would be an ineffective treatment for this form of neurogenic hypertension.

  2. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  3. The reliability of differentiating neurogenic claudication from vascular claudication based on symptomatic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mélissa; Rosas-Arellano, M Patricia; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Taylor, David C; Grewal, Ruby; Lawlor, D Kirk; Bailey, Chris S

    2013-12-01

    Intermittent claudication can be neurogenic or vascular. Physicians use a profile based on symptom attributes to differentiate the 2 types of claudication, and this guides their investigations for diagnosis of the underlying pathology. We evaluated the validity of these symptom attributes in differentiating neurogenic from vascular claudication. Patients with a diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) or peripheral vascular disease (PVD) who reported claudication answered 14 questions characterizing their symptoms. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) for neurogenic and vascular claudication for each symptom attribute. We studied 53 patients. The most sensitive symptom attribute to rule out LSS was the absence of "triggering of pain with standing alone" (sensitivity 0.97, NLR 0.050). Pain alleviators and symptom location data showed a weak clinical significance for LSS and PVD. Constellation of symptoms yielded the strongest associations: patients with a positive shopping cart sign whose symptoms were located above the knees, triggered with standing alone and relieved with sitting had a strong likelihood of neurogenic claudication (PLR 13). Patients with symptoms in the calf that were relieved with standing alone had a strong likelihood of vascular claudication (PLR 20.0). The classic symptom attributes used to differentiate neurogenic from vascular claudication are at best weakly valid independently. However, certain constellation of symptoms are much more indicative of etiology. These results can guide general practitioners in their evaluation of and investigation for claudication.

  4. Leakage of caesium braquitherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In several Venezuelan public hospitals where cervix uteri tumours are treated by intracavitary radiotherapy, that use manual after loading Fletcher method, with Caesium 137 sources, the use of improper source holders, locally manufactured from pieces of drainage plastic tubing, which deteriorated and created a corrosive environment all around the sources, omission of manufacturer's recommendations regarding corrosion information, source storage, inspection and testing, violation of International Atomic Energy Agency Radiation Protection Procedures, and lack of proper regulatory control, resulted integrity damage to about sixty special form sources (ISO2919 C 63322), leakage of Cs-137 from a supposed insoluble refractory active content (caesium silicoaluminate), and contamination of applicators, floors and bedding. When the situation was detected by means removal contamination tests, after routine inspections, the sources were removed from the hospitals, decontaminated by means of immersion in 3% EDTA solution in ultrasonic bath, subjected to leaking assessment tests, and the ones that passed were placed in low cost stainless steel source holders, designed and built by the instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) returned to the hospitals. The leaking sources were removed from use and considered radioactive waste. In order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, all the importers of such sources are now required to send them to IVIC for testing and placement in proper source holders, before they are shipped to the hospitals. (author)

  5. Climate Policy and Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the effects of the EU emissions trading scheme on the aluminium sector (i.e. competitiveness loss and carbon leakage). With its very high electricity intensity, primary aluminium stands out in the heavy industry picture: a sector whose emissions are not capped in the present EU ETS, European aluminium smelters still stand to lose profit margins and, possibly, market shares, as electricity prices increase following CO2 caps on generators' emissions - the famous pass-through of CO2 prices into electricity prices. The analysis includes a method of quantification of this issue, based on two indicators: profit margins and trade flows. As the EU is at the forefront of such policy, the paper provides policy messages to all countries on how trade exposed energy-intensive industries can be 'moved' by carbon constraint. This also is a contentious topic in Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and the US, where ambitious climate policies -- including cap-and-trade systems -- are currently debated.

  6. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage remains a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. Patient and procedure related risk factors for anastomotic leakage have been identified. However, the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. Among these, ischemia and insufficient surgical technique have been suggested to play a central role. Animal models are valuable means to evaluate pathophysiological mechanisms and may be used to test preventive measures aiming at reducing the risk of anastomotic leakage, such as external anastomotic coating. The aim of this thesis was to: Clarify the best suited animal to model clinical anastomotic leakage in humans; Create animal models mimicking anastomotic leakage in humans induced by insufficient surgical technique and tissue ischemia; Determine the best suited coating materials to prevent anastomotic leakage. This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal physiology and anatomy of experimental animals were identified. The results indicated that the mouse and the pig are the best suited animals to evaluate clinical anastomotic leakage. However, the pig model is less validated and more costly to use compared with the mouse. Most frequently, rats are used as models. However, extreme interventions are needed to create clinical leakage in these animals. The knowledge from this study formed the basis for selecting the animal species most suited for the models in the next studies. STUDY 2: In this experimental study, technically insufficient colonic anastomoses were performed in 110 C57BL/6 mice. The number of sutures in the intervention group was reduced to produce a suitable leakage rate. Moreover, the analgesia and suture material were changed in order to optimize the

  7. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  8. Two cases of neurogenic paralysis in medieval skeletal samples from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario; Čavka, Mislav; Šlaus, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Osteological changes consistent with neurogenic paralysis were observed in one male and one female skeleton recovered from two Croatian medieval sites - Virje and Zadar. Both skeletons display limb asymmetry typical of neurogenic paralysis that occurs during the childhood. The male skeleton displays atrophy and shortening of the right arm and the right femur, while the female skeleton exhibits identical changes on the right arm and both legs. Additionally, both skeletons exhibit scoliotic changes of the spine, and the female skeleton also displays bilateral hip dysplasia. Differential diagnosis included disorders such as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, cerebrovascular accident, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. These are the first cases of neurogenic paralysis (cerebral palsy and/or paralytic poliomyelitis) identified in Croatian archeological series. The Virje skeleton is only the third case of hemiplegia identified from archeological contexts (first with spinal scoliosis), while the Zadar skeleton represents the first case of triplegia reported in the paleopathological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation for neurogenic hypoventilation in Arnold Chiari malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long- term ventilator dependence in patients with neurogenic hypoventilation is associated with significant morbidity and restricts mobility. Diaphragmatic pacing by phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS is a viable alternative. This is a case report of patient with Arnold-Chiari malformation with extensive syrinx who had neurogenic hypoventilation during sleep even after foramen magnum decompression and resolution of the syrinx. Unilateral PNS was done using spinal cord stimulator. With intermittent stimulation for 8 h while asleep, patient could be weaned off the ventilator completely. At 2 years follow- up, patient is ambulant and has returned to his routine activities. PNS is a good treatment tool in patients with neurogenic hypoventilation. Spinal cord stimulator can be used with optimal results. This is first such reported case of using spinal cord stimulator for PNS from India.

  10. X-ray diagnostic sign for the differentiation of neurogenic and primary muscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.; Gallai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an account of X-ray examinations of the limb musculature of 70 patients suffering from neurogenic muscular diseases, 42 suffering from primary muscular diseases and 45 suffering from senile degeneration of the muscles. Different degree of damage to different parts of the same muscle could only been observed in one case of neurogenic atrophy (in the postpoliomyelitic states) and in two cases of senile degeneration, while it was found in 11 cases (20%) for the other muscular diseases. In the latter cases the more severe muscle damage, which could be demonstrated radiographically, was always found in the part of the muscle adjacent to a tendon. On the above reasons the authors consider that radiographically demonstrable partial or uneven damage to any particular muscle can be used as a new diagnostical information in distinguishing muscular diseases from neurogenic muscular atrophy. (orig.) [de

  11. Intravesical prostatic protrusion correlates well with storage symptoms in elderly male patients with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yen Lu

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In elderly male patients with non-neurogenic OAB, more severe storage symptoms are associated with a lower maximum flow rate and a more prominent IPP, indicating that a significant cause of male non-neurogenic OAB is prostate associated.

  12. Botulinum toxin A for treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs).......To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs)....

  13. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  14. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  15. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Signal attenuation due to cavity leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.H.; Modera, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of sound waves in fluids requires information about three properties of the system: capacitance (compressibility), resistance (friction), and inductance (inertia). Acoustical design techniques to date have tended to ignore the frictional effects associated with airflow across the envelope of the acoustic cavity (e.g., resistive vents). Since such leakage through the cavity envelope is best expressed with a power law dependence on the pressure, standard Fourier techniques that rely on linearity cannot be used. In this article, the theory relevant to nonlinear leakage is developed and equations presented. Potential applications of the theory to techniques for quantifying the leakage of buildings are presented. Experimental results from pressure decays in a full-scale test structure are presented and the leakage so measured is compared with independent measurements to demonstrate the technique

  17. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  18. Electroplating eliminates gas leakage in brazed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Electroplating method seals brazed or welded joints against gas leakage under high pressure. Any conventional electroplating process with many different metal anodes can be used, as well as the build up of layers of different metals to any required thickness.

  19. Analysis of ONKALO water leakage mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J; Turku, J.

    2014-04-01

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis has been compiled of water leakage mapping performed in ONKALO. Leakage mapping is part of the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) and the field work has been carried out by Posiva Oy. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between mapping campaigns carried out typically twice a year in 2005-2012. Differences were estimated to be caused by the differences in groundwater conditions caused by seasonal effects or by differences between the years. The effect of technical changes like shotcreting, postgrouting, ventilation etc. on the results was also studied. The development of the visualisation of mapping results was also an objective of this work. Leakage mapping results have been reported yearly in the monitoring reports of Hydrology with some brief comments on the detected differences. In this study, the development of the total area and the number of different leakages as well as the correlation of changes with shotcreting and grouting operations were studied. In addition, traces of fractures on tunnel surfaces, and the location of rock bolts and drain pipes were illustrated together with leakage mapping. In water leakage mapping, the tunnel surfaces are visually mapped to five categories: dry, damp, wet, dripping and flowing. Major changes were detected in the total area of damp leakages. It is likely that the increase has been caused by the condensation of warm ventilation air on the tunnel surfaces and the corresponding decrease by the evaporation of moisture into the dry ventilation air. Shotcreting deep in ONKALO may also have decreased the total area of damp leakages. Changes in the total area and number of wet leakages correlate at least near the surface with differences in yearly precipitation. It is possible that strong rains have also caused a temporary increase in wet leakages. Dripping and wet leakages have been observed on average more

  20. Analysis of ONKALO water leakage mapping results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J; Turku, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis has been compiled of water leakage mapping performed in ONKALO. Leakage mapping is part of the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) and the field work has been carried out by Posiva Oy. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between mapping campaigns carried out typically twice a year in 2005-2012. Differences were estimated to be caused by the differences in groundwater conditions caused by seasonal effects or by differences between the years. The effect of technical changes like shotcreting, postgrouting, ventilation etc. on the results was also studied. The development of the visualisation of mapping results was also an objective of this work. Leakage mapping results have been reported yearly in the monitoring reports of Hydrology with some brief comments on the detected differences. In this study, the development of the total area and the number of different leakages as well as the correlation of changes with shotcreting and grouting operations were studied. In addition, traces of fractures on tunnel surfaces, and the location of rock bolts and drain pipes were illustrated together with leakage mapping. In water leakage mapping, the tunnel surfaces are visually mapped to five categories: dry, damp, wet, dripping and flowing. Major changes were detected in the total area of damp leakages. It is likely that the increase has been caused by the condensation of warm ventilation air on the tunnel surfaces and the corresponding decrease by the evaporation of moisture into the dry ventilation air. Shotcreting deep in ONKALO may also have decreased the total area of damp leakages. Changes in the total area and number of wet leakages correlate at least near the surface with differences in yearly precipitation. It is possible that strong rains have also caused a temporary increase in wet leakages. Dripping and wet leakages have been observed on average more

  1. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Carbon leakage from a Nordic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess-Schmidt, S.; Hansen, Martin Bo; Sand Kirk, J. [Copenhagen Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon pricing is generally considered a highly effective tool in reducing carbon emissions. Putting a price on carbon provides incentives for users and producers of fossil fuels to reduce consumption and develop low carbon products and processes. However, pursuing an ambitious climate policy can lead to carbon leakage, which refers to a situation where unilateral or regional climate change policy drives the relocation of industry investments and installations, and associated emissions, to third countries. This report by Copenhagen Economics has been commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers to give an overview of the industries at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic countries, and estimate the expected extent of carbon leakage from unilateral climate policies in the Nordic countries. The report also assesses available policy options that may reduce the risk of carbon leakage, such as exemptions from energy tax and exemptions from quota obligations under green certificate schemes. The key drivers of carbon leakage are identified, which include energy intensity, product differentiation, transportation costs and capital intensity. The analysis suggests that industries such as paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and fertilizers are most at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic manufacturing sector. (Author)

  3. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Sofia; Menezes, Sónia; Silva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential.

  5. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  6. Longterm quiescent cells in the aged human subventricular neurogenic system specifically express GFAP-delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, S.A.; Middeldorp, J.; Zhang, C.E.; Curtis, M.A.; Leonard, B.W.; Mastroeni, D.; Voorn, P.; van de Berg, W.D.J.; Huitinga, I.; Hol, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    A main neurogenic niche in the adult human brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ). Recent data suggest that the progenitors that are born in the human SVZ migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB), similar to what has been observed in other mammals. A

  7. Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium Associated with Acute Spinal Cord Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A. Beauchamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM is a reversible cardiomyopathy resulting in transient left ventricular apical ballooning presumed to result from catecholamine surge occurring under physiologic stress. Acute spinal cord ischemia is a rare ischemic vascular lesion. We report a case of neurogenic stunned myocardium occurring in the setting of acute spinal cord infarction. Methods. Singe case report was used. Results. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with a history of prior lacunar stroke, hypertension, chronic back pain, and hypothyroidism who presented with a brief episode of diffuse abdominal and bilateral lower extremity pain which progressed within minutes to bilateral lower extremity flaccid paralysis. MRI of the spinal cord revealed central signal hyperintensity of T2-weighted imaging from conus to T8 region, concerning for acute spinal cord ischemia. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to determine if a cardiac embolic phenomenon may have precipitated this ischemic event and showed left ventricular apical hypokinesis and ballooning concerning for NSM. Conclusion. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a reversible cardiomyopathy which has been described in patients with physiologic stress resulting in ventricular apical ballooning. Our case suggests that it is possible for neurogenic stunned myocardium to occur in the setting of acute spinal cord ischemia.

  8. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  9. Pickering unit 1 containment leakage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the design pressure test carried out on Pickering Reactor Building number 1 during late 1992 showed that the leakage rate of the building was close to the safety analysis value of 2.7% contained mass per hour at the design pressure of 41.4 kPa(g) and was significantly higher than that reported after the previous test conducted in the spring of 1987. This unexpected finding initiated the longest and the most comprehensive containment leakage investigation ever undertaken by Ontario Hydro. A thorough investigation of leakage behaviour by repeated testing, inspections, leak search and analysis was launched. The extensive leak search effort included items such as: leak source detection by soap solution application, use of ultrasonic detectors, fogging and tracer gas techniques, systematic systems isolation, thermal imaging of the exterior, and quantification of leak sites by flowmeter and bagging. Using a specially designed volumetric technique, the root cause of the problem was finally confirmed as being due to 'pressure dependent laminar leakage' through the hairline cracks in the dome concrete. Structural analysis indicated that the thermal gradients and pressure loading combined to cause the cracking early in the structure's operating history and that overall structural integrity has not been compromised. Leakage rate analysis using a new fluid mechanics model augmented by the effect of thermal strains indicated that the leakage could be significantly less under certain transient temperature gradient conditions. Several options for repairing the dome were considered by a multidisciplinary team and it was finally decided to apply a specially engineered multilayer elastomeric coating to the exterior concrete surface. When the unit was re-tested in October 1993, a dramatic ten-fold improvement in leakage rate (down to 0.25%/h at design pressure) was observed. This is lower than even the commissioning results and comparable to the performance of newer units

  10. How to attribute market leakage to CDM projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vöhringer, F.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Economic studies suggest that market leakage rates of greenhouse gas abatement can reach the two-digit percentage range. Although the Marrakesh Accords require Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects to account for leakage, most projects neglect market leakage. Insufficient leakage accounting is

  11. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  12. Neurogenética en el Perú, ejemplo de investigación traslacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mazzetti

    Full Text Available La neurogenética es una disciplina emergente en el Perú que vincula la investigación básica con la práctica clínica. El Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, es el único centro en el Perú dedicado a la atención especializada de enfermedades neurogenéticas. La investigación en esta área está estrechamente ligada a la enfermedad de Huntington, desde la genotipificación del gen HTT por PCR, hasta los actuales estudios de haplogrupos en esta enfermedad. La investigación en otras enfermedades monogénicas permitió la implementación de metodologías alternativas para la genotipificación del síndrome X frágil y distrofia miotónica tipo 1. Esfuerzos colaborativos nacionales e internacionales han permitido conocer nuevas variantes genéticas en enfermedades complejas, como la enfermedad de Parkinson y Alzheimer. El entrenamiento multidisciplinario y la mentoría fomentan la formación de nuevos especialistas en neurogenética, permitiendo el crecimiento sostenido de esta disciplina en el país. El impulso de la investigación en el Perú ha impulsado el crecimiento de la investigación en neurogenética; sin embargo, las limitaciones en infraestructura, tecnología y capacitación aún son un reto para el crecimiento de investigación en esta disciplina

  13. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack

  14. Sustainable management of leakage from wastewater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, D; Burn, S; Tjandraatmadja, G; Moglia, M; Davis, P; Wolf, L; Held, I; Vollertsen, J; Williams, W; Hafskjold, L

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater pipeline leakage is an emerging concern in Europe, especially with regards to the potential effect of leaking effluent on groundwater contamination and the effects infiltration has on the management of sewer reticulation systems. This paper describes efforts by Australia, in association with several European partners, towards the development of decision support tools to prioritize proactive rehabilitation of wastewater pipe networks to account for leakage. In the fundamental models for the decision support system, leakage is viewed as a function of pipeline system deterioration. The models rely on soil type identification across the service area to determine the aggressiveness of the pipe environment and for division of the area into zones based on pipe properties and operational conditions. By understanding the interaction between pipe materials, operating conditions, and the pipe environment in the mechanisms leading to pipe deterioration, the models allow the prediction of leakage rates in different zones across a network. The decision support system utilizes these models to predict the condition of pipes in individual zones, and to optimize the utilization of rehabilitation resources by targeting the areas with the highest leakage rates.

  15. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  16. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  17. Leakage-Resilient Circuits without Computational Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Physical cryptographic devices inadvertently leak information through numerous side-channels. Such leakage is exploited by so-called side-channel attacks, which often allow for a complete security breache. A recent trend in cryptography is to propose formal models to incorporate leakage...... on computational assumptions, our results are purely information-theoretic. In particular, we do not make use of public key encryption, which was required in all previous works...... into the model and to construct schemes that are provably secure within them. We design a general compiler that transforms any cryptographic scheme, e.g., a block-cipher, into a functionally equivalent scheme which is resilient to any continual leakage provided that the following three requirements are satisfied...

  18. Markovian Processes for Quantitative Information Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio

    Quantification of information leakage is a successful approach for evaluating the security of a system. It models the system to be analyzed as a channel with the secret as the input and an output as observable by the attacker as the output, and applies information theory to quantify the amount...... and randomized processes with Markovian models and to compute their information leakage for a very general model of attacker. We present the QUAIL tool that automates such analysis and is able to compute the information leakage of an imperative WHILE language. Finally, we show how to use QUAIL to analyze some...... of information transmitted through such channel, thus effectively quantifying how many bits of the secret can be inferred by the attacker by analyzing the system’s output. Channels are usually encoded as matrices of conditional probabilities, known as channel matrices. Such matrices grow exponentially...

  19. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the 13 N content in the containment atmosphere. 13 N is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/ 13 N+ 4 He. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium 13 N concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  20. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/Nl3+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  1. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1979-08-01

    The present paper deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process H1+016 → N13+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m -3 and 7 kBq m -3 for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge (Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. (Auth.)

  2. Intra-articular injection of Botulinum toxin A reduces neurogenic inflammation in CFA-induced arthritic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Kaile; Chu, Xiao; Li, Tieshan; Shen, Nana; Fan, Chenglei; Niu, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Xiaochen; Hu, Luoman

    2017-02-01

    Currently, administration of Botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT/A) to treat arthritic pain has promising efficacy in clinical research. However, the mechanisms underlying anti-neurogenic inflammation mediated by BoNT/A remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness in macro and micro levels and to explore the causal mechanism of BoNT/A. Wistar rats (n = 60) were injected with 50ul complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left ankle joint capsule to establish a model of chronic monoarthritis. Pain behaviour (Evoked pain assessment) and infrared thermal imaging testing were performed at the macroscopic level to assess the effectiveness of analgesia and anti-inflammation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used at the microscopic level in an attempt to determine the mechanisms of anti-nociceptive or anti-inflammatory effects of BoNT/A. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin staining was also used to visualise the cartilage and the synovial degenerative conditions of arthritis. By comparing the outcome of the evoked pain test and immunofluorescence staining, there was a significant improvement in BoNT/A compared with the normal saline (NS) injected control group. In addition, thermal variations showed that the temperature of ipsilateral ankle joint increased between 1 and 2 weeks following injection of CFA, but decreased after 3 weeks (still above the contralateral side). However, the temperature showed no difference between the BoNT/A group and NS group after treatment. The expression of IL-1β or TNF-α in the ankle synovial tissue was significantly decreased in the BoNT/A group compared to the NS group (p < 0.05). Based on the HE assessment, cartilage degeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the BoNT/A group was alleviated compared to the NS group after treatment. In conclusion, we proposed the hypothesis that intra-articular BoNT/A administration does play an important role in anti-neurogenic inflammation. The

  3. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attackers...... capable to observe the internal behavior of the system, and quantify the information leakage of such systems. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed and non-timed attacks...

  4. Quantifying Information Leakage of Randomized Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Legay, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model and analyze the information leakage of deterministic and probabilistic systems. We show that this method generalizes the lattice...... of information approach and is a natural framework for modeling refined attackers capable to observe the internal behavior of the system. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed...

  5. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    , whereas the eight-suture control anastomoses had a 0% leakage rate. Furthermore, the use of absorbable suture together with voluntarily ingested Temgesic in chocolate spread as analgesic regimen were feasible. This model may be used to test the leakage reducing potential of coating materials. STUDY 3...... experimental, in which designs were not comparable and many results were contradictory. In a clinical study, a non-significant benefit of fibrin sealant was found. Based on the available clinical and experimental data it was concluded that the fibrin-based sealants, such as Tisseel and Tachosil...

  6. The Leakage determination on corrosion fretting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyono; Satmoko, Ari; Hafid, Abdul; Febrianto; Prasetio, Joko; Abtokhi; Sumarno, Edy; Handoyo, Ismu; Hidayati, Nur Rahmah; Histori

    1998-01-01

    Fretting machine is an experimental loop to learn fretting corrosion phenomena wich is caused by loading and vibration. On the steam generator, one of the corrosion process that's occurred, it can be caused by vibration between tubes and bending material. Because of high flow rate inside the tube, the high frequency vibration will appeared so it can make the corrosion on bending material more faster. This process can be simulate by fretting machine. This machine has already damage because of leakage. So it will be repaired by dismantling, radiography testing and redrawing. from the result of radiography, the leakage is caused by cracking on bellows seals of the dynamic main support

  7. Diagnostic difficulties in the differentiation of neurogenic tumors of the parapharyngeal space in helical CT evaluations: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniewicz-Kaminska, A.; Nowicki, J.; Jazwiec, P.; Kedzierski, B.; Janeczek, T.; Wilczynski, K.; Prudlak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) with contrast infusion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play important roles in establishing the place of origin of neurogenic tumors. In this article we do not compare these two methods, but focus on the crucial role of CT imaging in the estimation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. We present the case of a 50-year-old man with clinical symptoms of peritonsillar abscess, which appeared to be a neurogenic tumor. The images obtained were deemed ambiguous. The possibility of a parotid gland tumor or a tumor of neurogenic origin was assumed. In this case we observed atypical clinical and radiological symptoms. The final diagnosis was based on a combination of radiological, clinical, and microbiological features of the tumor. Thanks to the cooperation of many professionals, we managed to establish the diagnosis of neuroangiofibroma, which exemplifies a tumor of the borderline, including elements of the neurogenic sheath and connective and chromaffin tissue. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, W.A.; Arts, M.P.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Jacobs, W.C.; Peul, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a

  9. HDAC4 preserves skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation by mediating distinct cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Eva; Renzini, Alessandra; Greco, Emanuela; Simonazzi, Elena; Fulle, Stefania; Mancinelli, Rosa; Moresi, Viviana; Adamo, Sergio

    2018-02-24

    Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet. To further study HDAC4 functions in response to denervation, we analyzed mutant mice in which HDAC4 is specifically deleted in skeletal muscle. After an initial phase of resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy, skeletal muscle with a deletion of HDAC4 lost structural integrity after 4 weeks of denervation. Deletion of HDAC4 impaired the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, delayed the autophagic response, and dampened the OS response in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system or the autophagic response, if on the one hand, conferred resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy; on the other hand, induced loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, treatment with the antioxidant drug Trolox prevented loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle, despite the resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy. These results reveal new functions of HDAC4 in mediating skeletal muscle response to denervation and lead us to propose the combined use of HDAC inhibitors and antioxidant drugs to treat neurogenic muscle atrophy.

  10. Integral leakage rate tests of containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, M.; Siefart, E.; Walter, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the integral leakage rate tests of containments. This method, used in conjunction with statistical methods, provides reliable information on the tightness of the containment. This method forms the basis of DIN 25436/KTA 3405. (orig.) [de

  11. Poloidal field leakage optimization in ETE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Carlos Shinya; Montes, Antonio

    1996-12-01

    A very simple but efficient numerical algorithm is used to minimize the Ohmic coil field leakage into the plasma region of the tokamak ETE. After few interactions the code provides the positions and the current required for two pairs of compensation coils. Resulting optimum field intensity distribution is presented and commented. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The concept of leakage in threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Leakage in the context of threat assessment is the communication to a third party of an intent to do harm to a target. Third parties are usually other people, but the means of communication vary, and include letters, diaries, journals, blogs, videos on the internet, emails, voice mails, and other social media forms of transmission. Leakage is a type of warning behavior that typically infers a preoccupation with the target, and may signal the research, planning, and implementation of an attack. Nomothetic data suggest that leakage occurs in a majority of cases of attacks on and assassinations of public figures, adult mass murders, adolescent mass murders, and school or campus shootings: very low-frequency, but catastrophic acts of intended and targeted violence. Idiographic or case data illustrate the various permutations of leakage. We discuss the operational importance of the concept, place it in the context of other warning behaviors, emphasize the need for further research, and outline risk management strategies for the mitigation of such acts of violence in both law enforcement and clinical mental health settings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  14. Radiation leakage in nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Associated with the radiation leakage in MUTSU occurred in September 1974, this report reviews the shielding design for MUTSU, radiation measurement and inspection activities by a survey group, and 2 dimensional analysis on the behavior of fast neutrons to shielding based on Ssub(N) codes. In the first part, the purpose and the structure of the primary and the secondary shields of MUTSU are briefly illustrated. In the second part, the progress of the series of affairs is explained, starting from zero power criticality experiment, through discovery of radiation leakage in output-increasing test, sending of a survey group for various measurement and inspection, and finally to the conclusion drawn by the survey group. In the third part, various numerical analyses performed to investigate into the leakage are illustrated with their results. The transport codes used were ANISN, TWOTRAN, SPAN, and PALLAS-2DCY. As a result of those inspection and calculation, it was found that the radiation leakage was due to fast neutrons coming through the gap between the reactor vessel and the primary shield. (Aoki, K.)

  15. Solving the problem of valve stem leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering solutions to valve stem leakage, in systems carrying expensive heavy water under pressure, have progressed from changing packing brands (failure) to leak collection (partial success) to elimination of small packed valves and an improved valve packing strategy involving stable packing materials, live Belleville spring-loading of packing, and issuance of a detailed stuffing box specification (success). (E.C.B.)

  16. Poloidal field leakage optimization in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Carlos Shinya; Montes, Antonio.

    1996-01-01

    A very simple but efficient numerical algorithm is used to minimize the Ohmic coil field leakage into the plasma region of the tokamak ETE. After few interactions the code provides the positions and the current required for two pairs of compensation coils. Resulting optimum field intensity distribution is presented and commented. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Zero leakage quantization scheme for biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics gain increasing interest as a solution for many security issues, but privacy risks exist in case we do not protect the stored templates well. This paper presents a new verification scheme, which protects the secrets of the enrolled users. We will show that zero leakage is achieved if

  18. A systematic review and comparison of questionnaires in the management of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, B; Stothers, L; Macnab, A; Lazare, D; Nigro, M

    2016-03-01

    Validated questionnaires are increasingly the preferred method used to obtain historical information. Specialized questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic disease including neurogenic bladder. Those currently available are systematically reviewed and their potential for clinical and research use are described. A systematic search via Medline and PubMed using the key terms questionnaire(s) crossed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) for the years 1946 to January 22, 2014 inclusive. Additional articles were selected from review of references in the publications identified. Only peer reviewed articles published in English were included. 18 questionnaires exist validated for patients with neurogenic bladder; 14 related to MS, 3 for SCI, and 1 for neurogenic bladder in general; with 4 cross-validated in both MS and SCI. All 18 are validated for both male and female patients; 59% are available only in English. The domains of psychological impact and physical function are represented in 71% and 76% of questionnaires, respectively. None for the female population included elements to measure symptoms of prolapse. The last decade has seen an expansion of validated questionnaires to document bladder symptoms in neurogenic disease. Disease specific instruments are available for incorporation into the clinical setting for MS and SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. The availability of caregiver and interview options enhances suitability in clinical practice as they can be adapted to various extents of disability. Future developments should include expanded language validation to the top 10 global languages reported by the World Health Organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acoustic control of sodium leakage in valve gates of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trykov, E.L.; Kovtun, S.N.; Anan'ev, A.A.; Yugov, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    Short description of sodium bench and acoustic investigation results on leakage monitoring of valves DN10 and DN40 are given. It is shown that acoustic method can be used successfully to control the leakages of sodium valves. Leakages on both type of valves increase the acoustic signal dispersion by 2-3 orders. For each type of valve acoustic system of leakage determination allows to conduct the preliminary graduation of signal dispersion on the sodium discharge rate. It make possible not only to record the leakage presence but also to determine the sodium discharge rate through the valve during the leakage [ru

  20. Chronic Renal Failure Secondary to Unrecognized Neurogenic Bladder in A Child with Myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shameem; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplasia includes a group of developmental anomalies resulting from defects that occur during neural tube closure. Urological morbidity in patients with myelodysplasia is significant and if not treated appropriately in a timely manner can potentially lead to progressive renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. We report the case of a 13-year old girl with neurogenic bladder who presented chronic renal failure secondary to lipomyelomeningocele with retethering of cord. She was managed with urinary indwelling catheterization until optimization of renal function and then underwent detethering of cord with excision and repair of residual lipomeningomyelocele. Her renal parameters improved gradually over weeks and then were managed on self clean intermittent catheterization. The case emphasizes the need for considering retethering of spinal cord in children with myelodysplasia where symptoms of neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infections occur.

  1. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  2. Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützer, K M; Larsson, A; Risberg, B; Falk, A

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore lung microvascular leakage of protein and water in a feline model of septic shock, using a double isotope technique with external gamma camera detection and gravimetric lung water measurements. The experiments were performed on artificially ventilated cats. One group of cats (n = 8) was given an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria, and another group (n = 5) served as a control group receiving saline. Plasma transferrin was radiolabeled in vivo with indium-113m-chloride, and erythrocytes were labeled with technetium-99m. The distribution of these isotopes in the lungs was continuously measured with a gamma camera. A normalized slope index (NSI) was calculated, indicative of the transferrin accumulation corrected for changes in local blood volume that reflect protein leakage. In the septic group there was a protein leakage after bacterial infusion, with a NSI of 39 x 10(-4) +/- 5 x 10(-4) min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and the PaO2 diminished from 21 +/- 1 to 9.5 +/- 1 kPa. In control cats a slight protein leakage with a NSI of 9 +/- 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-4) min-1 was detected, probably caused by the operative procedure, but PaO2 did not change. Wet-to-dry-weight ratios of postmortem lungs were not significantly different between the groups. It was concluded that an intravenous infusion of live E. coli bacteria induces a lung capillary protein leakage without increased lung water and a concomitantly disturbed gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Surgical Management of Anatomic Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Males with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoff, Toscane C; Groen, Jan; Scheepe, Jeroen R; Blok, Bertil F M

    2018-03-15

    Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trial databases, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for publications until January 2017. A total of 930 abstracts were screened. Eight studies were included. The types of anatomic BOO discussed were benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture, and bladder neck sclerosis. The identified surgical treatments were transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with Parkinson, CVA or SCI, endoscopic treatment of urethral stricture by laser ablation or urethrotomy (mainly in SCI patients), and bladder neck resection (BNR) in SCI patients. The outcome of TURP may be highly variable, and includes persistent or de novo urinary incontinence, regained normal micturition control, and urinary continence. Good results were seen in BNR and endoscopic urethrotomy studies. Laser ablation and cold knife urethrotomy resulted in restarting intermittent catheterization or adequate voiding. Overall, a high risk of bias was found. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature on the outcome of several surgical approaches of different types of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Identifying the optimal practice was impossible due to limited availability of high-quality studies. The outcome of several surgical approaches in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture

  4. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient

  5. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  6. Neurogenic pulmonary edema induced by spinal cord injury in spontaneously hypertensive and Dahl salt hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2011), s. 975-979 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hypertension * neurogenic pulmonary edema * Dahl salt-sensitive rats * SHR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  7. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, R.; Langner, S.; Lippa, M.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N.; Platz, T.

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  9. Pancreatic anastomosis leakage management following pancreaticoduodenectomy how could be manage the anastomosis leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Tabatabei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancreatic anastomosis leakage and fistula formation following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple′s procedure is a common complication. Delay in timely diagnosis and proper management is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To report our experience with management of pancreatic fistula following Whipple′s procedure. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of 90 patients who underwent Whipple′s procedure from 2009 to 2013 at our medical center were reviewed for documents about pancreatic anastomosis leakage and fistula formation. Results: There were 15 patients who developed pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis leakage. In 6 patients (3 males and 3 females the leakage was mild (conservative therapy was administered, but in 9 patients (6 males and 3 females, there was severe leakage. For the latter group, surgical intervention was done (2 cases underwent re-anastomosis and for 7 cases pancreatico-jejunal stump ligation was done along with drainage of the location. Conclusion: In severe pancreatic anastomotic leakage, it is better to intervene surgically as soon as possible by debridement of the distal part of the pancreas and ligation of the stump with nonabsorbable suture. Furthermore, debridement of the jejunum should be done, and the stump should be ligated thoroughly along with drainage.

  10. Incidence and management of pancreatic leakage after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Optimal management of severe pancreatic leakage after pancreatoduodenectomy can reduce morbidity and mortality. Completion pancreatectomy may be adequate but leads to endocrine insufficiency. This study evaluated an alternative management strategy for pancreatic leakage. Methods: Outcome

  11. Multiple leakage localization and leak size estimation in water networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, N.; Habibi, H.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Klabbers, M.D.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Water distribution networks experience considerable losses due to leakage, often at multiple locations simultaneously. Leakage detection and localization based on sensor placement and online pressure monitoring could be fast and economical. Using the difference between estimated and measured

  12. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Akira; Suzuki, Akio.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of the acoustic method for the internal leakage from the valves in power plants. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic method for the monitoring of leakage was feasible. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signals from leakage, we can detect the leakage analyzing the spectrum of the remainders which take the background noise from the acoustic signals. (author)

  13. Performance-based containment leakage testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing regulatory requirements in an effort to revise those that are marginal to safety but impose significant burdens on licensees. Identification of requirements marginal to safety and development and evaluation of alternatives utilize the NRC safety goals and insights from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Since earlier studies found design-basis containment leakage to be a minor contributor to reactor accident risk, containment leakage testing has been selected as a candidate for change in regulations. This paper summarizes the technical analyses supporting the NRC proposal to amend Appendix J of 10 CFR Part 50 as its first effort to decrease unnecessary regulatory burdens on licensees

  14. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  15. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  16. Numerical investigation of tip leakage vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    The Kaplan turbine has a small clearance gap between the blade tip and casing to allow the blades to rotate freely. This clearance gap is the cause of an undesirable Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV). A TLV might reduce the turbine efficiency, erode the turbine blades or cause instabilities for the power output. A literature study indicated that the tip clearance gap was a critical parameter affecting the behavior of the TLV. A research gap was observed for an operating Kaplan turbine where the ...

  17. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  18. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  19. Environmental enrichment, age and PPARα interact to regulate proliferation in neurogenic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita ePerez-Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα-/- mice exposed to nutritional (treats and environmental (games enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+ in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, 18 months. Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα-/- mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα-/--induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα-/- mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments.

  20. [Major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhuo; Hou, Chunlin; Zheng, Xianyou; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Wanhong; Lin, Haodong

    2008-08-01

    To study major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders for the product design and clinical application of the device. One ferrite permanent magnet with thickness and diameter of 3 mm and 10 mm, respectively, and three NdFeB permanent magnets with the thickness of 3 mm and diameter of 10, 15 and 20 mm, respectively, were used. The effects of thickness of the abdominal wall as well as the position and type of permanent magnets on the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders were measured in vitro simulated test, when the abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 cm, respectively. The effect of the geomagnetic field on the device was measured under the condition that the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm, respectively. The value showed in the warning unit was positively correlated with the position of the ferrite permanent magnet only when the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was 2 cm (r=0.632, P NdFeB permanent magnets was significant (r > 0.622, P NdFeB permanent magnets, but weakened with the increasing thickness of the simulated abdominal wall. The effect of the geomagnetic field was correlated with the exposition of the body, the position of the permanent magnet and the thickness of the abdominal wall. The major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladder include the magnetism and location of the permanent magnet, the thickness of the abdominal wall and the geomagnetic field. These factors are correlated with and affect each other. Reasonable allocation of these factors may optimize the device.

  1. Edema pulmonar neurogênico: relato de dois casos Neurogenic pulmonary edema: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desanka Dragosavac

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O edema pulmonar neurogênico é rara e grave complicação de pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE. Pode ocorrer também em outras patologias do sistema nervoso central, tais como acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC, tumores ou após crises epilépticas, entre outras. Foram avaliados 36 casos com TCE grave e quatro pacientes com AVC, internados na UTI geral, no período de janeiro a setembro 1995. Nesse intervalo de tempo foram diagnosticados dois casos de edema pulmonar neurogênico, um ocorrendo em paciente com TCE grave e outro em paciente com AVC hemorrágico. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pelo rápido desenvolvimento de edema pulmonar, com hipoxemia grave, queda da complacência pulmonar e infiltrados difusos bilaterais sem história prévia de aspiração traqueal ou outro fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndrome de angústia respiratória aguda. No primeiro paciente com trauma craniencefálico, o edema neurogênico foi diagnosticado na internação, uma hora após o trauma, com concomitante reação inflamatória grave e boa evolução em três dias. O outro caso, com AVC hemorrágico, desenvolveu edema neurogênico no quarto dia após drenagem de hematoma intraparenquimatoso, evoluindo para o óbito.Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare and serious complication in patients with head injury. It also may develop after a variety of cerebral insults such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumors and after epileptic seizures. Thirty six patients with severe head injury and four patients with cerebrovascular insults treated in Intensive Care Unit of HC-UNICAMP from January to September 1995 were evaluated. In this period there were two patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema, one with head injury and other with intracerebral hemorrhage. Diagnosis was made by rapid onset of pulmonary edema, severe hypoxemia, decrease of pulmonary complacence and diffuse pulmonary infiltrations, without previous history of tracheal

  2. A step-wise approach to sperm retrieval in men with neurogenic anejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Normal fertility is dependent on intravaginal delivery of semen through ejaculation. This process is highly dependent on an intact ejaculatory reflex arc, which can be disrupted through any type of trauma or disease causing damage to the CNS and/or peripheral nerves. Neurogenic anejaculation...... is most commonly associated with spinal cord injury. This aetiology is especially relevant because most men with spinal cord injuries are injured at reproductive age. Assisted ejaculation in the form of penile vibratory stimulation is the first choice for sperm retrieval in such patients because...

  3. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  4. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  5. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  6. Valve leakage inspection testing and maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Reinwald, J.W.; Kittmer, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    In valve maintenance, packing rings that prevent leakage along the valve stem must periodically be replaced, either during routine maintenance or to correct a leak or valve malfunction. Tools and procedures currently in use for valve packing removal and inspection are generally of limited value due to various access and application problems. A process has been developed by AECL Research that addresses these problems. The process, using incompressible fluid pressure, quickly and efficiently confirms the integrity of the valve backseat, extracts hard-to-remove valve packing sets, and verifies the leak tightness of the repacked valve

  7. Unusual dialysate leakage complicating peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Yu, Fu-Chiu; Chen, Chiou-An; Wang, Yuh-Feng

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old female who had end-stage renal disease on 2-month continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with perineal pain 4 days before admission. The physical examination revealed bilateral labial edema. Peritoneal scintigraphy was requested after infusing 2 L peritoneal dialysate with direct administration of 370 MBq (10mCi) technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentra-acetic acid into peritoneal cavity via Tenckhoff catheter. Radioactive uptake from right inguinal to labial region was clearly demonstrated, and this indicated the site of peritoneal leakage. After surgical intervention unilaterally, she continued CAPD without any recurrence (au)

  8. [Electromyographic differential diagnosis in cases of abducens nerve paresis with nuclear or distal neurogenic sive myogenic origine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, M

    1979-09-01

    Abducens nerve paresis may be of nuclear, of peripheral distal neurogenic origine, or is simulated by a myogenic weakness of abduction. Polygraphic emg analysis of the oculoauricularphenomenon (oap) permits a differentiation. In the emg, the oap proved to be a physiologic and constant automatic and always bilateral interaction between the hemolateral abducens nerve and both Nn. faciales with corresponding and obligatory coinnervation of the Mm. retroauricularis of the external ear. In case of medullary, nuclear or internuclear lesions, the oap is disturbed, instable, diminished or abolished, whereas in distal neurogenic or myogenic paresis, even in complete paralysis the oap is bilaterally well preserved.

  9. Biomembrane Permeabilization: Statistics of Individual Leakage Events Harmonize the Interpretation of Vesicle Leakage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braun, S.; Pokorná, Šárka; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Heerklotz, H.; Hoernke, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2018), s. 813-819 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03160S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : leakage * dye release * pore Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  10. Leakage in the Juelich research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On August 17, 1978, a leakage occurred in the DIDO research reactor. Early in the afternoon of this day, the valves of the coolant loop had been checked with the reactor shut off. When the mechanics wanted to oil a tight valve and drilled a hole in the valve cover for this, heavy water started to leak (leakage in the valve membrane). The mechanics left the shielded valve space at once; directly after having a shower, they underwent a radiation protection examination. It was found that none of the mechanics had been exposed to an excessive dose. When other mechanics in protective suits had closed the leak in the valve, a total of 150 liters had leaked into the sump pump at the valve entrance. They were pumped back into the cooling system. About 5 liters of water were evaporated and, via the stack, escaped into the environment. The activity released was about 40 curie; this is less than the permissible amount of 60 curie per week during normal operation. Neither the KFA personnel nor the inhabitants of Juelich and its surroundings were in danger at any moment. Calculations so far yield a maximum radiation exposure below 1mrem at the point of maximum exposure. The cooling circuit could be entered again only one day after the incident. The present shut-off phase of the reactor is not unduly prolonged by this accident. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Leakage detection device for weld portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkawa, Toshio; Setokuchi, Sadayuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns leakage detection device for weld portions, for example, in a nuclear reactor cavity, which can rapidly detect by remote control. That is, a detection device capable of self running and stopping on a guide rail along a weld line is disposed. The detection device comprises a coating mechanism for automatically coating soap water to the weld portion, a vacuum box capable of evacuating the coated surface and a camera for detecting the presence or absence of the soap bubbles generated under the evacuation. Such a device can conduct, by remote control, self running/stopping along with the weld line, coating of the soap water, settling of the vacuum box and confirmation and recording of foaming by using a television monitor. Accordingly, leakage in the weld portion in the reactor cavity or the like can be inspected. As a result, it greatly contributes to improvement of danger upon worker's operation at high place, detection accuracy and reliability of detection and shortening of operation period. (I.S.)

  12. Leakage detection system in nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masahiko.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention comprises an injection means for adding radioactive materials to coolants in a container cooler, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to coolant pipelines and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to a drain water sump and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to various kinds of pipelines and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, and a data processing means for comparing and analyzing the measured data of each of the gamma ray amplitude analyzers inputted from each of date recording/transferring means. The gamma ray amplitude analysis for each of the pipelines and drain water sump are conducted at an appropriate frequency, and the measured data are compared and analyzed, to improve the detection accuracy for a trace amount of leakage from each of the pressure pipelines and the container cooler coolant pipelines, thereby enabling to specify the pipeline having leakage. Maintenance efficiency is improved, and severe rupture accident in each of pressure pipelines is prevented previously. (N.H.)

  13. SVCT2 vitamin C transporter expression in progenitor cells of the postnatal neurogenic niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Patricia; Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Katterine; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Oyarce, Karina; Jara, Nery; Espinoza, Francisca; Martínez, Agustín D.; Nualart, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Known as a critical antioxidant, recent studies suggest that vitamin C plays an important role in stem cell generation, proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin C also enhances neural differentiation during cerebral development, a function that has not been studied in brain precursor cells. We observed that the rat neurogenic niche is structurally organized at day 15 of postnatal development, and proliferation and neural differentiation increase at day 21. In the human brain, a similar subventricular niche was observed at 1-month of postnatal development. Using immunohistochemistry, sodium-vitamin C cotransporter 2 (SVCT2) expression was detected in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). Low co-distribution of SVCT2 and βIII-tubulin in neuroblasts or type-A cells was detected, and minimal co-localization of SVCT2 and GFAP in type-B or precursor cells was observed. Similar results were obtained in the human neurogenic niche. However, BrdU-positive cells also expressed SVCT2, suggesting a role of vitamin C in neural progenitor proliferation. Primary neurospheres prepared from rat brain and the P19 teratocarcinoma cell line, which forms neurospheres in vitro, were used to analyze the effect of vitamin C in neural stem cells. Both cell types expressed functional SVCT2 in vitro, and ascorbic acid (AA) induced their neural differentiation, increased βIII-tubulin and SVCT2 expression, and amplified vitamin C uptake. PMID:23964197

  14. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic treatment for urological procedure in patients presenting with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglinski, L; Rouzaud, C; Even, A; Bouchand, F; Davido, B; Duran, C; Salomon, J; Perronne, C; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E; Dinh, A

    2016-09-01

    Patients presenting with neurogenic bladder often require urological procedures (urodynamic testing and botulinum toxin injections) and a preventive antibiotic therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this little known strategy in a cohort of patients. All patients presenting with neurogenic bladder who underwent urological procedure were included in the study. They received an antibiotic therapy in accordance with the urine cytobacteriological examination results. The antibiotic therapy was initiated two days before the procedure and prolonged up until two days after the procedure if the culture was positive. Patients were treated with a single dose of fosfomycin-trometamol in case of a negative culture. The main study outcome was the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI), defined by a positive urine culture and symptoms, up until 14 days after the procedure. A total of 80 urological procedures were performed. Mean patient age was 47±13.1 years (sex ratio 1.22); 59 (73.8%) presented with asymptomatic bacteriuria before the procedure. Nine (11.1%) UTIs were recorded on Day 14, of which one (1.2%) was febrile. Two patients required an additional curative antibiotic therapy. No patient was hospitalized. Overall, 77.8% of UTIs were cured without antibiotic therapy. Screening and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria before urological procedures seems unnecessary and vainly exposes this population at high risk of infectious diseases to antibiotic therapies. This data should be confirmed by a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects and Safety of Aqueous Extract of Poncirus fructus in Spinal Cord Injury with Neurogenic Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF, in spinal cord injury (SCI patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days. Results. The morphological feature of the stool before and after administration indicated a statistically significant difference from 3.52 ± 1.33 to 4.32 ± 1.44 points (p<0.05. Stool retention score before and after administration of PF was represented with low significance (7.25 ± 1.60 to 6.46 ± 1.53 points in the whole colon (p<0.05, and the colon transit time was significantly shortened (57.41 ± 20.7 to 41.2 ± 25.5 hours in terms of the whole transit time (p<0.05. Side effects were observed in 7 people (28.0% consisting of 2 people with soft stools and 5 people with diarrhea. Conclusion. For SCI patients, PF administration significantly improved defecation patterns, defecation retention, and colon transit time. PF could be an effective aid to improve colonic motility and constipation.

  16. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  17. N-Cadherin Upregulation Promotes the Neurogenic Differentiation of Menstrual Blood-Derived Endometrial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Yang, Fen; Liang, Shengying; Liu, Qing; Fu, Sulei; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Ciqing; Lin, Juntang

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are typically caused by either trauma or medical disorders, and recently, stem cell-based therapies have provided a promising treatment approach. Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs) are considered an ideal therapeutic option for peripheral nerve repair due to a noninvasive collection procedure and their high proliferation rate and immunological tolerance. Here, we successfully isolated MenSCs and examined their biological characteristics including their morphology, multipotency, and immunophenotype. Subsequent in vitro studies demonstrated that MenSCs express high levels of neurotrophic factors, such as NT3, NT4, BDNF, and NGF, and are capable of transdifferentiating into glial-like cells under conventional induction conditions. Moreover, upregulation of N-cadherin (N-cad) mRNA and protein expression was observed after neurogenic differentiation. In vivo studies clearly showed that N-cad knockdown via in utero electroporation perturbed the migration and maturation of mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs). Finally, a further transfection assay also confirmed that N-cad upregulation in MenSCs results in the expression of S100. Collectively, our results confirmed the paracrine effect of MenSCs on neuroprotection as well as their potential for transdifferentiation into glial-like cells and demonstrated that N-cad upregulation promotes the neurogenic differentiation of MenSCs, thereby providing support for transgenic MenSC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile eCoste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs. Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  19. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine; Rogister, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  20. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80% patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30% were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7% were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1% revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26 with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7% with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine, 31 (56.4% with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9% had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26 patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1% with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR, 20 (29.9% with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs and 25 (37.3% with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs. Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.

  1. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and transileal ureterostomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Evaluation of morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillotreau, Julien; Gamé, Xavier; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Mallet, Richard; De Boissezon, Xavier; Malavaud, Bernard; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic cystectomy combined with transileal ureterostomy to treat neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Prospective study performed between february 2004 and april 2006 on 26 consecutive patients with a mean age of 55.0 +/- 12.7 years treated by laparoscopic cystectomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. The underlying neurological disease was multiple sclerosis (MS) in 20 cases, spinal cord injury in 4 cases and transverse myelitis in 2 cases. The median preoperative ASA score was 3 (range: 2-3). No open conversion was necessary. One intraoperative complication was observed (vascular injury). No perioperative death was observed. The nasogastric tube was maintained postoperatively for an average of 8.69 +/- 5.9 hours. The mean time to resumption of oral fluids was 1.4 +/- 0.7 days and mean time to resumption of solids was 2.6 +/- 1.0 days. The mean time to resumption of bowel movements was 3.8 +/- 3.2 days. The mean intensive care stay was 3.9 +/- 1.1 days. Two postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (ileus and bronchial congestion). Postoperative narcotic analgesics were necessary in 60% of cases. The mean hospital stay was 10.3 +/- 4.1 days. Two late postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (two episodes of pyelonephritis). Laparoscopic cystectomy has a low morbidity in neurological patients, allowing early return of feeding and a moderate length of hospital stay.

  2. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck; Zlosliwe nowotwory neurogenne glowy i szyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author) 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  4. Calculation of transformers leakage reactance using electromagnetic energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiz, J.; Mohseni, H.; Sabet Marzooghi, S.; Naderian Jahromi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of transformer leakage reactance using magnetic cores has long been an area of interest to engineers involved in the design of power and distribution transformers. This is required for predicting the performance of transformers before actual assembly of the transformers. In this paper a closed form solution technique applicable to the leakage reactance calculations for transformers is presented. An emphasis is on the development of a simple method to calculate the leakage reactance of the distribution transformers and smaller transformers. Energy technique procedure for computing the leakage reactances in distribution transformers is presented. This method is very efficient compared with the use of flux element and image technique and is also remarkably accurate. Examples of calculated leakage inductances and the short circuit impedance are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the results obtained using test. This paper presents a novel technique for calculation of the leakage inductance in different parts of the transformer using the electromagnetic stored energy

  5. Indocyanine green staining facilitates detection of bleb leakage during trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Teruhiko; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2007-03-01

    To report a new technique to visualize bleb leakage using indocyanine green (ICG) staining during trabeculectomy. The ICG solution was widely applied over the filtering bleb including the conjunctival wound before completion of trabeculectomy. This procedure was performed in 48 eyes of 44 consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy between December 2004 and October 2005. Without staining, bleb leakage was not identified by the direct observation under the operating microscope. ICG staining clearly visualized aqueous leakage from the bleb in 5 eyes (10.4%). The bleb leakage in these eyes was easily repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, and no eyes, including these 5 cases, showed bleb leakage after surgery. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications related to ICG application. The application of ICG during trabeculectomy is a simple and useful technique to facilitate detection and repair of the bleb leakage.

  6. Device for preventing leakage of coolant in nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yukio; Sekiguchi, Mamoru; Yoshida, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent leakage of coolant from between lower tie plate and channel box without causing deformation of the channel box and also without the possibility of disturbing the installation and removal of the box by the provision of a thin plate provided with leakage holes for the lower tie plate. Structure: Static water pressure within the lower tie plate is adapted to act upon the bear side of a flat plate for leakage prevention through leakage holes formed in the tie plate, thus urging the flat plate against the channel box inner surface. Meanwhile, static water pressure having been led through the leakage holes in the flat plate is adapted to press the flat plate in the vertical direction, thus urging the flat plate against the channel box inner surface and thereby preventing leakage of the coolant through a gap between the channel box and lower tie plate. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Transcytosis Involvement in Transport System and Endothelial Permeability of Vascular Leakage during Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanettee Chanthick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The major role of endothelial cells is to maintain homeostasis of vascular permeability and to preserve the integrity of vascular vessels to prevent fluid leakage. Properly functioning endothelial cells promote physiological balance and stability for blood circulation and fluid components. A monolayer of endothelial cells has the ability to regulate paracellular and transcellular pathways for transport proteins, solutes, and fluid. In addition to the paracellular pathway, the transcellular pathway is another route of endothelial permeability that mediates vascular permeability under physiologic conditions. The transcellular pathway was found to be associated with an assortment of disease pathogeneses. The clinical manifestation of severe dengue infection in humans is vascular leakage and hemorrhagic diatheses. This review explores and describes the transcellular pathway, which is an alternate route of vascular permeability during dengue infection that corresponds with the pathologic finding of intact tight junction. This pathway may be the route of albumin transport that causes endothelial dysfunction during dengue virus infection.

  8. Radiologic assessment of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Jin; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Jang Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho

    1999-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of imaging modalities in the detection of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Fifteen patients who complained of postural headache without any preceding cause showed typical brain MR findings of intracranial hypotension, including radiologically confirmed CSF leakage. All fifteen underwent brain MRI and radionuclide cisternography. CT myelography was performed in eight patients and spinal MRI in six. Medical records, imaging findings and the incidence of spinal CSF leakage during each modality were retrospectively reviewed. CSF leakage was most common at the cervicothoracic junction, where in seven of 15 cases it was seen on radionuclide cisternography as increased focal paraspinal activity. Leakage was noted at the mid-tho-racic level in three patients, at the upper thoracic level in two, and at the cervical and lumbar levels in the remaining two. In two patients multiple CSF leaks were noted, and in all, early radioactive accumulation in the bladder was visualized. CT myelography revealed extrathecal and paraspinal contrast leakage in three of eight patients, and among those who underwent spinal MRI, dural enhancement was observed at the site of CSF leakage in all six, abnormal CSF signal in the neural foramen in one, and epidural CSF collection in one. Radionuclide cisternography is a useful method for the detection of CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. CT myelography and spinal MRI help determine the precise location of leakage

  9. Particle and radiation leakage importance: definition, analysis, and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Wagschal, J.J.; Yaari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of leakage importance function has been introduced and analyzed for physical systems governed by the Boltzmann transport equation. This leakage importance function represents a measure of the relative importance of source particles located at every point in phase space in contributing to the leakage and provides insight regarding the specific physical process that leads to leakage. The equation satisfied by the leakage importance function has been derived by using adjoint operators. It has been shown that procedures that are customarily used to derive an equation obeyed by an importance function suitable for an integral parameter such as a detector response or an eigenvalue lead to difficulties when directly applied to derive an equation obeyed by the leakage importance function. This is because, although leakage is also an integral parameter (i.e., a functional of the forward flux density), leakage is expressed in terms of a surface integral rather than in terms of volume integrals such as those appearing in expressions of detector responses or eigenvalues. Therefore, a procedure that departs from the customary course has been devised to derive the equation satisfied by the leakage importance function

  10. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  11. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2016-02-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal—applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics—show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again.

  12. Anomaly detection using magnetic flux leakage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Raymond G. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Alberta (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There are many aspects to properly assessing the integrity of a pipeline. In-line-Inspection (ILI) tools, in particular those that employ the advanced use of Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technology, provide a valuable means of achieving required up-to-date knowledge of a pipeline. More prevalent use of High Resolution MFL In-Line-Inspection tools is growing the knowledge base that leads to more reliable and accurate identification of anomalies in a pipeline, thus, minimizing the need for expensive verification excavations. Accurate assessment of pipeline anomalies can improve the decision making process within an Integrity Management Program and excavation programs can then focus on required repairs instead of calibration or exploratory digs. Utilizing the information from an MFL ILI inspection is not only cost effective but, as well, can also prove to be an extremely valuable building block of a Pipeline Integrity Management Program. (author)

  13. Leakages and pressure relation: an experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in water systems are presently a frequent and increasing event that involves cost increase and poor service, not compliant to quality standards and modern management criteria. The most recent data available in Italy, resumed into the report issued by Control Committee for Water Resources Use (CONVIRI, shows leakages with an average value of 37%. It is therefore important, for maintenance perspective, to investigate occurrence and evolution of water leaks and the analytical link between leaks Qp and network pressure P, for a reliable calibration of water networks quali-quantitative simulation models. The present work reports the first results of an experimental campaign started at Laboratory of Hydraulics of Department of Hydraulics, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering of University of Naples Federico II in order to analyze the features of Qp(P relation, which are compared with other results issued in literature.

  14. Potential gonadal dose from leakage radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author draws attention to the potential dangers of leakage radiation from mobile image intensifier units, and points out that during interventional urological procedures, radiation from below the urologist's knees may irradiate male gonads without being intercepted by protective aprons. Results are presented for a Shimatzu WHA mobile II, phantom doses being measured with an ionization chamber. Dose rates measured in the male gonad position were compared with rates at waist level behind a 0.35 mm lead equivalent shielding and dose rates at collar level outside the lead apron. Results are also presented of a study on the effect on gonad dose of a) adding 0.7 mm lead shielding to the tube housing and b) adding 0.7 mm lead and removing the spacer cone to reduce scatter. Results show that it is possible for gonad doses to be comparable with those assumed for the eyes, rather than the body. (Author)

  15. Acoustic emission generated by fluid leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The noise generated by the leaking saturated steam and subcooled water form various sizes of hole has been measured as function of leak rate and stagnation pressure. Acoustic emission (proportinal to root mean sguare voltage) is shown to be proportional to the leak rate and stagnation pressure. A transition of acoustic emission power is observed at the stagnation pressure 0.185 MPa associated with the transition to the critical flow state. Substantially higher acoustic emission power generated by the subcooled water leakage is attributed to the flashing source involving the phase transformation and volume expansion. The relative amplitude of noise spectrum becomes more spiky as the leak rate and stagnation pressure increased. (Author)

  16. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  17. Follow-up of Long-term Treatment with Clean Intermittent Catheterization for Neurogenic Bladder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwat Lertsithichai

    2004-04-01

    Conclusions: For most patients and with close long-term follow-up, early treatment of neurogenic bladder using CIC in children born with myelomeningocele yields better results than late treatment. In our experience, treatment is recommended as soon as possible, especially during the first year of life.

  18. [Giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Quan, Chang-Yi; Li, Gang; Cai, Qi-Liang; Hu, Bin; Wang, Jiu-Wei; Niu, Yuan-Jie

    2013-02-01

    To study the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of a case of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulum and reviewed the relevant literature. The patient was a 37-year-old man, with urinary incontinence for 22 years and intermittent dysuria with frequent micturition for 9 years, aggravated in the past 3 months. He had received surgery for spina bifida and giant vesico-prostatic calculus. The results of preoperative routine urinary examination were as follows: WBC 17 -20/HPF, RBC 12 - 15/HPF. KUB, IVU and pelvic CT revealed spina bifida occulta, neurogenic bladder and giant prostatic calculus. The patient underwent TURP and transurethral lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser. The prostatic calculus was carbonate apatite in composition. Urinary dynamic images at 2 weeks after surgery exhibited significant improvement in the highest urine flow rate and residual urine volume. Seventeen months of postoperative follow-up showed dramatically improved urinary incontinence and thicker urine stream. Prostate diverticulum with prostatic giant calculus is very rare, and neurogenic bladder may play a role in its etiology. Cystoscopy is an accurate screening method for its diagnosis. For the young patients and those who wish to retain sexual function, TURP combined with holmium laser lithotripsy can be employed, and intraoperative rectal examination should be taken to ensure complete removal of calculi.

  19. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Alkhayal, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  20. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for the Treatment of Recurrent Temporomandibular Joint Dislocation with and without Neurogenic Muscular Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yoshida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes following intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT in patients with recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation, with and without muscle hyperactivity due to neurological diseases. Thirty-two patients (19 women and 13 men, mean age: 62.3 years with recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation were divided into two groups: neurogenic (8 women and 12 men and habitual (11 women and 1 man. The neurogenic group included patients having neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease or oromandibular dystonia, that are accompanied by muscle hyperactivity. BoNT was administered via intraoral injection to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle. In total, BoNT injection was administered 102 times (mean 3.2 times/patient. The mean follow-up duration was 29.5 months. The neurogenic group was significantly (p < 0.001 younger (47.3 years than the habitual group (84.8 years and required significantly (p < 0.01 more injections (4.1 versus 1.7 times to achieve a positive outcome. No significant immediate or delayed complications occurred. Thus, intramuscular injection of BoNT into the lateral pterygoid muscle is an effective and safe treatment for habitual temporomandibular joint dislocation. More injections are required in cases of neurogenic temporomandibular joint dislocation than in those of habitual dislocation without muscle hyperactivity.

  1. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, Wouter A.; Arts, Mark P.; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Peul, Wilco C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a meta-analysis of all

  2. Development of the adult neurogenic niche in the hippocampus of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina eNicola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When does adult hippocampal neurogenesis begin? We describe the development of the neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We did so from the perspective of the situation in the adult.Ontogeny of the dentate gyrus is complex and results in an ectopic neurogenic niche that lifelong generates new granule cells. Neurogenesis during the fetal and early postnatal periods builds the dentate gyrus and gives way to activity-dependent adult neurogenesis. We used markers most relevant to adult neurogenesis research to describe this transition: Nestin, Sox2, BLBP, GFAP, Tbr2, Doublecortin (DCX, NeuroD1 and Prox1. We found that massive changes and a local condensation of proliferating precursor cells occurs between postnatal day 7 (P7, near the peak in proliferation, and P14. Before and around P7, the spatial distribution of cells and the co-localization of markers were distinct from the situation in the adult. Unlike the adult SGZ, the marker pair Nestin/Sox2 and the radial glial marker BLBP were not overlapping during embryonic development, presumably indicating different types of radial glia-like cells. Before P7 GFAP-positive cells in the hilus lacked the radial orientation that is characteristic of the adult type-1 cells. DCX, which is concentrated in type-2b and type-3 progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons in the adult, showed diffuse expression before P7. Intermediate progenitor cell marker Tbr2 became restricted to the SGZ but was found in the granule cell layer and hilus before. Lineage markers NeuroD1 and Prox1 confirmed this pattern.We conclude that the neurogenic niche of adult neurogenesis is in place well before true adulthood. This might indicate that consistent with the hypothesized function of adult neurogenesis in activity-dependent plasticity, the early transition from postnatal neurogenesis to adult neurogenesis coincides with the time, when the young mice start to become active themselves.

  3. Biomembrane Permeabilization: Statistics of Individual Leakage Events Harmonize the Interpretation of Vesicle Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stefan; Pokorná, Šárka; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Heerklotz, Heiko; Hoernke, Maria

    2018-01-23

    The mode of action of membrane-active molecules, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, cell penetrating, and fusion peptides and their synthetic mimics, transfection agents, drug permeation enhancers, and biological signaling molecules (e.g., quorum sensing), involves either the general or local destabilization of the target membrane or the formation of defined, rather stable pores. Some effects aim at killing the cell, while others need to be limited in space and time to avoid serious damage. Biological tests reveal translocation of compounds and cell death but do not provide a detailed, mechanistic, and quantitative understanding of the modes of action and their molecular basis. Model membrane studies of membrane leakage have been used for decades to tackle this issue, but their interpretation in terms of biology has remained challenging and often quite limited. Here we compare two recent, powerful protocols to study model membrane leakage: the microscopic detection of dye influx into giant liposomes and time-correlated single photon counting experiments to characterize dye efflux from large unilamellar vesicles. A statistical treatment of both data sets does not only harmonize apparent discrepancies but also makes us aware of principal issues that have been confusing the interpretation of model membrane leakage data so far. Moreover, our study reveals a fundamental difference between nano- and microscale systems that needs to be taken into account when conclusions about microscale objects, such as cells, are drawn from nanoscale models.

  4. Leakage Inductance Calculation for Planar Transformers with a Magnetic Shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Ouyang, Ziwei; Duffy, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic shunt is generally inserted in a planar transformer to increase the leakage inductance which can be utilized as the series inductor in resonant circuits such as the LLC resonant converter. This paper presents a calculation methodology for the leakage inductance of the transformer...

  5. Theory and Practice of a Leakage Resilient Masking Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasch, Josep; Faust, Sebastian; Gierlichs, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend in cryptography is to formally prove the leakage resilience of cryptographic implementations – that is, one formally shows that a scheme remains provably secure even in the presence of side channel leakage. Although many of the proposed schemes are secure in a surprisingly strong m...

  6. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  7. Leakage-Resilient Cryptography from the Inner-Product Extractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We present a generic method to secure various widely-used cryptosystems against arbitrary side-channel leakage, as long as the leakage adheres three restrictions: first, it is bounded per observation but in total can be arbitrary large. Second, memory parts leak independently, and, third, the ran...

  8. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the literature about anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer a review is presented of the frequency, potential risk factors and consequences of leakage. The risk factors are evaluated according to the level of scientific evidence of the individual background...

  9. On the scaling of gas leakage from static seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Hunt, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between gas leakage from static seals and eight potential variables is discussed. From a consideration of the interaction of these various parameters and the mechanical design of the seal system the importance of correctly interpreting leakage data is demonstrated. Given a situation where model experiments are necessary, this document forms a basis for the definition and interpretation of a test programme. (author)

  10. A review on leakage rate tests for containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Goo; Kim, Hho Jung

    1992-01-01

    Wide experiences in operating containment isolation systems have been accumulated in Korea since 1978. Hence, it becomes necessary to review the operating data in order to confirm the integrity of containments with about 50 reactor-years of experience and to establish the future direction to the containment test program. The objectives of present work are to collect, consolidate and assess the leakage rate data, and then to find out dominant leakage paths and factors affecting integrated leakage rate test. General trends of overall leakage show that more careful surveillance during pre-operational test can reduce the containment leakage. Dominant leakage paths are found to be through air locks and large-sized valves, such as butterfly valves of purge lines, so that weighted surveillance and inspection on these dominant leakage paths can considerably reduce the containment leakage. The atmosphere stabilization are found to be the most important to obtain the reliable result. In order to get well stabilized atmosphere, temperature and flow rate of compressed air should be kept constant and it is preferable not to operate fan cooler during pressurizing the containment for test

  11. Hunting the unknown: White-box database leakage detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    Data leakage causes significant losses and privacy breaches worldwide. In this paper we present a white-box data leakage detection system to spot anomalies in database transactions. We argue that our approach represents a major leap forward w.r.t. previous work because: i) it significantly decreases

  12. Determination of Unidentified Leakage Using a Kalman Smoother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soek Bo; Heo, Gyunyoung; Ra, Insik; Han, Jeonghyun; Lee, Seon Woo

    2008-01-01

    Since the safety significance of leaks from the RCS can widely vary depending on the source of the leak as well as the leak rate, the detection of the leakage is an important issue. The leakage is classified into 1) identified leakage which is defined as leakage into closed systems such as pump seal or valve packing leaks that can be captured, and 2) unidentified leakage which is all other leakage. The unidentified leakage is typically determined by the RCS inventory balance method which is based on NUREG-1107. Since the accuracy of leak rate calculation is dependent of the plant operating condition, the change in the RCS temperature, inventory, and the transient operating condition should be avoided during the measurement period. Nevertheless, the operation of the makeup of the borated water into the RCS and the diversion of the inventory to the outside of the RCS boundary makes it difficult to maintain the plant stable over an hour. Due to the large fluctuation of the calculated leak rate, it is sometimes hard to know the trend of the leakage as well as the instantaneous leak rate. Any fluctuation of operating conditions can results in unreliable leak rate. This study proposes a new way of determining the unidentified leak rate using a Kalman filter and smoother technique. The proposed algorithm enhances the accuracy of the leak rate calculation not only for the steady state operations but also for transients in a well timed manner

  13. Failure analysis of leakage current in plastic encapsulated packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Cheang, F.T.

    1989-12-01

    Plastic encapsulated packages exhibit high leakage current after a few hundred hours steam pressure pot test. The present study investigates two possible sources of leakage current, the mold compound and the lead frame tape used for taping the lead frame fingers. The results of the study indicate that the leakage current is independent of the frame and is not caused by the mold compound. The data further indicates that it is the ionic contents and acrylic-based adhesive layer of the lead frame tapes which cause the leakage current. To eliminate the leakage current, lead frame tape with low ionic contents and non acrylic-based adhesive should be used. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 graphs

  14. An objective comparison of leakage between commonly used earplugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Collins, William O

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the efficacy of commonly used earplugs using an anatomically correct ear model. The total volume and rate of water that leaked past the earplug and subsequent defect in the tympanic membrane over separately measured 30, 60, 120, and 180-second intervals were recorded. Scenarios tested included a control with no earplug, custom molded earplug (Precision Laboratories, Orlando, FL), Mack's plug (Warren, MI), Doc's plug (Santa Cruz, CA), and cotton balls coated with petroleum jelly. All plugs tested resulted in less leakage at all time points when compared with no plug (P leakage when compared with the cotton ball coated with petroleum jelly (P leakage compared with the customized plug (P leakage than the cotton plug (P leakage rate (f(4,45) = 94 [P water exposure should be minimized, then use of earplugs, particularly the moldable variety, merits further consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF LEAKAGE POWER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharaneeswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power of CMOS VLSI Technology is a great concern. To reduce leakage power in CMOS circuits, a Leakage Power Minimiza-tion Technique (LPMT is implemented in this paper. Leakage cur-rents are monitored and compared. The Comparator kicks the charge pump to give body voltage (Vbody. Simulations of these circuits are done using TSMC 0.35µm technology with various operating temper-atures. Current steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (CSDAC is used as test core to validate the idea. The Test core (eg.8-bit CSDAC had power consumption of 347.63 mW. LPMT circuit alone consumes power of 6.3405 mW. This technique results in reduction of leakage power of 8-bit CSDAC by 5.51mW and increases the reliability of test core. Mentor Graphics ELDO and EZ-wave are used for simulations.

  16. Leakage current characteristics of the multiple metal alloy nanodot memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gae Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Yang, Hyung Jun; Song, Yun Heub; Bea, Ji Chel; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    The leakage current characteristics of a multiple metal alloy nanodot device for a nonvolatile random access memory using FePt materials are investigated. Several annealing conditions are evaluated and optimized to suppress the leakage current and to better the memory characterisctics. This work confirmed that the annealing condition of 700 .deg. C in a high vacuum ambience (under 1 x 10 -5 Pa) simultaneously provided good cell characteristics from a high dot density of over 1 x 10 13 /cm 2 and a low leakage current. In addition, a smaller nanodot diameter was found to give a lower leakage current for the multiple nanodot memory. Finally, for the proposed annealing condition, the quadruple FePt multiple nanodot memory with a 2-nm dot diameter provided good leakage current characteristics, showing a threshold voltage shift of under 5% at an initial retention stage of 1000 sec.

  17. Insulator Contamination Forecasting Based on Fractal Analysis of Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Luo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial pollution test is carried out to study the leakage current of porcelain insulators. Fractal theory is adopted to extract the characteristics hidden in leakage current waveforms. Fractal dimensions of the leakage current for the security, forecast and danger zones are analyzed under four types of degrees of contamination. The mean value and the standard deviation of the fractal dimension in the forecast zone are calculated to characterize the differences. The analysis reveals large differences in the fractal dimension of leakage current under different contamination discharge stages and degrees. The experimental and calculation results suggest that the fractal dimension of a leakage current waveform can be used as a new indicator of the discharge process and contamination degree of insulators. The results provide new methods and valid indicators for forecasting contamination flashovers.

  18. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  19. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    -secure against continual memory leakage. Our DPKE scheme also implies a secure storage system on leaky devices, where a value s can be secretely stored on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. The devices go through a periodic refresh protocol......In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... against continual memory leakage, under the Bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman and $2$-linear assumptions. Our schemes have the following properties: 1. Our DPKE and DIBE schemes tolerate leakage at all times, including during refresh. During refresh the tolerated leakage is a (1/2-o (1),1)-fraction...

  20. Rapid but not slow spinal cord compression elicits neurogenic pulmonary edema in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 269-277 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant - others:EC FP6 projekt RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Program:1M; 1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * rat * spinal cord injury Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  1. Preoperative Duplex Scanning is a Helpful Diagnostic Tool in Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Megan S; Likes, Kendall C; Mirza, Serene; Cao, Yue; Cohen, Anne; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of venous and arterial duplex scanning in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Retrospective review of patients who underwent duplex ultrasonography prior to first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) for NTOS from 2005 to 2013. Abnormal scans included ipsilateral compression (IC) with abduction of the symptomatic extremity (>50% change in subclavian vessel flow), contralateral (asymptomatic side) compression (CC) or bilateral compression (BC). A total of 143 patients (76% female, average age 34, range 13-59) underwent bilateral preoperative duplex scanning. Ipsilateral compression was seen in 44 (31%), CC in 12 (8%), and BC in 14 (10%). Seventy-three (51%) patients demonstrated no compression. Patients with IC more often experienced intraoperative pneumothoraces (49% vs. 25%, P duplex ultrasonography can assist in NTOS diagnosis. Ipsilateral compression on abduction often correlates with Adson testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  3. Anterior Trans Cervicothoracic Approach for Complete Resection of Cervicothoracic Mediastinal Neurogenic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Neurogenic mediastinal tumors comprise a wide range of benign and malignant diseases. A group of these tumors, located at thoracic apex, sometimes spread to cervical spaces causing numerous surgical difficulties. In thoracotomy approaches, due to proximity of the tumors to major blood vessels, complete removal of these tumors from cervical spaces is impossible or may cause intraoperative severe bleeding or other dangerous incidents Because of the adjacent major vessels  that are not visible.The aim of this study is to report cases of surgical treatment of such tumors using Anterior Trans Cervicothoracic Approach (ATCA. Materials and Methods:All patients with neurogenic tumors and cervicomediastinal (CM spread who underwent surgey with ATCA technique during 2005-2011 were included in our study. Then they were evaluated in terms of age, sex, clinical symptoms, radiological and pathological findings, technical success rate of the surgery, surgical complications and first-year relapse rate after the surgery. Results:Our study included 10 patients from whom 9 were female and 1 was male (M/F= 1/9 and the mean age was 27 years. The most common symptoms were pain and feeling of a lump. All patients were operated by this technique successfully. The most common pathological finding was neurofibroma (in 5 patients and surgical complications occurred in 2 patients (20% (Wound infection in 1 patient and brachial plexus injury in another patient. There was no mortality. Disease relapse was reported in 1 patient  ganglioneuroblastoma who underwent surgical resection for the second time. Conclusion: Considering the successful removal of the tumors and favorable exposure of major vessels in cervicomediastinal spaces, this technique is recommended to resect mediastinal tumors with spread to cervical spaces. However, a more definite conclusion requires further studies.

  4. Reconstitution of experimental neurogenic bladder dysfunction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masahiro; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Masuda, Maki; Akatsuka, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: Postoperative neurogenic bladder dysfunction is a major complication of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and is mainly caused by unavoidable damage to the bladder branch of the pelvic plexus (BBPP) associated with colateral blood vessels. Thus, we attempted to reconstitute disrupted BBPP and blood vessels using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells that show synchronized reconstitution capacity of vascular, muscular, and peripheral nervous systems. METHODS.: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, intravesical pressure by electrical stimulation of BBPP was measured as bladder function. The distal portion of BBPP with blood vessels was then cut unilaterally (experimental neurogenic bladder model). Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and at 4 weeks after transplantation as functional recovery. Stem cells were obtained from the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles after enzymatic digestion and cell sorting as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN). Suspended cells were autografted around the damaged region, whereas medium alone and CD45 cells were transplanted as control groups. To determine the morphological contribution of the transplanted cells, stem cells obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse muscles were transplanted into a nude rat model and were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS.: At 4 weeks after surgery, the transplantation group showed significantly higher functional recovery ( approximately 80%) than the two controls ( approximately 28% and 24%). The transplanted cells showed an incorporation into the damaged peripheral nerves and blood vessels after differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts around the bladder. CONCLUSION.: Transplantation of multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of damaged BBPP.

  5. Evaluation of educational content of YouTube videos relating to neurogenic bladder and intermittent catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Matthew; Stothers, Lynn; Lazare, Darren; Tsang, Brian; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many patients conduct internet searches to manage their own health problems, to decide if they need professional help, and to corroborate information given in a clinical encounter. Good information can improve patients' understanding of their condition and their self-efficacy. Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) featuring neurogenic bladder (NB) require knowledge and skills related to their condition and need for intermittent catheterization (IC). Information quality was evaluated in videos accessed via YouTube relating to NB and IC using search terms "neurogenic bladder intermittent catheter" and "spinal cord injury intermittent catheter." Video content was independently rated by 3 investigators using criteria based on European Urological Association (EAU) guidelines and established clinical practice. In total, 71 videos met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 (17%) addressed IC and 50 (70%) contained information on NB. The remaining videos met inclusion criteria, but did not contain information relevant to either IC or NB. Analysis indicated poor overall quality of information, with some videos with information contradictory to EAU guidelines for IC. High-quality videos were randomly distributed by YouTube. IC videos featuring a healthcare narrator scored significantly higher than patient-narrated videos, but not higher than videos with a merchant narrator. About half of the videos contained commercial content. Some good-quality educational videos about NB and IC are available on YouTube, but most are poor. The videos deemed good quality were not prominently ranked by the YouTube search algorithm, consequently user access is less likely. Study limitations include the limit of 50 videos per category and the use of a de novo rating tool. Information quality in videos with healthcare narrators was not higher than in those featuring merchant narrators. Better material is required to improve patients' understanding of their condition.

  6. Expression of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in neurogenic inflammation of the rat retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bronzetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Antidromic stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion triggers the release of substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP from sensory nerve terminals of the capsaicin sensitive C-fibers. These pro-inflammatory neuropeptides produce a marked hyperemia in the anterior segment of the eye, accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and myosis. To assess the effects of neurogenic inflammation on the retina, specifically on the immunostaining of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, as well as on the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the retina. RT-PCR was also accomplished in control and stimulated animals to confirm the immunohistochemical results. In the electrically stimulated eyes, immunostaining for SP, CGRP, VIP and nNOS demonstrated a marked increase in the RPE/POS (Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Photoreceptor Outer Segments, in the inner and outer granular layers and in the ganglion cells in comparison to the control eyes. CGRP and SP were found increased in stimulated animals and this result has been confirmed by RT- PCR. Changes in neurotrophin immunostaining and in receptor expression were also observed after electric stimulation of trigeminal ganglia. Decrease of BDNF and NT4 in the outer and inner layers and in ganglion cells was particularly marked. In stimulated rat retinas immunostaining and RT-PCR showed a NGF expression increase. Neurotrophin receptors remained substantially unchanged. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, that antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and subsequent neurogenic inflammation affect immunostaining of retinal cell neurotransmitter/ neuropeptides and neurotrophins as well as the expression of neurotrophin receptors.

  7. Cancer stem cells from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis posits that deregulated neural stem cells (NSCs form the basis of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. GBM, however, usually forms in the cerebral white matter while normal NSCs reside in subventricular and hippocampal regions. We attempted to characterize CSCs from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall. Methods We described isolating CSCs from a GBM involving the lateral ventricles and characterized these cells with in vitro molecular biomarker profiling, cellular behavior, ex vivo and in vivo techniques. Results The patient’s MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass with associated edema, involving the left subventricular zone. Histological examination of the tumor established it as being a high-grade glial neoplasm, characterized by polygonal and fusiform cells with marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, frequent mitotic figures, irregular zones of necrosis and vascular hyperplasia. Recurrence of the tumor occurred shortly after the surgical resection. CD133-positive cells, isolated from the tumor, expressed stem cell markers including nestin, CD133, Ki67, Sox2, EFNB1, EFNB2, EFNB3, Cav-1, Musashi, Nucleostemin, Notch 2, Notch 4, and Pax6. Biomarkers expressed in differentiated cells included Cathepsin L, Cathepsin B, Mucin18, Mucin24, c-Myc, NSE, and TIMP1. Expression of unique cancer-related transcripts in these CD133-positive cells, such as caveolin-1 and −2, do not appear to have been previously reported in the literature. Ex vivo organotypic brain slice co-culture showed that the CD133+ cells behaved like tumor cells. The CD133-positive cells also induced tumor formation when they were stereotactically transplanted into the brains of the immune-deficient NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions This brain tumor involving the neurogenic lateral ventricular wall was comprised of tumor-forming, CD133-positive cancer

  8. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A Awad

    2011-01-01

    Exciting new features have been described concerning neurogenic bowel dysfunction, including interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, axonal injury, neuronal loss, neurotransmission of noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and the fields of gastroenterology and neurology. Patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease present with serious upper and lower bowel dysfunctions characterized by constipation, incontinence, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction and altered visceral sensitivity. Spinal cord injury is associated with severe autonomic dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction is a major physical and psychological burden for these patients. An adult myelomeningocele patient commonly has multiple problems reflecting the multisystemic nature of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system can lead to permanent neurological damage and clinical disability. Parkinson's disease is a multisystem disorder involving dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. Recent reports have shown that the lesions in the enteric nervous system occur in very early stages of the disease, even before the involvement of the central nervous system. This has led to the postulation that the enteric nervous system could be critical in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, as it could represent the point of entry for a putative environmental factor to initiate the pathological process. This review covers the data related to the etiology, epidemiology, clinical expression, pathophysiology, genetic aspects, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, visceral sensitivity, management, prevention and prognosis of neurogenic bowel

  9. Neurogenic vision loss: Causes and outcome. An experience from a tertiary center in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision loss can be a consequence of numerous disorders of eye and neural pathway conveying visual input to brain. A variety of conditions can affect visual pathway producing neurogenic vision loss. The presentation and course of vision loss depends on the site of involvement and underlying etiology. We conducted this unprecedented study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of various diseases of the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 64 patients with neurogenic visual impairment. Ophthalmological causes were excluded in all of them. Their presentation, ophthalmological characteristics and investigation findings were recorded. These patients were followed up till 6 months. Results: Out of 69 patients evaluated, 5 were excluded as they had ophthalmological abnormalities. The remaining 64 cases (113 eyes were enrolled. 54 cases were due to diseases of anterior visual pathway and rest 10 had cortical vision loss. The etiologic distribution is as follows: Isolated optic neuritis- 12 (19%, multiple sclerosis- 4 (6.3%, neuromyelitis optica- 5 (7.9%, tubercular meningitis- 15 (23.8%, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic optic neuropathy complicating cavernous sinus thrombosis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignant infiltration of optic nerve, Crouzon′s syndrome, calvarial thickening and traumatic occipital gliosis- 1 (1.6% case each, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pituitary adenoma, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy- 3 (4.8% cases each, cortical venous thrombosis 5 (7.9%, subacute scleroing panencephalitis- 4 (6.3% cases. Conclusions: The diseases of anterior visual pathway were much more common than cortical vision loss. A majority of our patients had severe impairment of vision at presentation.

  10. Radiological consideration of neurogenic bladder in patients with traumatic spinal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Han; Yu, Yun Jeong; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    We evaluated 104 patients of neurogenic bladder secondary to traumatic spinal cord injury. Those were diagnosed by I. V. P. and V. C. U. at Korea Veterans Hospital during 9 years from January, 1978 to May, 1987. The type of neurogenic bladder, complications and urethral configuration, according to the level of spinal cord injury were discusses. The result were as follows: 1. The incidence of patient according to the level of spinal cord injury was 49 out of 104 in those with vertebral level T7 or above, 15 out of 104 in those with T8-T10 level, and 40 in those with vertebral level T11 or below. The incidence of UMNB was 67.3% in those with vertebral T7 or above, 53.3% in T8-T10. The incidence of LMNB was 62.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 2. Overall incidence of urinary tract calculus was 32.7%. Highest incidence of calculus was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T8-T10. 3. Overall incidence of vesicoureteral reflux was 23.1%. Highest incidence of reflux was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 4. Overall incidence of pyelonephritis was 26.9%. 5. Overall incidence of hydronephrosis was 20.2%. Highest incidence of hydronephrosis was 27.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 6. Almost entire urethra was shown funnel type in 66 out of 73 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra was 7 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra with LMNB was 4 cases, which were occurred only in those with vertebral level T11 or below.

  11. Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury and perceived quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Connie; Bricker, Diedre; Rundquist, Jeanine; MacRae, Christi; Tebben, Cherisse

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury and neurogenic bowel and their perceived quality of life. The study design is an exploratory, descriptive correlational design. To measure the variables of the study the Quality of Life Survey developed by Randell et al. (2001) was used to measure perceived quality of life related to bowel management. Individual bowel management preferences and subjective costs and benefits of the preferences were gathered through the Neurogenic Bowel Characteristics Survey. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Data were collected from a random half of the individuals who met the inclusion criteria from the patient database (n=1193). Two hundred and forty one surveys were analyzed for this study. More than half of the sample (n=134) provided their own bowel management consisting of digital stimulation, suppositories, and other aids; 8% (n=19) had a colostomy. Regardless of the bowel management program 54% (n=127) were satisfied with current methods. Although time reported to complete bowel programs ranged from 1 to 120 minutes, there was no difference in rating of satisfaction with time. There was a statistically significant difference between those satisfied and dissatisfied with current bowel management and quality of life; those satisfied demonstrated a higher quality of life on three subscales, work function (p= .021), bowel problems (p< .001), and social function (p< .001). Those dissatisfied with their bowel program perceived a lower quality of life and indicated problems of time (p= .001), pain or discomfort (p= .033), and poor results (p< .001). Research data provide the patient's perspective on bowel management characteristics, complications, satisfaction, and their perceived quality of life. Results of this research will be incorporated into bowel management education and possible modification of the current inpatient bowel management program. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Radiological consideration of neurogenic bladder in patients with traumatic spinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Han; Yu, Yun Jeong; Shin, Hyun Ja

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated 104 patients of neurogenic bladder secondary to traumatic spinal cord injury. Those were diagnosed by I. V. P. and V. C. U. at Korea Veterans Hospital during 9 years from January, 1978 to May, 1987. The type of neurogenic bladder, complications and urethral configuration, according to the level of spinal cord injury were discusses. The result were as follows: 1. The incidence of patient according to the level of spinal cord injury was 49 out of 104 in those with vertebral level T7 or above, 15 out of 104 in those with T8-T10 level, and 40 in those with vertebral level T11 or below. The incidence of UMNB was 67.3% in those with vertebral T7 or above, 53.3% in T8-T10. The incidence of LMNB was 62.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 2. Overall incidence of urinary tract calculus was 32.7%. Highest incidence of calculus was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T8-T10. 3. Overall incidence of vesicoureteral reflux was 23.1%. Highest incidence of reflux was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 4. Overall incidence of pyelonephritis was 26.9%. 5. Overall incidence of hydronephrosis was 20.2%. Highest incidence of hydronephrosis was 27.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 6. Almost entire urethra was shown funnel type in 66 out of 73 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra was 7 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra with LMNB was 4 cases, which were occurred only in those with vertebral level T11 or below

  13. TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cutaneous neurogenic and chronic inflammation: pro-inflammatory response induced by their activation and their sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Gouin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation (CNI is inflammation that is induced (or enhanced in the skin by the release of neuropeptides from sensory nerve endings. Clinical manifestations are mainly sensory and vascular disorders such as pruritus and erythema. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively are non-selective cation channels known to specifically participate in pain and CNI. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are co-expressed in a large subset of sensory nerves, where they integrate numerous noxious stimuli. It is now clear that the expression of both channels also extends far beyond the sensory nerves in the skin, occuring also in keratinocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. In these non-neuronal cells, TRPV1 and TRPA1 also act as nociceptive sensors and potentiate the inflammatory process. This review discusses the role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the modulation of inflammatory genes that leads to or maintains CNI in sensory neurons and non-neuronal skin cells. In addition, this review provides a summary of current research on the intracellular sensitization pathways of both TRP channels by other endogenous inflammatory mediators that promote the self-maintenance of CNI.

  14. Leakage experiences with 1 MW steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, A.; Kawara, M.; Sano, A.

    1975-01-01

    An 1 MW steam generator was tested from October, 1971 and completed with the first series of experiments by May, 1972 after 3600 hours of operation. During these tests, unextraordinary heat absorption was experienced in the downcomer region, which led to shortage of heat transfer area to attain the rated steam temperature and to one of the reasons of flow instabilities. The steam generator was disassembled to get test pieces for structure as well as material examinations and then it was reassembled to proceed the second series of tests. Before it was done, a modification was provided to insulate the downcomer region by putting a gas space around the downcomer tube. The gas space was provided by a dual tube and spacers were welded on the inner tube and an end plate was welded on upper parts between the two to seal the gap by means of fillet welding. After the modified steam generator was put into operation, water happened to leak into a sodium side two times through these additional welding spots for the gas insulation. This paper presents operating conditions and behaviors of monitors at the time of the leakages, identifications of leaked spots, an evaluation of causes and a treatment or a precaution for them

  15. Radiation leakage from linac electron applicator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam applicator system currently in use on the linear accelerator is constructed of light-weight fiberglass and aluminum. With an applicator in place on the accelerator, the photon collimator jaws are automatically set several centimeters greater than the electron field size projected at the patient's surface. To ensure that no regions of high dose levels exist outside the useful beam, ionization and film measurements were made to quantitate the amount of leakage radiation through the 10 cm x 10 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm applicators. In most regions, the ionization levels at the patient's surface were below 5% of the central axis dose. In one area for the 25 cm applicator, the percentage ionization was 8.5%, which could be reduced by the addition of a small piece of 1/8 inch thick lead. However, ionization levels on the outside surface of the applicator were found to be considerably higher at certain locations for the 25 cm applicator. Results for 6, 9, 12 and 20 MeV electrons are reported here

  16. Leakage pattern of linear accelerator treatment heads from multiple vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonski, P.R.; Taylor, M.L.; Franich, R.D.; Harty, P.; Clements, N.; Kron, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Patient life expectancy post-radiotherapy is becoming longer. Therefore, secondary cancers caused by radiotherapy treatment have more time to develop. Increasing attention is being given to out-of-field dose resulting from scatter and accelerator head leakage. Dose leakage from equivalent positions on Varian600C, Varian21-X, Siemens Primus and Elekta Synergy-II linacs were measured with TLD 1 00 H dosimeter chips and compared. Treatment parameters such as field size and beam energy were altered. Leakage doses are presented as a percentage of the dose to isocentre (5 Gy). Results illustrate significant variations in leakage dose between linac models where no model emits consistently lower amounts of radiation leakage for all treatment parameters. Results are shown below. Leakage through the collimator assembly in different units is varying as a function of location and unit design by more than a factor of 10. Differences are more pronounced in comparing Varian or Elekta models, which are fitted with an additional collimator separate from the MLC leaves, to the Siemens model, which uses MLC leaves as its only secondary collimator. Further measurements are currently being taken at the patient plane with a directional detector system to determine the spatial distribution of high leakage sources.

  17. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Hess, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage

  18. Developement of leakage localization technique by using acoustic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Seo, D. H.; Kim, K. W. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this research is to develop a leakage monitoring system for pipelines or valves in the secondary water system of a nuclear power plant. The system aims to detect the existence of leakage and to estimate the leak location, especially by utilizing the noise generated from the leak. It is safe, precise real-time alert system compared with the previous monitoring methods and tools such as the visual test and the thermal imaging camera. When there exists leakage in the pipeline or valves of nuclear power plant, the noise due to gas flow is radiated through leak region. That is, the secondary water system with leakage generates different noise from the system without leakage. This motivates us to measure and analyze the noise generated from the secondary water system, so as firstly to detect the existence of leakage, and secondly to estimate the leak location by using the noise source identification technique such as beamforming and acoustic holography. Especially the beamforming method models the signal from the noise source to estimate the location of source. Therefore, it is necessary to model the noise due to leakage which is dependent upon parameters. In the process of leak localization, the reflected wave due to interior walls and the measurement noise should be removed for the precise estimation. Therefore, we attempt to characterize the reflected wave and the measurement noise by modeling the interior sound field, thus to remove them and to localize the leak location with high precision

  19. Detection device for pipeway water leakage in building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Jun.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly detect pipeway leakage at predetermined areas over a wide range in a building. Constitution: If flooding should occur in a power plant building and left as it is, emergency core cooling system, as well as auxiliary equipments and electrical equipments of the system are flooded to make the safety shutdown of the plant impossible. The present invention copes with such a risk. That is, an inlet flow meter and as exit flow meter are disposed to the inlet and the exit of pipeways disposed in a predetermined region in the building and a flow rate difference detector between them is disposed. In this way, pipeway leakage is detected by detecting the flow rate difference between the inlet flow rate and the exit flow rate of the pipeway in the predetermined region. According to the present invention, if a pipeway in a predetermined region is raptured to cause water leakage, the pipeway leakage can rapidly be detected depending on the flow rate difference between the inlet flow rate and the exit flow rate. Further, the water leakage over the entire the predetermined region can be detected rapidly as compared with the conventional case of detecting the leakage at a restricted portion where the leakage detector is disposed. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  1. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-12-10

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted.

  2. Copper ion as a new leakage tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, J; Baharizade, M; Shareghi, A; Ahmadi, M; Daneshkazemi, A

    2013-12-01

    Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal. Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method. The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope. The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods. Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye penetration and the copper ion diffusion methods.

  3. Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Pino, Annachiara; Llorens-Bobadilla, Enric; Zhao, Sheng; Lange, Christian; Panuccio, Gabriella; Boeckx, Bram; Thienpont, Bernard; Vinckier, Stefan; Wyns, Sabine; Bouché, Ann; Lambrechts, Diether; Giugliano, Michele; Dewerchin, Mieke; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Carmeliet, Peter

    2017-03-02

    Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2 + neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward Understanding Tip Leakage Flows in Small Compressor Cores Including Stator Leakage Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work was to provide additional data to supplement the work reported in NASA/CR-2015-218868 (Berdanier and Key, 2015b). The aim of that project was to characterize the fundamental flow physics and the overall performance effects due to increased rotor tip clearance heights in axial compressors. Data have been collected in the three-stage axial research compressor at Purdue University with a specific focus on analyzing the multistage effects resulting from the tip leakage flow. Three separate rotor tip clearances were studied with nominal tip clearance gaps of 1.5 percent, 3.0 percent, and 4.0 percent based on a constant annulus height. Overall compressor performance was previously investigated at four corrected speedlines (100 percent, 90 percent, 80 percent, and 68 percent) for each of the three tip clearance configurations. This study extends the previously published results to include detailed steady and time-resolved pressure data at two loading conditions, nominal loading (NL) and high loading (HL), on the 100 percent corrected speedline for the intermediate clearance level (3.0 percent). Steady detailed radial traverses of total pressure at the exit of each stator row are supported by flow visualization techniques to identify regions of flow recirculation and separation. Furthermore, detailed radial traverses of time-resolved total pressures at the exit of each rotor row have been measured with a fast-response pressure probe. These data were combined with existing three-component velocity measurements to identify a novel technique for calculating blockage in a multistage compressor. Time-resolved static pressure measurements have been collected over the rotor tips for all rotors with each of the three tip clearance configurations for up to five loading conditions along the 100 percent corrected speedline using fast-response piezoresistive pressure sensors. These time-resolved static pressure measurements reveal new knowledge about the

  5. Leakage potential through mechanical penetrations in a severe accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of an ongoing program, Integrity of Containment Penetrations Under Severe Accident Loads. The program is concerned with the leakage modes as well as the magnitude of leakage through mechanical penetrations in a containment building subject to a severe accident. Seal and gasket tests are used to evaluate the effect of radiation aging, thermal aging, seal geometry, and seal squeeze on seals and gaskets subjected to a hypothesized severe accident. The effects on leakage of the structural response of equipment hatches, personnel airlocks, and drywell heads subjected to severe accident pressures are studied by experiments and analyses. The data gathered during this program will be used to develop methodologies for predicting leakage

  6. N13 - based reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Marbaeck, L.; Sandell, S.; Svansson, L.

    1980-05-01

    A system for the monitoring of leakage of coolant from the reactor coolant pressure boundary and auxiliary systems to the reactor containment, based on the detection of the N13 content in the atmosphere, has been tested. N13 is produced from the oxyegen of the reactor water via the recoil photon nuclear process H1 + 016 + He4. The generation of N13 is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. In the US AEC regulatory guide 1.45 has a leakage increase of 4 liter/ min been suggested as the response limit. The experiments carried out in Ringhals indicate, that with the accomplishment of minor improvements in the installation, a 4 liter/min leakage to the containment will give rise to a signal with a random error range of +- 0.25 liter/min, 99.7 % confidence level. (author)

  7. Transformerless photovoltaic inverters with leakage current and pulsating power elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transformerless inverter topology, which is capable of simultaneously solving leakage current and pulsating power issues in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Without adding any additional components to the system, the leakage current caused by the PV......-to-ground parasitic capacitance can be bypassed by introducing a common mode (CM) conducting path to the inverter. The resulting ground leakage current is therefore well controlled to be below the regulation limit. Moreover, the proposed inverter can also eliminate the well-known double line frequency pulsating power....... The mechanism of leakage current suppression and the closed-loop control of pulsating power decoupling are discussed in the paper in details. A 500 W prototype was also built and tested in the laboratory, and both simulation and experimental results are finally presented to show the excellent performance...

  8. Competitiveness and carbon leakages in industry under asymmetric climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demailly, D.

    2008-02-01

    This research aims at studying how to predict competitiveness loss for an industry submitted to an asymmetric carbon constraint, and carbon leakages, whether high losses and important leakages might be feared, and which policies can be used to mitigate these losses and escapes. The author analyses and comments the content of four articles dealing with: the impact on competitiveness, revenue distribution and economic efficiency of a change in the allocation rules for EU greenhouse gas allowances; the relationship between allocation of CO 2 allowances and competitiveness in the case of the European iron and steel industry; CO 2 abatement, competitiveness and leakage in the European cement industry under EU ETS; and leakage from climate policies and border tax adjustment (lessons from a geographic model of the cement industry). Then, the author combines several approaches to study the cement and steel industries

  9. Fractal modeling of fluidic leakage through metal sealing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the fluidic leak rate through metal sealing surfaces by developing fractal models for the contact process and leakage process. An improved model is established to describe the seal-contact interface of two metal rough surface. The contact model divides the deformed regions by classifying the asperities of different characteristic lengths into the elastic, elastic-plastic and plastic regimes. Using the improved contact model, the leakage channel under the contact surface is mathematically modeled based on the fractal theory. The leakage model obtains the leak rate using the fluid transport theory in porous media, considering that the pores-forming percolation channels can be treated as a combination of filled tortuous capillaries. The effects of fractal structure, surface material and gasket size on the contact process and leakage process are analyzed through numerical simulations for sealed ring gaskets.

  10. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS...... completion of the operation the patients were randomized in two groups with and without a transanal stent. RESULTS: A clinically significant leakage was diagnosed in 25 patients (13%). No significant difference was found 17 of 98 patients with a stent and 8 of 96 without (P = 0.09), or in 9 of 44 ileostomy...... patients with a stent and in 3 of 45 without (P = 0.07). Several leaks over a short time led to an interim analysis after inclusion of 194 of 448 planned patients. The analysis showed no significant protective effect of the stent, and more leakages in the stent group, although not statistically significant...

  11. Prediction of leakage in the fixed mechanical seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheichik Anatoly A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of influence of the shape of contact surfaces on leakages through rubber seals in fixed connection of subassemblies are considered in the article. It is known from practice of operation of seals of various designs that the shape of contact surfaces and consequently also the shape of diagram of stresses in a contact zone considerably influences on value of leaks Linking leakage magnitude and distribution of contact stresses enables, firstly, more precisely calculate the amount of leakage for existing seals, and, secondly, to optimize the shape of the seals in their design in each case. As the result of experimental studies on the introduction of the rubber gasket ring fixed indenters different profiles found that by optimizing the shape of the indenter magnitude of leakage can be reduced by 10 times.

  12. Magnetic leakage shield of septum magnet for SPring-8 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes magnetic field measurements of the prototype septum magnet and countermeasure for reducing the leakage magnetic fields in the incidence and the extraction parts of the SPring-8 synchrotron. We studied and developed 'leakage magnetic shield' on the basis of the tests data got in these measurements. Consequentially, it succeeded in reducing effects of the leakage field to about 50% by installing the shield board in the magnet main body. Then, it was possible to manufacture the magnet which sufficiently held the effect of the leakage field for the electron and positron beam. In this examination, we confirmed the reproduction with the magnetic field distribution of the magnet measured in the manufacturer. We developed and produced of the septum magnets which were carried out determination of the shapes of the magnetic shielding. (author)

  13. Leakage Testing for Different Adhesive Systems and Composites to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-16

    Nov 16, 2015 ... resin composite, the fifth group – two‑stage SE adhesive applied and cavities filled with ... KEYWORDS: Adhesives, composite, evaluation, leakage ... the glass ionomers. ... systems are realized in one or two clinical step(s).[5].

  14. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in spinal cord-injured rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Nedvídková, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-8 ISSN 8750-7587 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * sympathetic nervous system * baroreflex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.484, year: 2012

  15. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al Taweel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  16. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moojen, Wouter A.; Arts, Mark P.; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Peul, Wilco C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a meta-analysis of all systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort series to quantify the effectiveness of IPDs and to evaluate the potential side-effects. Methods Data from all stu...

  17. Detecting the leakage source of a reservoir using isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peng; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yongdong; Mugwanezal, Vincent de Paul; Chen, Li; Aldahan, Ala

    2018-07-01

    A good monitoring method is vital for understanding the sources of a water reservoir leakage and planning for effective restoring. Here we present a combination of several tracers ( 222 Rn, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, anions and temperature) for identification of water leakage sources in the Pushihe pumped storage power station which is in the Liaoning province, China. The results show an average 222 Rn activity of 6843 Bq/m 3 in the leakage water, 3034 Bq/m 3 in the reservoir water, and 41,759 Bq/m 3 in the groundwater. Considering that 222 Rn activity in surface water is typically less than 5000 Bq/m 3 , the low level average 222 Rn activity in the leakage water suggests the reservoir water as the main source of water. Results of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes show comparable ranges and values in the reservoir and the leakage water samples. However, important contribution of the groundwater (up to 36%) was present in some samples from the bottom and upper parts of the underground powerhouse, while the leakage water from some other parts indicate the reservoir water as the dominant source. The isotopic finding suggests that the reservoir water is the main source of the leakage water which is confirmed by the analysis of anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) in the water samples. The combination of these tracer methods for studying dam water leakage improves the accuracy of identifying the source of leaks and provide a scientific reference for engineering solutions to ensure the dam safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Method of detecting leakage in nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Akitoshi; Goto, Seiichiro.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To permit accurate and prompt detection of leakage of a radioactive substance. Structure: The rate of change of such factors as radiation dose, temperature and pressure in the containment vessel, and each detected rate of change is compared with a reference value. The running cycle of the condensed drain exhausting pump in a drain collecting tank within a predetermined period is detected, and it is also compared with a reference value. These comparisons determine the absence or presence of leakage. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. LMFBR technology. FFTF cover-gas leakage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboi, H.

    1974-01-01

    The FFTF LMFBR is intended to have a near zero release of radioactive gases during normal reactor operation with 1% failed fuel. This report presents calculations which provide an approximation of these cover gas leakages. Data from ongoing static and dynamic seal leak tests at AI are utilized. Leakage through both elastomeric and metallic seals in all sub-assemblies and penetrations comprising the reactor cover gas containment during reactor operation system are included

  20. An alternative treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Hoffmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    An alternative non-operative method for treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection is presented. A mediastinal abscess cavity was drained by an ordinary nasogastric tube introduced via the nose through the anastomotic defect and into the cavity.......An alternative non-operative method for treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection is presented. A mediastinal abscess cavity was drained by an ordinary nasogastric tube introduced via the nose through the anastomotic defect and into the cavity....

  1. bicaudal-C is required for the formation of anterior neurogenic ectoderm in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Inaba, Kazuo

    2014-10-31

    bicaudal-C (bicC) mRNA encodes a protein containing RNA-binding domains that is reported to be maternally present with deflection in the oocytes/eggs of some species. The translated protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell fate specification along the body axis during early embryogenesis in flies and frogs. However, it is unclear how it functions in eggs in which bicC mRNA is uniformly distributed, for instance, sea urchin eggs. Here, we show the function of BicC in the formation of neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. Loss-of-function experiments reveal that BicC is required for serotonergic neurogenesis and for expression of ankAT-1 gene, which is essential for the formation of apical tuft cilia in the neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. In contrast, the expression of FoxQ2, the neurogenic ectoderm specification transcription factor, is invariant in BicC morphants. Because FoxQ2 is an upstream factor of serotonergic neurogenesis and ankAT-1 expression, these data indicate that BicC functions in regulating the events that are coordinated by FoxQ2 during sea urchin embryogenesis.

  2. Ceftolozane/tazobactam for febrile UTI due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Aurélien; Davido, Benjamin; Calin, Ruxandra; Paquereau, Julie; Duran, Clara; Bouchand, Frédérique; Phé, Véronique; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Rottman, Martin; Salomon, Jérôme; Plésiat, Patrick; Potron, Anaïs

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major public health problem among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. They frequently involve multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a novel antibiotic combination approved for complicated intra-abdominal and UTI caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some MDR strains. Little is known about the use of this agent for complicated febrile UTI occurring among SCI patients with neurogenic bladder due to MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA). We describe the case of a 35-year-old man with SCI due to multiple sclerosis, with a neurogenic bladder necessitating a bilateral nephrostomy and double J catheter, who developed a febrile UTI due to a MDR PSA, which was susceptible only to amikacin and colistin. Because of this MDR phenotype and the underlying kidney disease, a 1000 mg (1000 mg per 500 mg) dose of C/T was given as monotherapy every 8 h for 7 days, after 3 days of colistin and amikacin. Thanks to this treatment, the patient had a favorable outcome with no clinical signs of UTI or positive urine culture up to 1 month after diagnosis. C/T seems to be an effective and safe therapeutic option for febrile UTI due to MDR PSA in SCI patients with neurogenic bladder, even when administered in monotherapy for 10 days.

  3. Is Melanoma a stem cell tumor? Identification of neurogenic proteins in trans-differentiated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Linda S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genes and proteins have been implicated in the development of melanomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these tumors are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between the cell growth, tumorigenesis and differentiation, we have studied a highly malignant cat melanoma cell line that trans-differentiates into neuronal cells after exposure to a feline endogenous retrovirus RD114. Methods To define the repertoire of proteins responsible for the phenotypic differences between melanoma and its counterpart trans-differentiated neuronal cells we have applied proteomics technology and compared protein profiles of the two cell types and identified differentially expressed proteins by 2D-gel electrophoresis, image analyses and mass spectrometry. Results The melanoma and trans-differentiated neuronal cells could be distinguished by the presence of distinct sets of proteins in each. Although approximately 60–70% of the expressed proteins were shared between the two cell types, twelve proteins were induced de novo after infection of melanoma cells with RD114 virus in vitro. Expression of these proteins in trans-differentiated cells was significantly associated with concomitant down regulation of growth promoting proteins and up-regulation of neurogenic proteins (p = 95% proteins expressed in trans-differentiated cells could be associated with the development, differentiation and regulation of nervous system cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that the cat melanoma cells have the ability to differentiate into distinct neuronal cell types and they express proteins that are essential for self-renewal. Since melanocytes arise from the neural crest of the embryo, we conclude that this melanoma arose from embryonic precursor stem cells. This model system provides a unique opportunity to identify domains of interactions between the expressed proteins that halt the

  4. Management and prevention of chylous leakage after laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L-P; Zhang, H-M; Abha, H-D; Liu, T; Zhang, X-P

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the development and management of chylous leakage after laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. From July 2006 to September 2013, 13 cases of chylous leakage after the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (6 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 4 cases of gastric cancer, 2 cases of ovarian cancer, 1 case of endometrial cancer) were studied to analyze the occurrence, development and management of chylous leakage. In 3 cases (2 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 1 case of gastric cancer) massive amount of milky fluid drainage was be seen after the first two days post operation. Dietary intervention, TPN (total parenteral nutrition), somatostatin therapy, maintenance of continuous drainage helped to successfully manage the condition in about 1 month duration. In the remaining 10 cases, chylous leakage appeared after restoring normal diet. Managed with changes in diet and maintenance of unobstructed drainage, they were cured in about 2 weeks after treatment. There was significant reduction in drain output, ultrasonography did not reveal presence of free fluid collection in abdomen, and the patients were in good condition without signs and symptoms of infections. Chylous leakage is a rare complication of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Surgeons should be familiar with laparoscopic techniques, relevant anatomy and be aware of the fact that the effect of CO2 pressure and use of ultrasonic knife to occlude the lymphatic vessel can transiently block the leakage making the surgeon overlook them. Routine placement of indwelling drainage tube, immediate diagnosis, dietary modification, TPN, somatostatin and drainage are the modalities of conservative management.

  5. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Bezin, Jérémi; De Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies. (paper)

  6. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  7. Leakage localization with an acoustic array that covers a wide area for pipeline leakage monitoring in a closed space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Su [Center for Safety Measurements, Division of Metrology for Quality of Life, Korea Research institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong Hoon [Hyundai Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomiv Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is of great importance to localize leakages in complex pipelines for assuring their safety. A sensor array that can detect where leakages occur enables us to monitor a wide area with a relatively low cost. Beam forming is a fast and efficient algorithm to estimate where sources are, but it is generally made use of in free field condition. In practice, however, many pipelines are placed in a closed space for the purpose of safety and maintenance. This leads us to take reflected waves into account to the beam forming for interior leakage localization. Beam power distribution of reflected waves in a closed space is formulated, and spatial average is introduced to suppress the effect of reflected waves. Computer simulations and experiments ensure how the proposed method is effective to localize leakage in a closed space for structural health monitoring.

  8. Noninvasive Evaluation of Cellular Proliferative Activity in Brain Neurogenic Regions in Rats under Depression and Treatment by Enhanced [18F]FLT-PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Kayo; Takata, Kumi; Eguchi, Asami; Yamato, Masanori; Kume, Satoshi; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2016-08-03

    Neural stem cells in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, can divide and produce new neurons throughout life. Hippocampal neurogenesis is related to emotions, including depression/anxiety, and the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. The establishment of in vivo imaging for proliferative activity of neural stem cells in the SGZ might be used to diagnose depression and to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-l-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) has been studied to allow visualization of proliferative activity in two neurogenic regions of adult mammals; however, the PET imaging has not been widely used because of lower accumulation of [(18)F]FLT, which does not allow quantitative assessment of the decline in cellular proliferative activity in the SGZ under the condition of depression. We report the establishment of an enhanced PET imaging method with [(18)F]FLT combined with probenecid, an inhibitor of drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier, which can allow the quantitative visualization of neurogenic activity in rats. Enhanced PET imaging allowed us to evaluate reduced cell proliferation in the SGZ of rats with corticosterone-induced depression, and further the recovery of proliferative activity in rats under treatment with antidepressants. This enhanced [(18)F]FLT-PET imaging technique with probenecid can be used to assess the dynamic alteration of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain and may also provide a means for objective diagnosis of depression and monitoring of the therapeutic effect of antidepressant treatment. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in major depression and antidepressant therapy. Establishment of in vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be useful to diagnose depression and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of

  9. [Bile leakage after liver resection: A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menclová, K; Bělina, F; Pudil, J; Langer, D; Ryska, M

    2015-12-01

    Many previous reports have focused on bile leakage after liver resection. Despite the improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care the incidence of this complication rather keeps increasing. A number of predictive factors have been analyzed. There is still no consensus regarding their influence on the formation of bile leakage. The objective of our analysis was to evaluate the incidence of bile leakage, its impact on mortality and duration of hospitalization at our department. At the same time, we conducted an analysis of known predictive factors. The authors present a retrospective review of the set of 146 patients who underwent liver resection at the Department of Surgery of the 2nd Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University and Central Military Hospital Prague, performed between 20102013. We used the current ISGLS (International Study Group of Liver Surgery) classification to evaluate the bile leakage. The severity of this complication was determined according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Statistical significance of the predictive factors was determined using Fishers exact test and Students t-test. The incidence of bile leakage was 21%. According to ISGLS classification the A, B, and C rates were 6.5%, 61.2%, and 32.3%, respectively. The severity of bile leakage according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system - I-II, IIIa, IIIb, IV and V rates were 19.3%, 42%, 9.7%, 9.7%, and 19.3%, respectively. We determined the following predictive factors as statistically significant: surgery for malignancy (pBile leakage significantly prolonged hospitalization time (pbile leakage the perioperative mortality was 23 times higher (pBile leakage is one of the most serious complications of liver surgery. Most of the risk factors are not easily controllable and there is no clear consensus on their influence. Intraoperative leak tests could probably reduce the incidence of bile leakage. In the future, further studies will be required to improve

  10. Excessive leakage measurement using pressure decay method in containment building local leakage rate test at nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Kyu; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Wang Bae [KHNP, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    There are two methods for conducting the containment local leakage rate test (LLRT) in nuclear power plants: the make-up flow rate method and the pressure decay method. The make-up flow rate method is applied first in most power plants. In this method, the leakage rate is measured by checking the flow rate of the make-up flow. However, when it is difficult to maintain the test pressure because of excessive leakage, the pressure decay method can be used as a complementary method, as the leakage rates at pressures lower than normal can be measured using this method. We studied the method of measuring over leakage using the pressure decay method for conducting the LLRT for the containment building at a nuclear power plant. We performed experiments under conditions similar to those during an LLRT conducted on-site. We measured the characteristics of the leakage rate under varies pressure decay conditions, and calculated the compensation ratio based on these data.

  11. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ulibarri, Adam L.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism. PMID:24952232

  12. Endovascular Treatment for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in the Acute Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Toshinari; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Severe neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) can occur in a variety of brain insults, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and severe case of NPE can cause devastating consequences. But the literature on the treatment strategy about aneurysmal SAH with NPE is very scant. We present that SAH patients with severe NPE, who were treated first by embolization of aneurysm followed by insertion of lumbar spinal drainage, had comparatively good outcome. We present 12 consecutive cases of aneurysmal SAH with NPE in the acute stage, which were treated by endovascular treatment between April 2002 and December 2012. We classified the patients according to the Hunt and Hess grading system as follows: grade-3 (1 patient), grade-4 (4 patients), and grade-5 (7 patients). All patients needed respiratory management, with the assistance of a ventilator, and underwent endovascular treatment for the ruptured aneurysms within 72 hours from onset. For all the patients, immediately after the endovascular treatment, we performed lumbar spinal drainage. The pulmonary edema disappeared rapidly after respiratory management and endovascular treatment. The outcomes were as follows: good recovery (GR; 3 patients), moderate disability (MD; 4 patients), severe disability (SD; 3 patients), and death (D; 2 patients). Five patients (42%) developed pneumonia, and we postponed extubation until recovery from pneumonia. The cause for severe disability and death was symptomatic vasospasm and primary brain damage. No patients had rebleeding from ruptured aneurysms. Endovascular treatment for ruptured aneurysm and placement of lumbar spinal drainage is an excellent treatment option for severe SAH with NPE.

  13. The nuclear receptor TLX is required for gliomagenesis within the adult neurogenic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuhua; Niu, Wenze; Qin, Song; Downes, Michael; Burns, Dennis K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2012-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually generate functional neurons in the adult brain. Due to their ability to proliferate, deregulated NSCs or their progenitors have been proposed as the cells of origin for a number of primary central nervous system neoplasms, including infiltrating gliomas. The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for proliferation of adult NSCs, and its upregulation promotes brain tumor formation. However, it is unknown whether TLX is required for gliomagenesis. We examined the genetic interactions between TLX and several tumor suppressors, as well as the role of TLX-dependent NSCs during gliomagenesis, using mouse models. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the proliferation of adult NSCs with a single deletion of p21, p53, or Pten or combined deletion of Pten and p53. While brain tumors still form in Tlx mutant mice, these tumors are less infiltrative and rarely associate with the adult neurogenic niches, suggesting a non-stem-cell origin. Taken together, these results indicate a critical role for TLX in NSC-dependent gliomagenesis and implicate TLX as a therapeutic target to inhibit the development of NSC-derived brain tumors.

  14. MDM2 inhibition rescues neurogenic and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Stockton, Michael E; Bhuiyan, Ismat; Eisinger, Brian E; Gao, Yu; Miller, Jessica L; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Zhao, Xinyu

    2016-04-27

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the mechanism remains unclear, and effective treatment is lacking. We show that loss of FMRP leads to activation of adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) and a subsequent reduction in the production of neurons. We identified the ubiquitin ligase mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) as a target of FMRP. FMRP regulates Mdm2 mRNA stability, and loss of FMRP resulted in elevated MDM2 mRNA and protein. Further, we found that increased MDM2 expression led to reduced P53 expression in adult mouse NSCs, leading to alterations in NSC proliferation and differentiation. Treatment with Nutlin-3, a small molecule undergoing clinical trials for treating cancer, specifically inhibited the interaction of MDM2 with P53, and rescued neurogenic and cognitive deficits in FMRP-deficient mice. Our data reveal a potential regulatory role for FMRP in the balance between adult NSC activation and quiescence, and identify a potential new treatment for fragile X syndrome. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Luarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death and disability and one of the biggest burdens on health care systems. Novel approaches using various types of stem cells have been proposed to treat common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, or stroke. Moreover, as the secretome of these cells appears to be of greater benefit compared to the cells themselves, the extracellular components responsible for its therapeutic benefit have been explored. Stem cells, as well as most cells, release extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which are nanovesicles able to target specific cell types and thus to modify their function by delivering proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Exosomes have recently been tested in vivo and in vitro as therapeutic conveyors for the treatment of diseases. As such, they could be engineered to target specific populations of cells within the CNS. Considering the fact that many degenerative brain diseases have an impact on adult neurogenesis, we discuss how the modulation of the adult neurogenic niches may be a therapeutic target of stem cell-derived exosomes. These novel approaches should be examined in cellular and animal models to provide better, more effective, and specific therapeutic tools in the future.

  16. Conversion of MyoD to a Neurogenic Factor: Binding Site Specificity Determines Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Fong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MyoD and NeuroD2, master regulators of myogenesis and neurogenesis, bind to a “shared” E-box sequence (CAGCTG and a “private” sequence (CAGGTG or CAGATG, respectively. To determine whether private-site recognition is sufficient to confer lineage specification, we generated a MyoD mutant with the DNA-binding specificity of NeuroD2. This chimeric mutant gained binding to NeuroD2 private sites but maintained binding to a subset of MyoD-specific sites, activating part of both the muscle and neuronal programs. Sequence analysis revealed an enrichment for PBX/MEIS motifs at the subset of MyoD-specific sites bound by the chimera, and point mutations that prevent MyoD interaction with PBX/MEIS converted the chimera to a pure neurogenic factor. Therefore, redirecting MyoD binding from MyoD private sites to NeuroD2 private sites, despite preserved binding to the MyoD/NeuroD2 shared sites, is sufficient to change MyoD from a master regulator of myogenesis to a master regulator of neurogenesis.

  17. The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation Approach Applied to Patients With Neurogenic Dysphagia: A Case Series Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Rajappa, Akila; Kantarcigil, Cagla; Wagner, Elise; Ivey, Chandra; Youse, Kathleen

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effects of the Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach on physiological and functional swallowing outcomes in adults with neurogenic dysphagia. Intervention study; before-after trial with 4-week follow-up through an online survey. Outpatient university clinics. A consecutive sample of subjects (N=10) recruited from outpatient university clinics. All subjects were diagnosed with adult-onset neurologic injury or disease. Dysphagia diagnosis was confirmed through clinical and endoscopic swallowing evaluations. No subjects withdrew from the study. Participants completed the 4-week Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation protocol, including 2 oropharyngeal exercise regimens, a targeted swallowing routine using salient stimuli, and caregiver participation. Treatment included hourly sessions twice per week and home practice for approximately 45 min/d. Outcome measures assessed pre- and posttreatment included airway safety using an 8-point Penetration Aspiration Scale, lingual isometric pressures, self-reported swallowing-related quality of life (QOL), and level of oral intake. Also, patients were monitored for adverse dysphagia-related effects. QOL and adverse effects were also assessed at the 4-week follow-up (online survey). The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach was effective in improving maximum and mean Penetration Aspiration Scale scores (PDysphagia Rehabilitation approach was safe and improved physiological and some functional swallowing outcomes in our sample; however, further investigation is needed before it can be widely applied. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Wöllner, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria) and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

  19. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PRINCIPLES OF THERAPY OF A NEUROGENIC HYPERACTIVE URINARY BLADDER IN PATIENTS AFTER CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Shchvartz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic hyperactiv e bladder in different clinical variations is a characteristic com plication of restorativ e and residual periods of ischemic stroke and an important diagnostic criterion in vascular dementia. Mechanisms of formation of individual symptoms included in this syndrome is due to ischemic damage to cortical, subcortical and brainstem (the nucleus of Barrington centres of urination and associative areas of the brain, and the functional dissociation of these structures due to demyelination of the Central conductors of the afferent and efferent impulses. As a result of deficit of cerebral effects (such as brake and activating, is a violation of the implementation of the reflexes of urination (including carrying out continence, ongoing spinal (sympathetic, parasympathetic and somatic. The article presents a new concept of formation of the syndrome of hyperactive bladder on the basis of violations of the implementation of the 4 reflexes of urination, which provides the normal retention of urine and are responsible for the accumulation function of the bladder. First we analyzed the main point of application of drugs of anticholinergic and sympathomimetic actions in the reflexes of urination and mechanisms of restoration of function of the lower urinary tract in patients with acute and chronic v ascular diseases of the brain.

  20. Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas Casado, J; Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39 ± 13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6 ± 4.3 months after the treatment. New urodynamic studies were subsequently performed up to an interval of 16 ± 12.2 months. The BTX-A significantly increased (p bladder capacity, the bladder volume of the first involuntary contraction of the detrusor and the postvoid residue. We observed a decrease that tended towards statistical significance (p bladder accommodation nor the urethral resistance index (bladder outlet obstruction index) varied significantly. The increase in vesical capacity was maintained in 50% of the sample for more than 32 months. Age, sex, anticholinergic treatment and lesion age showed no influence in terms of the increase in bladder capacity. The indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was the only statistically significant negative factor. The urodynamic effect of BTX-A is maintained for a considerable time interval. The IUC negatively influences the result of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  2. Regionally-specified second trimester fetal neural stem cells reveals differential neurogenic programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Fan

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC have the potential for treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases such as Parkinson Disease and multiple sclerosis. Currently, NSC have been isolated only from hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult brain. It is not known whether NSC can be found in all parts of the developing mid-trimester central nervous system (CNS when the brain undergoes massive transformation and growth. Multipotent NSC from the mid-trimester cerebra, thalamus, SVZ, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord can be derived and propagated as clonal neurospheres with increasing frequencies with increasing gestations. These NSC can undergo multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, and engraft in a developmental murine model. Regionally-derived NSC are phenotypically distinct, with hippocampal NSC having a significantly higher neurogenic potential (53.6% over other sources (range of 0%-27.5%, p<0.004. Whole genome expression analysis showed differential gene expression between these regionally-derived NSC, which involved the Notch, epidermal growth factor as well as interleukin pathways. We have shown the presence of phenotypically-distinct regionally-derived NSC from the mid-trimester CNS, which may reflect the ontological differences occurring within the CNS. Aside from informing on the role of such cells during fetal growth, they may be useful for different cellular therapy applications.

  3. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) translation and linguistic validation to classical Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek, A; Elleuch, M H; Ghroubi, S

    2016-09-01

    To translate and linguistically validate in classical Arabic; the French version of the neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). Arabic translation of the NBD score was obtained by the "forward translation/backword translation" method. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury were included. Evaluation of intestinal and anorectal disorders was conducted by the self-administered questionnaire NBD, which was filled twice two weeks apart. An item-by-item analysis was made. The feasibility, acceptability, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest repeatability by non-parametric Spearman correlation were studied. Twenty-three patients with colorectal disorders secondary to neurological disease were included, the average age was 40.79±9.16years and the sex-ratio was 1.85. The questionnaire was feasible and acceptable, no items were excluded. The spearman correlation was of 0.842. Internal consistency was judged good through the Cronbach's alpha was of 0.896. The Arabic version of NBD was reproducible and construct validity was satisfactory. The study of its responsiveness to change with a larger number of patients will be the subject of further work. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Pesavento, Patricia A; Carrasco, Sebastian E; Reilly, Christopher M; Maggs, David J

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES) of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  5. Afferent Pathway-Mediated Effect of α1 Adrenergic Antagonist, Tamsulosin, on the Neurogenic Bladder After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2017-09-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, is also considered the most effective regimen for patients with LUT symptoms such as BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). In the present study, the effects of tamsulosin on the expression of c-Fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the afferent micturition areas, including the pontine micturition center (PMC), the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), and the spinal cord (L5), of rats with an SCI were investigated. SCI was found to remarkably upregulate the expression of c-Fos, NGF, and NADPH-d in the afferent pathway of micturition, the dorsal horn of L5, the vlPAG, and the PMC, resulting in the symptoms of OAB. In contrast, tamsulosin treatment significantly suppressed these neural activities and the production of nitric oxide in the afferent pathways of micturition, and consequently, attenuated the symptoms of OAB. Based on these results, tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, could be used to attenuate bladder dysfunction following SCI. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and effects of tamsulosin on the afferent pathways of micturition.

  6. Fructose induced neurogenic hypertension mediated by overactivation of p38 MAPK to impair insulin signaling transduction caused central insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Te; Ho, Wen-Yu; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chi-Cheng; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of complications related to hypertension, and reports have indicated that insulin levels may be associated with blood pressure (BP). Fructose intake has recently been reported to promote insulin resistance and superoxide formation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether fructose intake can enhance superoxide generation and impair insulin signaling in the NTS and subsequently elevate BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with fructose for 4 weeks increased the BP, serum fasting insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and reduced the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in the fructose group. The Tempol treatment recovered the fructose-induced decrease in nitric oxide production in the NTS. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses further showed that fructose increased the p38- and fructose-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 S307 ) and suppressed Akt S473 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Similarly, fructose was able to impair insulin sensitivity and increase insulin levels in the NTS. Fructose intake also increased the production of superoxide in the NTS. The results of this study suggest that fructose might induce central insulin resistance and elevate BP by enhancing superoxide production and activating p38 phosphorylation in the NTS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurogenic transdifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells? A critical protocol reevaluation with special emphasis on cell proliferation and cell cycle alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompisch, Kai Michael; Lange, Claudia; Steinemann, Doris; Skawran, Britta; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Reinhard; Schumacher, Udo

    2010-11-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are reported to display multilineage differentiation potential, including neuroectodermal pathways. The aim of the present study was to critically re-evaluate the potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation capacity of ASCs using a neurogenic induction protocol based on the combination of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), indomethacin and insulin. ASCs isolated from lipo-aspirate samples of five healthy female donors were characterized and potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses. Cell proliferation and cell cycle alterations were studied, and the expression of CREB/ATF transcription factors was analyzed. ASCs expressed CD59, CD90 and CD105, and were tested negative for CD34 and CD45. Under neurogenic induction, ASCs adopted a characteristic morphology comparable to neur(on)al progenitors and expressed musashi1, β-III-tubulin and nestin. Gene expression analyses revealed an increased expression of β-III-tubulin, GFAP, vimentin and BDNF, as well as SOX4 in induced ASCs. Cell proliferation was significantly reduced under neurogenic induction; cell cycle analyses showed a G2-cell cycle arrest accompanied by differential expression of key regulators of cell cycle progression. Differential expression of CREB/ATF transcription factors could be observed on neurogenic induction, pointing to a decisive role of the cAMP-CREB/ATF system. Our findings may point to a potential neurogenic (trans-)differentiation of ASCs into early neur(on)al progenitors, but do not present definite evidence for it. Especially, the adoption of a neural progenitor cell-like morphology must not automatically be misinterpreted as a specific characteristic of a respective (trans-)differentiation process, as this may as well be caused by alterations of cell cycle progression.

  8. Leakage evaluation in the PCV (Primary Containment Vessel) using chemical and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Keeping the reliability of nuclear power plant operation, the primary coolant leakage in the PCV is strictly restricted by the Technical Specifications. It is very important to detect an indication of leakage and estimate the source of leakage to provide countermeasures. Usually the indication of leakage will be detected by increase of drain flow in the PCV sump. There are some possibilities of leakage sources in the PCV, such as reactor water, main steam, condensate, feedwater and closed cooling water. The leakage source contain different chemical and radiochemical species. This means that the leakage source can be presumed and detected by using chemical information from the PCV atmosphere and sump water. To detect the leakage indication and the source quickly and exactly, the PCV Leakage Detection Expert System has been developed. This paper describes how to evaluate the leakage indication and source in the PCV by using chemical and radiochemical data. (author)

  9. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  10. Report on the water leakage from instrumentation pipe in JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    On December 10, 2002, the leakage was found at the pressure instrumentation pipe attached to the exit pipe of No.1 charging pump of the purification system of a primary cooling system at JMTR in the Oarai Research establishment, JAERI. The Investigation Committee for Water Leakage from Instrumentation Pipe in JMTR was established and organized by specialists from inside and outside JAERI on December 16 and its meeting was held in public 3 times by 6th January, 2003. They found out the cause and countermeasures of cracks, and also investigated enhancement of safety management. As the result, it was considered that the leakage started around the 6th of December 2002 and the cause of the cracks was due to fatigue by vibration of the charging pump during operation. The committee discovered following incorrect actions in the safety management. First, operation of JMTR was continued without keeping careful watch in spite of occurrence of leakage detector alarm. Second, every time when the alarm range for the reasons other than the leakage, appropriate investigation and countermeasure were not taken. Third, the manager in charge didn't have a fair understanding of the situation and didn't give an appropriate direction. This is the report on the cause and countermeasures of cracks and enhancement of safety management. (author)

  11. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS AND METH....... On this basis it was decided to discontinue the study prematurely for ethical reasons. CONCLUSION: Decompression of the anastomosis with a transanal stent does not reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection.......OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: Randomized open trial of 194 patients operated in 11 hospitals during September 2000 to September 2003 with anterior resection for a mobile rectal tumour, 115 men and 79 women, median age 68 years (range 37-90 years). The surgeon decided upon the use of a protective ileostomy, and after...

  12. New Method for Leakage Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Attari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays water loss has been turned into a global concern and on the other hand the demand for water is increasing. This problem has made the demand management and consumption pattern reform necessary. One of the most important methods for managing water consumption is to decrease the water loss. In this study by using neural networks, a new method is presented to specify the location and quantity of leakages in water distribution networks.  In this method, by producing the training data and applying it to neural network, the network is able to determine approximate location and quantity of nodal leakage with receiving the nodal pressure. Production of training data is carried out by applying assumed leakage to specific nodes in the network and calculating the new nodal pressures. The results show that by minimum use of hydraulic data taken from pressures, not only this method can determine the location of nodal leakages, but also it can specify the amount of leakage on each node with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C.E.; Dinc, O.S.; Bagepalli, B.S.; Correia, V.H.; Aksit, M.F.

    1996-04-23

    A gas-path leakage seal is described for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the ``plane`` of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member. 4 figs.

  14. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6–20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6–38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5–14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10–58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites

  15. Risk factors, treatment and impact on outcomes of bile leakage after hemihepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Si-Ming; Li, Hong; Li, Gen-Cong; Yu, Dan-Song; Ying, Dong-Jian; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Cai-De; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Risk factors for bile leakage after hemihepatectomy are unknown. A prospectively maintained database review identified patients undergoing hemihepatectomy between 1 January 2009 and 30 September 2014. Patients were divided into B/C and non-B/C bile leakage groups. Risk factors for bile leakage were predicted and assessments of their impact on patients were made. Bile leakage occurred in 91 of the 297 patients (30.6%); 64 cases were classified as grade B bile leakage (21.5%) and three cases as grade C bile leakage (1.0%). Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated preoperative alanine transaminase (ALT), positive bile culture during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery were risk factors for B/C grade bile leakage (P bile leakage (P bile leakage (P bile leakage group were higher than those in the non-B/C bile leakage group (P bile leakage group also required prolonged hospitalization (P 0.05). Patient with elevated preoperative ALT, positive bile cultures during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery are more likely to complicate bile leakage. We should use biliary drainage such as preoperative PTBD, ENBD or intraoperative Kehr's T-tube drainage to reduce and treat bile leakage in patients with high risk of bile leakage. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  17. Evaluation of isolation valve leakage in alternate charging piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, P.L.; Roarty, D.H.; Brice-Nash, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical and volume control system (CVCS) alternate charging flow path at an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant was determined to be susceptible to adverse stresses from isolation valve leakage. Isolation valve leakage had resulted in pipe cracks at several nuclear units worldwide, as described in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Bulletin 88-08 and its supplements. To provide for continuing assurance that cracks would not initiate over the plant life, the operators considered performing fatigue evaluation to demonstrate structural integrity of the system. This evaluation included heat transfer, stress and fatigue analysis, using methods described in Electric Power Research Institute Report ''Thermal Stratification, Cycling, and Striping (TASCS),'' March 1994. The evaluation concluded that the fatigue usage would be less than 1.0 under worst case isolation valve leakage conditions, and therefore a significant investment in permanent temperature monitoring was avoided

  18. Functions and requirements for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. A Mission Analysis has been completed, this document reflects the next step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The functions and requirements in this document apply to mitigative actions to be taken regarding below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage mitigation is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities

  19. Research on leakage detection of nuclear power station primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Shengquan; Yang Jicai; Li Jianjun; Dong Zhijuan; Ren Juyan; Zhang Pinyuan

    1993-01-01

    The sensor of leak-detection system is a special humidity-sensitive element. In this system, the collection and treatment of detected data, and the leakage alarm are controlled by a simple board computer. The three parameters A, B and C are set up in this system, and the alarm will give out when signal surpasses values of B and C at the same time. The effects of environment humidity and temperature on collection of detected data are considered, and the leakage alarm is reliable. When the leakage rate of water at 320 degree C and 12.2 MPa is 0.3 g/min, the alarm signal will sent out within 5 s

  20. Leakage of pressurized gases through unlined concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Eight reinforced concrete specimens were fabricated and subjected to tensile membrane forces and air pressure to study the air leakage characteristics in cracked reinforced concrete members. A mathematical expression for the rate of pressurized air flowing through an idealized crack is presented. The mathematical expression is refined by using the experimental data to describe the air flow rate through any given crack pattern. Graphical charts are also presented for the calculation of the air leakage rate through concrete cracks. The concept of equivalent crack width for a given crack pattern is introduced. The mathematical expression and graphical charts are modified to include this equivalent crack width concept. The proposed technique is applicable for the prediction of the leakage from concrete containment structures or any similar structures due to high internal pressure sufficient to initiate cracking. (orig.)

  1. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out. (paper)

  2. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out.

  3. On the Connection between Leakage Tolerance and Adaptive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Venturi, Daniele; Zottarel, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the context of leakage-tolerant interactive protocols as defined by Bitanski, Canetti and Halevi (TCC 2012). Our contributions can be summarized as follows: For the purpose of secure message transmission, any encryption protocol with message space M and secret key space SK tolerating...... at the end of the protocol execution, if and only if the protocol has passive adaptive security against an adaptive corruption of one party at the end of the protocol execution. This shows that as soon as a little leakage is tolerated, one needs full adaptive security. In case more than one party can...... be corrupted, we get that leakage tolerance is equivalent to a weaker form of adaptivity, which we call semi-adaptivity. Roughly, a protocol has semi-adaptive security if there exist a simulator which can simulate the internal state of corrupted parties, however, such a state is not required...

  4. On camera-based smoke and gas leakage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, Hans Olav

    1999-07-01

    Gas detectors are found in almost every part of industry and in many homes as well. An offshore oil or gas platform may host several hundred gas detectors. The ability of the common point and open path gas detectors to detect leakages depends on their location relative to the location of a gas cloud. This thesis describes the development of a passive volume gas detector, that is, one than will detect a leakage anywhere in the area monitored. After the consideration of several detection techniques it was decided to use an ordinary monochrome camera as sensor. Because a gas leakage may perturb the index of refraction, parts of the background appear to be displaced from their true positions, and it is necessary to develop algorithms that can deal with small differences between images. The thesis develops two such algorithms. Many image regions can be defined and several feature values can be computed for each region. The value of the features depends on the pattern in the image regions. The classes studied in this work are: reference, gas, smoke and human activity. Test show that observation belonging to these classes can be classified fairly high accuracy. The features in the feature set were chosen and developed for this particular application. Basically, the features measure the magnitude of pixel differences, size of detected phenomena and image distortion. Interesting results from many experiments are presented. Most important, the experiments show that apparent motion caused by a gas leakage or heat convection can be detected by means of a monochrome camera. Small leakages of methane can be detected at a range of about four metres. Other gases, such as butane, where the densities differ more from the density of air than the density of methane does, can be detected further from the camera. Gas leakages large enough to cause condensation have been detected at a camera distance of 20 metres. 59 refs., 42 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. The Effect of Internal Leakages on Thermal Performance in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Kim, Doo Won; Jang, Seok Bo

    2007-01-01

    Since the Balance Of Plant (BOP, limited to a turbine cycle in this study) does not contain radioactive material, regulatory authorities did not need to have concerns on it. As the interests on safety and performance is getting more serious and extensive, controlling the level of safety and performance of a BOP have just begun or is about to begin. The performance standards or ageing management programs of the major equipment in a BOP is being developed. The regulatory requirements for tests and/or maintenance are being actively built up. There is also a probabilistic approach quantifying performance of a BOP. The study on quantifying the rate of unanticipated shutdowns caused by careless maintenance and/or tests conducted in a BOP is going on. In this study, the modeling of the entire BOP and the methodologies of thermal performance analysis should be one of the must-have items as well. This study was achieved to ensure fundamental skills related to 1) the detailed steady-state modeling of a BOP and 2) thermal performance analysis under various conditions. Particularly, the paper will focus on the effect of internal leakages inside the valves and FeedWater Heaters (FWHs). The internal leakage is regarded as the flow movement through the isolated path but remaining inside the system boundary of a BOP. For instance, the leakage from one side of a valve seat to the other side, or the leakage through the cracked tubes or tube-sheets in a heat exchanger correspond to internal leakages. We made a BOP model of OPR1000 and investigated thermal performance under the internal leakage in Turbine Bypass Condenser Dump Valves (TBCDV) and FWHs

  6. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Marginal leakage is one of the significant causes of restoration failure. This in-vitro study was conducted to compare cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and dye-penetration methods for determining marginal leakage at gingival surface of class V resin composite restorations.Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of nineteen caries-free extracted human molar teeth. Cavities were conditioned and filled. The teeth were immersed in a 50% w/w aqueous silver nitrate solution for 24 h and were taken out and rinsed with distilled water. Then, they were put into a developing solution. Whole specimens were first viewed with CBCT and were then sectioned and evaluated by stereomicroscope.Results: Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope revealed that 15 (78.9% teeth had score 0, 1 (5.3% tooth had score 1, and 1 (5.3% tooth had score 2 in both techniques. Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope techniques, in the detection of marginal leakage, was 89.5% (Kappa coefficient = 0.627, P = 0.00. The Wilcoxon paired rank test revealed no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin (P = 0.157.Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, there was no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin of class V composite restorations. CBCT can be used noninvasively to detect the marginal leakage of gingival wall of class V composite restorations using aqueous silver nitrate solution as a tracer.

  7. Diagnostic value of "dysphagia limit" for neurogenic dysphagia: 17 years of experience in 1278 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kiylioglu, Nefati; Tarlaci, Sultan; Tanriverdi, Zeynep; Alpaydin, Sezin; Acarer, Ahmet; Baysal, Leyla; Arpaci, Esra; Yuceyar, Nur; Secil, Yaprak; Ozdemirkiran, Tolga; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-03-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) is a prevalent condition that accounts for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Screening and follow-up are critical for early diagnosis and management which can mitigate its complications and be cost-saving. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive investigation of the dysphagia limit (DL) in a large diverse cohort and to provide a longitudinal assessment of dysphagia in a subset of subjects. We developed a quantitative and noninvasive method for objective assessment of dysphagia by using laryngeal sensor and submental electromyography. DL is the volume at which second or more swallows become necessary to swallow the whole amount of bolus. This study represents 17 years experience with the DL approach in assessing ND in a cohort of 1278 adult subjects consisting of 292 healthy controls, 784 patients with dysphagia, and 202 patients without dysphagia. A total of 192 of all patients were also reevaluated longitudinally over a period of 1-19 months. DL has 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 88% negative predictive value with an accuracy of 0.92. Patients with ALS, stroke, and movement disorders have the highest sensitivity (85-97%) and positive predictive value (90-99%). The clinical severity of dysphagia has significant negative correlation with DL (r=-0.67, pdysphagia and it can be performed in an EMG laboratory. Our study provides specific quantitative features of DL test that can be readily utilized by the neurologic community and nominates DL as an objective and robust method to evaluate dysphagia in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suprapubic cystostomy for neurogenic bladder using Lowsley retractor method: a procedure revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Leonard U; Foster, Harris E

    2011-11-01

    To report our experience with the Lowsley retractor method for suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) in patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). A retrospective study was performed of 44 patients with NGB who underwent SPC with the Lowsley retractor method. The subjects were selected from 90 patients undergoing SPC by 1 surgeon from 1995 to 2010. The age, sex, indication, anesthesia type, catheter type, blood loss, fluids administered, and duration and complications were recorded. A total of 49 primary catheter placements were performed in 44 patients. A total of 23 men and 21 women were included. The etiology of NGB was spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis in 38 subjects (86%). The mean age was 44 years (range 18-86). The cases were performed under general anesthesia, except for 8 (16%) that were successfully performed with local and monitored anesthesia. The operation time documented in 19 cases (39%) was 20.2 ± 5.5 minutes (range 11-31). The Foley catheter size ranged from 16F to 22F. The blood loss was minimal, and there were no intraoperative complications or incorrect catheter placements. One patient returned with significant hematuria 1 day after the procedure. No other minor or major complications were noted. Patients with NGB have been shown to have a greater risk of complication during percutaneous suprapubic catheter placement. SPC using the Lowsley retractor was described by Zeidman et al in 1988. Their report did not detail the patient characteristics or operative experience. To our knowledge, no other institutional experience with the technique has been reported. The present report describes the Lowsley retractor method as a quick and safe ambulatory procedure for patients with NGB. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salga, Marjorie; Jourdan, Claire; Durand, Marie-Christine; Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Denormandie, Philippe; Genet, Francois

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  10. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness of Transanal Irrigation in Patients with Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Emmanuel

    Full Text Available People suffering from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD and an ineffective bowel regimen often suffer from fecal incontinence (FI and related symptoms, which have a huge impact on their quality of life. In these situations, transanal irrigation (TAI has been shown to reduce these symptoms and improve quality of life.To investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of initiating TAI in patients with NBD who have failed standard bowel care (SBC.A deterministic Markov decision model was developed to project the lifetime health economic outcomes, including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, episodes of FI, urinary tract infections (UTIs, and stoma surgery when initiating TAI relative to continuing SBC. A data set consisting of 227 patients with NBD due to spinal cord injury (SCI, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida and cauda equina syndrome was used in the analysis. In the model a 30-year old individual with SCI was used as a base-case. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate the robustness of the model.The model predicts that a 30-year old SCI patient with a life expectancy of 37 years initiating TAI will experience a 36% reduction in FI episodes, a 29% reduction in UTIs, a 35% reduction in likelihood of stoma surgery and a 0.4 improvement in QALYs, compared with patients continuing SBC. A lifetime cost-saving of £21,768 per patient was estimated for TAI versus continuing SBC alone.TAI is a cost-saving treatment strategy reducing risk of stoma surgery, UTIs, episodes of FI and improving QALYs for NBD patients who have failed SBC.

  11. An electrophysiological approach to the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia: implications for botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, E; Merlo, I M; Ponzio, M; Montomoli, C; Tassorelli, C; Biancardi, C; Lozza, A; Martignoni, E

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle has been proposed for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia due to CP hyperactivity. The aim was to determine whether an electrophysiological method exploring oropharyngeal swallowing could guide treatment and discriminate responders from non-responders, based on the association of CP dysfunction with other electrophysiological abnormalities of swallowing. Patients with different neurological disorders were examined: Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy-Parkinson variant, multiple system atrophy cerebellar variant, stroke, multiple sclerosis and ataxia telangiectasia. All patients presented with clinical dysphagia, and with complete absence of CP muscle inhibition during the hypopharyngeal phase of swallowing. Each patient underwent clinical and electrophysiological investigations before and after treatment with BTX into the CP muscle of one side (15 units of Botox). Clinical and electrophysiological procedures were performed in a blind manner by two different investigators. The following electrophysiological measures were analysed: (1) duration of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles (SHEMG-D); (2) duration of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (LPM-D); (3) duration of the inhibition of the CP muscle EMG activity (CPEMG-ID); and (4) interval between onset of EMG activity of suprahyoid/submental muscles and onset of laryngopharyngeal mechanogram (I-SHEMG-LPM). Two months after treatment, 50% of patients showed a significant improvement. Patients with prolonged or reduced SHEMG-D values and prolonged I-SHEMG-LPM values did not respond to BTX. Therefore, values for which BTX had no effect (warning values) were identified. This electrophysiological method can recognise swallowing abnormalities which may affect the outcome of the therapeutic approach to dysphagia with BTX treatment.

  12. Prediction of outcome in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia within 72 hours of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenstein, Guntram W; Höhlig, Carolin; Prosiegel, Mario; Koch, Horst; Dziewas, Rainer; Bodechtel, Ulf; Müller, Rainer; Reichmann, Heinz; Riecker, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Stroke is the most frequent cause of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD). In the acute phase of stroke, the frequency of NOD is greater than 50% and, half of this patient population return to good swallowing within 14 days while the other half develop chronic dysphagia. Because dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and in-hospital mortality, it is important to pay attention to swallowing problems. The question arises if a prediction of severe chronic dysphagia is possible within the first 72 hours of acute stroke. On admission to the stroke unit, all stroke patients were screened for swallowing problems by the nursing staff within 2 hours. Patients showing signs of aspiration were included in the study (n = 114) and were given a clinical swallowing examination (CSE) by the swallowing/speech therapist within 24 hours and a swallowing endoscopy within 72 hours by the physician. The primary outcome of the study was the functional communication measure (FCM) of swallowing (score 1-3, tube feeding dependency) on day 90. The grading system with the FCM swallowing and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) in the first 72 hours was tested in a multivariate analysis for its predictive value for tube feeding-dependency on day 90. For the FCM level 1 to 3 (P dysphagia scales to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. A dysphagia program can lead to better communication within the stroke unit team to initiate the appropriate diagnostics and swallowing therapy as soon as possible. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Sebbag

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS. The ocular surface of both eyes (OU had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1 and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days or orally (19 days, and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days. Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated with notable increases in STT-1 values, but corneal ulceration remained/recurred regardless of administration route, and oral pilocarpine resulted in gastrointestinal upset. Tacrolimus was not effective. After 93 days, the cat became weak and lame and a low thyroxine concentration was detected in serum. The cat was euthanized and a necropsy performed. Both lacrimal glands were histologically normal, but chronic neutrophilic keratitis and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density were noted OU. Relevance and novel information The final diagnosis was dry eye syndrome (DES of presumed neurogenic origin, associated with corneal hypoesthesia. This report reinforces the importance of conducting tearfilm testing in cats with ocular surface disease, as clinical signs of DES were different from those described in dogs.

  14. Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deffontaines-Rufin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO is common in patients who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS. When the usual pharmacological treatment fails, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injections can be proposed. The safety and efficacy of this treatment are already well known, but only a few studies focus on its use in patients with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with MS underwent their first BTX-A injection for refractory NDO. They had clinical and urodynamic cystometry assessment before and three months after injection. The patients were divided in three groups according to treatment efficacy: full success (total urinary continence, no overactive detrusor, improvement, or total failure (urge incontinence and overactive detrusor. RESULTS: 77% of the patients had clinical improvement or full success of the treatment with a reduction of their urgency and incontinence. Significant urodynamic improvement after treatment was shown on different parameters: volume at first involuntary bladder contraction (p = 0.0000001, maximum cystometric capacity (p = 0.0035, maximum detrusor pressure (p = 0.0000001. 46% of the patients were in the "full success" group. 31% of the patients had a partial improvement. 23% of the patients had no efficacy of the treatment. Duration of MS was a predictive factor of treatment failure (p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Despite that a full success was obtained in 46% of the cases, BTX-A injection therapy failed to treat refractory NDO in 23% of patients suffering from MS. Duration of the disease was a predictive factor for an inefficient treatment. The injection therapy should be considered as soon as oral anticholinergic drugs fail to reduce NDO.

  15. Clinical profile of motor neuron disease patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Costa, Juan Francisco; Arlandis, Salvador; Hervas, David; Martínez-Cuenca, Esther; Cardona, Fernando; Pérez-Tur, Jordi; Broseta, Enrique; Sevilla, Teresa

    2017-07-15

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are frequent in motor neuron disease (MND) patients, but clinical factors related to them are unknown. We describe differences in LUTS among MND phenotypes and their relationship with other clinical characteristics, including prognosis. For this study, we collected clinical data of a previously published cohort of patients diagnosed with classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (cALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) with and without LUTS. Familial history was recorded and the C9ORF72 expansion was analysed in the entire cohort. Patients were followed-up for survival until August 2016. Fifty-five ALS patients (37 cALS, 10 PMA and 8 PLS) were recruited. Twenty-four reported LUTS and neurogenic bladder (NB) could be demonstrated in nine of them. LUTS were not influenced by age, phenotype, disability, cognitive or behavioural impairment, or disease progression, but female sex appeared to be a protective factor (OR=0.39, p=0.06). Neither family history nor the C9ORF72 expansion was linked to LUTS or NB. In the multivariate analysis, patients reporting LUTS early in the disease course tended to show poorer survival. In this study, LUTS appear to be more frequent in male MND patients, but are not related to age, clinical or genetic characteristics. When reported early, LUTS could be a sign of rapid disease spread and poor prognosis. Further prospective longitudinal and neuroimaging studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation

  17. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  18. Root cause evaluation of pressurizer relief valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Voll, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pressurizer relief valves at two pressurized water reactor units experienced unacceptable leakage during plant heatup. The leakage was suspected to be caused by excessive pipe loads on the valves. This paper describes how monitoring via hard-wired transducers and a digital data acquisition system was used to quantify the pipe loads on the valves, and assist in determining the root cause of the pipe loads and appropriate corrective actions. The selection of the parameters monitored, how the monitoring was accomplished and interpretation of the results is discussed. The corrective actions implemented based on the monitoring results are also discussed

  19. Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic/dielectric/metal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    side of a hemisphere fused silica prism with an index matching liquid was illuminated under normal incidence by a He-Cd 325 nm laser. Two orthogonal linear polarizations were used both parallel and perpendicular to the detection plane. Spectrally resolved leakage radiation was observed on the opposite......Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules has been performed in the spectral range 420-675 nm which overlaps with the p-6P photoluminescence band. The p-6P was deposited on 40 nm silver (Ag) films on BK7 glass, covered with SiO2 layers. The SiO2 layer thickness...

  20. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  1. Carbon leakage revisited. Unilateral climate policy under directed technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Corrado Di; Van derWerf, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of unilateral climate policy in the presence of directed technical change. We develop a dynamic two-country model in which two otherwise identical countries differ in their environmental policy: one of the countries enforces a (binding) cap on emissions while the other does not. Focusing on carbon leakage, we show how, compared with a 'traditional' endogenous growth model, directed technical change will always lead to lower emissions in the unconstrained country. When clean and dirty goods are good substitutes, it may even be induced to reduce its emissions below the optimum level when both countries are unconstrained, so leakage is negative

  2. Leakage tests of wall segments of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-10-01

    Two prestressed concrete wall segments simulating portions of containment walls were loaded by axial tensile forces to cause cracking of the concrete. At each load increment air pressure was applied in steps up to 21 psi to one side of the segment and the rate of leakage of air through the cracked concrete section was measured. A theoretical equation for the flow of air through concrete cracks is developed and the results from one leakage test are used to determine the dimensionless constant required for this equation. (author)

  3. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-01

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ~1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to

  4. Molecular profiling of aged neural progenitors identifies Dbx2 as a candidate regulator of age-associated neurogenic decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Nisi, Paola S; Esteve, Pilar; Paul, Yu-Lee; Novo, Clara Lopes; Sidders, Ben; Khan, Muhammad A; Biagioni, Stefano; Liu, Hai-Kun; Bovolenta, Paola; Cacci, Emanuele; Rugg-Gunn, Peter J

    2018-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis declines with aging due to the depletion and functional impairment of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). An improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive age-associated neurogenic deficiency could lead to the development of strategies to alleviate cognitive impairment and facilitate neuroregeneration. An essential step towards this aim is to investigate the molecular changes that occur in NSPC aging on a genomewide scale. In this study, we compare the transcriptional, histone methylation and DNA methylation signatures of NSPCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of young adult (3 months old) and aged (18 months old) mice. Surprisingly, the transcriptional and epigenomic profiles of SVZ-derived NSPCs are largely unchanged in aged cells. Despite the global similarities, we detect robust age-dependent changes at several hundred genes and regulatory elements, thereby identifying putative regulators of neurogenic decline. Within this list, the homeobox gene Dbx2 is upregulated in vitro and in vivo, and its promoter region has altered histone and DNA methylation levels, in aged NSPCs. Using functional in vitro assays, we show that elevated Dbx2 expression in young adult NSPCs promotes age-related phenotypes, including the reduced proliferation of NSPC cultures and the altered transcript levels of age-associated regulators of NSPC proliferation and differentiation. Depleting Dbx2 in aged NSPCs caused the reverse gene expression changes. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the molecular programmes that are affected during mouse NSPC aging, and uncover a new functional role for Dbx2 in promoting age-related neurogenic decline. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Milrinone therapy for enterovirus 71-induced pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Yu; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Wang, Shih-Min; Thinh, Le Quoc; Lin, Chia-Chun; Wu, Han-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Ren; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thuong, Tang Chi; Chang, Chung-Ming; Su, Ih-Jen; Liu, Ching-Chuan

    2013-07-01

    Enterovirus 71-induced brainstem encephalitis with pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock (stage 3B) is associated with rapid mortality in children. In a small pilot study, we found that milrinone reduced early mortality compared with historical controls. This prospective, randomized control trial was designed to provide more definitive evidence of the ability of milrinone to reduce the 1-week mortality of stage 3B enterovirus 71 infections. Prospective, unicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled study. Inpatient ward of a large tertiary teaching hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Children (≤ 18 yr old) admitted with proven enterovirus 71-induced pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous milrinone (0.5 μg/kg/min) (n = 22) or conventional management (n = 19). Both groups received dopamine or dobutamine and intravenous immunoglobulin. The primary endpoint was 1-week mortality. The secondary endpoints included length of ventilator dependence and hospital stay and adverse events. The median age was 2 years with a predominance of boys in both groups. The 1-week mortality was significantly lower, 18.2% (4/22) in the milrinone compared with 57.9% (11/19) in the conventional management group (relative risk = 0.314 [95% CI, 0.12-0.83], p = 0.01). The median duration of ventilator-free days was longer in the milrinone treatment group (p = 0.01). There was no apparent neurologic sequela in the survivors in either group, and no drug-related adverse events were documented. Milrinone significantly reduced the 1-week mortality of enterovirus 71-induced pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock without adverse effects. Further studies are needed to determine whether milrinone might be useful to prevent progression of earlier stages of brainstem encephalitis.

  6. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior

  7. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two

  8. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-21

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ∼1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.

  9. Failure of botulinum toxin injection for neurogenic detrusor overactivity: Switch of toxin versus second injection of the same toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronnet, Benoit; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Manunta, Andréa; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal; Gamé, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a second injection of the same toxin versus switching to a different botulinum toxin A after failure of a first detrusor injection in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The charts of all patients who underwent detrusor injections of botulinum toxin A (either abobotulinumtoxinA or onabotulinumtoxinA) for the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients in whom a first detrusor injection had failed were included in the present study. They were managed by a second injection of the same toxin at the same dosage or by a new detrusor injection using a different botulinum toxin A. Success was defined as a resolution of urgency, urinary incontinence and detrusor overactivity in a patient self-catheterizing seven times or less per 24 h. A total of 58 patients were included for analysis. A toxin switch was carried out in 29 patients, whereas the other 29 patients received a reinjection of the same toxin at the same dose. The success rate was higher in patients who received a toxin switch (51.7% vs. 24.1%, P = 0.03). Patients treated with a switch from abobotulinumtoxinA to onabotulinumtoxinA and those treated with a switch from onabotulinumtoxinA to abobotulinumtoxinA had similar success rates (52.9% vs. 50%, P = 0.88). After failure of a first detrusor injection of botulinum toxin for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, a switch to a different toxin seems to be more effective than a second injection of the same toxin. The replacement of onabotulinumtoxin by abobotulinumtoxin or the reverse provides similar results. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib presenting as neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome; A 13th case report in world literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisagar Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome [TOS] caused by a tumor of the rib is rare and has been reported only 12 times in the literature over the past one and one-half centuries, with the majority of cases due to osteochondroma. We report a case of chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib causing neurogenic TOS that was resected via posterolateral thoracotomy and biopsy confirmed a grade I chondrosarcoma. In the treatment of chondrosarcoma, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are less effective, and appropriate surgery is needed.

  11. Aspiration in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia: comparison of clinical judgment and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sabrina; Hartlieb, Till; Müller, Arnd; Granel, Michael; Staudt, Martin

    2014-12-01

    A total of 30 children and adolescents with dysphagia due to various chronic neurological disorders were assessed for their risk of aspiration. This assessment was performed clinically by experienced speech and swallowing therapists, and verified thereafter by fiberoptic endoscopy. We found the clinical judgment to be correct in only 70% (for aspiration of saliva), 55% (of puree), and 67% (of thin liquids). We conclude that, because of this unacceptably high error rate of clinical assessment, a fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing is a necessary diagnostic step both for the planning of therapy and for the development of feeding strategies in children and adolescents with neurogenic dysphagia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Females have stronger neurogenic response than males after non-specific nasal challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Dejan; Baudoin, Tomislav; Megla, Zeljka Bukovec; Geber, Goran; Scadding, Glenis; Kalogjera, Livije

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance. Studies have demonstrated that sex hormones, primarily oestrogens, affect mast cell activation. Mast cell proteases can amplify neurogenic inflammatory responses including the release of SP. Based on human epidemiological data and animal experimental data we hypothesized that female patients have different interaction between mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation, i.e. substance P release, resulting in a different nasal symptom profile. To test the hypothesis we performed allergen and non-specific nasal challenges in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) out of season and looked for gender differences in subjective and objective responses. The interaction between subjective and objective reactivity was evaluated through the comparison of subjective symptom scores, concentrations of neurokinin substance P (SP) and cellular markers in nasal lavages after low doses of nasal allergen challenges. Female allergic subjects tended to have higher substance P (SP) concentrations both before and after non-specific challenges. The difference between post-allergen and post - hypertonic saline (HTS) challenge was highly significant in female patients (p = 0.001), while insignificant in male subjects (p = 0.14). Female patients had significantly stronger burning sensation after HTS challenge than male. These data indicate difference in the

  13. 75 FR 29699 - Total Inward Leakage Requirements for Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... or other half-mask respirator inward leakage measurement, and offer any additional comments on the..., facsimile (412) 386-4089, e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of... order to conduct tests and prepare responses. On April 20, 2010, NIOSH responded by reopening the docket...

  14. University student's education after Fukushima nuclear leakage crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Daying; Gu Jianzhong; Zheng Jianying

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear leakage crisis after 3.11 earthquake and tsunami, the horrible INES-7 accident warns the colleagues all over the world. Own much to the experts' reports on public media, INES classification, basic knowledge of nuclear reactor, nuclear safety and protection had been discussed and brain-stormed in detail. (authors)

  15. Leakage monitoring equipment of fuel element by delayed neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1999-01-01

    Based on monitoring results of delayed neutrons from reactor first circle water, the leakage of reactor fuel elements is monitored. A monitoring equipment consisted of an array of 3 He proportional counter tubes with 75 s delay has been developed. The neutron detection efficiency of 6.1% is obtained

  16. Benchmarking leakage from water reticulation systems in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Abstract. A project to assess the levels of leakage in 30 water utilities throughout South Africa was initiated by the Water ... average operating pressure, systems input volume and the compo- ... simple, user-friendly model that is based on an excel spreadsheet ..... One can see from the four graphs presented here that various.

  17. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Oh, Eung-Se; Yang, Seung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  18. Reaction-driven casing expansion : potential for wellbore leakage mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, Timotheus K. T.; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Christopher J.

    It is generally challenging to predict the post-abandonment behaviour and integrity of wellbores. Leakage is, moreover, difficult to mitigate, particularly between the steel casing and outer cement sheath. Radially expanding the casing with some form of internal plug, thereby closing annular voids

  19. Carbon Leakage Revisited : Unilateral Climate Policy with Directed Technical Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.; van der Werf, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in carbondioxide emissions by some countries in reaction to an emission reduction by countries with climate policy (carbon leakage) is seen as a serious threat to unilateral climate policy.Using a two-country model where only one of the countries enforces an exogenous cap on emissions,

  20. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following minimum requirements: (1) A leakage survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted in business districts, including tests of the atmosphere in gas, electric, telephone, sewer, and water system... survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted outside business districts as frequently as...

  1. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Keilova, E.; Krhounek, V.; Turek, J.

    1996-01-01

    The leakage and plugging limits were derived for WWER steam generators based on leak and burst tests using tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects. The following conclusions were arrived at: (i) The permissible primary-to-secondary leak rate with respect to the permissible through-wall defect size of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generator tubes is 8 l/h. (ii) The primary-to-secondary leak rate is reduced by the blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other substances. (iii) The rate of crack penetration through the tube wall is higher than the crack widening. (iv) The validity of the criterion of instability for tubes with through-wall cracks was confirmed experimentally. For the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generators, the critical size of axial through-wall cracks, for the threshold primary-to-secondary pressure difference, is 13.8 and 12.0 mm, respectively. (v) The calculated leakage for the rupture of one tube and for the assumed extreme defects is two orders and one order of magnitude, respectively, higher than the proposed primary water leakage limit of 8 l/h. (vi) The experiments gave evidence that the use of the permissible thinning limit of 80% for the heat exchange tube plugging does not bring about uncontrollable leakage or unstable crack growth. This is consistent with experience gained at WWER-440 type nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 9 refs

  2. Superconducting coil configurations, with low flux leakage, for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Viry, O.; Mailfert, A.; Trassart, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents two original types of SMES structures for energy storage. These two groups of SMES structures proceeded from an ideal structure: the full toroid, are modeled by the use of purely surface current densities. Their main advantage is to present no flux leakage, they give then satisfactory solution to the problem of energy storage. (orig.)

  3. Optimized quantization in Zero Leakage Helper data systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanko, T.; Andini, F.N.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    Helper data systems are a cryptographic primitive that allows for the reproducible extraction of secrets from noisy measurements. Redundancy data called helper data makes it possible to do error correction while leaking little or nothing (Zero Leakage) about the extracted secret string. We study the

  4. Modelling of heterogenous neutron leakages in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohleber, X.

    1997-01-01

    The TIBERE Model is a neutron leakage method based on B 1 heterogeneous transport equation resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the reflection mode at the boundary of the assembly. In particular the White boundary condition has been implemented in the APOLLO2 neutron transport code. We have compared the two TIBERE kinds of boundary conditions (specular and white) with the classical B 1 homogeneous leakage method in the modelling of some reactors. We have remarked the better capability of the TIBERE Model to compute voided assemblies. The white boundary condition is also able to compute a completely voided assembly and, besides, wins a factor 10 in CPU time in comparison with the specular boundary condition. These two heterogenous leakage formalisms have been tested on a partially voided experiment and have shown that the TIBERE Model can compute this kind of situation with a greater precision than the classical B 1 homogeneous leakage method, and with a shorter computational time. (author)

  5. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  6. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  7. Leakage detection in underground gas mains with radioaktive argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1975-01-01

    In the field of gas supply, radionuclide techniques are suitable for the routine monitoring of transport mains by means of highly active tracer clouds and a measuring scraper as well as for exact leakage detection in local gas distribution systems. Very good results are obtained in the case of mains lying lower than 1.5 m if the length and alignment of the pipe section allow a towing probe to be pulled through. This was investigated systematically on a model stretch under practical conditions. The attempts to detect leakages were made with the aid of the radioactive isotope 41 Ar. Under conditions close to practice concerning pipe bedding, branching, pre-pressure, and leakage diameter, a leak with leakage rates as small as approx. 1 l/min could be measured with the aid of a towing probe with a precision of +-0.5 m. This accuracy is another advantage of this method. Branching and fittings with a big dead volume do not interfere with the evaluation. The investment for this method can be compared to other physical/technical investigations on mains, e.g. weld seam tests. (orig./LN) [de

  8. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  9. Colorectal anastomotic leakage: Aspects of prevention, detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek); M. Luyer (Misha); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAll colorectal surgeons are faced from time to time with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This complication has been studied extensively without a significant reduction of incidence over the last 30 years. New techniques of prevention, by innovative anastomotic techniques

  10. First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive study of leakage reduction techniques applicable to CMOS based devices. In the process, mathematical equations that model the power-performance trade-offs in CMOS logic circuits are presented. From those equations...

  11. Incidence and management of chyle leakage after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Omloo, Jikke M. T.; de Jong, Koen; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Obertop, Hugo; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative chyle leakage is a rare but well-recognized complication after esophageal surgery. The aim of this study was to identify its incidence and potentially predisposing factors and to assess the consequences and management. METHODS: A consecutive series of 536 patients who

  12. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.

    2013-01-01

    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work...

  13. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  14. Factors related to ostomy leakage in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe demographic and clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage from those discharged from a major medical center during a 2-year period. A convenience sample of 198 persons with an ostomy was obtained using the ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes for colostomy, ileostomy, and ileal conduit for patients who were discharged from the medical center within the time frame of July 2009 to July 2011. One hundred seven participants (55%) returned a completed survey. Respondents included 57 men (53%) and 50 women (47%). The mean age was 60 years with age range from 23 to 91 years. Fecal ostomies made up the majority of the stomas representing 71 patients (66%). A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used to describe clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage for those discharged from a major academic medical center over a 2-year period of time. Participants were mailed an introductory letter from the principal investigator, a self-administered questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Ninety-three patients (87%) reported leakage; however, 48 patients (45%) stated that they did not leak often. A logistic regression was estimated to determine which variables were significant predictors of the dependent variable of leaking status (no/seldom leaking vs more frequent leaking). Two variables were individually significant predictors, sex (P = .021) and 2-piece pouch (P = .015). Women were 4 times more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group than were men. Those who were wearing 2-piece pouches were 78% less likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Participants with ileostomies or urostomies were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group and those with peristomal skin irritation were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Findings from this study reveal that women were more likely to experience leakage than men and that wearing a 2-piece

  15. Contribution of gold nanoparticles to the catalytic DNA strand displacement in leakage reduction and signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Dongbao; Sun, Xianbao; He, Miao; Wang, Xiaojing; Yin, Xue; Liang, Haojun

    2017-10-03

    A new model using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-DNA system to constrain leakage and improve efficiency of catalytic toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions was outlined. A 10-bp spacer on AuNPs and fourfold amount of fuels were determined for good performance of this model with an optimized toehold strategy. After the reaction at 25 °C for 10 h, a 258 pM target could be identified, which is a remarkable improvement compared with the traditional AuNP-DNA system without fuel. Moreover, this model was also studied to differentiate specific single nucleotide polymorphism on target with superior selection factors. This model may help by introducing a proposition of target detection to guide further investigation.

  16. GM6001 Increases Anastomotic Leakage following Colonic Obstruction Possibly by Impeding Epithelialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Martin; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Christensen, Lise H

    2015-01-01

    models. METHODS: A partial obstruction of the distal colon was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d the obstructed colonic segment was resected, and an end-to-end anastomosis was constructed. Seven days later, the anastomoses were evaluated for clinical leakage. Histopathological...... may be mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Our aim was to study the effect of the non-selective MMP and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitor GM6001 (30 mg/kg) on anastomosis repair in obstructed left colon. GM6001 has been proved to be highly efficacious in elective anastomosis rodent...... and immunohistochemical assessments were also performed. Finally, the direct effect of GM6001 on epithelialization was studied in cultured colonic epithelial cells. RESULTS: Unlike the robust beneficial effect on anastomosis under uncomplicated conditions, here GM6001 had a negative impact on anastomotic wound healing...

  17. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  18. Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Reimund; Niles, John O; Olander, Jacob

    2002-08-15

    A major concern about land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the potential for leakage. Leakage refers to a net increase of greenhouse-gas emissions in an area outside the project resulting from the CDM activity. This paper provides an overview of leakage, its definitions and its causes. It describes ways that LULUCF projects may suffer from leakage and attempts to assess the magnitude of leakage risks for different LULUCF project types. It also summarizes some of the approaches, both in terms of policies and project development, to address LULUCF leakage.

  19. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  20. [Definition of botulinum toxin failure in neurogenic detrusor overactivity: Preliminary results of the DETOX survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronnet, B; Sanson, S; Amarenco, G; Castel-Lacanal, E; Chartier-Kastler, E; Charvier, K; Damphousse, M; Denys, P; de Seze, M; Egon, G; Even, A; Forin, V; Karsenty, G; Kerdraon, J; le Normand, L; Loche, C-M; Manunta, A; Mouracade, P; Phe, V; Previnaire, J-G; Ruffion, A; Saussine, C; Schurch, B; Game, X

    2015-12-01

    There is currently no guideline regarding the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to intra-detrusor botulinum toxin injections. The primary objective of the present study was to find a consensus definition of failure of botulinum toxin intra-detrusor injections for NDO. The secondary objective was to report current trends in the managment of NDO refractory to botulinum toxin. A survey was created, based on data drawn from current literature, and sent via e-mail to all the experts form the Group for research in neurourology in french language (GENULF) and from the comittee of neurourology of the French urological association (AFU). The experts who did not answer to the first e-mail were contacted again twice. Main results from the survey are presented and expressed as numbers and proportions. Out of the 42 experts contacted, 21 responded to the survey. Nineteen participants considered that the definition of failure should be a combination of clinical and urodynamics criteria. Among the urodynamics criteria, the persistence of a maximum detrusor pressure>40 cm H2O was the most supported by the experts (18/21, 85%). According to the vast majority of participants (19/21, 90.5%), the impact of injections on urinary incontinence should be included in the definition of failure. Regarding the management, most experts considered that the first line treatment in case of failure of a first intra-detrusor injection of Botox(®) 200 U should be a repeat injection of Botox(®) at a higher dosage (300 U) (15/20, 75%), regardless of the presence or not of urodynamics risk factors of upper tract damage (16/20, 80%). This work has provided a first overview of the definition of failure of intra-detrusor injections of botulinum toxin in the management of NDO. For 90.5% of the experts involved, the definition of failure should be clinical and urodynamic and most participants (75%) considered that, in case of failure of a first injection of Botox(®) 200 U

  1. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/

  2. Transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve for treating refractory urge incontinence of idiopathic and neurogenic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Antuña, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; González-Ruiz de L, C; Quintás-Blanco, A; Tamargo-Diaz, E M; García-Rodríguez, J; San Martín-Blanco, A; Fernandez-Gomez, J M

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of treatment with transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (TPTNS) in patients with urge urinary incontinence, of neurogenic or nonneurogenic origin, refractory to first-line therapeutic options. We included 65 patients with urge urinary incontinence refractory to medical treatment. A case history review, a urodynamic study and a somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) study were conducted before the TPTNS, studying the functional urological condition by means of a voiding diary. The treatment consisted of 10 weekly sessions of TPTNS lasting 30minutes. Some 57.7% of the patients showed abnormal tibial SEPs, and 42% showed abnormal pudendal SEPs. A statistically significant symptomatic improvement was observed in all clinical parameters after treatment with TPTNS, and 66% of the patients showed an overall improvement, regardless of sex, the presence of underlying neurological disorders, detrusor hyperactivity in the urodynamic study or SEP disorders. There were no adverse effects during the treatment. TPTNS is an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients with urge incontinence refractory to first-line therapies and should be offered early in the treatment strategy. New studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation, the most effective treatment protocols and long-term efficacy, as well as its applicability to patients with a neurogenic substrate. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitors Attenuate Neurotrauma and Neurogenic Acute Lung Injury in Rats by Rescuing the Accumulation of Hypertrophic Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jung Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI, activated microglia exhibit changes in their morphology from the resting ramified phenotype toward the activated hypertrophic or amoeboid phenotype. Here, we provide the first description of the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors on TBI outcomes in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors such as LY411575 or CHF5074 on TBI-induced neurotoxicity were analysed using a neurological motor function evaluation, cerebral contusion assay, immunohistochemical staining for microglia phenotypes, lung injury score and Evans Blue dye extravasation assay of brain and lung oedema. Results: Hypertrophic or amoeboid microglia accumulated in the injured cortex, the blood-brain-barrier was disrupted and neurological deficits and acute lung injury were observed 4 days after TBI in adult rats. However, a subcutaneous injection of LY411575 (5 mg/kg or CHF5074 (30 mg/kg immediately after TBI and once daily for 3 consecutive days post-TBI significantly attenutaed the accumulation of hypertrophic microglia in the injured brain, neurological injury, and neurogenic acute lung injury. Conclusion: Gamma-secretase inhibitors attenuated neurotrauma and neurogenic acute lung injury in rats by reducing the accumulation of hypertrophic microglia in the vicinity of the lesion.

  4. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Zhu, Qianlin; Feng, Qiyan; Chen, Fu

    2017-01-01

    The technology of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO 2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO 2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO 2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m -2 day -1 to 2,000 g m -2 day -1 ) on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO 2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO 2 concentrations. Increasing CO 2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 ( p soil CO 2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria , whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% ( p soil ecosystems.

  5. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2016-09-08

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles. Off-axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in-plane, cross-plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in-field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (± 3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out-of-field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross-plane out-of-field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in-plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X-ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding model-ing of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as much as 0.2% for some regions

  6. Perioperative Statin Therapy Is Not Associated With Reduced Risk of Anastomotic Leakage After Colorectal Resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Noack, Morten Westergaard; Klein, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication of colorectal surgery. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins, and preliminary studies have suggested that perioperative statin treatment may be associated with reduced risk of anastomotic leakage....

  7. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while c...

  8. Evaluation of the White Test for the Intraoperative Detection of Bile Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Leelawat, Kawin; Chaiyabutr, Kittipong; Subwongcharoen, Somboon; Treepongkaruna, Sa-ad

    2012-01-01

    We assess whether the White test is better than the conventional bile leakage test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage in hepatectomized patients. This study included 30 patients who received elective liver resection. Both the conventional bile leakage test (injecting an isotonic sodium chloride solution through the cystic duct) and the White test (injecting a fat emulsion solution through the cystic duct) were carried out in the same patients. The detection of bile leakage was c...

  9. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats I: Magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Willem M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has received increasing attention as a potential antiepileptogenic target. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin after status epilepticus reduces the development of epilepsy in a rat model. To study whether rapamycin mediates this effect via restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) was used to determine BBB permeability throughout epileptogenesis. Imaging was repeatedly performed until 6 weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rapamycin (6 mg/kg for 6 weeks starting 4 h after SE) and vehicle-treated rats, using gadobutrol as contrast agent. Seizures were detected using video monitoring in the week following the last imaging session. Gadobutrol leakage was widespread and extensive in both rapamycin and vehicle-treated epileptic rats during the acute phase, with the piriform cortex and amygdala as the most affected regions. Gadobutrol leakage was higher in rapamycin-treated rats 4 and 8 days after status epilepticus compared to vehicle-treated rats. However, during the chronic epileptic phase, gadobutrol leakage was lower in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats along with a decreased seizure frequency. This was confirmed by local fluorescein staining in the brains of the same rats. Total brain volume was reduced by this rapamycin treatment regimen. The initial slow recovery of BBB function in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats indicates that rapamycin does not reduce seizure activity by a gradual recovery of BBB integrity. The reduced BBB leakage during the chronic phase, however, could contribute to the decreased seizure frequency in post-status epilepticus rats treated with rapamycin. Furthermore, the data show that CE-MRI (using step-down infusion with gadobutrol) can be used as biomarker for monitoring the effect of drug therapy in rats. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Allocation of emission permits with leakage through capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, Ottar

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how tradable emission permits should be allocated to firms when capital is internationally mobile. When international environmental problems are attempted solved through uncoordinated policies between countries, it might be desirable for the home country to issue free emission permits in proportion to the use of capital in order to prevent leakage through international capital movements. The desirability of free emission permits will however be reduced if capital also can be employed in a domestic non-polluting sector. In this case, it may even be optimal to tax the use of capital in the polluting sector. It is also shown that it is always optimal to subsidise the use of capital in the polluting sector if the use of labour is taxed at an optimal rate. Finally, leakage does not affect the optimal domestic emission limit as long as appropriate capital subsidies and labour taxes are implementeed. (author)

  11. Impact of the Indonesian Throughflow on Agulhas leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Le Bars

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using ocean models of different complexity we show that opening the Indonesian Passage between the Pacific and the Indian oceans increases the input of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage. In a strongly eddying global ocean model this response results from an increased Agulhas Current transport and a constant proportion of Agulhas retroflection south of Africa. The leakage increases through an increased frequency of ring shedding events. In an idealized two-layer and flat-bottom eddy resolving model, the proportion of the Agulhas Current transport that retroflects is (for a wide range of wind stress forcing not affected by an opening of the Indonesian Passage. Using a comparison with a linear model and previous work on the retroflection problem, the result is explained as a balance between two mechanisms: decrease retroflection due to large-scale momentum balance and increase due to local barotropic/baroclinic instabilities.

  12. Combined approach to reduced duration integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Even though primary reactor containment allowable leakage rates are expressed in weight percent per day of contained air, engineers have been attempting to define acceptable methods to test in < 24 h as long as these tests have been performed. The reasons to reduce testing duration are obvious, because time not generating electricity is time not generating revenue for the utilities. The latest proposed revision to 10CFR50 Appendix J, concerning integrated leakage rate testing (ILRTs), was supplemented with a draft regulatory guide proposing yet another method. This paper proposes a method that includes elements of currently accepted concepts for short duration testing with a standard statistical check for criteria acceptance. Following presentation of the method, several cases are presented showing the results of these combined criteria

  13. Correlation among ESDD, NSDD and leakage current in distribution insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.; Ramirez, I.; Montoya, J.I.

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance of distribution networks is more effective if the insulation contamination levels are known. The selection of measuring methods of pollution levels is then crucial. The relationship between several evaluation methods of pollution levels and the operating behaviour of several insulator profiles in a polluted zone is described. Laboratory tests were carried out to reproduce pollution levels found in the field. The quantity of non-soluble materials deposited over the insulators' surface affect the magnitude of the leakage current generated over a contaminated insulator. The relationship that defines leakage current with respect to the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) level for a specific non-soluble material level is almost linear, from which it is possible to develop a relationship between them for each insulator. (author)

  14. Support calculations for management of PRISE leakage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P.; Vranka, L. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Inst. Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Accidents involving primary-to-secondary leakage (PRISE) caused by rupture of one or a few tubes are well known design basis events in both, western and VVER NPPs. Operating experience and in-service inspections of VVER-440 units have demonstrated also the potential for large PRISE leaks in the case of the steam generator (SG) primary collector cover lift-up (Rovno NPP). Without performing any countermeasure for limitation of SG collector cover lift-up, a full opening results in PRISE leak with an equivalent diameter 107 mm. Although this accident was not considered in the original design, this event is usually analysed as DBA too. Different means are available for detection and mitigation of PRISE leakage in NPPs currently in operation (J.Bohunice V-1 and V-2) or under construction (Mochovce) in Slovakia. 8 refs.

  15. Low-leakage, high-current power crowbar transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, R.T.; Galbraith, J.D.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two sizes of power crowbar transformers for the ZT-40 Toroidal Z-Pinch experiment at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Low-leakage transformers in series with the poloidal and the toroidal field coils are used to sustain magnetic field currents initially produced by 50-kV capacitor banks. The transformer primaries are driven by cost-effective, ignitron-switched, 10-kV high-density capacitor banks. The transformer secondaries, in series with the field coils, provide from 1,000 to 1,500 V to cancel the resistive voltage drop in the coil circuits. Prototype transformers, with a total leakage inductance measured in the secondary of 5 nH, have been tested with peak secondary currents in excess of 600 kA resulting from a 10-kV primary charge voltage. The test procedures and results and the mechanical construction details are presented

  16. The Impact of Statistical Leakage Models on Design Yield Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouwaida Kanj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device mismatch and process variation models play a key role in determining the functionality and yield of sub-100 nm design. Average characteristics are often of interest, such as the average leakage current or the average read delay. However, detecting rare functional fails is critical for memory design and designers often seek techniques that enable accurately modeling such events. Extremely leaky devices can inflict functionality fails. The plurality of leaky devices on a bitline increase the dimensionality of the yield estimation problem. Simplified models are possible by adopting approximations to the underlying sum of lognormals. The implications of such approximations on tail probabilities may in turn bias the yield estimate. We review different closed form approximations and compare against the CDF matching method, which is shown to be most effective method for accurate statistical leakage modeling.

  17. Modelling of Consequences of Biogas Leakage from Gasholder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modelling of consequences of biogas leakage from a gasholder on agricultural biogas station. Four scenarios were selected for the purpose of this work. A rupture of gasholders membrane and instantaneous explosion of gas cloud, blast of gas with delay, emptying of whole volume of gas (without initiation and initiation of gas with Jet-Fire. Leakage of gas is modelled by special software and consequences are determined on the basis of results. The first scenario was modelled with help of equations because used software does not include an appropriate model. A farm with high building density was chosen as a model case. Biogas is replaced by methane because used software does not support modelling of dispersion of mixtures. From this viewpoint, a conservative approach is applied because biogas contains “only” approximately 60% of methane (in dependence on technology and processed material.

  18. Mission analysis report for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall missions of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineers principles are being applied to this effort. Mission analysis supports early decision making by clearly defining program objectives. This documents identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work

  19. The root caused analysis of leakaged heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Salleh, M.A.A. Mohd; Rahmat, Azmi; Anuar, Mohd Arif; Harun, Mohd; Zayid, Hafizal; Noor, Mazlee Mohd

    2015-01-01

    AISI type 316L stainless steel was used as a heat exchanger tube material in an inter-cooler column. After less than a year of operation, severe corrosion failures occurred and a transverse opening leakage was observed on one of the heat exchanger tubes. The failed tube was carefully analyzed using various metallurgical laboratory equipments. The root cause of the tube leakage was believed due to the presence of horizontal micro and macro pores as a hydrogen gas entrapment during casting of the parent ingot. The overlapped and gaping pores formed notch on the shell side of the tube surface, and it increasingly evident when the use of a high-energy water-jet and metal brush as cleaning procedure results in an establishment of pitting type local-action corrosion cells penetrated the tube wall. As a result, corrosive fluid in the tube side dissolved into the cooling water, accelerating the corrosion process.

  20. A software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm for reducing spectral leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Li-dong; WANG Fei

    2006-01-01

    Spectral leakage caused by synchronous error in a nonsynchronous sampling system is an important cause that reduces the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement.This paper presents a software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm that can obtain the actual signal frequency more accurately,and then adjusts sampling interval base on the frequency calculated by software algorithm and modifies sampling frequency adaptively.It can reduce synchronous error and impact of spectral leakage;thereby improving the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement for power system signal where frequency changes slowly.This algorithm has high precision just like the simulations show,and it can be a practical method in power system harmonic analysis since it can be implemented easily.

  1. Remote laser detection of natural gas leakages from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V O; Gorobets, V A; Andreev, Yu M; Lanskii, G V

    2010-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO 2 laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 01 1 1 - 11 1 0 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 μm is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h -1 and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Model-Based Detection of Pipe Leakage at Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejin; Youn, Byeng D.; Woo, Sihyong

    2015-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is widely used for wire failure detection. It transmits a pulse that is reflected at the boundaries of different characteristic impedances. By analyzing the reflected signal, TDR makes it possible to locate the failure. In this study, TDR was used to detect the water leakage at a pipe joint. A wire attached to the pipe surface was soaked by water when a leak occurred, which affected the characteristic impedance of the wet part, resulting in a change in the reflected signal. To infer the leakage from the TDR signal, we first developed a finite difference time domain-based forward model that provided the output of the TDR signal given the configuration of the transmission line. Then, by solving the inverse problem, the locations of the leaks were found

  3. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  4. Support calculations for management of PRISE leakage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P; Vranka, L [Nuclear Power Plants Research Inst. Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    Accidents involving primary-to-secondary leakage (PRISE) caused by rupture of one or a few tubes are well known design basis events in both, western and VVER NPPs. Operating experience and in-service inspections of VVER-440 units have demonstrated also the potential for large PRISE leaks in the case of the steam generator (SG) primary collector cover lift-up (Rovno NPP). Without performing any countermeasure for limitation of SG collector cover lift-up, a full opening results in PRISE leak with an equivalent diameter 107 mm. Although this accident was not considered in the original design, this event is usually analysed as DBA too. Different means are available for detection and mitigation of PRISE leakage in NPPs currently in operation (J.Bohunice V-1 and V-2) or under construction (Mochovce) in Slovakia. 8 refs.

  5. Practical implementation of a higher order transverse leakage approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomašević

    2011-01-01

    Transverse integrated nodal diffusion methods currently represent the standard in full core neutronic simulation. The primary shortcoming in this approach, be it via the Analytic Nodal Method or Nodal Expansion Method, is the utilization of the quadratic transverse leakage approximation. This approach, although proven to work well for typical LWR problems, is not consistent with the formulation of nodal methods and can cause accuracy and convergence problems. In this work an improved, consistent quadratic leakage approximation is formulated, which derives from the class of higher order nodal methods developed some years ago. In this new approach, only information relevant to describing the transverse leak- age terms in the zero-order nodal equations are obtained from the higher order formalism. The method yields accuracy comparable to full higher order methods, but does not suffer from the same computational burden which these methods typically incur. (author)

  6. Air leakage test of reactor hall using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanqiu; Yang Liang; Yang Tongzai

    2011-01-01

    The leakage ratios of three related reactor halls were tested by sulfur hexafluoride gaseous tracer technique. Moreover, the accumulation intensities of leak gas and its retention time in some important working rooms, the crossroads of corridors and anteroom of the building were detected. The results show that the air leakage ratios of the three reactor halls are (7.30±0.16) x 10 -4 , (1.88±0.12) x 10 -4 and (2.07±0.07) x 10 -4 h -1 . The leak gas accumulates in all the detected working rooms fast, and the retention time to various rooms is about 5 h. The heaviest intensities are in the clothes change rooms on the first floor. However, the retention time to the crossroads and the anteroom is about 10 h, and the accumulation intensities are much small. (authors)

  7. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  8. Some possible causes and probability of leakages in LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Relevant operational experience with steam generators for process and conventional plant and thermal and fast reactors is reviewed. Possible causes of water/steam leakages into sodium/gas are identified and data is given on the conditions necessary for failure, leakage probability and type of leakage path. (author)

  9. Benchmark calculations for evaluation methods of gas volumetric leakage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, R.; Aritomi, M.; Matsuzaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    A containment function of radioactive materials transport casks is essential for safe transportation to prevent the radioactive materials from being released into environment. Regulations such as IAEA standard determined the limit of radioactivity to be released. Since is not practical for the leakage tests to measure directly the radioactivity release from a package, as gas volumetric leakages rates are proposed in ANSI N14.5 and ISO standards. In our previous works, gas volumetric leakage rates for several kinds of gas from various leaks were measured and two evaluation methods, 'a simple evaluation method' and 'a strict evaluation method', were proposed based on the results. The simple evaluation method considers the friction loss of laminar flow with expansion effect. The strict evaluating method considers an exit loss in addition to the friction loss. In this study, four worked examples were completed for on assumed large spent fuel transport cask (Type B Package) with wet or dry capacity and at three transport conditions; normal transport with intact fuels or failed fuels, and an accident in transport. The standard leakage rates and criteria for two kinds of leak test were calculated for each example by each evaluation method. The following observations are made based upon the calculations and evaluations: the choked flow model of ANSI method greatly overestimates the criteria for tests ; the laminar flow models of both ANSI and ISO methods slightly overestimate the criteria for tests; the above two results are within the design margin for ordinary transport condition and all methods are useful for the evaluation; for severe condition such as failed fuel transportation, it should pay attention to apply a choked flow model of ANSI method. (authors)

  10. CloudSafetyNet: Detecting Data Leakage between Cloud Tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Pietzuch, PR; Priebe, C; Muthukumaran, D; O'Keeffe, D; Eyers, D; Shand, B; Kapitza, R

    2014-01-01

    01.12.14 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral. Copyright ? 2014 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM).When tenants deploy applications under the control of third-party cloud providers, they must trust the providers security mechanisms for inter-tenant isolation, resource sharing and access control. Despite a providers best efforts, accidental data leakage may occur due to misconfigurations or bugs in the cloud platform. Especially in Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) clouds...

  11. Deforestation, Leakage and Avoided Deforestation Policies: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...

  12. A code for leakage neutron spectra through thick shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, P.S.; Sethulakshmi, P.; Raghavendran, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    An exponential transform Monte Carlo code has been developed for deep penetration of neutrons and the results of leakage neutron spectra of this code have been compared with those of a basic Monte Carlo code for small thickness. The development of the code and optimisation of certain transform parameters are discussed and results are presented for a few thick shields of concrete and water in the context of neutron monitoring in the environs of accelerator and reactor shields. (author)

  13. The Technique to Prevent the Data Leakage using Covert Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasilievna Arkhangelskaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to analyze technique to prevent information leakage using covert channels. The main steps are as follows: involving covert channels identification, data throughput estimation, its elimination or limitation, audit and detection. Three schemes of identification had been analyzed: shared resources methodology, covert flow tree method, message sequence diagram method. Ways of guarantee information delivery from systems with low security level to systems with high security level have been investigated.

  14. A decision support system for on-line leakage localization

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer, Jordi; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Cembrano, Gabriela; Puig, Vicenç; Quevedo, Joseba; Pérez, Ramon; Sanz, Gerard; Ibarra, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-driven decision-support system (software tool) implementing a model-based methodology for on-line leakage detection and localization which is useful for a large class of water distribution networks. Since these methods present a certain degree of complexity which limits their use to experts, the proposed software tool focuses on the integration of a method emphasizing its use by water network managers as a decision support system. The proposed software tool integr...

  15. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...

  17. Artificial-Crack-Behavior Test Evaluation of the Water-Leakage Repair Materials Used for the Repair of Water-Leakage Cracks in Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Yeon Kim; Sang-Keun Oh; Byoungil Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are no existing standard test methods at home and abroad that can verify the performance of water leakage repair materials, and it is thus very difficult to perform quality control checks in the field of water leakage repair. This study determined that the key factors that have the greatest impact on the water leakage repair materials are the micro-behaviors of cracks, and proposed an artificial-crack-behavior test method for the performance verification of the repair materials. The per...

  18. Environmental and artificial tracers for investigating leakages into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, A.; Grabczak, J.; Kolonko, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the results of five years of experience in investigating the origin of waters in the Wapno mine, where salt is exploited in a Zechstein dome, in northwestern Poland. Tritium and 14 C measurements showed young infiltration waters in leakages at the third level of the mine. Stable isotope determinations showed a considerable shift of values from the precipitation line, both on activity and on concentration scales. Despite this shift, it was possible to distinguish infiltration waters from connate ones appearing at deeper mine levels. In 1976 and 1977 leakage flow-rates increased and the mineralization decreased. Tritium and 14 C contents did not then change, showing that, at the initial stages of flooding, the origin of water in the leakages was not changed. The first results of isotope investigations in the Klodawa mine, situated in another Zechstein salt dome in central Poland, showed connate waters. Observations performed in the Wieliczka salt mine, situated in Miocene formations in southern Poland, showed old waters originating from the surrounding formations. Their stable isotope composition shows that recharge took place in a cooler climate. The 14 C content of these waters is 1 to 2% of recent carbon. The experimental procedure used to determine the isotopic composition of highly mineralized brines is also described. (author)

  19. Leakage losses from a hydraulic fracture and fracture propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.; Gustafson, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The fluid mechanics of viscous fluid injection into a fracture embedded in a permeable rock formation is studied. Coupling between flow in the fracture and flow in the rock is retained. The analysis is based on a perturbation scheme that assumes the depth of penetration of the fluid into the rock is small compared to the characteristic length w 3 0 /k, where w 0 is the characteristic crack width and k is the permeability. This restriction, however, is shown to be minor. The spatial dependence of the leakage rate per unit length from the fracture is found to be linear, decreasing from the well bore to the fracture tip where it vanishes. The magnitude of the leakage rate per unit length is found to decay in time as t -1 /sup // 3 if the injection rate at the well bore is constant, and as t -1 /sup // 2 if the well bore pressure is held constant. The results cast considerable doubt on the validity of Carter's well-known leakage formula (Drilling Prod. Prac. API 1957, 261) derived from a one-dimensional theory. Using the simple fracture propagation model made popular by Carter, the present work also predicts that the fracture grows at a rate proportional to t 1 /sup // 3 for a fixed well bore injection rate and a rate proportional to t 1 /sup // 4 for a fixed well bore pressure

  20. Mechanistic approach to the sodium leakage and fire analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Ohira, Hiroaki; Ida, Masao

    1997-04-01

    In December 1995, a thermocouple well was broken and liquid sodium leaked out of the intermediate heat transport system of the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. In the initiating process of the incident, liquid sodium flowed out through the hollow thermocouple well, nipple and connector. As a result, liquid sodium, following ignition and combustion, was dropping from the connector to colide with the duct and grating placed below. The collision may cause fragmentation and scattering of the sodium droplet that finally was piled up on the floor. This report deals with the development of computer programs for the phenomena based on mechanistics approach. Numerical analyses are also made for fundamental sodium leakage and combustion phenomenon, sodium combustion experiment, and Monju incident condition. The contents of this report is listed below: (1) Analysis of chemical reaction process based on molecular orbital method, (2) Thermalhy draulic analysis of the sodium combustion experiment II performed in 1996 at O-arai Engineering Center, PNC, (3) Thermalhy draulic analysis of room A-446 of Monju reactor when the sodium leakage took place, (4) Direct numerical simulation of sodium droplet, (5) Sodium leakage and scattering analysis using three dimensional particle method, (6) Multi-dimensional combustion analysis and multi-point approximation combustion analysis code. Subsequent to the development work of the programs, they are to be applied to the safety analysis of the Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  1. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  2. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  3. Detection Test for Leakage of CO2 into Sodium Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO 2 leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO 2 ) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO 2 exchanger, detection of CO 2 leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO 2 such as sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na 2 CO 3 in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO 2 and CO from reaction of sodium and CO 2 are proper to detect CO 2 leakage into sodium loop

  4. Method of detecting water leakage in radioactive waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Hitoshi; Takao, Yoshiaki; Hayakawa, Kiyoshige.

    1989-01-01

    Lower level radioactive wastes formed upon operation of nuclear facilities are processed by underground storage. In this case, a plurality of drum cans packed with radioactive wastes are contained in a vessel and a water soluble dye material is placed at the inside of the vessel. The method of placing the water soluble dye material at the inside of the vessel includes a method of coating the material on the inner surface of the vessel and a method of mixing the material in sands to be filled between each of the drum cans. Then, leakage of water soluble dye material is detected when water intruding from the outside into the vessel is again leached out of the vessel, to detect the water leakage from the inside of the vessel. In this way, it is possible to find a water-invaded vessel before corrosion of the drum can by water intruded into the vessel and leakage of nuclides in the drum can. Accordingly, it is possible to apply treatment such as repair before occurrence of accident and can maintain the safety of radioactive water processing facilities. (I.S.)

  5. Fail-safe first wall for preclusion of little leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao; Nakahira, Masataka; Tada, Eisuke; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1994-05-01

    Leakages although excluded by design measures would occur most probably in highly stressed areas, weldments and locations without possibility to classify the state by in-service inspection. In a water-cooled first wall, allowable leak rate of water is generally very small, and therefore, locating of the leak portion under highly activated environment will be very difficult and be time-consuming. The double-wall concept is promising for the ITER first wall, because it can be made fail-safe by the application of the leak-before-break and the multiple load path concepts, and because it has a potential capability to solve the little leak problem. When the fail safe strength is well defined, subcritical crack growth in the damaged wall can be permitted. This will enable to detect stable leakage of coolant without deteriorating plasma operation. The paper deals with the little leak problem and presents method for evaluating small leak rate of a liquid coolant from crack-like defects. The fail-safe first wall with the double-wall concept is also proposed for preclusion of little leakage and its fail-safety is discussed. (author)

  6. Leakage flow simulation in a specific pump model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, P; Bayeul-Lainé, A C; Dazin, A; Bois, G; Roussette, O; Si, Q

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of leakage flow existing in SHF pump model on the analysis of internal flow behaviour inside the vane diffuser of the pump model performance using both experiments and calculations. PIV measurements have been performed at different hub to shroud planes inside one diffuser channel passage for a given speed of rotation and various flow rates. For each operating condition, the PIV measurements have been trigged with different angular impeller positions. The performances and the static pressure rise of the diffuser were also measured using a three-hole probe. The numerical simulations were carried out with Star CCM+ 8.06 code (RANS frozen and unsteady calculations). Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented and discussed for three flow rates. The performances of the diffuser obtained by numerical simulation results are compared to the performances obtained by three-hole probe indications. The comparisons show few influence of fluid leakage on global performances but a real improvement concerning the efficiency of the impeller, the pump and the velocity distributions. These results show that leakage is an important parameter that has to be taken into account in order to make improved comparisons between numerical approaches and experiments in such a specific model set up

  7. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  8. Lineage analysis of quiescent regenerative stem cells in the adult brain by genetic labelling reveals spatially restricted neurogenic niches in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachino, Claudio; Taylor, Verdon

    2009-07-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the major neurogenic region in the adult mammalian brain, harbouring neural stem cells within defined niches. The identity of these stem cells and the factors regulating their fate are poorly understood. We have genetically mapped a population of Nestin-expressing cells during postnatal development to study their potential and fate in vivo. Taking advantage of the recombination characteristics of a nestin::CreER(T2) allele, we followed a subpopulation of neural stem cells and traced their fate in a largely unrecombined neurogenic niche. Perinatal nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing cells give rise to multiple glial cell types and neurons, as well as to stem cells of the adult SVZ. In the adult SVZ nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing neural stem cells give rise to several neuronal subtypes in the olfactory bulb (OB). We addressed whether the same population of neural stem cells play a role in SVZ regeneration. Following anti-mitotic treatment to eliminate rapidly dividing progenitors, relatively quiescent nestin::CreER(T2)-targeted cells are spared and contribute to SVZ regeneration, generating new proliferating precursors and neuroblasts. Finally, we have identified neurogenic progenitors clustered in ependymal-like niches within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the OB. These OB-RMS progenitors generate neuroblasts that, upon transplantation, graft, migrate and differentiate into granule and glomerular neurons. In summary, using conditional lineage tracing we have identified neonatal cells that are the source of neurogenic and regenerative neural stem cells in the adult SVZ and occupy a novel neurogenic niche in the OB.

  9. Sodium leakage experience at the prototype FBR Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, A.; Maeda, H.; Kani, Y.; Ito, K.

    2000-01-01

    Monju is Japan's prototype fast breeder reactor: 280 MWe (714 MWt), fueled with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium, cooled by liquid sodium. Construction was started in 1985 and initial criticality was attained in April 1994. On 8th December 1995, sodium leakage from a secondary circuit occurred in a piping room of the reactor auxiliary building. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the thermocouple well tube installed near the secondary circuit outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The reactor remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There was no release of radioactive material. There were no adverse effects for personnel and the surrounding environment. The thermocouple well tube failure resulted from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibration. It was found that this flow induced vibration was not caused by well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. The design of the thermocouple well, which was subject to avoid this phenomenon, was reviewed. A new design guide against the flow-induced vibration was prepared by JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute). This is more comprehensive and definitive than the existing guide 'ASME N-1300' (Flow-induced vibration of tube and tube banks). New thermocouple well designs were proposed consistent with this design guide. To prevent a recurrence of the secondary sodium leakage incident, comprehensive design review activities were started for the purpose of checking the safety and reliability of the plant. As a result, several aspects to be improved were identified and improvements and countermeasures have been studied. The main improvements and countermeasures are as follows: To enable the operators to understand and react to incidents quickly, new sodium leakage detectors (TV monitors, smoke sensors) and a new surveillance system will be installed; To

  10. Whole-tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors from soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Masanori; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Hakamada, Hiroto; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Nagano, Satoshi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-02-22

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analyses have been used to differentiate tumor grades and predict therapeutic responses in various anatomic sites with moderate success. To determine the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a whole-tumor ADC histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors (BPNTs) from soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Retrospective study, single institution. In all, 25 BPNTs and 31 STSs. Two-b value DWI (b-values = 0, 1000s/mm 2 ) was at 3.0T. The histogram parameters of whole-tumor for ADC were calculated by two radiologists and compared between BPNTs and STSs. Nonparametric tests were performed for comparisons between BPNTs and STSs. P histogram parameters except kurtosis and entropy differed significantly between BPNTs and STSs. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected With Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosana C P; Neto, José A; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S; Santos, Dislene N; Oliveira, Cassius J V; Prado, Márcio J; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Open clinical trial was conducted with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises, and intravaginal or intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. The mean age was 54 ± 12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia, and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (P Physiotherapy was effective in cases of human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, and improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MILD® Is an Effective Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Neurogenic Claudication: MiDAS ENCORE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin M; Staats, Peter S; MiDAS Encore, Investigators

    2016-05-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common degenerative condition of the spine, which is a major cause of pain and functional disability for the elderly. Neurogenic claudication symptoms are a hallmark of LSS, where patients develop low back or leg pain when walking or standing that is relieved by sitting or lumbar flexion. The treatment of LSS generally begins with conservative management such as physical therapy, home exercise programs, and oral analgesics. Once these therapies fail, patients commonly move forward with interventional pain treatment options such as epidural steroid injections (ESIs) or MILD® as the next step. To assess improvement of function and reduction in pain for Medicare beneficiaries following treatment with MILD (treatment group) in LSS patients with neurogenic claudication and verified ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and to compare to a control group receiving ESIs. Prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled clinical trial. Twenty-six US interventional pain management centers. Patients in this trial were randomized one to one into 2 study arms. A total of 302 patients were enrolled, with 149 randomized to MILD and 153 to the active control. Outcomes are assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ). Primary efficacy is the proportion of ODI responders, tested for statistical superiority of the MILD group versus the ESI group. ODI responders are defined as patients achieving the validated Minimal Important Change (MIC) of = 10 point improvement in ODI from baseline to follow-up. Similarly, secondary efficacy is the proportion of NPRS and ZCQ responders using validated MIC thresholds. Primary safety is the incidence of device- or procedure-related adverse events in each group. This report presents safety and efficacy results at 1-year follow-up. Outcomes at 2 years will be collected and reported for patients in the MILD group only. At 1-year follow-up, ODI

  13. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  14. Intercultural Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Marian Radulescu; Denisa Mitrut

    2012-01-01

    The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international poli...

  15. Properties of doublecortin-(DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex compared to the neurogenic dentate gyrus of adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Klempin

    Full Text Available The piriform cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and (via the entorhinal cortex sends efferents to the hippocampus, thereby connecting the two canonical neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain. Doublecortin (DCX is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that is expressed transiently in the course of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the adult piriform cortex, which is usually considered non-neurogenic (even though some reports exist that state otherwise, also contains an abundant population of DCX-positive cells. We asked how similar these cells would be to DCX-positive cells in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Using BAC-generated transgenic mice that express GFP under the DCX promoter, we studied DCX-expression and electrophysiological properties of DCX-positive cells in the mouse piriform cortex in comparison with the dentate gyrus. While one class of cells in the piriform cortex indeed showed features similar to newly generated immature granule neurons, the majority of DCX cells in the piriform cortex was mature and revealed large Na+ currents and multiple action potentials. Furthermore, when proliferative activity was assessed, we found that all DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex were strictly postmitotic, suggesting that no DCX-positive "neuroblasts" exist here as they do in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that DCX in the piriform cortex marks a unique population of postmitotic neurons with a subpopulation that retains immature characteristics associated with synaptic plasticity. DCX is thus, per se, no marker of neurogenesis but might be associated more broadly with plasticity.

  16. Women's experiences of living with neurogenic bladder and bowel after spinal cord injury: life controlled by bladder and bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevedal, Andrea; Kratz, Anna L; Tate, Denise G

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB) is a chronic condition hindering the functioning and quality of life (QOL) of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). NBB research has focused on men with SCI leaving unanswered questions about women's experiences of living with NBB. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe women's experiences of living with SCI and NBB. Secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews from a larger qualitative study of women with SCI (N = 50) was carried out. Transcripts were coded for bowel and bladder content. Pile-sorting techniques were used to identify emergent themes related to NBB. Meta-themes were categorized under the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Bladder and bowel topics were spontaneously discussed by 46 out of 50 study participants suggesting the salience of this issue for women with SCI. We identified 6 meta-themes: life controlled by bladder and bowel, bladder and bowel accidents, women's specific challenges, life course disruption, bladder and bowel medical management, and finding independence. Findings describe concerns, strategies, and the detrimental impact of NBB in the lives of women with SCI. Findings inform policy makers, health care and rehabilitation professionals to improve accessibility and quality of life for women with NBB. Women with spinal cord injury (SCI) reported gender specific challenges to living with neurogenic bladder and bowel (NBB). Interventions designed for women with SCI can address these problems and provide recommendations for prevention and treatment. Women described the detrimental impact of NBB on life course expectations, emotional, social, physical health, and quality of life domains. Psychosocial and educational programs can be developed to address these challenges and improve overall quality of life. Recommendations for special treatment and policy considerations are needed to maximize women's independence and health while living with NBB

  17. [Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin-juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; Li, Shi-bao

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and superiority of micro-CT in marginal leakage assessment of Class V restorations. Class V preparations with gingival margins in dentin and occlusal in enamel were made in sixteen extracted non-carious human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and composite resin. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammonia-silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by developing solution for 8 hours. Each restoration was scanned by a micro-CT and silver leakage was measured and three-dimensional image of the silver leakage alone cavity wall were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were sectioned and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by micro-CT and microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depths in gingival wall obtained with micro-CT (0.78 mm) and microscope (0.74 mm) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), while the judgment of leakage depths in occlusal wall in micro-CT image (0.40 mm) was affected by adjacent enamel structure, giving less leakage depths compared to microscope (0.72 mm)(P leakages showed channels on their way to spreading. Micro-CT can detect precisely the silver leakage in the dentin wall of a restoration and display its three-dimensional shape fully. Enamel structure affects the detection of the silver leakage next to it.

  18. IMPACT OF DUCT LEAKAGE PRESSURES ON THE SHAPE OF THE DELTA Q CURVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The question of whether and to what extent information on the pressures driving duct leaks can be extracted from the data taken during the Delta Q test for duct leakage is investigated. Curves of Delta Q vs. house pressure are generated for sets of cases where the supply and return leakage rates to/from outside are held constant while the leakage pressures are varied. It is found that the Delta Q curve takes on two qualitatively different shapes, one for leakage pressures within the range of house pressures used in the Delta Q test (i.e., -25 Pa to +25 Pa) and the other for leakage pressures well outside this range. These effects are seen in experimental data taken with leakage at known pressures. However, extracting the signal of the leakage pressure from the surrounding noise caused by random measurement variation is likely to be a difficult problem in many cases

  19. Leakage characterization of top select transistor for program disturbance optimization in 3D NAND flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Dandan; Zou, Xingqi; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Wenbin; Tang, Zhaoyun; Huo, Zongliang

    2018-03-01

    In order to optimize program disturbance characteristics effectively, a characterization approach that measures top select transistor (TSG) leakage from bit-line is proposed to quantify TSG leakage under program inhibit condition in 3D NAND flash memory. Based on this approach, the effect of Vth modulation of two-cell TSG on leakage is evaluated. By checking the dependence of leakage and corresponding program disturbance on upper and lower TSG Vth, this approach is validated. The optimal Vth pattern with high upper TSG Vth and low lower TSG Vth has been suggested for low leakage current and high boosted channel potential. It is found that upper TSG plays dominant role in preventing drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) leakage from boosted channel to bit-line, while lower TSG assists to further suppress TSG leakage by providing smooth potential drop from dummy WL to edge of TSG, consequently suppressing trap assisted band-to-band tunneling current (BTBT) between dummy WL and TSG.

  20. A coupled approach for the three-dimensional simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Graf, Thomas; Fuchs, Lothar; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-12-01

    In urban water pipe networks, pipe leakage may lead to subsurface contamination or to reduced waste water treatment efficiency. The quantification of pipe leakage is challenging due to inaccessibility and unknown hydraulic properties of the soil. A novel physically-based model for three-dimensional numerical simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil is presented. We describe the newly implemented coupling between the pipe flow simulator HYSTEM-EXTRAN and the groundwater flow simulator OpenGeoSys and its validation. We further describe a novel upscaling of leakage using transfer functions derived from numerical simulations. This upscaling enables the simulation of numerous pipe defects with the benefit of reduced computation times. Finally, we investigate the response of leakage to different time-dependent pipe flow events and conclude that larger pipe flow volume and duration lead to larger leakage while the peak position in time has a small effect on leakage.

  1. Automated detection of leakage in fluorescein angiography images with application to malarial retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yitian; MacCormick, Ian J C; Parry, David G; Leach, Sophie; Beare, Nicholas A V; Harding, Simon P; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The detection and assessment of leakage in retinal fluorescein angiogram images is important for the management of a wide range of retinal diseases. We have developed a framework that can automatically detect three types of leakage (large focal, punctate focal, and vessel segment leakage) and validated it on images from patients with malarial retinopathy. This framework comprises three steps: vessel segmentation, saliency feature generation and leakage detection. We tested the effectiveness of this framework by applying it to images from 20 patients with large focal leak, 10 patients with punctate focal leak, and 5,846 vessel segments from 10 patients with vessel leakage. The sensitivity in detecting large focal, punctate focal and vessel segment leakage are 95%, 82% and 81%, respectively, when compared to manual annotation by expert human observers. Our framework has the potential to become a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy, and other conditions involving retinal leakage.

  2. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage (CCS has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m−2 day−1 to 2,000 g m−2 day−1 on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO2 concentrations. Increasing CO2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 (p < 0.05. Nitrate nitrogen content varied from 1.01 to 4.03 mg/Kg, while Olsen-phosphorus and total phosphorus demonstrated less regular downtrends. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA hydrolytic enzyme activity was inhibited by the increasing CO2 flux, with the average content varying from 22.69 to 11.25 mg/(Kg h (p < 0.05. However, the increasing activity amplitude of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme approached 230%, while the urease activity presented a similar rising trend. Alpha diversity results showed that the Shannon index decreased from 7.66 ± 0.13 to 5.23 ± 0.35 as the soil CO2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria, whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% (p < 0.01. Moreover, the abundances of genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, and Methylovorus increased, while GP4, GP6 and GP7 decreased. Canonical correlation analysis

  3. Numerical investigation of the leakage behaviour of reinforced concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoph Niklasch; Laurent Coudert; Gregory Heinfling; Chantal Hervouet; Benoit Masson; Nico Herrmann; Lothar Stempniewski

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For the verification of nuclear power plant safety, the leakage behaviour of the containment walls is of decisive importance. Extreme temperatures well over the water boiling temperature accompanied by high internal pressures can occur during an severe accident. In case of cracks through the entire thickness of the containment wall, an air-steam-water mixture may be released. In order to improve the knowledge of the leakage behaviour through cracks during such abnormal occurrences an experimental setup was developed at IfMB and several tests with different parameters were performed. The details of the experimental facility and the performed tests will be described in a separate paper. To improve the understanding of the behaviour of the tested wall elements during the tests numerical simulations of the performed leakage experiments are necessary. Reliable numerical tools provide a basis for the transfer of the leakage behaviour from the tested specimens to the behaviour of whole containment structures. To address the task of developing tools for the numerical simulation of the leakage behaviour of reinforced containment structures, EDF and IfMB decided to cooperate. During this cooperation two different numerical approaches had been made basing on existing tools and models of EDF and IfMB. In the following sections a short overview about the two different models will be given. For the numerical investigation of the leakage phenomena IfMB used the commercial Finite-Element- Program ADINA with ADINA's capability to solve coupled fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) problems. For the investigation of the moving of the specimen and the change of the crack profiles during the tests, it is important to take into account the heating of the specimen by the fluid flowing through the cracks. This is done by an iterative calculation of the fluid model and the structural model of the specimen. The thermo-dynamic boundary conditions representing

  4. Simulations of hydraulic fracturing and leakage in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothe, Ane Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and leakage of water through the caprock is described from sedimentary basin over geological time scale. Abnormal pressure accumulations reduce the effective stresses in the underground and trigger the initiation of hydraulic fractures. The major faults in the basin define these pressure compartments. In this Thesis, basin simulations of hydraulic fracturing and leakage have been carried out. A simulator (Pressim) is used to calculate pressure generation and dissipitation between the compartments. The flux between the compartments and not the flow within the compartments is modelled. The Griffith-Coulomb failure criterion determines initial failure at the top structures of overpressured compartments, whereas the frictional sliding criterion is used for reactivation along the same fractures. The minimum horizontal stress is determined from different formulas, and an empirical one seems to give good results compared to measured pressures and minimum horizontal stresses. Simulations have been carried out on two datasets; one covering the Halten Terrace area and one the Tune Field area in the northern North Sea. The timing of hydraulic fracturing and amount of leakage has been quantified in the studies from the Halten Terrace area. This is mainly controlled by the lateral fluid flow and the permeability of the major faults in the basin. Low fault permeability gives early failure, while high fault permeabilities results in no or late hydraulic fracturing and leakage from overpressured parts of the basin. In addition to varying the transmissibility of all faults in a basin, the transmissibility across individual faults can be varied. Increasing the transmissibility across faults is of major importance in overpressured to intermediately pressured areas. However, to obtain change in the flow, a certain pressure difference has to be the situation between the different compartments. The coefficient of internal friction and the coefficient of frictional

  5. Air-steam leakage through cracks in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges Nahas; Helene Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the context of a severe accident in a Pressurised Water nuclear plant, the evaluation of the leakage rate through the containment wall remains a key point of the safety analysis, because it influences directly the consequences on the environment. During a severe accident, large amounts of steam could be released in the containment; internal pressure could rise beyond design limits causing cracks to appear in the internal concrete wall of the double-wall containment and fission products to leak towards the containment annulus. A research program led by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety aims to estimate this leakage. In the presence of cracks, most of the leak flows through them. Hence, a first phase of the program was to build a two-phase homogeneous model for the flow of an air-steam mixture through a idealized traversing crack, taking into account condensation phenomena, and considering crack openings from 25 μm to several hundred μm. A numerical model for the flow, coupled with heat transfer in the wall, was implemented in the Finite Element code CAST3M. This model was validated on a small scaled experiment which was made of two parallel glass plates. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results in this 'channel case' has shown good results for the total mass flow rate for channel openings greater than 100 μm. For the 50 μm opening the calculation gave a 50 % estimate of the experimental total mass flow rate. The second phase of the program is now to validate the model on cracks performed in a concrete specimen. In order to do so, we have simulated the experiment VK2/2 described in the article named 'Investigation of the leakage behavior of reinforced concrete walls' by N. Herrmann, C. Niklasch, M. Stegemann, L. Stempniewski. The reinforced concrete slab, 2.7 m long in the reinforcement direction and 1.2 m thick in the cracking direction, is placed in a mechanical set-up and an

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  7. POWER BEAMING LEAKAGE RADIATION AS A SETI OBSERVABLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, James N. [Microwave Sciences, 1041 Los Arabis Lane, Lafayette, CA 94549 (United States); Benford, Dominic J., E-mail: jimbenford@gmail.com [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The most observable leakage radiation from an advanced civilization may well be from the use of power beaming to transfer energy and accelerate spacecraft. Applications suggested for power beaming involve launching spacecraft to orbit, raising satellites to a higher orbit, and interplanetary concepts involving space-to-space transfers of cargo or passengers. We also quantify beam-driven launch to the outer solar system, interstellar precursors, and ultimately starships. We estimate the principal observable parameters of power beaming leakage. Extraterrestrial civilizations would know their power beams could be observed, and so could put a message on the power beam and broadcast it for our receipt at little additional energy or cost. By observing leakage from power beams we may find a message embedded on the beam. Recent observations of the anomalous star KIC 8462852 by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) set some limits on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. We show that most power beaming applications commensurate with those suggested for our solar system would be detectable if using the frequency range monitored by the ATA, and so the lack of detection is a meaningful, if modest, constraint on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. Until more extensive observations are made, the limited observation time and frequency coverage are not sufficiently broad in frequency and duration to produce firm conclusions. Such beams would be visible over large interstellar distances. This implies a new approach to the SETI search: instead of focusing on narrowband beacon transmissions generated by another civilization, look for more powerful beams with much wider bandwidth. This requires a new approach for their discovery by telescopes on Earth. Further studies of power beaming applications should be performed, potentially broadening the parameter space of the observable features that we have discussed here.

  8. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginai-Karamat, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium (CM) for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the reactions of various available CM in the bronchi and lungs, mediastinum, pleura and peritoneum of rats. The CM evaluated in the experimental study were, pure barium sulphate (without any additives), commercial barium sulphate (Micropaque, with additives), Dionosil, Hytrast, Gastrografin, Amipaque (in pleura Omnipaque) and Hexabrix. (Auth.)

  9. Failure/leakage predictions of concrete structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.C.; Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    An approach is presented for studying the cracking and radioactive release of a reactor containment during severe accidents and extreme environments. The cracking of concrete is modeled as the blunt crack. The initiation and propagation of a crack are determined by using the maximum strength and the J-integral criteria. Furthermore, the extent of cracking is related to the leakage calculation by using a model developed by Rizkalla, Lau and Simmonds. Numerical examples are given for a three-point bending problem and a hypothetical case of a concrete containment structure subjected to high internal pressure during an accident

  10. Large Epiphrenic Diverticulum with Perforation and Leakage below the Diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønserud, Majken Munk; Brenøe, Anne-Sofie; Eckardt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    contrast revealed contrast leakage near the minor curvature of the stomach. The following esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a giant dilatation of the esophagus, as well as a second esophageal lumen originating 25 cm from the incisors. The “false” lumen of the esophagus was located parallel...... to esophagus, ending blindly in a perforation below the diaphragm. The clinical presentation and the patient’s age make it most likely, that it was a long epiphrenic diverticulum of pulsion type. The patient was treated conservatively, discharged after 10 days and has been followed in our outpatient clinic...... for 8 months, until he died of aggressive pulmonary cancer....

  11. Pressure control for minimizing leakage in water distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nourhan Samir; Rawya Kansoh; Walid Elbarki; Amr Fleifle

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades water resources availability has been a major issue on the international agenda. In a situation of worsening scarcity of water resources and the rapidly increasing of water demands, the state of water losses management is part of manâs survival on earth. Leakage in water supply networks makes up a significant amount, sometimes more than 70% of the total water losses. The best practices suggest that pressure management is one of the most effective way to reduce the amount o...

  12. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  13. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  14. Threats of Password Pattern Leakage Using Smartwatch Motion Recognition Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the development of Internet of Things (IoT technologies, wearable markets have been growing rapidly. Smartwatches can be said to be the most representative product in wearable markets, and involve various hardware technologies in order to overcome the limitations of small hardware. Motion recognition sensors are a representative example of those hardware technologies. However, smartwatches and motion recognition sensors that can be worn by users may pose security threats of password pattern leakage. In the present paper, passwords are inferred through experiments to obtain password patterns inputted by users using motion recognition sensors, and verification of the results and the accuracy of the results is shown.

  15. [Endoscopic endonasal detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage with topical fluorescein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Kishida, Yugo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tani, Akiko; Tada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takamitsu; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sakuma, Jun; Omori, Koichi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intraoperative topical application of fluorescein to detect the leakage point of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)rhinorrhea. Three patients with CSF rhinorrhea were treated with an endoscopic endonasal technique. Ten percent fluorescein was topically used for intraoperative localization of the leak site. A change of the fluorescein color from brown to green due to dilation of CSF were recognized as evidence of CSF rhinorrhea. We repeated the procedure to detect any small defects. All CSF rhinorrheas were successfully repaired by this endoscopic endonasal approach. Topical application of fluorescein is simple and sensitive for identifying intraoperative CSF rhinorrhea.

  16. Early localization of containment leakage during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, P.; Chauliac, C.; Libmann, M.; Martinez, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In case of an accident in a nuclear plant, checking the containment leaktightness would be a fundamental step for the diagnosis and prognosis of the radiological consequences. Significant help in this task can be provided by softwares. For that purpose, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is developing an expert system which can provide early in the accident a classification of the possible leakage paths and help understanding the necessary corrections which have to be undertaken by the utility. This software will be used at the Emergency Technical Center of the CEA. Its basic principles are described in this paper

  17. Artificial-Crack-Behavior Test Evaluation of the Water-Leakage Repair Materials Used for the Repair of Water-Leakage Cracks in Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yeon Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no existing standard test methods at home and abroad that can verify the performance of water leakage repair materials, and it is thus very difficult to perform quality control checks in the field of water leakage repair. This study determined that the key factors that have the greatest impact on the water leakage repair materials are the micro-behaviors of cracks, and proposed an artificial-crack-behavior test method for the performance verification of the repair materials. The performance of the 15 kinds of repair materials that are currently being used in the field of water leakage repair was evaluated by applying the proposed test method. The main aim of such a test method is to determine if there is water leakage by injecting water leakage repair materials into a crack behavior test specimen with an artificial 5-mm crack width, applying a 2.5 mm vertical behavior load at 100 cycles, and applying 0.3 N/mm2 constant water pressure. The test results showed that of the 15 kinds of repair materials, only two effectively sealed the crack and thus stopped the water leakage. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed artificial-crack-behavior test method and suggest that it can be used as a performance verification method for checking the responsiveness of the repair materials being used in the field of water leakage repair to the repetitive water leakage behaviors that occur in concrete structures. The study findings further suggest that the use of the proposed test method makes it possible to quantify the water leakage repair quality control in the field.

  18. Studies of axial-leakage simulations for homogeneous and heterogeneous EBR-II core configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1985-08-01

    When calculations of flux are done in less than three dimensions, leakage-absorption cross sections are normally used to model leakages (flows) in the dimensions for which the flux is not calculated. Since the neutron flux is axially dependent, the leakages, and hence the leakage-absorption cross sections, are also axially dependent. Therefore, to obtain axial flux profiles (or reaction rates) for individual subassemblies, an XY-geometry calculation delineating each subassembly has to be done at several axial heights with space- and energy-dependent leakage-absorption cross sections that are appropriate for each height. This report discusses homogeneous and heterogeneous XY-geometry calculations at various axial locations and using several differing assumptions for the calculation of the leakage-absorption cross section. The positive (outward) leakage-absorption cross sections are modeled as actual leakage absorptions, but the negative (inward) leakage-absorption cross sections are modeled as either negative leakage absorptions (+-B 2 method) or positive downscatter cross sections [the Σ/sub s/(1 → g) method]. 3 refs., 52 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Application Of The Climafor Baseline To Determine Leakage: TheCase Of Scolel Te.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, B.H.J.; Bazan, E. Esquivel; Quechulpa Montalvo, S.

    2007-06-01

    The acceptance of forestry-based project activities tomitigate greenhouse gases emissions has been subjected to a number ofmethodological questions to be answered, of which the most challengingare baseline establishment and identification of and measuring leakage.Here we pose hypotheses for and quantify leakage of the Scolel Te projectin Chiapas, Mexico. In this project small-scale farmers are implementingforestry, agroforestry, and forest conservation activities, with carbonsequestration as one of the goals. The main leakage monitoring domain isdefined as the area owned by the participating farmers or communitiesoutside the area where the specific project activities take place. Thenull-hypothesis (no leakage) is that non-project land owned by the farmeror community will experience the same carbon stock changes as predictedby the regional baseline, specifically developed for the project. Firstwe assessed the most likely causes and sources of leakage that may occurin the project. From this analysis, one type of leakage seems to beimportant, i.e., activity shifting. Second we estimated the leakage of asample of participating farmers and communities. Actual land use was thencompared with expected land use derived from the baseline. The Plan Vivoof each participant, complemented with readily available tools toidentify the main sources and drivers of leakage are used to developsimple leakage assessment procedures, as demonstrated in this paper.Negative leakage was estimated to be negligible in this study.Incorporating these procedures already in the project planning stage willreduce the uncertainties related to the actual carbon mitigationpotential of any forestry project.

  20. Heterogeneous neutron-leakage model for PWR pin-by-pin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunzhao; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The derivation of the formula of the leakage model is introduced. This paper evaluates homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in PWR pin-by-pin calculation. •The implements of homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-cell homogenization of the lattice calculation are studied. A consistent method of cooperation between the heterogeneous leakage model and the pin-cell homogenization theory is proposed. •Considering the computational cost, a new buckling search scheme is proposed to reach the convergence faster. The computational cost of the newly proposed neutron balance scheme is much less than the power-method scheme and the linear-interpolation scheme. -- Abstract: When assembly calculation is performed with the reflective boundary condition, a leakage model is usually required in the lattice code. The previous studies show that the homogeneous leakage model works effectively for the assembly homogenization. However, it becomes different and unsettled for the pin-cell homogenization. Thus, this paper evaluates homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-by-pin calculation. The implements of homogeneous and heterogeneous leakage models used in pin-cell homogenization of the lattice calculation are studied. A consistent method of cooperation between the heterogeneous leakage model and the pin-cell homogenization theory is proposed. Considering the computational cost, a new buckling search scheme is proposed to reach the convergence faster. For practical reactor-core applications, the diffusion coefficients determined by the transport cross-section or by the leakage model are compared with each other to determine which one is more accurate for the Pressurized Water Reactor pin-by-pin calculation. Numerical results have demonstrated that the heterogeneous leakage model together with the diffusion coefficient determined by the heterogeneous leakage model would have the higher accuracy. The new buckling search

  1. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  2. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R

    1997-01-01

    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  3. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran [Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan [NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  4. Secure Mobile Agent from Leakage-Resilient Proxy Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile agent can sign a message in a remote server on behalf of a customer without exposing its secret key; it can be used not only to search for special products or services, but also to make a contract with a remote server. Hence a mobile agent system can be used for electronic commerce as an important key technology. In order to realize such a system, Lee et al. showed that a secure mobile agent can be constructed using proxy signatures. Intuitively, a proxy signature permits an entity (delegator to delegate its signing right to another entity (proxy to sign some specified messages on behalf of the delegator. However, the proxy signatures are often used in scenarios where the signing is done in an insecure environment, for example, the remote server of a mobile agent system. In such setting, an adversary could launch side-channel attacks to exploit some leakage information about the proxy key or even other secret states. The proxy signatures which are secure in the traditional security models obviously cannot provide such security. Based on this consideration, in this paper, we design a leakage-resilient proxy signature scheme for the secure mobile agent systems.

  5. AN ADVANCED LEAKAGE SCHEME FOR NEUTRINO TREATMENT IN ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perego, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Cabezón, R. M. [Physics Department, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Käppeli, R., E-mail: albino.perego@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Seminar for Applied Mathematics, ETH Zürich, Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    We present an Advanced Spectral Leakage (ASL) scheme to model neutrinos in the context of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and compact binary mergers. Based on previous gray leakage schemes, the ASL scheme computes the neutrino cooling rates by interpolating local production and diffusion rates (relevant in optically thin and thick regimes, respectively) separately for discretized values of the neutrino energy. Neutrino trapped components are also modeled, based on equilibrium and timescale arguments. The better accuracy achieved by the spectral treatment allows a more reliable computation of neutrino heating rates in optically thin conditions. The scheme has been calibrated and tested against Boltzmann transport in the context of Newtonian spherically symmetric models of CCSNe. ASL shows a very good qualitative and a partial quantitative agreement for key quantities from collapse to a few hundreds of milliseconds after core bounce. We have proved the adaptability and flexibility of our ASL scheme, coupling it to an axisymmetric Eulerian and to a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to simulate core collapse. Therefore, the neutrino treatment presented here is ideal for large parameter-space explorations, parametric studies, high-resolution tests, code developments, and long-term modeling of asymmetric configurations, where more detailed neutrino treatments are not available or are currently computationally too expensive.

  6. Endoscopic Management of Bile Leakage after Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Methods Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. Results In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. Conclusions ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients. PMID:25717048

  7. Leakage current measurements on pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Blondel, C.; Daly, F.; Gevin, O.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of the R and D of a new generation hard X-ray cameras for space applications we focus on the use of pixelated CdTe or CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. They are covered with 64 (0.9x0.9 mm 2 ) or 256 (0.5x0.5 mm 2 ) pixels, surrounded by a guard ring and operate in the energy ranging from several keV to 1 MeV, at temperatures between -20 and +20 o C. A critical parameter in the characterisation of these detectors is the leakage current per pixel under polarisation (∼50-500 V/mm). In operation mode each pixel will be read-out by an integrated spectroscopy channel of the multi-channel IDeF-X ASIC currently developed in our lab. The design and functionality of the ASIC depends directly on the direction and value of the current. A dedicated and highly insulating electronics circuit is designed to automatically measure the current in each individual pixel, which is in the order of tens of pico-amperes. Leakage current maps of different CdZnTe detectors of 2 and 6 mm thick and at various temperatures are presented and discussed. Defect density diagnostics have been performed by calculation of the activation energy of the material

  8. Low standby leakage 12T SRAM cell characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arjun; Nakhate, Sangeeta

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low power and variability-aware static random access memory (SRAM) architecture based on a twelve-transistor (12T) cell is proposed. This cell obtains low static power dissipation due to a parallel global latch (G-latch) and storage latch (S-latch), along with a global wordline (GWL), which offer a high cell ratio and pull-up ratio for reliable read and write operations and a low cell ratio and pull-up ratio during idle mode to reduce the standby power dissipation. In the idle state, only the S-latch stores bits, while the G-latch is isolated from the S-latch and the GWL is deactivated. The leakage power consumption of the proposed SRAM cell is thereby reduced by 38.7% compared to that of the conventional six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell. This paper evaluates the impact of the chip supply voltage and surrounding temperature variations on the standby leakage power and observes considerable improvement in the power dissipation. The read/write access delay, read static noise margin (SNM) and write SNM were evaluated, and the results were compared with those of the standard 6T SRAM cell. The proposed cell, when compared with the existing cell using the Monte Carlo method, shows an appreciable improvement in the standby power dissipation and layout area.

  9. MR images of rupture and leakage of breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ling; Liu Pengcheng; Huang Rong; Hu Huaxin; Chen Zaizhong; Du Duanming; Liu Hanqiao; Feng Fei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting rupture and leakage of breast implants. Methods: Seventeen cases with breast implants were imaged by MR scanner. 1 normal silicone breast implant outside the body was scanned by MR as an consultative standard. MR images of silicone implants and polypropylene acyl amine implants were classified and analyzed. Results: In 7 cases, 12 single lumen silicone implants were intact, among them 8 were silicone gel-filled implants, 4 were physiological saline-filled implants. 2 physiological saline-filled implants ruptured, among them 1 belonged to intracapsular silicone implant rupture with subsided silicone gel capsule which presented as long T 1 signal and short T 2 signal on MR images; The other belonged to extracapsular silicone implant rapture with physiological saline granule outside breast on MR images. 20 breast implants in 10 cases were injected by polypropylene acyl amine, among them 2 breast implants were intact, 16 breast implants ruptured completely with pieces and nodes of long T 1 signal and long T 2 signal on MR images, 14 of 16 also presented polypropylene acyl amine granule outside breast; 2 breast implants splited inside with linguine sign. Conclusion: The magnetic resonance imaging can make clear the type and the seat of breast implants, the type of rupture of breast implants, and the distribution of leakage material. Therefore magnetic resonance imaging can be an effective guidance for clinical operation and can be an consultative standard for follow-up

  10. Rapid measurement of blood leakage during regional chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Omlor, G.; Gross, G.; Feifel, G. (Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeine Chirurgie); Berberich, R. (Staedtische Klinik Wuppertal (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1993-03-01

    A method using technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell (RBC) labelling is reported that provides results within 3 min. Blood samples drawn from the systemic and the extracorporeal circulation were measured for [sup 99m]Tc activity using a mobile well counter, and the leakage values calculated. The mean result was 7.6%[+-]6.5%/15 min (n=209). The corresponding flow rate was 100.2[+-]85.7 ml/15 min. The values for isolation perfusion of the upper and the lower extremities are compared. The leakage results using [sup 99m]Tc RBC labelling were correlated with other blood pool markers. Iodine-125 human serum albumin and indium-113 m transferrin were administered in subgroups of 4 and 19 patients simultaneously. Using linear regression, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 for [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 113m]In and 0.58 for [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 125]I. Comparison with the alternatives suggests that the method can be considered one of the most practicable and reliable methods available. (orig.).

  11. Plasma membrane damage detected by nucleic acid leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, E.; Bianchi, V.

    1989-01-01

    Among the indicators of membrane damage, the leakage of intracellular components into the medium is the most directly related to the perturbations of the membrane molecular organization. The extent of the damage can be evaluated from the size of the released components. We have designed a protocol for the detection of membrane leakage based on the preincubation of cells with tritiated adenine for 24 h, followed by a 24-h chase in nonradioactive medium. The treatment takes place when the distribution of the precursor among its end products has reached the plateau, and thus the differences of radioactivity in the fractions obtained from the control and treated cultures (medium, nucleotide pool, RNA, DNA) correspond to actual quantitative variations induced by the test chemical. Aliquots of the medium are processed to determine which percentage of the released material is macromolecular, in order to distinguish between mild and severe membrane damage. The origin of the extracellular radioactivity can be recognized from the variations of RNA counts in the treated cells. DNA radioactivity is used to evaluate the number of cells that remain attached to the plates in the different conditions of treatment. By this means, generalized permeabilization of membranes to macromolecules is distinguished from complete solubilization of only a subpopulation of cells. We present some examples of application of the protocol with detergents (LAS, SDS, Triton X-100) and with Cr(VI), which damages cell membranes by a different mechanism of action

  12. [Indices of 24-hour monitoring of arterial blood pressure in patients with neurogenic syncope and patients with chronic constitution- dependent hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, Z A; Khapaev, B A; Fedotova, A V; Oknin, V Iu

    1999-01-01

    Clinical-psychologic study, spectral analysis of heart rate variability, 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (AP) were performed in 20 patients with chronic constitutional arterial hypotension and in 18 patients with neurogenic syncopal states. Both groups were characterised by considerable manifestations of the syndrome of autonomic dystonia, by emotional-personal disorders that correlated with elevated level of slow-waves of the second order in heart rhythms' spectrum. That testified activation of supersegmental sympathetic-adrenal systems. Disorders in sympathetic-parasympathetic correlations were specific in each group. In patients with arterial hypotension disorder of circadian rhythm was observed in the form of superfluous decrease of diastolic AP during sleep. Circadian rhythms in patients with neurogenic syncopes have parameters characteristic for normals showing a preverved chronobiologic AP regulation. A role of the alterations revealed in pathogenesis of arterial hypotensionis discussed.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis of In leakage Test for Pressurized Control Room Envelop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. B. [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In leakage tests for control room envelops(CRE) of newly constructed nuclear power plants are required to prove the control room habitability. Results of the in leakage tests should be analyzed using an uncertainty analysis. Test uncertainty can be an issue if the test results for pressurized CREs show low in leakage. To have a better knowledge of the test uncertainty, a statistical model for the uncertainty analysis is described here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test is presented. A statistical method for analyzing the uncertainty of the in leakage test is presented here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test was performed. By using the statistical method we can evaluate the test result with certain level of significance. This method can be more helpful when the difference of the two mean values of the test result is small.

  14. A study on two phase flows of linear compressors for the prediction of refrigerant leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Il Sun; Lee, Young Lim; Oh, Won Sik; Park, Kyeong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Usage of linear compressors is on the rise due to their high efficiency. In this paper, leakage of a linear compressor has been studied through numerical analysis and experiments. First, nitrogen leakage for a stagnant piston with fixed cylinder pressure as well as for a moving piston with fixed cylinder pressure was analyzed to verify the validity of the two-phase flow analysis model. Next, refrigerant leakage of a linear compressor in operation was finally predicted through 3-dimensional unsteady, two phase flow CFD (Computational fluid dynamics). According to the research results, the numerical analyses for the fixed cylinder pressure models were in good agreement with the experimental results. The refrigerant leakage of the linear compressor in operation mainly occurred through the oil exit and the leakage became negligible after about 0.4s following operation where the leakage became lower than 2.0x10 -4 kg/s.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of In leakage Test for Pressurized Control Room Envelop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    In leakage tests for control room envelops(CRE) of newly constructed nuclear power plants are required to prove the control room habitability. Results of the in leakage tests should be analyzed using an uncertainty analysis. Test uncertainty can be an issue if the test results for pressurized CREs show low in leakage. To have a better knowledge of the test uncertainty, a statistical model for the uncertainty analysis is described here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test is presented. A statistical method for analyzing the uncertainty of the in leakage test is presented here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test was performed. By using the statistical method we can evaluate the test result with certain level of significance. This method can be more helpful when the difference of the two mean values of the test result is small

  16. Investigation of pool thermal hydraulics and temperature distribution in inner vessel under mechanical seal leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Juby; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    The primary heat sink of prototype fast breeder reactor is a sodium pool which is partitioned into cold pool and hot pool. The inner vessel which separates the cold and hot pools is having penetrations for intermediate heat exchangers. The hot sodium from hot pool leaks into the cold pool through these penetrations and to reduce the leakage, mechanical seals are provided. Leakage of hot sodium into cold pool can lead to thermal stratification in the cold pool and also will affect the temperature distribution in inner vessel. 3-D CFD studies were performed focusing these features as a function of sodium leakage. The analyses indicate that the maximum temperature difference across the IV thickness is 65°C without any leakage of sodium. The temperature difference is found to decrease with increase in leakage through the seals. It is seen that a leakage of 2.5% is acceptable. (author)

  17. Helium/solid powder O-ring leakage correlation experiments using a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, R.W.; Leisher, W.B.; Weissman, S.H.; Seya, M.

    1984-01-01

    UO 2 definitely leaked past the O-ring in three of the tests confirming the major results of the previous work. Continuous leakage at these levels may require additional precautions under present regulatory policies. The mechanism and the time and particle size dependence for the leakage are not known, but there is some indication leakage is more likely at low temperatures. It is possible leakage is due to movement of the O-ring during temperature or pressure cycling at the beginning or end of a test. The radiotracer method involves less labor and is much less susceptible to contamination than the previous method. Future work will investigate leakage past lubricated O-rings and time dependence of leakage. 1 reference, 1 table

  18. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  19. Application of transpulmonary thermodilution monitoring (PiCCO) in patient with neurogenic pulmonary edema and acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to a central neurocytoma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi Iwata; Kunikazu Yoshimura; Yoko Fujita; Tatsuo Uesaka; Hideyuki Oshige; Akio Asai

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is an acute life-threatening complication associated with many forms of central nervous system injury. Its pathophysiology is still debated. We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to a central neurocytoma who also had NPE, for which serial transpulmonary thermodilution monitoring (PiCCO) was performed. Insertion of the PiCCO, which provides information about the patient's cardiac output, preload status and amount of lung water, revealed a...

  20. Feasibility of Locating Leakages in Sewage Pressure Pipes Using the Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Apperl, Benjamin; Pressl, Alexander; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective...

  1. The use of wavelet transform in oil conveying pipeline's leakage detection and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jian; Wang Yongtao; Mu Haiwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the negative press wave method basing on wavelet transform to detect the singularity point of the pressure signal of oil conveying pipeline and uses the detected singularity point to locate the leakage, this method has better effect in real applying. And this paper analyzes the merits and shortcomings of this method in detecting and locating the leakage of oil conveying pipeline, so it offers reference for studying weak leakage of oil conveying pipeline in the future. (authors)

  2. Incidental Detection of Urinary Leakage on FDG PET/CT Imaging for Staging of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2016-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with right flank pain and dysuria. An abdominal CT scan detected a gastric malignancy and hydronephrosis with urinary leakage of the right kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed on the right kidney. F-FDG PET/CT for staging the gastric malignancy revealed additional urinary leakage of the contralateral kidney. The interest in this case is the incidental detection of unexpected urinary leakage during an oncologic assessment with FDG PET/CT.

  3. Can adult neural stem cells create new brains? Plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: realities and expectations in the era of regenerative biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanis, Ilias

    2012-02-01

    Since the first experimental reports showing the persistence of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain, this field of neurosciences has expanded significantly. It is now widely accepted that neural stem and precursor cells survive during adulthood and are able to respond to various endogenous and exogenous cues by altering their proliferation and differentiation activity. Nevertheless, the pathway to therapeutic applications still seems to be long. This review attempts to summarize and revisit the available data regarding the plasticity potential of adult neural stem cells and of their normal microenvironment, the neurogenic niche. Recent data have demonstrated that adult neural stem cells retain a high level of pluripotency and that adult neurogenic systems can switch the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis and can generate a range of cell types with an efficiency that was not initially expected. Moreover, adult neural stem and precursor cells seem to be able to self-regulate their interaction with the microenvironment and even to contribute to its synthesis, altogether revealing a high level of plasticity potential. The next important step will be to elucidate the factors that limit this plasticity in vivo, and such a restrictive role for the microenvironment is discussed in more details.

  4. Botulinumtoxin-A in der Behandlung neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörungen bei Kindern: Funktionelle und histomorphologische Langzeitergebnisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-Baukloh H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die etablierte Therapie der neurogenen Detrusorhyperaktivität bei Kindern besteht in der Gabe von Anticholinergika und begleitendem intermittierendem Einmalkatheterismus. Eine hohe Nebenwirkungsrate der Anticholinergika oder eine nicht ausreichende Dämpfung der Detrusoraktivität limitiert jedoch die Anwendung und zwingt nicht selten zu einem operativen Vorgehen. Wir untersuchten deshalb die Wirksamkeit von Botulinumtoxin-A (BTX-A auf die neurogene Detrusorhyperaktivität bei Kindern mit neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörung. Hierzu wurden 24 Kinder (11 Mädchen, 13 Jungen; 2,5–20 (Ø 11,9 Jahre mit maximalem Detrusordruck 40 cm H2O trotz anticholinerger Medikation in die Studie eingeschlossen. Nach urodynamischer Evaluierung wurden gewichtsadaptiert 85–300 U BTX-A (Botox(R zystoskopisch an 30–40 Stellen in den M. detrusor injiziert. Urodynamische Kontrollen erfolgten nach 1, 3 und 6 Monaten. Urodynamisch fand sich ein erhöhtes Reflexvolumen nach 1 Monat um +84 %, nach 3 Monaten um +68 % und nach 6 Monaten um +23 %. Entsprechend verhielten sich die Maximalkapazitäten: +35 % (nach 1 Monat, +23 % (nach 3 Monaten und +36 % (nach 6 Monaten. Die Maximaldrücke veränderten sich im o.g. Zeitraum um –41 %, –22 % bzw. +4 %. Die korrespondierenden Veränderungen der Inkontinenzrate betrug –46 %, –15 % bzw. –13 %. Bei 5 Kindern konnte jedoch auch mit dieser Therapie keine zufriedenstellende Drucksituation sichergestellt werden; nach der daraufhin durchgeführten Blasenaugmentation fanden sich in den Blasenresektaten histomorphologisch typische BTX-A bedingte Veränderungen, die jedoch in ihrer Ausprägung keinen signifikanten Gradienten aufwiesen. Zusammenfassend läßt sich festhalten, daß es nach Botulinumtoxin-A-Injektion in den Detrusormuskel bei der Mehrzahl der Patienten zu einer ausgeprägten und therapeutisch relevanten Verbesserung sämtlicher urodynamischer Parameter bei sehr guter Verträglichkeit des Medikamentes kommt

  5. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  6. Modeling of leakage currents in high-k dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegert, Gunther Christian

    2012-01-01

    Leakage currents are one of the major bottlenecks impeding the downscaling efforts of the semiconductor industry. Two core devices of integrated circuits, the transistor and, especially, the DRAM storage capacitor, suffer from the increasing loss currents. In this perspective a fundamental understanding of the physical origin of these leakage currents is highly desirable. However, the complexity of the involved transport phenomena so far has prevented the development of microscopic models. Instead, the analysis of transport through the ultra-thin layers of high-permittivity (high-k) dielectrics, which are employed as insulating layers, was carried out at an empirical level using simple compact models. Unfortunately, these offer only limited insight into the physics involved on the microscale. In this context the present work was initialized in order to establish a framework of microscopic physical models that allow a fundamental description of the transport processes relevant in high-k thin films. A simulation tool that makes use of kinetic Monte Carlo techniques was developed for this purpose embedding the above models in an environment that allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the electronic transport in such films. Existing continuum approaches, which tend to conceal the important physics behind phenomenological fitting parameters, were replaced by three-dimensional transport simulations at the level of single charge carriers. Spatially localized phenomena, such as percolation of charge carriers across pointlike defects, being subject to structural relaxation processes, or electrode roughness effects, could be investigated in this simulation scheme. Stepwise a self-consistent, closed transport model for the TiN/ZrO 2 material system, which is of outmost importance for the semiconductor industry, was developed. Based on this model viable strategies for the optimization of TiN/ZrO 2 /TiN capacitor structures were suggested and problem areas that may

  7. Modeling of leakage currents in high-k dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegert, Gunther Christian

    2012-03-15

    Leakage currents are one of the major bottlenecks impeding the downscaling efforts of the semiconductor industry. Two core devices of integrated circuits, the transistor and, especially, the DRAM storage capacitor, suffer from the increasing loss currents. In this perspective a fundamental understanding of the physical origin of these leakage currents is highly desirable. However, the complexity of the involved transport phenomena so far has prevented the development of microscopic models. Instead, the analysis of transport through the ultra-thin layers of high-permittivity (high-k) dielectrics, which are employed as insulating layers, was carried out at an empirical level using simple compact models. Unfortunately, these offer only limited insight into the physics involved on the microscale. In this context the present work was initialized in order to establish a framework of microscopic physical models that allow a fundamental description of the transport processes relevant in high-k thin films. A simulation tool that makes use of kinetic Monte Carlo techniques was developed for this purpose embedding the above models in an environment that allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the electronic transport in such films. Existing continuum approaches, which tend to conceal the important physics behind phenomenological fitting parameters, were replaced by three-dimensional transport simulations at the level of single charge carriers. Spatially localized phenomena, such as percolation of charge carriers across pointlike defects, being subject to structural relaxation processes, or electrode roughness effects, could be investigated in this simulation scheme. Stepwise a self-consistent, closed transport model for the TiN/ZrO{sub 2} material system, which is of outmost importance for the semiconductor industry, was developed. Based on this model viable strategies for the optimization of TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/TiN capacitor structures were suggested and problem areas

  8. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - II. Primary beam model and direction-dependent calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; Ghosh, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brentjens, M. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Iliev, I. T.; Mevius, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C 295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of ≤10 per cent on the predicted levels of leakage of ˜1 per cent within the field of view, I.e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to 10-3 of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam model would ensure that the leakage is well below the expected EoR signal in almost the whole instrumental k-space of the cylindrical power spectrum. We have also shown here that direction-dependent calibration can remove instrumentally polarized compact sources, given an unpolarized sky model, very close to the local noise level.

  9. Radiation-induced off-state leakage current in commercial power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Paul Emerson; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Draper, Bruce Leroy; Felix, James Andrew; Schwank, James Ralph; Dalton, Scott Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The total dose hardness of several commercial power MOSFET technologies is examined. After exposure to 20 krad(SiO 2 ) most of the n- and p-channel devices examined in this work show substantial (2 to 6 orders of magnitude) increases in off-state leakage current. For the n-channel devices, the increase in radiation-induced leakage current follows standard behavior for moderately thick gate oxides, i.e., the increase in leakage current is dominated by large negative threshold voltage shifts, which cause the transistor to be partially on even when no bias is applied to the gate electrode. N-channel devices biased during irradiation show a significantly larger leakage current increase than grounded devices. The increase in leakage current for the p-channel devices, however, was unexpected. For the p-channel devices, it is shown using electrical characterization and simulation that the radiation-induced leakage current increase is related to an increase in the reverse bias leakage characteristics of the gated diode which is formed by the drain epitaxial layer and the body. This mechanism does not significantly contribute to radiation-induced leakage current in typical p-channel MOS transistors. The p-channel leakage current increase is nearly identical for both biased and grounded irradiations and therefore has serious implications for long duration missions since even devices which are usually powered off could show significant degradation and potentially fail.

  10. Modelling of Leakage Current Through Double Dielectric Gate Stack in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah A Noor; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have derived analytical expression of leakage current through double barriers in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. Initially, electron transmittance through the MOS capacitor was derived by including the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal energies. The transmittance was then employed to obtain leakage current through the double barrier. In this model, we observed the effect of electron velocity due to the coupling effect and the oxide thickness to the leakage current. The calculated results showed that the leakage current decreases as the electron velocity increases. (author)

  11. Single phase cascaded H5 inverter with leakage current elimination for transformerless photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Jia, X.; Lu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Leakage current reduction is one of the important issues for the transformelress PV systems. In this paper, the transformerless single-phase cascaded H-bridge PV inverter is investigated. The common mode model for the cascaded H4 inverter is analyzed. And the reason why the conventional cascade H4...... inverter fails to reduce the leakage current is clarified. In order to solve the problem, a new cascaded H5 inverter is proposed to solve the leakage current issue. Finally, the experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology with the leakage current reduction...... for the single-phase transformerless PV systems....

  12. Leakage Current Elimination of Four-Leg Inverter for Transformerless Three-Phase PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; He, Ran; Jian, Jiamin

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating the leakage current is one of the most important issues for transformerless three phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, the leakage current elimination of a three-phase four-leg PV inverter is investigated. With the common mode loop model established, the generation mechanism...... of the leakage current is clearly identified. Different typical carrier-based modulation methods and their corresponding common mode voltages are discussed. A new modulation strategy with Boolean logic function is proposed to achieve the constant common mode voltage for the leakage current reduction. Finally...

  13. Estimation of leakage power and delay in CMOS circuits using parametric variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Verma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of deep-submicron technologies, leakage power dissipation is a major concern for scaling down portable devices that have burst-mode type integrated circuits. In this paper leakage reduction technique HTLCT (High Threshold Leakage Control Transistor is discussed. Using high threshold transistors at the place of low threshold leakage control transistors, result in more leakage power reduction as compared to LCT (leakage control transistor technique but at the scarifies of area and delay. Further, analysis of effect of parametric variation on leakage current and propagation delay in CMOS circuits is performed. It is found that the leakage power dissipation increases with increasing temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. However, opposite pattern is noticed for the propagation delay. Leakage power dissipation for LCT NAND gate increases up to 14.32%, 6.43% and 36.21% and delay decreases by 22.5%, 42% and 9% for variation of temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. Maximum peak of equivalent output noise is obtained as 127.531 nV/Sqrt(Hz at 400 mHz.

  14. Reanastomosis with Stapler in Duodenojejunal Junction Anastomosis Leakage: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Seker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After anastomosis leakages, treatment of patient gets more difficult and mortality rates increase. At lower level gastrointestinal anastomosis leakages, because of always there is an ostomy alternative, digestion problems are seen lesser. But at upper level gastrointestinal system anastomosis leakages, when it is taken account of nutrient condition of patient, requirement of making anastomos increases. So moratlity rates increase. At this article we aimed to present a different technique that we administered on management of a patient who had duodenojejunal junction anastomosis leakage.

  15. Investigations of leakage mechanisms and its influences on a micro swing engine considering rarefaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kong, Wenjun; Du, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanisms of the leakage flow in different flow regimes have been studied. • The leakage flow regime and patterns in the micro swing engine are presented. • Slip on the walls has a larger effect on leakage flow with decreasing the gap. • Rarefaction effects on the engine performance have been investigated. - Abstract: Considering rarefaction effects, this paper investigated mechanisms of the clearance leakage and its influences on a micro swing engine for the micro power generation by employing three different flow models named as discrete velocity direction (DVD) model, Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions (NS-slip) and no-slip boundary conditions (NS-no slip). Using the DVD model, this paper firstly studied leakage mechanisms of a micro Couette-Poisueille flow. Factors which control the leakage in different regimes were obtained. Furthermore, the system-level predictions of the clearance leakage in the micro swing engine have been conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The leakage flow regime, patterns and characteristics were presented. Results by NS-slip and NS-no slip were compared to study the rarefaction effects. Finally, investigations of the engine size and the gap height on the engine performance have been conducted. The significance of the leakage in different engine size regimes was presented, and the results show that rarefaction effects affect the indicated thermal efficiency greatly with the decrease of the engine size scale.

  16. Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Y; Li, S B; Gu, L J; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of micro-computed tomography (CT) in marginal leakage detection of Class V restorations. Standardized Class V preparations with cervical margins in dentin and occlusal margins in enamel were made in 20 extracted human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and resin composite. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by a developing solution for eight hours. Each restoration was scanned by micro-CT, the depth of marginal silver leakage in the central scanning section was measured, and the three-dimensional images of the silver leakage around each restoration were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were cut through the center and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by the micro-CT and the microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depth in cervical walls observed by micro-CT and microscope showed no significant difference; however, in certain cases the judgment of leakage depth in the occlusal wall in micro-CT image was affected by adjacent enamel structure, providing less leakage depth than was observed with the microscope (pleakage around the Class V restorations with clear borders only in the dentin region. It can be concluded that micro-CT can detect nondestructively the leakage around a resin composite restoration in two and three dimensions, with accuracy comparable to that of the conventional microscope method in the dentin region but with inferior accuracy in the enamel region.

  17. Method of detecting leakage from geologic formations used to sequester CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Curt [Pittsburgh, PA; Wells, Arthur [Bridgeville, PA; Diehl, J Rodney [Pittsburgh, PA; Strazisar, Brian [Venetia, PA

    2010-04-27

    The invention provides methods for the measurement of carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs. Tracer moieties are injected along with carbon dioxide into geological formations. Leakage is monitored by gas chromatographic analyses of absorbents. The invention also provides a process for the early leak detection of possible carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs by measuring methane (CH.sub.4), ethane (C.sub.2H.sub.6), propane (C.sub.3H.sub.8), and/or radon (Rn) leakage rates from the reservoirs. The invention further provides a method for branding sequestered carbon dioxide using perfluorcarbon tracers (PFTs) to show ownership.

  18. Feasibility of Locating Leakages in Sewage Pressure Pipes Using the Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, Benjamin; Pressl, Alexander; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective sheathing of the pipe; this paper aims at testing the feasibility of detecting leakages with temporary introduced fiber optic cable inside the pipe. The detection and localization were tested in a laboratory experiment. The intrusion of water from leakages into the pipe, producing a local temperature drop, served as indicator for leakages. Measurements were taken under varying measurement conditions, including the number of leakages as well as the positioning of the fiber optic cable. Experiments showed that leakages could be detected accurately with the proposed methodology, when measuring resolution, temperature gradient and measurement time were properly selected. Despite the successful application of DTS for leakage detection in this lab environment, challenges in real system applications may arise from temperature gradients within the pipe system over longer distances and the placement of the cable into the real pipe system.

  19. Detection of gaseous heavy water leakage points in CANDU 6 pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T-K.; Jung, S-H.

    1996-01-01

    During reactor operation, the heavy water filled primary coolant system in a CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water (PHWR) may leak through routine operations of the plant via components, mechanical joints, and during inadvertent operations etc. Early detection of leak points is therefore important to maintain plant safety and economy. There are many independent systems to monitor and recover heavy water leakage in a CANDU 6 PHWR. Methodology for early detection based on operating experience from these systems, is investigated in this paper. In addition, the four symptoms of D 2 O leakage, the associated process for clarifying and verifying the leakage, and the probable points of leakage are discussed. (author)

  20. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.