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Sample records for neurogenesis neuronal migration

  1. Postnatal neurogenesis: from neuroblast migration to neuronal integration.

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    Belvindrah, Richard; Lazarini, Françoise; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing neurogenesis maintains neuronal replacement in a few regions of the mammalian adult brain. One of these regions, the subventricular zone, generates olfactory bulb interneuron precursors that must migrate through the rostral migratory stream to reach the olfactory bulb circuit. There, they rapidly initiate dendritic growth and establish dendro-dendritic contacts with mitral/tufted cells and potentially other local interneurons. The sequential steps involved in neuroblast maturation during development have been studied extensively over previous years. However, the mechanisms and regulatory factors controlling the recruitment and first steps of synaptic integration of newly-formed neurons in the adult forebrain have only recently started to be elucidated. This review provides an integrated view of our current understanding of fate-choice decision in progenitors, how newborn neurons correctly migrate to specific circuits, how they integrate in olfactory bulb microcircuits, and the function they have to fulfill once they survive. The elucidation of these mechanisms may be crucial to understand the functional role of adult neurogenesis and eventually develop therapeutic strategies aimed at re-routing neuroblasts to altered circuits.

  2. 14-3-3 Proteins in Brain Development: Neurogenesis, Neuronal Migration and Neuromorphogenesis

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    Brett Cornell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved, multifunctional proteins that are highly expressed in the brain during development. Cumulatively, the seven 14-3-3 isoforms make up approximately 1% of total soluble brain protein. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated implicating the importance of the 14-3-3 protein family in the development of the nervous system, in particular cortical development, and have more recently been recognized as key regulators in a number of neurodevelopmental processes. In this review we will discuss the known roles of each 14-3-3 isoform in the development of the cortex, their relation to human neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the challenges and questions that are left to be answered. In particular, we focus on the 14-3-3 isoforms and their involvement in the three key stages of cortical development; neurogenesis and differentiation, neuronal migration and neuromorphogenesis and synaptogenesis.

  3. Hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla).

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    de Morais Magalhães, Nara Gyzely; Guerreiro Diniz, Cristovam; Guerreiro Diniz, Daniel; Pereira Henrique, Ediely; Corrêa Pereira, Patrick Douglas; Matos Moraes, Isis Ananda; Damasceno de Melo, Mauro André; Sherry, David Francis; Wanderley Picanço Diniz, Cristovam

    2017-01-01

    Long distance migratory birds find their way by sensing and integrating information from a large number of cues in their environment. These cues are essential to navigate over thousands of kilometers and reach the same breeding, stopover, and wintering sites every year. The semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) is a long-distance migrant that breeds in the arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the northeast coast of South America. Its fall migration includes a 5,300-kilometer nonstop flight over the Atlantic Ocean. The avian hippocampus has been proposed to play a central role in the integration of multisensory spatial information for navigation. Hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampal function and a variety of factors including cognitive activity, exercise, enrichment, diet and stress influence neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We quantified hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in adult migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers using stereological counts of doublecortin (DCX) immunolabeled immature neurons. We found that birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil during the wintering period had more DCX positive neurons and larger volume in the hippocampus than individuals captured in the Bay of Fundy, Canada during fall migration. We also estimate the number of NeuN immunolabeled cells in migrating and wintering birds and found no significant differences between them. These findings suggest that, at this time window, neurogenesis just replaced neurons that might be lost during the transatlantic flight. Our findings also show that in active fall migrating birds, a lower level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with a smaller hippocampal formation. High levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and a larger hippocampal formation found in wintering birds may be late occurring effects of long distance migratory flight or the result of conditions the birds experienced while wintering.

  4. Neuronal Rac1 is required for learning-evoked neurogenesis

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    Haditsch, Ursula; Anderson, Matthew P; Freewoman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection...... neurons for normal synaptic plasticity in vivo, and here we show that selective loss of neuronal Rac1 also impairs the learning-evoked increase in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. Earlier work has indicated that experience elevates the abundance of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus...

  5. Adult neurogenesis restores dopaminergic neuronal loss in the olfactory bulb.

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    Lazarini, Françoise; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; Moigneu, Carine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-10-22

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis continuously provides new GABA- and dopamine (DA)-containing interneurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) in most adult mammals. DAergic interneurons are located in the glomerular layer (GL) where they participate in the processing of sensory inputs. To examine whether adult neurogenesis might contribute to regeneration after circuit injury in mice, we induce DAergic neuronal loss by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the dorsal GL or in the right substantia nigra pars compacta. We found that a 6-OHDA treatment of the OB produces olfactory deficits and local inflammation and partially decreases the number of neurons expressing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) near the injected site. Blockade of inflammation by minocycline treatment immediately after the 6-OHDA administration rescued neither TH(+) interneuron number nor the olfactory deficits, suggesting that the olfactory impairments are most likely linked to TH(+) cell death and not to microglial activation. TH(+) interneuron number was restored 1 month later. This rescue resulted at least in part from enhanced recruitment of immature neurons targeting the lesioned GL area. Seven days after 6-OHDA lesion in the OB, we found that the integration of lentivirus-labeled adult-born neurons was biased: newly formed neurons were preferentially incorporated into glomerular circuits of the lesioned area. Behavioral rehabilitation occurs 2 months after lesion. This study establishes a new model into which loss of DAergic cells could be compensated by recruiting newly formed neurons. We propose that adult neurogenesis not only replenishes the population of DAergic bulbar neurons but that it also restores olfactory sensory processing. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414430-13$15.00/0.

  6. Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain of the Pulse Type Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus omarorum

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    Olivera-Pasilio, Valentina; Lasserre, Moira; Castelló, María E.

    2017-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days) and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days). Some newborn

  7. Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain of the Pulse Type Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus omarorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Olivera-Pasilio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days

  8. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

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    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

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    Kenji eTanigaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to Schizophrenia.

  10. Oxytocin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis via oxytocin receptor expressed in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

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    Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2017-09-14

    In addition to the regulation of social and emotional behaviors, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate neurogenesis in adult dentate gyrus; however, the mechanisms underlying the action of oxytocin are still unclear. Taking advantage of the conditional knockout mouse model, we show here that endogenous oxytocin signaling functions in a non-cell autonomous manner to regulate survival and maturation of newly generated dentate granule cells in adult mouse hippocampus via oxytocin receptors expressed in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Through bidirectional chemogenetic manipulations, we also uncover a significant role for CA3 pyramidal neuron activity in regulating adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Retrograde neuronal tracing combined with immunocytochemistry revealed that the oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project directly to the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Our findings reveal a critical role for oxytocin signaling in adult neurogenesis.Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in adult neurogenesis. Here the authors show that CA3 pyramidal cells in the adult mouse hippocampus express OXT receptors and receive inputs from hypothalamic OXT neurons; activation of OXT signaling in CA3 pyramidal cells promotes the survival and maturation of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus in a non-cell autonomous manner.

  11. Neuronal Differentiation in Schwann Cell Lineage Underlies Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Enteric Nervous System.

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    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Enomoto, Hideki

    2015-07-08

    Elucidation of the cellular identity of neuronal precursors provides mechanistic insights into the development and pathophysiology of the nervous system. In the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurogenesis persists from midgestation to the postnatal period. Cellular mechanism underlying the long-term neurogenesis in the ENS has remained unclear. Using genetic fate mapping in mice, we show here that a subset of Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), which invades the gut alongside the extrinsic nerves, adopts a neuronal fate in the postnatal period and contributes to the ENS. We found SCP-derived neurogenesis in the submucosal region of the small intestine in the absence of vagal neural crest-derived ENS precursors. Under physiological conditions, SCPs comprised up to 20% of enteric neurons in the large intestine and gave rise mainly to restricted neuronal subtypes, calretinin-expressing neurons. Genetic ablation of Ret, the signaling receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in SCPs caused colonic oligoganglionosis, indicating that SCP-derived neurogenesis is essential to ENS integrity. Identification of Schwann cells as a physiological neurogenic source provides novel insight into the development and disorders of neural crest-derived tissues. Elucidating the cellular identity of neuronal precursors provides novel insights into development and function of the nervous system. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is innervated richly by extrinsic nerve fibers, but little is known about the significance of extrinsic innervation to the structural integrity of the ENS. This report reveals that a subset of Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), which invades the gut alongside the extrinsic nerves, adopts a neuronal fate and differentiates into specific neuronal subtypes. SCP-specific ablation of the Ret gene leads to colonic oligoganglionosis, demonstrating a crucial role of SCP-derived neurogenesis in ENS development. Cross-lineage differentiation capacity in SCPs suggests

  12. SoxC Transcription Factors Are Required for Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Mu, Lifang; Berti, Lucia; Masserdotti, Giacomo; Covic, Marcela; Michaelidis, Theologos M.; Doberauer, Kathrin; Merz, Katharina; Rehfeld, Frederick; Haslinger, Anja; Wegner, Michael; Sock, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Veronique; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Berninger, Benedikt; Lie, D. Chichung

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new hippocampal dentate granule neurons throughout adulthood. The genetic programs controlling neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs are only poorly understood. Here we show that, in the adult mouse hippocampus, expression of the SoxC transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 is initiated around the time of neuronal commitment of adult NSCs and is maintained in immature neurons. Overexpression of Sox4 and Sox11 strongly promotes in vitro neurogenesis from adult NSCs, whereas ablation of Sox4/Sox11 prevents in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis from adult NSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that SoxC transcription factors target the promoters of genes that are induced on neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs. Finally, we show that reprogramming of astroglia into neurons is dependent on the presence of SoxC factors. These data identify SoxC proteins as essential contributors to the genetic network controlling neuronal differentiation in adult neurogenesis and neuronal reprogramming of somatic cells. PMID:22378879

  13. Neuronal Migration and AUTS2 Syndrome.

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    Hori, Kei; Hoshino, Mikio

    2017-05-14

    Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question. Interestingly, the AUTS2 protein has dual functions: Cytoplasmic AUTS2 regulates actin cytoskeleton to control neuronal migration and neurite extension, while nuclear AUTS2 controls transcription of various genes as a component of the polycomb complex 1 (PRC1). In this review, we discuss AUTS2 from the viewpoint of human genetics, molecular function, brain development, and behavior in animal models, focusing on its role in neuronal migration.

  14. Tangential migration of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex.

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    O'Rourke, N A; Sullivan, D P; Kaznowski, C E; Jacobs, A A; McConnell, S K

    1995-07-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex is divided into functionally distinct areas. Although radial patterns of neuronal migration have been thought to be essential for patterning these areas, direct observation of migrating cells in cortical brain slices has revealed that cells follow both radial and nonradial pathways as they travel from their sites of origin in the ventricular zone out to their destinations in the cortical plate (O'Rourke, N.A., Dailey, M.E., Smith, S.J. and McConnell, S.K. (1992) Science 258, 299-302). These findings suggested that neurons may not be confined to radial migratory pathways in vivo. Here, we have examined the patterns of neuronal migration in the intact cortex. Analysis of the orientations of [3H]thymidine-labeled migrating cells suggests that nonradial migration is equally common in brain slices and the intact cortex and that it increases during neurogenesis. Additionally, cells appear to follow nonradial trajectories at all levels of the developing cerebral wall, suggesting that tangential migration may be more prevalent than previously suspected from the imaging studies. Immunostaining with neuron-specific antibodies revealed that many tangentially migrating cells are young neurons. These results suggest that tangential migration in the intact cortex plays a pivotal role in the tangential dispersion of clonally related cells revealed by retroviral lineage studies (Walsh, C. and Cepko, C. L. (1992) Science 255, 434-440). Finally, we examined possible substrata for nonradial migration in dorsal cortical regions where the majority of glia extend radially. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we found that nonradially oriented cells run perpendicular to glial processes and make glancing contacts with them along their leading processes. Thus, if nonradial cells utilize glia as a migratory substratum they must glide across one glial fiber to another. Examination of the relationships between migratory cells and axons revealed axonal

  15. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

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    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  16. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  17. Identification of distinct ChAT+ neurons and activity-dependent control of postnatal SVZ neurogenesis

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    Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Asrican, Brent; Rodriguez, Erica; Kuo, Chay T.

    2014-01-01

    Postnatal/adult SVZ neurogenesis is believed to be primarily controlled by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms, interacting with extracellular/niche-driven cues. Although behavioral paradigms and disease states have suggested possibilities for higher-level inputs, it is currently unknown if neural activity patterns from discrete circuits can directly regulate SVZ neurogenesis. We have identified a previously undescribed population of ChAT+ neurons residing within the rodent SVZ neurogenic niche. These neurons showed morphological and functional differences from neighboring striatal counterparts, and released acetylcholine locally in activity-dependent fashion. Optogenetic inhibition and stimulation of subependymal ChAT+ neurons in vivo showed that they are necessary and sufficient to control neurogenic proliferation. Furthermore, whole-cell recordings and biochemical experiments revealed direct SVZ NSC responses to local acetylcholine release, synergizing with FGF receptor activation to increase neuroblast production. These results uncovered an unknown gateway connecting SVZ neurogenesis to neuronal activity-dependent control, and possibilities for modulating neuroregenerative capacities in health and disease. PMID:24880216

  18. Integrative Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Molecular Networks Defining Neuronal Maturation During Postnatal Neurogenesis.

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    Gao, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Eisinger, Brian E; Kelnhofer, Laurel E; Jobe, Emily M; Zhao, Xinyu

    2017-03-01

    In mammalian hippocampus, new neurons are continuously produced from neural stem cells throughout life. This postnatal neurogenesis may contribute to information processing critical for cognition, adaptation, learning, and memory, and is implicated in numerous neurological disorders. During neurogenesis, the immature neuron stage defined by doublecortin (DCX) expression is the most sensitive to regulation by extrinsic factors. However, little is known about the dynamic biology within this critical interval that drives maturation and confers susceptibility to regulatory signals. This study aims to test the hypothesis that DCX-expressing immature neurons progress through developmental stages via activity of specific transcriptional networks. Using single-cell RNA-seq combined with a novel integrative bioinformatics approach, we discovered that individual immature neurons can be classified into distinct developmental subgroups based on characteristic gene expression profiles and subgroup-specific markers. Comparisons between immature and more mature subgroups revealed novel pathways involved in neuronal maturation. Genes enriched in less mature cells shared significant overlap with genes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, while genes positively associated with neuronal maturation were enriched for autism-related gene sets. Our study thus discovers molecular signatures of individual immature neurons and unveils potential novel targets for therapeutic approaches to treat neurodevelopmental and neurological diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase contributes to pentylenetetrazole-kindling-induced hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the major nitric oxide synthase isoform in the mammalian brain, is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) persists throughout life in the adult brain. Alterations in this process occur in many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Few studies, however, have addressed the role of nNOS in hippocampal DG neurogenesis in epileptic brain. The present study, therefore, investigated the role of nNOS in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced neurogenesis in hippocampal DG. Our results showed that nNOS expression and enzymatic activity were significantly increased in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice. Meanwhile, these PTZ-kindled mice were characterized by significant enhancement of new born cells proliferation and survival in hippocampal DG, and these survived cells are co-labeled with NeuN and GFAP. Selective inhibition of nNOS by 7-NI, however, suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal DG new born cells proliferation and survival, suggesting that nNOS contributes to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Music facilitate the neurogenesis, regeneration and repair of neurons.

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    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2008-11-01

    Experience has shown that therapy using music for therapeutic purposes has certain effects on neuropsychiatric disorders (both functional and organic disorders). However, the mechanisms of action underlying music therapy remain unknown, and scientific clarification has not advanced. While that study disproved the Mozart effect, the effects of music on the human body and mind were not disproved. In fact, more scientific studies on music have been conducted in recent years, mainly in the field of neuroscience, and the level of interest among researchers is increasing. The results of past studies have clarified that music influences and affects cranial nerves in humans from fetus to adult. The effects of music at a cellular level have not been clarified, and the mechanisms of action for the effects of music on the brain have not been elucidated. We propose that listening to music facilitates the neurogenesis, the regeneration and repair of cerebral nerves by adjusting the secretion of steroid hormones, ultimately leading to cerebral plasticity. Music affects levels of such steroids as cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and estrogen (E), and we believe that music also affects the receptor genes related to these substances, and related proteins. In the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, hormone replacement therapy has been shown to be effective, but at the same time, side effects have been documented, and the clinical application of hormone replacement therapy is facing a serious challenge. Conversely, music is noninvasive, and its existence is universal and mundane. Thus, if music can be used in medical care, the application of such a safe and inexpensive therapeutic option is limitless.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes Aberrant Migration of Adult-Born Neurons in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sara; Hu, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaoting; Gao, Xiang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-02-22

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) promotes neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) proliferation in an attempt to initiate innate repair mechanisms. However, all immature neurons in the CNS are required to migrate from their birthplace to their final destination to develop into functional neurons. Here we assessed the destination of adult-born neurons following TBI. We found that a large percentage of immature neurons migrated past their normal stopping site at the inner granular cell layer (GCL), and became misplaced in the outer GCL of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The aberrant migration of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus occurred 48 hours after TBI, and lasted for 8 weeks, resulting in a great number of newly generated neurons misplaced in the outer GCL in the hippocampus. Those misplaced neurons were able to become mature and differentiate into granular neurons, but located ectopically in the outer GCL with reduced dendritic complexity after TBI. The adult-born neurons at the misplaced position may make wrong connections with inappropriate nearby targets in the pre-existing neural network. These results suggest that although stimulation of endogenous NSCs following TBI might offer new avenues for cell-based therapy, additional intervention is required to further enhance successful neurogenesis for repairing the damaged brain.

  2. Distinct Effects of miR-210 Reduction on Neurogenesis: Increased Neuronal Survival of Inflammation But Reduced Proliferation Associated with Mitochondrial Enhancement.

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    Voloboueva, Ludmila A; Sun, Xiaoyun; Xu, Lijun; Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G

    2017-03-15

    Neurogenesis is essential to brain development and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs); however, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by postinjury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of miR-210 inhibition to enhance and protect mitochondrial function through upregulation of mitochondrial proteins. Here, miR-210 inhibition significantly increased neuronal survival and protected the activity of mitochondrial enzymes cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase in differentiating NSC cultures exposed to inflammatory mediators. Unexpectedly, we found that reducing miR-210 significantly attenuated NSC proliferation upon induction of differentiation. Further investigation revealed that increased mitochondrial function suppressed the shift to primarily glycolytic metabolism and reduced mitochondrial length characteristic of dividing cells. Activation of AMP-regulated protein kinase-retinoblastoma signaling is important in NSC proliferation and the reduction of this activation observed by miR-210 inhibition is one mechanism contributing to the reduced proliferation. Postinjury neurogenesis occurs as a burst of proliferation that peaks in days, followed by migration and differentiation over weeks. Our studies suggest that mitochondrial protective miR-210 inhibition should be delayed until after the initial burst of proliferation, but could be beneficial during the prolonged differentiation stage.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasing the success of endogenous neurogenesis after brain injury

  3. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1-vascular endothelial growth factor promotes neurogenesis and neuromigration in the subventricular zone and rescues neuronal function in ischemic rats.

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    Li, Shi-Fang; Sun, Yun-Bo; Meng, Qing-Hai; Li, Shi-Ru; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hu, Guo-Jie; Li, Zhao-Jian; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances neurogenesis in ischemic brains. However, in most circumstances, endogenous VEGF expression is limited and insufficient to prevent brain damage. We transferred the VEGF gene into brain tissue with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) vectors and determined the effect of VEGF expression on neurogenesis and recovery of neurological function after brain ischemia. Two groups (n = 32) of Sprague Dawley rats received intraventricular injection of AAV1-VEGF or AAV1-lacZ. Twenty-one days after gene transfer, rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and neurological severity score was measured 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days later. Immunostaining was used to identify the quantity and distribution of VEGF expression. Double-immunofluorescence for doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine or neuronal nuclei was performed to detect neurogenesis and the migration of neural progenitor cells. VEGF expression reduced the size of cerebral infarction and improved neurological function. It also enhanced the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and promoted their migration to the ischemic lesion. Neural precursors in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus were also increased; however, most of these cells did not move to the ischemic lesion and integrated with their region of origin. rAAV1-mediated expression of VEGF in the rat brain reduces the size of the infarcted lesion and promotes recovery of neurological function, likely by enhancing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and promoting neural precursor migration to brain tissue around the core of the ischemic lesion.

  4. Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S A; Nottebohm, F

    1983-01-01

    The vocal control nucleus designated HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis) of adult female canaries expands in response to systemic testosterone administration, which also induces the females to sing in a male-like manner. We became interested in the possibility of neurogenesis as a potential basis for this phenomenon. Intact adult female canaries were injected with [3H]thymidine over a 2-day period. Some birds were given testosterone implants at various times before thymidine. The birds were sacrificed 5 wk after hormone implantation, and their brains were processed for autoradiography. In parallel control experiments, some birds were given implants of cholesterol instead of testosterone. All birds showed considerable numbers of labeled neurons, glia, endothelia, and ventricular zone cells in and around HVc. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the identity of these labeled neurons. Cholesterol- and testosterone-treated birds had similar neuronal labeling indices, which ranged from 1.8% to 4.0% in HVc. Thus, neurogenesis occurred in these adults independently of exogenous hormone treatment. Conversely, both glial and endothelial proliferation rates were markedly stimulated by exogenous testosterone treatment. We determined the origin of the thymidine-incorporating neurons by sacrificing two thymidine-treated females soon after their thymidine injections, precluding any significant migration of newly labeled cells. Analysis of these brains revealed no cells of neuronal morphology present in HVc but a very heavily labeled ventricular zone overlying HVc. We conclude that neuronal precursors exist in the HVc ventricular zone that incorporate tritiated thymidine during the S phase preceding their mitosis; after division these cells migrate into, and to some extent beyond, HVc. This ventricular zone neurogenesis seems to be a normally occurring phenomenon in intact adult female canaries. Images PMID:6572982

  5. ChAT-positive neurons participate in subventricular zone neurogenesis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Lu, Zhengfang; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Chenguang; Han, Wei; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are unclear. However, neural stem cell-intrinsic and neurogenic niche mechanisms, as well as neurotransmitters, have been shown to play important roles in SVZ neurogenesis. Recently, a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) + neurons residing in rodent SVZ were identified to have direct control over neural stem cell proliferation by indirectly activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This finding revealed possible neuronal control over SVZ neurogenesis. In this study, we assessed whether these ChAT + neurons also participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model produced by transcranial electrocoagulation in mice, atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor [mAchR] antagonist), and donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) to investigate the role of ChAT + neurons in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We found that mAchRs, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC), and p-38 levels in the SVZ were upregulated in mice on day 7 after MCAO. MCAO also significantly increased the number of BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. FGFR was activated in the SVZ, and doublecortin-positive cells increased in the peri-infarction region. These post-stroke neurogenic effects were enhanced by donepezil and partially decreased by atropine. Neither atropine nor donepezil affected peri-infarct microglial activation or serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or TGF-β on day 7 after MCAO. We conclude that ChAT + neurons in the SVZ may participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a new mechanism for neurogenesis after stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How neurons migrate: a dynamic in-silico model of neuronal migration in the developing cortex

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Setty, Yaki

    2011-09-30

    Abstract Background Neuronal migration, the process by which neurons migrate from their place of origin to their final position in the brain, is a central process for normal brain development and function. Advances in experimental techniques have revealed much about many of the molecular components involved in this process. Notwithstanding these advances, how the molecular machinery works together to govern the migration process has yet to be fully understood. Here we present a computational model of neuronal migration, in which four key molecular entities, Lis1, DCX, Reelin and GABA, form a molecular program that mediates the migration process. Results The model simulated the dynamic migration process, consistent with in-vivo observations of morphological, cellular and population-level phenomena. Specifically, the model reproduced migration phases, cellular dynamics and population distributions that concur with experimental observations in normal neuronal development. We tested the model under reduced activity of Lis1 and DCX and found an aberrant development similar to observations in Lis1 and DCX silencing expression experiments. Analysis of the model gave rise to unforeseen insights that could guide future experimental study. Specifically: (1) the model revealed the possibility that under conditions of Lis1 reduced expression, neurons experience an oscillatory neuron-glial association prior to the multipolar stage; and (2) we hypothesized that observed morphology variations in rats and mice may be explained by a single difference in the way that Lis1 and DCX stimulate bipolar motility. From this we make the following predictions: (1) under reduced Lis1 and enhanced DCX expression, we predict a reduced bipolar migration in rats, and (2) under enhanced DCX expression in mice we predict a normal or a higher bipolar migration. Conclusions We present here a system-wide computational model of neuronal migration that integrates theory and data within a precise

  7. JIP3 regulates neuronal radial migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huixian; Yu, Hui; Li, Ting; Zhao, Yan; Hou, Ming; Chen, Zheyu; Wang, Yue; Sun, Tao

    2017-04-15

    Radial migration is essential for the precise lamination and the coordinated function of the cerebral cortex. However, the molecular mechanisms for neuronal radial migration are not clear. Here, we report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-3 (JIP3) is highly expressed in the brain of embryonic mice and essential for radial migration. Knocking down JIP3 by in utero electroporation specifically perturbs the radial migration of cortical neurons but has no effect on neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we illustrate that JIP3 knockdown delays but does not block the migration of cortical neurons by investigating the distribution of neurons with JIP3 knocked down in the embryo and postnatal mouse. Finally, we find that JIP3 regulates cortical neuronal migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport during brain development. These findings deepen our understanding of the regulation of neuronal development by JIP3 and provide us a novel view on the regulating mechanisms of neuronal radial migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  9. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Anke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. Therefore we here focused on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD fed to female C57Bl/6 and Nestin-GFP-reporter mice on proliferation and maturation of neuronal progenitor cells and spatial learning performance. In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. Results THC and CBD differed in their effects on spatial learning and adult neurogenesis. CBD did not impair learning but increased adult neurogenesis, whereas THC reduced learning without affecting adult neurogenesis. We found the neurogenic effect of CBD to be dependent on the CB1 receptor, which is expressed over the whole dentate gyrus. Similarly, the neurogenic effect of environmental enrichment and voluntary wheel running depends on the presence of the CB1 receptor. We found that in the absence of CB1 receptors, cell proliferation was increased and neuronal differentiation reduced, which could be related to CB1 receptor mediated signaling in Doublecortin (DCX-expressing intermediate progenitor cells. Conclusion CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. The pro-neurogenic effects of CBD might explain some of the positive therapeutic features of CBD-based compounds.

  10. From migration to settlement: the pathways, migration modes and dynamics of neurons in the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Yumiko; ZHU, Yan; TORIGOE, Makio; KITA, Yoshiaki; MURAKAMI, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal migration is crucial for the construction of the nervous system. To reach their correct destination, migrating neurons choose pathways using physical substrates and chemical cues of either diffusible or non-diffusible nature. Migrating neurons extend a leading and a trailing process. The leading process, which extends in the direction of migration, determines navigation, in particular when a neuron changes its direction of migration. While most neurons simply migrate radially, certain neurons switch their mode of migration between radial and tangential, with the latter allowing migration to destinations far from the neurons’ site of generation. Consequently, neurons with distinct origins are intermingled, which results in intricate neuronal architectures and connectivities and provides an important basis for higher brain function. The trailing process, in contrast, contributes to the late stage of development by turning into the axon, thus contributing to the formation of neuronal circuits. PMID:26755396

  11. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in midbrain dopaminergic neuron specification and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Milan; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2014-02-01

    Loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons underlies the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Towards cell replacement, studies have focused on mechanisms underlying embryonic mDA production, as a rational basis for deriving mDA neurons from stem cells. We will review studies of β-catenin, an obligate component of the Wnt cascade that is critical to mDA specification and neurogenesis. mDA neurons have a unique origin--the midbrain floor plate (FP). Unlike the hindbrain and spinal cord FP, the midbrain FP is highly neurogenic and Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical to this difference in neurogenic potential. In β-catenin loss-of-function experiments, the midbrain FP resembles the hindbrain FP, and key mDA progenitor genes such as Otx2, Lmx1a, Msx1, and Ngn2 are downregulated whereas Shh is maintained. Accordingly, the neurogenic capacity of the midbrain FP is diminished, resulting in fewer mDA neurons. Conversely, in β-catenin gain-of-function experiments, the hindbrain FP expresses key mDA progenitor genes, and is highly neurogenic. Interestingly, when excessive β-catenin is supplied to the midbrain FP, less mDA neurons are produced suggesting that the dosage of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical. These studies of β-catenin have facilitated new protocols to derive mDA neurons from stem cells.

  13. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Parkinson’s Disease: Impact on Neuronal Survival and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Regensburger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD and other synucleinopathies, chronic neurodegeneration occurs within different areas of the central nervous system leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The symptomatic treatment options that are currently available do not slow or halt disease progression. This highlights the need of a better understanding of disease mechanisms and disease models. The generation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and in the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system is affected by many different regulators and possibly involved in memory processing, depression, and olfaction, symptoms which commonly occur in PD. The pathology of the adult neurogenic niches in human PD patients is still mostly elusive, but different preclinical models have shown profound alterations of adult neurogenesis. Alterations in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival as well as neurite outgrowth and spine formation have been related to different aspects in PD pathogenesis. Therefore, neurogenesis in the adult brain provides an ideal model to study disease mechanisms and compounds. In addition, adult newborn neurons have been proposed as a source of endogenous repair. Herein, we review current knowledge about the adult neurogenic niches in PD and highlight areas of future research.

  14. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

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    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Decreased Neurogenesis, Aberrant Integration of Newborn Neurons, and Cognitive Dysfunction in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Haleigh M; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Zucker, Hannah; McMullen, Megan R; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga Nicole; Ro, Eun Jeoung; Nagy, Laura E; Suh, Hoonkyo

    2015-10-01

    Neurological deficits of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been attributed to dysfunctions of specific brain structures. Studies of alcoholic patients and chronic alcohol exposure animal models consistently identify reduced hippocampal mass and cogntive dysfunctions as a key alcohol-induced brain adaptation. However, the precise substrate of chronic alcohol exposure that leads to structural and functional impairments of the hippocampus is largely unknown. Using a calorie-matched alcohol feeding method, we tested whether chronic alcohol exposure targets neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. The effect of alcohol on proliferation of neural stem cells as well as cell fate determination and survival of newborn cells was evaluated via bromodeoxyuridine pulse and chase methods. A retrovirus-mediated single-cell labeling method was used to determine the effect of alcohol on the morphological development and circuitry incorporation of individual hippocampal newborn neurons. Finally, novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze tests were performed to examine whether disrupted neurogenesis is associated with hippocampus-dependent functional deficits in alcohol-fed mice. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced proliferation of neural stem cells and survival rate of newborn neurons; however, the fate determination of newborn cells remained unaltered. Moreover, the dendritic spine density of newborn neurons significantly decreased in alcohol-fed mice. Impaired spine formation indicates that alcohol interfered the synaptic connectivity of newborn neurons with excitatory neurons originating from various areas of the brain. In the NOR test, alcohol-fed mice displayed deficits in the ability to discriminate the novel object. Our study revealed that chronic alcohol exposure disrupted multiple steps of neurogenesis, including the production and development of newborn neurons. In addition, chronic alcohol exposure altered connectivity of newborn neurons with other input

  16. [Effects of sleep deprivation in hippocampal neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Virgen, Verónica; Zárate-López, David; Adirsch, Fabián L; Collas-Aguilar, Jorge; González-Pérez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus is a process that involves proliferation, differentiation, maturation, migration, and integration of young neurons in the granular layer of DG. These newborn neurons mature in three to four weeks and incorporate into neural circuits in the hippocampus. There, these new neurons play a role in cognitive functions, such as acquisition and retention of memory, which are consolidated during sleep period. In this review, we describe recent findings that associate sleep deprivation with changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive processes. In addition, we describe possible mechanisms implicated in this deterioration such as circadian rhythm, melatonin receptors, and growth factors.

  17. Neurogenesis in the crustacean ventral nerve cord: homology of neuronal stem cells in Malacostraca and Branchiopoda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, S

    2001-01-01

    In Insecta and malacostracan Crustacea, neurons in the ventral ganglia are generated by the unequal division of neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts (Nbs), which are arranged in a stereotyped, grid-like pattern. In malacostracans, however, Nbs originate from ectoteloblasts by an invariant lineage, whereas Nbs in insects differentiate without a defined lineage by cell-to-cell interactions within the neuroectoderm. As the ventral ganglia in entomostracan crustaceans were thought to be generated by a general inward proliferation of ectodermal cells, the question arose as to whether neuroblasts in Euarthropoda represent a homologous type of stem cell. In the current project, neurogenesis in metanauplii of the entomostracan crustaceans Triops cancriformis Fabricius, 1780 (Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda) and Artemia salina Linné, 1758 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) was examined by in vivo incorporation of the mitosis marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and compared to stem cell proliferation in embryos of the malacostracan Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 (Eucarida, Decapoda). The developmental expression of synaptic proteins (synapsins) was studied immunohistochemically. Results indicate that in the ventral neurogenic zone of Branchiopoda, neuronal stem cells with cellular characteristics of malacostracan neuroblasts are present. However, a pattern similar to the lineage-dependent, grid-like arrangement of the malacostracan neuroblasts was not found. Therefore, the homology of entomostracan and malacostracan neuronal stem cells remains uncertain. It is now well established that during arthropod development, identical and most likely homologous structures can emerge, although the initiating steps or the mode of generation of these structures are different. Recent evidence suggests that adult Entomostraca and Malacostraca share corresponding sets of neurons so that the present report provides an example that those homologous neurons may be generated via divergent developmental

  18. The microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin controls the transition from dividing neuronal precursors to postmitotic neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Karin; van Dis, Vera; Goedknegt, Erika; Sobel, André; Lucassen, Paul J; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the two areas in the mammalian brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be involved in hippocampal physiological functions as well as pathophysiological conditions. Microtubules (MTs), providing intracellular transport, stability, and

  19. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eGarthe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis.In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons.We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the DG facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places.In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

  20. Neuronal migration and ventral subtype identity in the telencephalon depend on SOX1.

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    Antigoni Ekonomou

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular mechanisms and intrinsic factors that are responsible for the emergence of neuronal subtype identity. Several transcription factors that are expressed mainly in precursors of the ventral telencephalon have been shown to control neuronal specification, but it has been unclear whether subtype identity is also specified in these precursors, or if this happens in postmitotic neurons, and whether it involves the same or different factors. SOX1, an HMG box transcription factor, is expressed widely in neural precursors along with the two other SOXB1 subfamily members, SOX2 and SOX3, and all three have been implicated in neurogenesis. SOX1 is also uniquely expressed at a high level in the majority of telencephalic neurons that constitute the ventral striatum (VS. These neurons are missing in Sox1-null mutant mice. In the present study, we have addressed the requirement for SOX1 at a cellular level, revealing both the nature and timing of the defect. By generating a novel Sox1-null allele expressing beta-galactosidase, we found that the VS precursors and their early neuronal differentiation are unaffected in the absence of SOX1, but the prospective neurons fail to migrate to their appropriate position. Furthermore, the migration of non-Sox1-expressing VS neurons (such as those expressing Pax6 was also affected in the absence of SOX1, suggesting that Sox1-expressing neurons play a role in structuring the area of the VS. To test whether SOX1 is required in postmitotic cells for the emergence of VS neuronal identity, we generated mice in which Sox1 expression was directed to all ventral telencephalic precursors, but to only a very few VS neurons. These mice again lacked most of the VS, indicating that SOX1 expression in precursors is not sufficient for VS development. Conversely, the few neurons in which Sox1 expression was maintained were able to migrate to the VS. In conclusion, Sox1 expression in precursors is not

  1. Sleep deprivation and hippocampal vulnerability: changes in neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzmann, J C; Havekes, R; Abel, T; Meerlo, P

    2015-11-19

    Despite the ongoing fundamental controversy about the physiological function of sleep, there is general consensus that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition. In agreement with this are numerous studies showing that sleep deprivation (SD) results in learning and memory impairments. Interestingly, such impairments appear to occur particularly when these learning and memory processes require the hippocampus, suggesting that this brain region may be particularly sensitive to the consequences of sleep loss. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sleep and memory formation remain to be investigated, available evidence suggests that SD may impair hippocampal neuronal plasticity and memory processes by attenuating intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling which may lead to alterations in cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated gene transcription, neurotrophic signaling, and glutamate receptor expression. When restricted sleep becomes a chronic condition, it causes a reduction of hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis, which may eventually lead to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Ultimately, by impairing hippocampal plasticity and function, chronically restricted and disrupted sleep contributes to cognitive disorders and psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 disrupts neuronal maturation in a model of adult neurogenesis: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockenstein Edward

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that the pathogenic process in neurodegenerative disorders may disrupt mature neuronal circuitries and neurogenesis in the adult brain. Abnormal activation of CDK5 is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, and recently a critical role for CDK5 in adult neurogenesis has been identified. We have developed an in vitro model of abnormal CDK5 activation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and here we used this model to investigate aberrantly phosphorylated downstream targets of CDK5. Results Abnormal CDK5 activation in an in vitro model of adult neurogenesis results in hyperphosphorylation of collapsin-response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2 and impaired neurite outgrowth. Inhibition of CDK5, or expression of a non-phosphorylatable (S522A CRMP2 construct reduced CRMP2 hyperphosphorylation, and reversed neurite outgrowth deficits. CRMP2 plays a role in microtubule dynamics; therefore we examined the integrity of microtubules in this model using biochemical and electron microscopy techniques. We found that microtubule organization was disrupted under conditions of CDK5 activation. Finally, to study the relevance of these findings to neurogenesis in neurodegenerative conditions associated with HIV infection, we performed immunochemical analyses of the brains of patients with HIV and transgenic mice expressing HIV-gp120 protein. CDK5-mediated CRMP2 phosphorylation was significantly increased in the hippocampus of patients with HIV encephalitis and in gp120 transgenic mice, and this effect was rescued by genetic down-modulation of CDK5 in the mouse model. Conclusions These results reveal a functional mechanism involving microtubule destabilization through which abnormal CDK5 activation and CRMP2 hyperphosphorylation might contribute to defective neurogenesis in neurodegenerative disorders such as HIV encephalitis.

  3. Integrative Mechanisms of Oriented Neuronal Migration in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyukova, Irina; Plestant, Charlotte; Anton, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of functional neuronal connectivity in the developing cerebral cortex depends on neuronal migration. This process enables appropriate positioning of neurons and the emergence of neuronal identity so that the correct patterns of functional synaptic connectivity between the right types and numbers of neurons can emerge. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding of normal cerebral cortical formation and neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects. For the most part, the integrated cell biological basis of the complex behavior of oriented neuronal migration within the developing mammalian cerebral cortex remains an enigma. This review aims to analyze the integrative mechanisms that enable neurons to sense environmental guidance cues and translate them into oriented patterns of migration toward defined areas of the cerebral cortex. We discuss how signals emanating from different domains of neurons get integrated to control distinct aspects of migratory behavior and how different types of cortical neurons coordinate their migratory activities within the developing cerebral cortex to produce functionally critical laminar organization. PMID:23937349

  4. Cocaine causes deficits in radial migration and alters the distribution of glutamate and GABA neurons in the developing rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Chen, Jia; Worden, Lila T; Freed, William J

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure induces cytoarchitectural changes in the embryonic neocortex; however, the biological mechanisms and type of cortical neurons involved in these changes are not known. Previously, we found that neural progenitor proliferation in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) is inhibited by cocaine; here, we examine the changes in cortical neurogenesis and migration of glutamate and GABA neurons induced by prenatal cocaine exposure. Pregnant rats received 20 mg/kg of cocaine intraperitoneally twice at an interval of 12 h during three periods of neocortical neurogenesis. Neocortical area and distribution of developing neurons were examined by counting Tuj1+, glutamate+, or GABA+ cells in different areas of the cerebral cortex. Cocaine decreased neocortical area by reducing the size of the Tuj1+ layer, but only when administered during early periods of neocortical neurogenesis. The number of glutamatergic neurons was increased in the VZ but was decreased in the outer cortical laminae. Although the number of GABA+ neurons in the VZ of both the neocortex and ganglionic eminences was unchanged, GABA+ cells decreased in all other neocortical laminae. Tangential migration of GABA+ cells was also disrupted by cocaine. These findings suggest that in utero cocaine exposure disturbs radial migration of neocortical neurons, possibly because of decreased radial glia guiding support through enhanced differentiation of neocortical VZ progenitors. Cocaine interrupts radial migration of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons within the neocortex, in addition to the tangential migration of GABAergic neurons from the subcortical telecephalon. This may result in abnormal neocortical cytoarchitecture and concomitant adverse functional effects. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Neuronal migration illuminated: a look under the hood of the living neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Niraj; Solecki, David J

    2011-01-01

    During vertebrate brain development, migration of neurons from the germinal zones to their final laminar positions is essential to establish functional neural circuits. Whereas key insights into neuronal migration initially came from landmark studies identifying the genes mutated in human cortical malformations, cell biology has recently greatly advanced our understanding of how cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors drive the morphogenic cell movements that build the developing brain. This Commentary & View reviews recent studies examining the role of the molecular motors during neuronal migration and critically examines current models of acto-myosin function in the two-step neuronal migration cycle. Given the apparent emerging diversity of neuronal sub-type cytoskeletal organizations, we propose that two approaches must be taken to resolve differences between the current migration models: the mechanisms of radial and tangential migration must be compared and the loci of tension generation, migration substrates, and sites of adhesion dynamics must be precisely examined in an integrated manner.

  6. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  7. Distinct Features of Doublecortin as a Marker of Neuronal Migration and Its Implications in Cancer Cell Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola A. Ayanlaja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal migration is a critical process in the development of the nervous system. Defects in the migration of the neurons are associated with diseases like lissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia (SBH, and pachygyria. Doublecortin (DCX is an essential factor in neurogenesis and mutations in this protein impairs neuronal migration leading to several pathological conditions. Although, DCX is capable of modulating and stabilizing microtubules (MTs to ensure effective migration, the mechanisms involved in executing these functions remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, there are existing gaps regarding the processes that underlie tumor initiation and progression into cancer as well as the ability to migrate and invade normal cells. Several studies suggest that DCX is involved in cancer metastasis. Unstable interactions between DCX and MTs destabilizes cytoskeletal organization leading to disorganized movements of cells, a process which may be implicated in the uncontrolled migration of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is complex and require further clarification. Therefore, exploring the importance and features known up to date about this molecule will broaden our understanding and shed light on potential therapeutic approaches for the associated neurological diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge about DCX, its features, functions, and relationships with other proteins. We also present an overview of its role in cancer cells and highlight the importance of studying its gene mutations.

  8. Sirt6 alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Okun

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior. In this study we investigated the involvement of SIRT6 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Mice over-expressing Sirt6 exhibit increased numbers of young neurons and decreased numbers of mature neurons, without affecting glial differentiation. This implies of an involvement of SIRT6 in neuronal differentiation and maturation within the hippocampus. This work adds to the expanding body of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and describes novel roles for SIRT6 as a regulator of cell fate during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  9. Paradox of pattern separation and adult neurogenesis: A dual role for new neurons balancing memory resolution and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen T; Shtrahman, Matthew; Parylak, Sarah; Gonçalves, J Tiago; Gage, Fred H

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is thought to subserve pattern separation, the process by which similar patterns of neuronal inputs are transformed into distinct neuronal representations, permitting the discrimination of highly similar stimuli in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the mechanism by which immature adult-born dentate granule neurons cells (abDGCs) perform this function remains unknown. Two theories of abDGC function, one by which abDGCs modulate and sparsify activity in the dentate gyrus and one by which abDGCs act as autonomous coding units, are generally suggested to be mutually exclusive. This review suggests that these two mechanisms work in tandem to dynamically regulate memory resolution while avoiding memory interference and maintaining memory robustness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rcan1 deficiency impairs neuronal migration and causes periventricular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yang; Li, Dan; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-14

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a cortical malformation characterized by aggregation of neurons lining the lateral ventricles due to abnormal neuronal migration. The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of PH is unclear. Here we show that Regulators of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1), a Down syndrome-related gene, plays an important role in radial migration of rat cortical neurons. Downregulation of Rcan1 by expressing shRNA impaired neural progenitor proliferation and led to defects in radial migration and PH. Two isoforms of Rcan1 (Rcan1-1 and Rcan1-4) are expressed in the rat brain. Migration defects due to downregulation of Rcan1 could be prevented by shRNA-resistant expression of Rcan1-1 but not Rcan1-4. Furthermore, we found that Rcan1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression level of Flna, an F-actin cross-linking protein essential for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell migration, mutation of which causes the most common form of bilateral PH in humans. Finally, overexpression of FLNA in Rcan1 knockdown neurons prevented migration abnormalities. Together, these findings demonstrate that Rcan1 acts upstream from Flna in regulating radial migration and suggest that impairment of Rcan1-Flna pathway may underlie PH pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350610-11$15.00/0.

  11. The Role of Rho GTPase Proteins in CNS Neuronal Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govek, Eve-Ellen; Hatten, Mary E.; Van Aelst, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The architectonics of the mammalian brain arise from a remarkable range of directed cell migrations, which orchestrate the emergence of cortical neuronal layers and pattern brain circuitry. At different stages of cortical histogenesis, specific modes of cell motility are essential to the stepwise formation of cortical architecture. These movements range from interkinetic nuclear movements at the ventricular zone (VZ), to migrations of early-born, postmitotic polymorphic cells into the preplate, to the radial migration of precursors of cortical output neurons across the thickening cortical wall, and the vast, tangential migrations of interneurons from the basal forebrain into the emerging cortical layers. In all cases, acto-myosin motors act in concert with cell adhesion receptor systems to provide the force and traction needed for forward movement. As key regulators of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, cell polarity, and adhesion, the Rho GTPases play a critical role in CNS neuronal migration. This review will focus on the different types of migration in the developing neocortex and cerebellar cortex, and the role of the Rho GTPases, their regulators and effectors in these CNS migrations, with particular emphasis on their involvement in radial migration. PMID:21557504

  12. Alterations of neuronal precursor cells in stages of human adult neurogenesis in heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronny; Franke, Heike; Ficker, Christoph; Richter, Monique; Lessig, Rüdiger; Büttner, Andreas; Weber, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been shown to occur throughout life and different brain pathologies were demonstrated to be associated with altered neurogenesis. Here, an impact of heroin addiction on neurogenesis in humans is hypothesised. Post mortem hippocampal specimens of drug addicts with known heroin abuse and a group of non-addictive control subjects were analysed, using antibodies indicating different stages of neurogenesis. The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The data indicate (i) a decreased number of neural precursor cells, (ii) accompanied by low rates of proliferation and (iii) a marked loss of dendritic trees in targeting cells in heroin fatalities. (iv) The age-dependent increase of differentiating cells in the healthy controls was not observed in the addicts. Additionally, double immunofluorescence labelling indicated the precursor nature of Musashi-1 positive cells in the human subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Present data firstly demonstrate the influence of drug addiction with known heroin abuse on different developmental stages of progenitors in the dentate gyrus. The patterns of antibody staining suggest a distinct inhibition of neurogenesis at the stage of neural precursor cells and revealed morphological changes in targeting cells in cases of heroin addicts as compared to healthy controls. These alterations could be considerable for memory and cognitive deficits as well as addictive behaviour in chronic drug abusers and may give rise to specific pro-neurogenic therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterotopically transplanted CVO neural stem cells generate neurons and migrate with SVZ cells in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lori B; Cai, Jingli; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-05-07

    Production of new neurons throughout adulthood has been well characterized in two brain regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neurons produced from these regions arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) found in highly regulated stem cell niches. We recently showed that midline structures called circumventricular organs (CVOs) also contain NSCs capable of neurogenesis and/or astrogliogenesis in vitro and in situ (Bennett et al.). The present study demonstrates that NSCs derived from two astrogliogenic CVOs, the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis of the nestin-GFP mouse, possess the potential to integrate into the SVZ and differentiate into cells with a neuronal phenotype. These NSCs, following expansion and BrdU-labeling in culture and heterotopic transplantation into a region proximal to the SVZ in adult mice, migrate caudally to the SVZ and express early neuronal markers (TUC-4, PSA-NCAM) as they migrate along the rostral migratory stream. CVO-derived BrdU(+) cells ultimately reach the olfactory bulb where they express early (PSA-NCAM) and mature (NeuN) neuronal markers. Collectively, these data suggest that although NSCs derived from the ME and OVLT CVOs are astrogliogenic in situ, they produce cells phenotypic of neurons in vivo when placed in a neurogenic environment. These findings may have implications for neural repair in the adult brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric behaviors associated with cytoskeletal defects in radial neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshifumi; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders. Our recent findings indicate that radial neuronal migration as well as psychiatric behaviors is rescued by controlling microtubule stability during the embryonic stage. In this review, we outline the relationship between psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, and radial neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex by focusing on the cytoskeleton and centrosomes. New treatment strategies for psychiatric disorders will be discussed.

  15. Neurogenesis and the Spacing Effect: Learning over Time Enhances Memory and the Survival of New Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Helene M.; Glass, Arnold L.; Shors, Tracey J.

    2007-01-01

    Information that is spaced over time is better remembered than the same amount of information massed together. This phenomenon, known as the spacing effect, was explored with respect to its effect on learning and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Because the cells are generated over time and because learning…

  16. Smn deficiency causes neuritogenesis and neurogenesis defects in the retinal neurons of a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Beauvais, Ariane; Baker, Adam N; Tsilfidis, Catherine; Kothary, Rashmi

    2011-02-01

    The eye is an excellent model for the study of neuronal development and pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders because of its relative ease of accessibility and the well-characterized cellular makeup. We have used this model to study spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by deletions or mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). We have investigated the expression pattern of mouse Smn mRNA and protein in the neural retina and the optic nerve of wild type mice. Smn protein is present in retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells within the neural retina as well as in glial cells in the optic nerve. Histopathological analysis in phenotype stage SMA mice revealed that Smn deficiency is associated with a reduction in ganglion cell axon and glial cell number in the optic nerve, as well as compromised cellular processes and altered organization of neurofilaments in the neural retina. Whole mount preparation and retinal neuron primary culture provided further evidence of abnormal synaptogenesis and neurofilament accumulation in the neurites of Smn-deficient retinal neurons. A subset of amacrine cells is absent, in a cell-autonomous fashion, in the retina of SMA mice. Finally, the retinas of SMA mice have altered electroretinograms. Altogether, our study has demonstrated defects in axodendritic outgrowth and cellular composition in Smn-depleted retinal neurons, indicating a role for Smn in neuritogenesis and neurogenesis, and providing us with an insight into pathogenesis of SMA. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spatial learning and neurogenesis: Effects of cessation of wheel running and survival of novel neurons by engagement in cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Takada, Silvia Honda; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Physical exercise stimulates cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and facilitates acquisition and/or retention of hippocampal-dependent tasks. It is established that regular physical exercise improves cognitive performance. However, it is unclear for how long these benefits last after its interruption. Independent groups of rats received both free access to either unlocked (EXE Treatment) or locked (No-EXE Treatment) running wheels for 7 days, and daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in the last 3 days. After a time delay period of either 1, 3, or 6 weeks without training, the animals were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) either in a working memory task dependent on hippocampal function (MWM-HD) or in a visible platform searching task, independent on hippocampal function (MWM-NH). Data confirmed that exposure of rats to 7 days of spontaneous wheel running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In contrast, neurogenesis was not accompanied by significant improvements of performance in the working memory version of the MWM. Longer time delays between the end of exercise and the beginning of cognitive training in the MWM resulted in lower cell survival; that is, the number of novel surviving mature neurons was decreased when this delay was 6 weeks as compared with when it was 1 week. In addition, data showed that while exposure to the MWM-HD working memory task substantially increased survival of novel neurons, exposure to the MWM-NH task did not, thus indicating that survival of novel dentate gyrus neurons depends on the engagement of this brain region in performance of cognitive tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neuronal Splicing Regulator RBFOX3 (NeuN) Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-Sian; Wang, Han-Ying; Huang, De-Fong; Hsieh, Pei-Fen; Lin, Meng-Ying; Chou, Chih-Hsuan; Wu, I-Ju; Huang, Guo-Jen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Hsien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of RBFOX3 has been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, cognitive impairments and epilepsy and a causal relationship with these diseases has been previously demonstrated with Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice. Despite the importance of RBFOX3 during neurodevelopment, the function of RBFOX3 regarding neurogenesis and synaptogenesis remains unclear. To address this critical question, we profiled the developmental expression pattern of Rbfox3 in ...

  19. Neuronal Splicing Regulator RBFOX3 (NeuN Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Sian Lin

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of RBFOX3 has been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, cognitive impairments and epilepsy and a causal relationship with these diseases has been previously demonstrated with Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice. Despite the importance of RBFOX3 during neurodevelopment, the function of RBFOX3 regarding neurogenesis and synaptogenesis remains unclear. To address this critical question, we profiled the developmental expression pattern of Rbfox3 in the brain of wild-type mice and analyzed brain volume, disease-relevant behaviors, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and synaptogenesis in Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice and their corresponding wild-type counterparts. Here we report that expression of Rbfox3 differs developmentally for distinct brain regions. Moreover, Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice exhibited cold hyperalgesia and impaired cognitive abilities. Focusing on hippocampal phenotypes, we found Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice displayed deficits in neurogenesis, which was correlated with cognitive impairments. Furthermore, RBFOX3 regulates the exons of genes with synapse-related function. Synaptic plasticity and density, which are related to cognitive behaviors, were altered in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice; synaptic plasticity decreased and the density of synapses increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate the important role of RBFOX3 during neural development and maturation. In addition, abnormalities in synaptic structure and function occur in Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice. Our findings may offer mechanistic explanations for human brain diseases associated with dysfunctional RBFOX3.

  20. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

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    Richard eBelvindrah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  1. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  2. Cortical neurogenesis in adult rats after ischemic brain injury: most new neurons fail to mature

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    Qing-quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the hypothesis that endogenous neural progenitor cells isolated from the neocortex of ischemic brain can differentiate into neurons or glial cells and contribute to neural regeneration. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion to establish a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the cortex 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after injury revealed that neural progenitor cells double-positive for nestin and sox-2 appeared in the injured cortex 1 and 3 days post-injury, and were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. New neurons were labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and different stages of maturity were identified using doublecortin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neuronal nuclei antigen immunohistochemistry. Immature new neurons coexpressing doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the cortex at 3 and 7 days post-injury, and semi-mature and mature new neurons double-positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and bromodeoxyuridine were found at 14 days post-injury. A few mature new neurons coexpressing neuronal nuclei antigen and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the injured cortex 28 days post-injury. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/bromodeoxyuridine double-positive astrocytes were also found in the injured cortex. Our findings suggest that neural progenitor cells are present in the damaged cortex of adult rats with cerebral ischemic brain injury, and that they differentiate into astrocytes and immature neurons, but most neurons fail to reach the mature stage.

  3. Microglia Activation and Schizophrenia: Lessons From the Effects of Minocycline on Postnatal Neurogenesis, Neuronal Survival and Synaptic Pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Gass, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The implication of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia, sustained by recent genetic evidence, represents one of the most exciting topics in schizophrenia research. Drugs which inhibit microglia activation, especially the classical tetracycline antibiotic minocycline are currently under investigation as alternative antipsychotics. However, recent studies demonstrated that microglia activation is not only a hallmark of neuroinflammation, but plays important roles during brain development. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline was shown to induce extensive neuronal cell death and to impair subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and synaptic pruning in the early postnatal and adolescent rodent brain, respectively. These deleterious effects contrast with the neuroprotective actions of minocycline at adult stages. They are of potential importance for schizophrenia, since minocycline triggers similar pro-apoptotic effects in the developing brain as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, known to induce long-term schizophrenia-like abnormalities. Moreover, altered postnatal neurogenesis, recently described in the human striatum, was proposed to induce striatal dopamine dysregulation associated with schizophrenia. Finally, the effect of minocycline on synapse remodeling is of interest considering the recently reported strong genetic association of the pruning-regulating complement factor gene C4A with schizophrenia. This raises the exciting possibility that in conditions of hyperactive synaptic pruning, as supposed in schizophrenia, the inhibitory action of minocycline turns into a beneficial effect, with relevance for early therapeutic interventions. Altogether, these data support a differential view on microglia activation and its inhibition. Further studies are needed to clarify the relevance of these results for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the use of minocycline as antipsychotic drug. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  4. Genetic and Molecular Approaches to Study Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudok, Jacobus J; Leonards, Pim E G; Wijnholds, Jan

    2017-05-05

    The migration of neuronal cells in the developing cerebral cortex is essential for proper development of the brain and brain networks. Disturbances in this process, due to genetic abnormalities or exogenous factors, leads to aberrant brain formation, brain network formation, and brain function. In the last decade, there has been extensive research in the field of neuronal migration. In this review, we describe different methods and approaches to assess and study neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. First, we discuss several genetic methods, techniques and genetic models that have been used to study neuronal migration in the developing cortex. Second, we describe several molecular approaches to study aberrant neuronal migration in the cortex which can be used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of neuronal migration. Finally, we describe model systems to investigate and assess the potential toxicity effect of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals on proper brain formation and neuronal migration.

  5. Sleep deprivation and hippocampal vulnerability : Changes in neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzmann, J C; Havekes, R; Abel, T; Meerlo, P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ongoing fundamental controversy about the physiological function of sleep, there is general consensus that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition. In agreement with this are numerous studies showing that sleep deprivation (SD) results

  6. Functional roles of Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a in neurogenesis and phenotype specification of dopamine neurons during in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunghoi; Chung, Sangmi; Leung, Kaka; Hwang, Insik; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    To elucidate detailed functional mechanisms of key fate-determining transcription factors (eg, Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a) and their functional interplay for midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons, we developed highly efficient gain-of-function system by transducing the neural progenitors (NPs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with retroviral vectors, allowing the analysis of downstream molecular and cellular effects. Overexpression of each factors, Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a robustly promoted the dopaminergic differentiation of ESC-NP cells exposed to sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). In addition, each of these factors directly interacts with potential binding sites within the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and activated its promoter activity. Interestingly, however, overexpression of Nurr1, but not of Pitx3 or Lmx1a, generated a significant number of nonneuronal TH-positive cells. In line with this, Pitx3 and Lmx1a, but not Nurr1, induced expression of the Ngn2 gene, which is critical for neurogenesis. We also observed that Pitx3 directly bound to its potential binding sites within the Ngn2 gene and the pan-neuronal marker β-tubulin III gene, suggesting that Pitx3 contributes to mDA neurogenesis by directly regulating these genes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that key mDA regulators (Nurr1, Pitx3, and Lmx1a) play overlapping as well as distinct roles during neurogenesis and neurotransmitter phenotype determination of mDA neurons.

  7. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  8. Control of Neuronal Migration and Aggregation by Reelin Signaling in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian cerebral neocortex has a well-organized laminar structure, achieved by the highly coordinated control of neuronal migration. During cortical development, excitatory neurons born near the lateral ventricle migrate radially to reach their final positions to form the cortical plate. During this process, dynamic changes are observed in the morphologies and migration modes, including multipolar migration, locomotion, and terminal translocation, of the newborn neurons. Disruption of these migration processes can result in neuronal disorders such as lissencephaly and periventricular heterotopia. The extracellular protein, Reelin, mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone during development, plays a crucial role in the neuronal migration and neocortical lamination. Reelin signaling, which exerts essential roles in the formation of the layered neocortex, is triggered by the binding of Reelin to its receptors, ApoER2 and VLDLR, followed by phosphorylation of the Dab1 adaptor protein. Accumulating evidence suggests that Reelin signaling controls multiple steps of neuronal migration, including the transition from multipolar to bipolar neurons, terminal translocation, and termination of migration beneath the marginal zone. In addition, it has been shown that ectopically expressed Reelin can cause neuronal aggregation via an N-cadherin-mediated manner. This review attempts to summarize our knowledge of the roles played by Reelin in neuronal migration and the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Leon G.; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5g/kg, s.c., 2 hours apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduced MRI total brain volume (4%) with multiple brain regions being reduced in both males and females. Immunohistochemistry indicated reduced frontal cortical parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV+IR) interneurons (18-33%) and reduced Cux1+IR layer II pyramidal neurons (15%) in both sexes. Interestingly, markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis differed between sexes, with only ethanol treated males showing increased doublecortin and Ki67 expression (52 and 57% respectively) in the dentate gyrus, consistent with increased neurogenesis compared to controls. These findings suggest that P7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult brain volume and frontal cortical neurons in both males and females. Increased adult neurogenesis in males, but not females, is consistent with differential adaptive responses to P7 ethanol toxicity between the sexes. One day of ethanol exposure, e.g. P7, causes persistent adult brain dysmorphology. PMID:22572057

  10. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  11. Neurogenesis in zebrafish - from embryo to adult

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, R; Strähle, U; Scholpp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the developing central nervous system consists of the induction and proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their subsequent differentiation into mature neurons. External as well as internal cues orchestrate neurogenesis in a precise temporal and spatial way. In the last 20 years, the zebrafish has proven to be an excellent model organism to study neurogenesis in the embryo. Recently, this vertebrate has also become a model for the investigation of adult neurogenesis and ...

  12. Abundant Focal Adhesion Kinase Causes Aberrant Neuronal Migration Via Its Phosphorylation at Tyr925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lei; Li, Weiwei; Hu, Xinde; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Shanting

    2018-01-01

    The process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925 during cerebral cortex development. Meanwhile, FAK Y925F mutant also induced aberrant neuronal migration like inordinate FAK/GFP phenotype. All these results implied that FAK-induced abnormal phenotype depended on phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925, and this demonstrated that the overexpression of FAK impaired neuronal migration through its phosphorylation and activity of FAK during corticogenesis.

  13. Regulation of Injury-Induced Neurogenesis by Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2012-01-01

    The finding that neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to divide, migrate, and differentiate into several cellular types in the adult brain raised a new hope for restorative neurology. Nitric oxide (NO), a pleiotropic signaling molecule in the central nervous system (CNS), has been described to be able to modulate neurogenesis, acting as a pro- or antineurogenic agent. Some authors suggest that NO is a physiological inhibitor of neurogenesis, while others described NO to favor neurogenesis, particularly under inflammatory conditions. Thus, targeting the NO system may be a powerful strategy to control the formation of new neurons. However, the exact mechanisms by which NO regulates neural proliferation and differentiation are not yet completely clarified. In this paper we will discuss the potential interest of the modulation of the NO system for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or other pathological conditions that may affect the CNS. PMID:22997523

  14. Review: Could neurotransmitters influence neurogenesis and neurorepair after stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendoza, E; Bellver-Landete, V; Merino, J J; González, M P; Martínez-Murillo, R; Oset-Gasque, M J

    2013-12-01

    Brain ischaemia and reperfusion produce alterations in the microenvironment of the parenchyma, including ATP depletion, ionic homeostasis alterations, inflammation, release of multiple cytokines and abnormal release of neurotransmitters. As a consequence, the induction of proliferation and migration of neural stem cells is redirected towards the peri-infarct region. The success of new neurorestorative treatments for damaged brain implies the need to describe with greater accuracy the mechanisms in charge of regulating adult neurogenesis, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence demonstrates that many neurotransmitters, glutamate in particular, control the subventricular zone (SVZ), thus being part of the complex signal network that exerts a remarkable influence on the production of new neurones. Neurotransmitters provide a link between brain activity and SVZ neurogenesis. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of the role of neurotransmitters systems, such as glutamate and its transporters, in adult neurogenesis, may prove a valuable tool to be utilized as a neurorestorative therapy in this pathology. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  15. Unlocking epigenetic codes in neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neuronal stem cells follow a highly conserved path of differentiation to give rise to functional neurons at various developmental stages. Epigenetic regulation—including DNA modifications, histone modifications, and noncoding regulatory RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)—plays a pivotal role in embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Here we review the latest in our understanding of the epigenetic regulation in neurogenesis, with a particular focus on newly identified cytosine modifications and their dynamics, along with our perspective for future studies. PMID:24939932

  16. Antidepressant-like Effects of Electroconvulsive Seizures Require Adult Neurogenesis in a Neuroendocrine Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Robert J; Orvoen, Sophie; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Hardy, Nicholas F; Maynard, Kristen R; Sukumar, Mahima; Manji, Husseini K; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Martinowich, Keri

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout life in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Chronic treatment with monoaminergic antidepressant drugs stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis, and new neurons are required for some antidepressant-like behaviors. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), a laboratory model of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), robustly stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. ECS requires newborn neurons to improve behavioral deficits in a mouse neuroendocrine model of depression. We utilized immunohistochemistry for doublecortin (DCX), a marker of migrating neuroblasts, to assess the impact of Sham or ECS treatments (1 treatment per day, 7 treatments over 15 days) on hippocampal neurogenesis in animals receiving 6 weeks of either vehicle or chronic corticosterone (CORT) treatment in the drinking water. We conducted tests of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior to investigate the ability of ECS to reverse CORT-induced behavioral deficits. We also determined whether adult neurons are required for the effects of ECS. For these studies we utilized a pharmacogenetic model (hGFAPtk) to conditionally ablate adult born neurons. We then evaluated behavioral indices of depression after Sham or ECS treatments in CORT-treated wild-type animals and CORT-treated animals lacking neurogenesis. ECS is able to rescue CORT-induced behavioral deficits in indices of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. ECS increases both the number and dendritic complexity of adult-born migrating neuroblasts. The ability of ECS to promote antidepressant-like behavior is blocked in mice lacking adult neurogenesis. ECS ameliorates a number of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors caused by chronic exposure to CORT. ECS requires intact hippocampal neurogenesis for its efficacy in these behavioral indices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asymmetry of Radial and Symmetry of Tangential Neuronal Migration Pathways in Developing Human Fetal Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Song, Jae W; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    The radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest (ROIs). Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional (3-D) fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW), 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW) and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW) brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional differences in

  18. Schizencephaly: a disorder of neuronal migration Esquizencefalia: un trastorno de la migración neuronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez Hoyos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizencephaly is the most frequent neuronal migration disorder and it develops between the third and fifth gestational months. Genetic (EMX2, vascular and infectious etiologies have been described. Its clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics are described in this article. Treatment should be symptomatic and multidisciplinary. La esquizencefalia es el trastorno más frecuente de la migración neuronal y ocurre entre el tercero y quinto meses de la gestación. Se describen en este artículo sus posibles causas genéticas (EMX2, vasculares e infecciosas, así como sus manifestaciones clínicas, radiológicas y electroencefalográficas. El tratamiento es sintomático y multidisciplinario.

  19. β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Fujioka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of β1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on β1 integrin signaling. β1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via β1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration.

  20. Rab23 Regulates Radial Migration of Projection Neurons via N-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Catherine H H; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2018-02-06

    Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration. (Shikanai M, Nakajima K, Kawauchi T. 2011. N-cadherin regulates radial glial fiber-dependent migration of cortical locomoting neurons. Commun Integr Biol. 4:326-330.) Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) also decreases the expression of N-cadherin, implicating an upstream effect of ERK1/2 on N-cadherin and also suggesting a link between Rab23 and ERK1/2. Further biochemical studies show that silencing of Rab23 impedes activation of ERK1/2 via perturbed platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling. Restoration of the expression of Rab23 or N-cadherin in Rab23-KD neurons could reverse neuron migration defects, indicating that Rab23 modulates migration through N-cadherin. These studies suggest that cortical neuron migration is mediated by a molecular hierarchy downstream of Rab23 via N-cadherin. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Christian, Kimberly M.; He, Chuan; Jin, Peng; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    In the embryonic and adult brain, neural stem cells proliferate and give rise to neurons and glia through highly regulated processes. Epigenetic mechanisms — including DNA and histone modifications, as well as regulation by non-coding RNAs — have pivotal roles in different stages of neurogenesis. Aberrant epigenetic regulation also contributes to the pathogenesis of various brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic regulation in neurogenesis and its dysregulation in brain disorders, including discussion of newly identified DNA cytosine modifications. We also briefly cover the emerging field of epitranscriptomics, which involves modifications of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs. PMID:27334043

  2. Neurogenesis in zebrafish - from embryo to adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca; Strähle, Uwe; Scholpp, Steffen

    2013-02-21

    Neurogenesis in the developing central nervous system consists of the induction and proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their subsequent differentiation into mature neurons. External as well as internal cues orchestrate neurogenesis in a precise temporal and spatial way. In the last 20 years, the zebrafish has proven to be an excellent model organism to study neurogenesis in the embryo. Recently, this vertebrate has also become a model for the investigation of adult neurogenesis and neural regeneration. Here, we summarize the contributions of zebrafish in neural development and adult neurogenesis.

  3. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO. In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons.

  4. Astrocyte Hypertrophy Contributes to Aberrant Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a widespread epidemic with severe cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. TBIs typically result in a relatively rapid inflammatory and neuroinflammatory response. A major component of the neuroinflammatory response is astrocytes, a type of glial cell in the brain. Astrocytes are important in maintaining the integrity of neuronal functioning, and it is possible that astrocyte hypertrophy after TBIs might contribute to pathogenesis. The hippocampus is a unique brain region, because neurogenesis persists in adults. Accumulating evidence supports the functional importance of these newborn neurons and their associated astrocytes. Alterations to either of these cell types can influence neuronal functioning. To determine if hypertrophied astrocytes might negatively influence immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, astrocyte and newborn neurons were analyzed at 30 days following a TBI in mice. The results demonstrate a loss of radial glial-like processes extending through the granule cell layer after TBI, as well as ectopic growth and migration of immature dentate neurons. The results further show newborn neurons in close association with hypertrophied astrocytes, suggesting a role for the astrocytes in aberrant neurogenesis. Future studies are needed to determine the functional significance of these alterations to the astrocyte/immature neurons after TBI.

  5. Molecular pathways underlying projection neuron production and migration during cerebral cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eOhtaka-Maruyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex originate from the radial glia (RG progenitors in the ventricular zone (VZ. During corticogenesis, neuroblasts migrate toward the pial surface using two different migration modes. One is multipolar (MP migration with random directional movement, and the other is locomotion, which is a unidirectional movement guided by the RG fiber. After reaching their final destination, the neurons finalize their migration by terminal translocation, which is followed by maturation via dendrite extension to initiate synaptogenesis and thereby complete neural circuit formation. This switching of migration modes during cortical development is unique in mammals, which suggests that the RG-guided locomotion mode may contribute to the evolution of the mammalian neocortical 6-layer structure. Many factors have been reported to be involved in the regulation of this radial neuronal migration process. In general, the radial migration can be largely divided into four steps; (1 maintenance and departure from the VZ of neural progenitor cells, (2 MP migration and transition to bipolar cells, (3 RG-guided locomotion, and (4 terminal translocation and dendrite maturation. Among these, many different gene mutations or knockdown effects have resulted in failure of the MP to bipolar transition (step 2, suggesting that it is a critical step, particularly in radial migration. Moreover, this transition occurs at the subplate layer. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying each of these steps. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary aspects of neuronal migration in corticogenesis.

  6. Association analysis of schizophrenia on 18 genes involved in neuronal migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Djurovic, Srdjan; Kulle, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the theory of schizophrenia (SZ) being a neurodevelopmental disorder. The structural, cytoarchitectural and functional brain abnormalities reported in patients with SZ, might be due to aberrant neuronal migration, since the final position of neurons affects...... neuronal function, morphology, and formation of synaptic connections. We have investigated the putative association between SZ and gene variants engaged in the neuronal migration process, by performing an association study on 839 cases and 1,473 controls of Scandinavian origin. Using a gene-wide approach...

  7. Impaired Reelin-Dab1 Signaling Contributes to Neuronal Migration Deficits of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Yeol Moon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including defects in neuronal migration. However, the alterations in cell signaling mechanisms critical for migration and final positioning of neurons in TSC remain unclear. Our detailed cellular analyses reveal that reduced Tsc2 in newborn neurons causes abnormalities in leading processes of migrating neurons, accompanied by significantly delayed migration. Importantly, we demonstrate that Reelin-Dab1 signaling is aberrantly regulated in TSC mouse models and in cortical tubers from TSC patients owing to enhanced expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul5, a known mediator of pDab1 ubiquitination. Likewise, mTORC1 activation by Rheb overexpression generates similar neuronal and Reelin-Dab1 signaling defects, and directly upregulates Cul5 expression. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin treatment or by reducing Cul5 largely restores normal leading processes and positioning of migrating neurons. Thus, disrupted Reelin-Dab1 signaling is critically involved in the neuronal migration defects of TSC.

  8. Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Signaling Pathway Participates in the Neurogenesis Induced by ChAT-Positive Neurons in the Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Lu, Zhengfang; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Gao, Yufeng; Liu, Xianliang; Yin, Chunmao; Ke, Junji; Li, Liyuan; Zhai, Mengmeng; Wu, Shiwen; Fan, Jiahong; Lv, Liang; Liu, Junchao; Chen, Xuemei; Yang, Qingwu; Wang, Jian

    2017-05-27

    Choline acetyltransferase-positive (ChAT + ) neurons within the subventricular zone (SVZ) have been shown to promote neurogenesis after stroke in mice by secreting acetylcholine (ACh); however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Receptors known to bind ACh include the nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), which are present in the SVZ and have been shown to be important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, we investigated the neurogenic role of the alpha-7 nAChR (α7 nAChR) in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by using α7 nAChR inhibitor methyllycaconitine. Mice subjected to MCAO exhibited elevated expression of cytomembrane and nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), as well as increased expression of PI3K, pAkt, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated - neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), and mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 (Mash1). MCAO mice also had more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells and DCX-positive cells in the SVZ than did the sham-operated group. Methyllycaconitine treatment increased cytomembrane FGFR1 expression and GFAP/BrdU-positive cells, upregulated the levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospho-Akt (pAkt), decreased nuclear FGFR1 expression, decreased the number of DCX-positive cells, and reduced the levels of DCX, PSA-NCAM, and Mash1 in the SVZ of MCAO mice compared with levels in vehicle-treated MCAO mice. MCAO mice treated with α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 exhibited the opposite effects. Our data show that α7 nAChR may decrease the proliferation of neural stem cells and promote differentiation of existing neural stem cells after stroke. These results identify a new mechanism of SVZ ChAT + neuron-induced neurogenesis.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH gene family in planarians identifies factors required for adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Martis W; Brown, David D R; Nisperos, Sean V; Stanley, Brianna N; Pearson, Bret J; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to most well-studied model organisms, planarians have a remarkable ability to completely regenerate a functional nervous system from a pluripotent stem cell population. Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo. We analyzed the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors, many of which are crucial for nervous system development and have been implicated in human diseases. However, their potential roles in adult neurogenesis or central nervous system (CNS) function are not well understood. We identified 44 planarian bHLH homologs, determined their patterns of expression in the animal and assessed their functions using RNAi. We found nine bHLHs expressed in stem cells and neurons that are required for CNS regeneration. Our analyses revealed that homologs of coe, hes (hesl-3) and sim label progenitors in intact planarians, and following amputation we observed an enrichment of coe(+) and sim(+) progenitors near the wound site. RNAi knockdown of coe, hesl-3 or sim led to defects in CNS regeneration, including failure of the cephalic ganglia to properly pattern and a loss of expression of distinct neuronal subtype markers. Together, these data indicate that coe, hesl-3 and sim label neural progenitor cells, which serve to generate new neurons in uninjured or regenerating animals. Our study demonstrates that this model will be useful to investigate how stem cells interpret and respond to genetic and environmental cues in the CNS and to examine the role of bHLH transcription factors in adult tissue regeneration.

  10. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  11. Characterizing PCDH19 in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived developing neurons: emerging role of a protein involved in controlling polarity during neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Petrini, Stefania; Higuraschi, Norimichi; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Nicola; Hirose, Shinichi; Bertini, Enrico; Terracciano, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    PCDH19 (Protocadherin 19), a member of the cadherin superfamily, is involved in the pathogenic mechanism of an X-linked model of neurological disease. The biological function of PCHD19 in human neurons and during neurogenesis is currently unknown. Therefore, we decided to use the model of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to characterize the location and timing of expression of PCDH19 during cortical neuronal differentiation. Our data show that PCDH19 is expressed in pluripotent cell...

  12. Defective neuronal migration and inhibition of bipolar to multipolar transition of migrating neural cells by Mesoderm-Specific Transcript, Mest, in the developing mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liting; Bishayee, Kausik; Sadra, Ali; Choi, Seunghyuk; Choi, Wooyul; Moon, Sungho; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2017-07-04

    Brain developmental disorders such as lissencephaly can result from faulty neuronal migration and differentiation during the formation of the mammalian neocortex. The cerebral cortex is a modular structure, where developmentally, newborn neurons are generated as a neuro-epithelial sheet and subsequently differentiate, migrate and organize into their final positions in the cerebral cortical plate via a process involving both tangential and radial migration. The specific role of Mest, an imprinted gene, in neuronal migration has not been previously studied. In this work, we reduced expression of Mest with in utero electroporation of neuronal progenitors in the developing embryonic mouse neocortex. Reduction of Mest levels by shRNA significantly reduced the number of neurons migrating to the cortical plate. Also, Mest-knockdown disrupted the transition of bipolar neurons into multipolar neurons migrating out of the sub-ventricular zone region. The migrating neurons also adopted a more tangential migration pattern upon knockdown of the Mest message, losing their potential to attach to radial glia cells, required for radial migration. The differentiation and migration properties of neurons via Wnt-Akt signaling were affected by Mest changes. In addition, miR-335, encoded in a Mest gene intron, was identified as being responsible for blocking the default tangential migration of the neurons. Our results suggest that Mest and its intron product, miR-335, play important roles in neuronal migration with Mest regulating the morphological transition of primary neurons required in the formation of the mammalian neocortex. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  14. Transcriptional co-regulation of neuronal migration and laminar identity in the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kenneth Y; Sestan, Nenad; Anton, E S

    2012-05-01

    The cerebral neocortex is segregated into six horizontal layers, each containing unique populations of molecularly and functionally distinct excitatory projection (pyramidal) neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Development of the neocortex requires the orchestrated execution of a series of crucial processes, including the migration of young neurons into appropriate positions within the nascent neocortex, and the acquisition of layer-specific neuronal identities and axonal projections. Here, we discuss emerging evidence supporting the notion that the migration and final laminar positioning of cortical neurons are also co-regulated by cell type- and layer-specific transcription factors that play concomitant roles in determining the molecular identity and axonal connectivity of these neurons. These transcriptional programs thus provide direct links between the mechanisms controlling the laminar position and identity of cortical neurons.

  15. Antipsychotic drugs alter neuronal development including ALM neuroblast migration and PLM axonal outgrowth in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly being prescribed for children and adolescents, and are used in pregnant women without a clear demonstration of safety in these populations. Global effects of these drugs on neurodevelopment (e.g., decreased brain size) have been reported in rats, but detailed knowledge about neuronal effects and mechanisms of action are lacking. Here we report on the evaluation of a comprehensive panel of antipsychotic drugs in a model organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) that is widely used to study neuronal development. Specifically, we examined the effects of the drugs on neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in mechanosensory neurons visualized with green fluorescent protein expressed from the mec-3 promoter. Clozapine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol produced deficits in the development and migration of ALM neurons and axonal outgrowth in PLM neurons. The defects included failure of neuroblasts to migrate to the proper location, and excessive growth of axons past their normal termination point, together with abnormal morphological features of the processes. Although the antipsychotic drugs are potent antagonists of dopamine and serotonin receptors, the neurodevelopmental deficits were not rescued by co-incubation with serotonin or the dopaminergic agonist, quinpirole. Other antipsychotic drugs, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, trifluoperazine and olanzapine, also produced modest, but detectable, effects on neuronal development. This is the first report that antipsychotic drugs interfere with neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in a developing nervous system.

  16. Strategies to promote differentiation of newborn neurons into mature functional cells in Alzheimer brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Novaes, Barbara A; da Silva, Emanuelle R; Skaf, Heni D; Mendes-Neto, Alvaro G

    2009-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). New SGZ neurons migrate into the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). New SVZ neurons seem to enter the association neocortex and entorhinal cortex besides the olfactory bulb. Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by neuron loss in the hippocampus (DG and CA1 field), entorhinal cortex, and association neocortex, which underlies the learning and memory deficits. We hypothesized that, if the AD brain can support neurogenesis, strategies to stimulate the neurogenesis process could have therapeutic value in AD. We reviewed the literature on: (a) the functional significance of adult-born neurons; (b) the occurrence of endogenous neurogenesis in AD; and (c) strategies to stimulate the adult neurogenesis process. We found that: (a) new neurons in the adult DG contribute to memory function; (b) new neurons are generated in the SGZ and SVZ of AD brains, but they fail to differentiate into mature neurons in the target regions; and (c) numerous strategies (Lithium, Glatiramer Acetate, nerve growth factor, environmental enrichment) can enhance adult neurogenesis and promote maturation of newly generated neurons. Such strategies might help to compensate for the loss of neurons and improve the memory function in AD.

  17. Newborn dopaminergic neurons are associated with the migration and differentiation of SVZ-derived neural progenitors in a 6-hydroxydopamin-injected mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M Q; Chen, Z C; Zhang, P; Huang, H J; Wang, T T; Ding, Y-Q; Qi, S S; Zhang, C; Chen, S X; Zhou, P; Shao, C C; Liao, M; Sun, C Y

    2017-06-03

    The use of the existing endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the brains of adult mammalian animals is challenging for cell therapy in treating Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have indicated that there is a low level of neurogenesis in the substantia nigra (SN) of adult mice. To assess the regenerative/neurogenic capacity of NPCs following an intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the proliferation and differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ)- and midbrain-derived NPCs were investigated, and the origin of SN newborn dopaminergic neurons was traced by using Nestin-CreER(TM)::ROSA26-LacZ mice and constructing a plasmid CD133-Promoter2-Cre. Our results showed that an intranigral injection of 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons produced a significant increase in the SVZ-derived NPCs of the third ventricle (3V), cerebral aqueduct (Aq), and their surrounding regions. The SN newly generated dopaminergic neurons might contribute a little to an incomplete recovery of the nigrostriatal system. In addition, we found that SN newborn dopaminergic neurons were mainly derived from the migration and differentiation of the NPCs in the 3V- and Aq-SVZ and their adjacent regions. Thus, it will become an ideal strategy to treat PD by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NPCs. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuronal Migration and Axonal Pathways Linked to Human Fetal Insular Development Revealed by Diffusion MR Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avilash; Takahashi, Emi

    2017-08-31

    The insula is a multimodal sensory integration structure that, in addition to serving as a gateway between somatosensory areas and limbic structures, plays a crucial role in autonomic nervous system function. While anatomical studies following the development of the insula have been conducted, currently, no studies have been published in human fetuses tracking the development of neuronal migration or of white matter tracts in the cortex. In this study, we aimed to follow the neuronal migration and subsequent maturation of axons in and around the insula in human fetal ages. Using high-angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, major white matter pathways to/from the insula and its surrounding operculum were identified at a number of time points during human gestation. Pathways likely linked to neuronal migration from the ventricular zone to the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal region, and the insular cortex were detected in the earliest gestational age studied (15 GW). Tractography reveals neuronal migration to areas surrounding the insula occurred at different time points. These results, in addition to demonstrating key time points for neuronal migration, suggest that neurons and axonal fiber pathways underlying the insula and its surrounding gyri mature differentially despite their relationship during cortical folding. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. ApoER2 Controls Not Only Neuronal Migration in the Intermediate Zone But Also Termination of Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuki; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Fujino, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Tokuo T; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Neuronal migration contributes to the establishment of mammalian brain. The extracellular protein Reelin sends signals to various downstream molecules by binding to its receptors, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor and exerts essential roles in the neuronal migration and formation of the layered neocortex. However, the cellular and molecular functions of Reelin signaling in the cortical development are not yet fully understood. Here, to gain insight into the role of Reelin signaling during cortical development, we examined the migratory behavior of Apoer2-deficient neurons in the developing brain. Stage-specific labeling of newborn neurons revealed that the neurons ectopically invaded the marginal zone (MZ) and that neuronal migration of both early- and late-born neurons was disrupted in the intermediate zone (IZ) in the Apoer2 KO mice. Rescue experiments showed that ApoER2 functions both in cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous manners, that Rap1, integrin, and Akt are involved in the termination of migration beneath the MZ, and that Akt also controls neuronal migration in the IZ downstream of ApoER2. These data indicate that ApoER2 controls multiple processes in neuronal migration, including the early stage of radial migration and termination of migration beneath the MZ in the developing neocortex. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reelin signaling in the migration of ventral brain stem and spinal cord neurons

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    Sandra eBlaess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix protein Reelin is an important orchestrator of neuronal migration during the development of the central nervous system. While its role and mechanism of action have been extensively studied and reviewed in the formation of dorsal laminar brain structures like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, its functions during the neuronal migration events that result in the nuclear organization of the ventral central nervous system are less well understood. In an attempt to delineate an underlying pattern of Reelin action in the formation of neuronal cell clusters, this review highlights the role of Reelin signaling in the migration of neuronal populations that originate in the ventral brain stem and the spinal cord.

  1. In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Bertelsen, Mads F; Haagensen, Mark; Chawana, Richard; Streicher, Sonja; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Reep, Roger L; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerry M; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is essential for the formation and retrieval of memories and is a crucial neural structure sub-serving complex cognition. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. We identified that the hippocampus in cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is both absolutely and relatively small for their overall brain size, and found that the mammalian hippocampus scaled as an exponential function in relation to brain volume. In contrast, the amygdala was found to scale as a linear function of brain volume, but again, the relative size of the amygdala in cetaceans was small. The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  2. Control of adult neurogenesis by programmed cell death in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Ryun; Hong, Caroline Jeeyeon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Woong; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-04-21

    The presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the production of new neurons in the adult brain have received great attention from scientists and the public because of implications to brain plasticity and their potential use for treating currently incurable brain diseases. Adult neurogenesis is controlled at multiple levels, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and programmed cell death (PCD). Among these, PCD is the last and most prominent process for regulating the final number of mature neurons integrated into neural circuits. PCD can be classified into apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death and emerging evidence suggests that all three may be important modes of cell death in neural stem/progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PCD and thereby impact the intricate balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation during adult neurogenesis are not well understood. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the extent, mechanism, and biological significance of PCD for the control of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the regulation of PCD at the molecular and systems levels is also discussed. Adult neurogenesis is a dynamic process, and the signals for differentiation, proliferation, and death of neural progenitor/stem cells are closely interrelated. A better understanding of how adult neurogenesis is influenced by PCD will help lead to important insights relevant to brain health and diseases.

  3. Ccm3, a gene associated with cerebral cavernous malformations, is required for neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvi, Angeliki; Nishimura, Sayoko; Günel, Murat

    2014-03-01

    Loss of function of cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) results in an autosomal dominant cerebrovascular disorder. Here, we uncover a developmental role for CCM3 in regulating neuronal migration in the neocortex. Using cell type-specific gene inactivation in mice, we show that CCM3 has both cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous functions in neural progenitors and is specifically required in radial glia and newly born pyramidal neurons migrating through the subventricular zone, but not in those migrating through the cortical plate. Loss of CCM3 function leads to RhoA activation, alterations in the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton affecting neuronal morphology, and abnormalities in laminar positioning of primarily late-born neurons, indicating CCM3 involvement in radial glia-dependent locomotion and possible interaction with the Cdk5/RhoA pathway. Thus, we identify a novel cytoplasmic regulator of neuronal migration and demonstrate that its inactivation in radial glia progenitors and nascent neurons produces severe malformations of cortical development.

  4. The role of Serine Proteases and Serine Protease Inhibitors in the migration of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neurons

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    Silverman Ann-Judith

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms regulating neuronal migration during development remain largely undefined. Extracellular matrix cues, target site released factors, and components of the migratory neurons themselves are likely all coordinated in time and space directing neurons to their appropriate locations. We have studied the effects of proteases and their inhibitors on the extracellular matrix and the consequences to the migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the embryonic chick. Chick GnRH neurons differentiate in the olfactory epithelium, migrate along the olfactory nerve and enter the forebrain. The accessibility of this coherent cell group make it amenable for studying protease/inhibitor roles in migratory processes. Results Affigel blue beads were used to deliver a serine protease inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1, and a target protease, trypsin, to the olfactory epithelium coincident with initiation of GnRH neuronal migration. PN-1 inhibited neuronal migration while trypsin accelerated their transit into the CNS. Prior to initiation of migration, neither PN-1 nor trypsin altered the timing of neuronal exit. Trypsin did, however, accelerate the timing of neuronal crossing into the nerve-forebrain junction. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that protease activity modulates neuronal movements across barriers. Moreover, the data suggest, for the first time, that aspects of GnRH neuronal migration may be cell autonomous but modulated by ECM alterations.

  5. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

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    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  6. [Brain repair after ischemic stroke: role of neurotransmitters in post-ischemic neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Bellver-Landete, Víctor; González, María Pilar; Merino, José Joaquín; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Brain ischemia and reperfusion produce alterations in the microenvironment of the parenchyma, including ATP depletion, ionic homeostasis alterations, inflammation, release of multiple cytokines and abnormal release of neurotransmitters. As a consequence, the induction of proliferation and migration of neural stem cells towards the peri-infarct region occurs. The success of new neurorestorative treatments for damaged brain implies the need to know, with greater accuracy, the mechanisms in charge of regulating adult neurogenesis, both under physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence demonstrates that many neurotransmitters, glutamate in particular, control the subventricular zone, thus being part of the complex signalling network that influences the production of new neurons. Neurotransmitters provide a link between brain activity and subventricular zone neurogenesis. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of the role of neurotransmitters systems, such as glutamate and its transporters, in adult neurogenesis, may provide a valuable tool to be used as a neurorestorative therapy in this pathology.

  7. Functional role of a specific ganglioside in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendez-Otero R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration occurs extensively during mammalian brain development and persists in a few regions in the adult brain. Defective migratory behavior of neurons is thought to be the underlying cause of several congenital disorders. Knowledge of the dynamics and molecular mechanisms of neuronal movement could expand our understanding of the normal development of the nervous system as well as help decipher the pathogenesis of neurological developmental disorders. In our studies we have identified and characterized a specific ganglioside (9-O-acetyl GD3 localized to the membrane of neurons and glial cells that is expressed in regions of cell migration and neurite outgrowth in the developing and adult rat nervous system. In the present article we review our findings that demonstrate the functional role of this molecule in neuronal motility.

  8. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha is essential for hippocampal neuronal migration and long-term potentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Angiola; Battaglia, Fortunato; Wang, Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Despite clear indications of their importance in lower organisms, the contributions of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) to development or function of the mammalian nervous system have been poorly explored. In vitro studies have indicated that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPa....... However, these synapses are unable to undergo long-term potentiation. Mice lacking RPTPalpha also underperform in the radial-arm water-maze test. These studies identify RPTPalpha as a key mediator of neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity....... neuronal migration. The migratory abnormality likely results from a radial glial dysfunction rather than from a neuron-autonomous defect. In spite of this aberrant development, basic synaptic transmission from the Schaffer collateral pathway to CA1 pyramidal neurons remains intact in Ptpra(-/-) mice...

  9. Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal migration disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manent, Jean-Bernard; Wang, Yu; Chang, Yoonjeung; Paramasivam, Murugan; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of neuronal migration can lead to malformations of the cerebral neocortex that greatly increase the risk of seizures. It remains untested whether malformations caused by disorders in neuronal migration can be reduced by reactivating cellular migration and whether such repair can decrease seizure risk. Here we show, in a rat model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) generated by in utero RNA interference of the Dcx gene, that aberrantly positioned neurons can be stimulated to migrate by reexpressing Dcx after birth. Restarting migration in this way both reduces neocortical malformations and restores neuronal patterning. We further find that the capacity to reduce SBH continues into early postnatal development. Moreover, intervention after birth reduces the convulsant-induced seizure threshold to a level similar to that in malformation-free controls. These results suggest that disorders of neuronal migration may be eventually treatable by reengaging developmental programs both to reduce the size of cortical malformations and to reduce seizure risk.

  10. Neurogenesis and The Effect of Antidepressants

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    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence that neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS suggests that the CNS has the potential for self-repair. Beside this potential, the function of newly generated neuronal cells in the adult brain remains the focus of intense research. The hippocampus of patients with depression show signs of atrophy and neuronal loss. This suggests that adult neurogenesis may contribute to the biology of depression. The observations that antidepressants, like fluoxetine, increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG and neurogenesis is required for the behavioral effect of antidepressants, lead to a new theory for depression and the design of new strategies and drugs for the treatment of depression. However, the role of adult neurogenesis in the etiology of depression remains the source of controversies and debates.

  11. Repurposing Reelin: the new role of radial glia, Reelin and Notch in motor neuron migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Alicia L

    2014-06-01

    The role of Reelin during cerebral cortical neuron migration has long been studied, but the Reelin signaling pathway and its possible interactions are just beginning to be unraveled. Reelin is not only important in cerebral cortical migration, but has recently been shown to interact with the Notch signaling pathway and to be critical for radial glial cell number and morphology. Lee and Song (2013) show a new Notch- and Reelin-dependent role for radial glia in the mouse spinal cord: to act as a fine filter that allows somatic motor neuron axons but not cell bodies to traverse out of the CNS. Here, the types of neuronal migration are discussed, focusing on motor neurons and cues for proper localization. The interaction of Reelin signaling with the Notch pathway is reviewed, which dictates the proper formation of radial glia in the spinal cord in order to prevent ectopic motor neuron migration (Lee and Song, 2013). Future studies may reveal novel interactions and further insights as to how Reelin functions throughout the developing nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Tracing and Segmentation Tool for Migrating Neurons in 4D Confocal Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Solecki, Dr. David [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital

    2013-01-01

    Accurate tracing and segmentation of subcellular components of migrating neurons in confocal image sequences are prerequisite steps in many neurobiology studies to understand the biological machinery behind the movement of developing neurons. In this paper, we present an automated tracking, tracing, and segmentation tool for soma, leading, and trailing process of migrating neurons in time-lapse image stacks acquired with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In our approach, we first localize each neuron in the maximum intensity projection of the first frame using manual labeling of the soma and end points of the leading and trailing process. By using each soma position at the first frame, we automatically track the somas in rest of the frames. Then, leading and trailing process are traced in each frame from the soma center to the labeled end tip of the process by using fast marching algorithm. Finally, the soma, leading and trailing processes of each neuron are segmented by using the soma center and traces as seed points, and their boundaries are separated from each other. Based on qualitative results, we demonstrate the capability to automatically track, trace, and segment the soma, leading, and trailing processes of a migrating neuron with minimal user input.

  13. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of neuronal progenitors to identify regulatory networks underlying the onset of cortical neurogenesis

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    Barker Jeffery L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical development is a complex process that includes sequential generation of neuronal progenitors, which proliferate and migrate to form the stratified layers of the developing cortex. To identify the individual microRNAs (miRNAs and mRNAs that may regulate the genetic network guiding the earliest phase of cortical development, the expression profiles of rat neuronal progenitors obtained at embryonic day 11 (E11, E12 and E13 were analyzed. Results Neuronal progenitors were purified from telencephalic dissociates by a positive-selection strategy featuring surface labeling with tetanus-toxin and cholera-toxin followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Microarray analyses revealed the fractions of miRNAs and mRNAs that were up-regulated or down-regulated in these neuronal progenitors at the beginning of cortical development. Nearly half of the dynamically expressed miRNAs were negatively correlated with the expression of their predicted target mRNAs. Conclusion These data support a regulatory role for miRNAs during the transition from neuronal progenitors into the earliest differentiating cortical neurons. In addition, by supplying a robust data set in which miRNA and mRNA profiles originate from the same purified cell type, this empirical study may facilitate the development of new algorithms to integrate various "-omics" data sets.

  14. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons

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    Tomoko eSoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by kiss1 gene is a 145-amino acid- protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54 has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP labelled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP–GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1nM treatment for 36h on GnRH migration. Furthermore to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis, and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser captured EGFP–GnRH neurons by real time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd 26 in EGFP–GnRH neurons was up-regulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration.

  15. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomoko; Lim, Wei Ling; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by KiSS-1 gene is a 145-amino acid protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) labeled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP–GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1 nM) treatment for 36 h on GnRH migration. Furthermore, to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser-captured EGFP–GnRH neurons by real-time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd) 26 in EGFP–GnRH neurons was upregulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd 26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration. PMID:26973595

  16. Prenatal Characteristics of Infants with a Neuronal Migration Disorder: A National-Based Study

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    Estelle Naumburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the central nervous system is complex and includes dorsal and ventral induction, neuronal proliferation, and neuronal migration, organization, and myelination. Migration occurs in humans in early fetal life. Pathogenesis of malformations of the central nervous system includes both genetic and environmental factors. Few epidemiological studies have addressed the impact of prenatal exposures. All infants born alive and included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1980–1999 were included in the study. By linkage to the Patient Register, 820 children with a diagnosis related to a neuronal migration abnormality were identified. Through copies of referrals for computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, the diagnosis was confirmed in 17 children. Median age of the mothers was 29 years. At the start of pregnancy, four out of 17 women smoked. Almost half of the women had a body mass index that is low or in the lower range of average. All infants were born at term with normal birth weights. Thirteen infants had one or more concomitant diseases or malformations. Two infants were born with rubella syndrome. The impact of low maternal body mass index and congenital infections on neuronal migration disorders in infants should be addressed in future studies.

  17. Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells as an in vitro tool for the study of the expression patterns of the neuronal cytoskeleton during neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhong, Yongwang; Apostolou, Andria; Fang, Shengyun

    2013-09-13

    The neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a potential tool for elucidating the key mechanisms involved in human neurogenesis. Nestin and β-III-tubulin, which are cytoskeleton proteins, are marker proteins of neural stem cells (NSCs) and neurons, respectively. However, the expression patterns of nestin and β-III-tubulin in neural derivatives from human ESCs remain unclear. In this study, we found that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from H9 cells express high levels of nestin and musashi-1. In contrast, β-III-tubulin was weakly expressed in a few NPCs. Moreover, in these cells, nestin formed filament networks, whereas β-III-tubulin was distributed randomly as small particles. As the differentiation proceeded, the nestin filament networks and the β-III-tubulin particles were found in both the cell soma and the cellular processes. Moreover, the colocalization of nestin and β-III-tubulin was found mainly in the cell processes and neurite-like structures and not in the cell soma. These results may aid our understanding of the expression patterns of nestin and β-III-tubulin during the neural differentiation of H9 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher O-GlcNAc Levels Are Associated with Defects in Progenitor Proliferation and Premature Neuronal Differentiation during in-Vitro Human Embryonic Cortical Neurogenesis

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    Shama Parween

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient responsive O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational protein modification found on several nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Previous studies have suggested that hyperglycemia induces the levels of total O-GlcNAcylation inside the cells. Hyperglycemia mediated increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to be responsible for various pathologies including insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease. Since maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring, it is intriguing to identify the effect of increased protein O-GlcNAcylation on embryonic neurogenesis. Herein using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs as model, we show that increased levels of total O-GlcNAc is associated with decreased neural progenitor proliferation and premature differentiation of cortical neurons, reduced AKT phosphorylation, increased apoptosis and defects in the expression of various regulators of embryonic corticogenesis. As defects in proliferation and differentiation during neurodevelopment are common features of various neurodevelopmental disorders, increased O-GlcNAcylation could be one mechanism responsible for defective neurodevelopmental outcomes in metabolically compromised pregnancies such as diabetes.

  19. Sox11 Balances Dendritic Morphogenesis with Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Yoshio; Toda, Tomohisa; Ebisu, Haruka; Wakimoto, Mayu; Yanagi, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-05-25

    The coordinated mechanisms balancing promotion and suppression of dendritic morphogenesis are crucial for the development of the cerebral cortex. Although previous studies have revealed important transcription factors that promote dendritic morphogenesis during development, those that suppress dendritic morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we found that the expression levels of the transcription factor Sox11 decreased dramatically during dendritic morphogenesis. Our loss- and gain-of-function studies using postnatal electroporation and in utero electroporation indicate that Sox11 is necessary and sufficient for inhibiting dendritic morphogenesis of excitatory neurons in the mouse cerebral cortex during development. Interestingly, we found that precocious suppression of Sox11 expression caused precocious branching of neurites and a neuronal migration defect. We also found that the end of radial migration induced the reduction of Sox11 expression. These findings indicate that suppression of dendritic morphogenesis by Sox11 during radial migration is crucial for the formation of the cerebral cortex. Because dendritic morphology has profound impacts on neuronal information processing, the mechanisms underlying dendritic morphogenesis during development are of great interest. Our loss- and gain-of-function studies indicate that Sox11 is necessary and sufficient for inhibiting dendritic morphogenesis of excitatory neurons in the mouse cerebral cortex during development. Interestingly, we found that precocious suppression of Sox11 expression caused a neuronal migration defect. These findings indicate that suppression of dendritic morphogenesis by Sox11 during radial migration is crucial for the formation of the cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365775-10$15.00/0.

  20. Inhibitory neuron migration and IPL formation in the developing zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Renee W; Almeida, Alexandra D; Randlett, Owen; Norden, Caren; Harris, William A

    2015-08-01

    The mature vertebrate retina is a highly ordered neuronal network of cell bodies and synaptic neuropils arranged in distinct layers. Little, however, is known about the emergence of this spatial arrangement. Here, we investigate how the three main types of retinal inhibitory neuron (RIN)--horizontal cells (HCs), inner nuclear layer amacrine cells (iACs) and displaced amacrine cells (dACs)--reach their specific laminar positions during development. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging of zebrafish retinas, we show that RINs undergo distinct phases of migration. The first phase, common to all RINs, is bipolar migration directed towards the apicobasal centre of the retina. All RINs then transition to a less directionally persistent multipolar phase of migration. Finally, HCs, iACs and dACs each undergo cell type-specific migration. In contrast to current hypotheses, we find that most dACs send processes into the forming inner plexiform layer (IPL) before migrating through it and inverting their polarity. By imaging and quantifying the dynamics of HCs, iACs and dACs from birth to final position, this study thus provides evidence for distinct and new migration patterns during retinal lamination and insights into the initiation of IPL formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Neurotrophin-induced migration and neuronal differentiation of multipotent astrocytic stem cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Douglas-Escobar

    Full Text Available Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE affects 2-3 per 1000 full-term neonates. Up to 75% of newborns with severe HIE die or have severe neurological handicaps. Stem cell therapy offers the potential to replace HIE-damaged cells and enhances the autoregeneration process. Our laboratory implanted Multipotent Astrocytic Stem Cells (MASCs into a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI and demonstrated that MASCs move to areas of injury in the cortex and hippocampus. However, only a small proportion of the implanted MASCs differentiated into neurons. MASCs injected into control pups did not move into the cortex or differentiate into neurons. We do not know the mechanism by which the MASCs moved from the site of injection to the injured cortex. We found neurotrophins present after the hypoxic-ischemic milieu and hypothesized that neurotrophins could enhance the migration and differentiation of MASCs. Using a Boyden chamber device, we demonstrated that neurotrophins potentiate the in vitro migration of stem cells. NGF, GDNF, BDNF and NT-3 increased stem cell migration when compared to a chemokinesis control. Also, MASCs had increased differentiation toward neuronal phenotypes when these neurotrophins were added to MASC culture tissue. Due to this finding, we believed neurotrophins could guide migration and differentiation of stem cell transplants after brain injury.

  2. Roles of Integrins and Intracellular Molecules in the Migration and Neuritogenesis of Fetal Cortical Neurons: MEK Regulates Only the Neuritogenesis

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    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of integrin subunits and intracellular molecules in regulating the migration and neuritogenesis of neurons isolated from 16.5 gestation days rat fetal cortices were examined using in vitro assays. Results showed that laminin supported the migration of fetal cortical neurons better than fibronectin and that the fetal cortical neurons migrated on laminin using β1 and α3 integrin subunits which make up the α3β1 integrin receptor. On fibronectin, the migration was mediated by β1 integrin subunit. Perturbation of src kinase, phospholipase C, or protein kinase C activity, inhibition of IP3 receptor mediated calcium release, or chelation of intracellular calcium inhibited both migration and neuritogenesis, whereas inhibition of growth factor signaling via MEK inhibited only the neuritogenesis. The detection of α1 and α9 transcripts suggested that the migration of fetal cortical neurons may also be mediated by α1β1 and α9β1 integrin receptors. Results showed that calcium may regulate migration and neuritogenesis by maintaining optimum levels of microtubules in the fetal cortical neurons. It is concluded that the fetal cortical neurons are fully equipped with the integrin signaling cascade required for their migration and neuritogenesis, whereas crosstalk between the integrin and growth-factor signaling regulate only the neuritogenesis.

  3. Whole-Body Exposure to (28)Si-Radiation Dose-Dependently Disrupts Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis and Proliferation in the Short Term and New Neuron Survival and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoolery, Cody W; Walker, Angela K; Richardson, Devon R; Lucero, Melanie J; Reynolds, Ryan P; Beddow, David H; Clark, K Lyles; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Ahn, Francisca; Bulin, Sarah E; DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Chen, Benjamin P C; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2017-11-01

    neurogenesis indices in male and female mice, although only male mice showed fewer surviving BrdU(+) cells in the long-term group. Fluorescent immunolabeling and confocal phenotypic analysis revealed that most surviving BrdU(+) cells in the long-term group expressed the neuronal marker NeuN, definitively confirming that exposure to 1 Gy (28)Si radiation decreased the number of surviving adult-generated neurons in male mice relative to both 0- and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice. For hippocampal function assessment, 9-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received whole-body (28)Si-particle exposure and were then assessed long-term for performance on contextual and cued fear conditioning. In the context test the animals that received 0.2 Gy froze less relative to control animals, suggesting decreased hippocampal-dependent function. However, in the cued fear conditioning test, animals that received 1 Gy froze more during the pretone portion of the test, relative to controls and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice, suggesting enhanced anxiety. Compared to previously reported studies, these data suggest that (28)Si-radiation exposure damages neurogenesis, but to a lesser extent than (56)Fe radiation and that low-dose (28)Si exposure induces abnormalities in hippocampal function, disrupting fear memory but also inducing anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, exposure to (28)Si radiation decreased new neuron survival in long-term male groups but not females suggests that sex may be an important factor when performing brain health risk assessment for astronauts traveling in space.

  4. IGF-I: A key growth factor that regulates neurogenesis and synaptogenesis from embryonic to adult stages of the brain

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    Vanesa eNieto-Estévez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs. This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB. By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also, by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis and neuron integration in synaptic circuits.

  5. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study. Alteraciones en la migracion neural: estudio clinico-radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, M.; Menor Serrano, F.; Bordon Ferre, F.; Garcia Tena, J.; Esteban Hernandez, E.; Sanguesa Nebot, C.; Marti Bonnati, L. (Hospital Infantil La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  6. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogen...

  7. An epidermal microRNA regulates neuronal migration through control of the cellular glycosylation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Snieckute, Goda; Kagias, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    biosynthetic pathway: a chondroitin synthase (SQV-5; squashed vulva-5) and a uridine 5'-diphosphate-sugar transporter (SQV-7). Loss of mir-79 causes neurodevelopmental defects through SQV-5 and SQV-7 dysregulation in the epidermis. This results in a partial shutdown of heparan sulfate biosynthesis...... that impinges on a LON-2/glypican pathway and disrupts neuronal migration. Our results identify a regulatory axis controlled by a conserved microRNA that maintains proteoglycan homeostasis in cells....

  8. Germline and somatic mutations in cortical malformations: Molecular defects in Argentinean patients with neuronal migration disorders

    OpenAIRE

    González-Morón, Dolores; Vishnopolska, Sebastián; Consalvo, Damián; Medina, Nancy; Marti, Marcelo; Córdoba, Marta; Vazquez-Dusefante, Cecilia; Claverie, Santiago; Rodríguez-Quiroga, Sergio Alejandro; Vega, Patricia; Silva, Walter; Kochen, Silvia; Kauffman, Marcelo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of malformations of cortical development, frequently responsible for severe disability. Despite the increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this group of diseases, their genetic diagnosis remains unattainable in a high proportion of cases. Here, we present the results of 38 patients with lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia from Argentina. We performed S...

  9. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Does the immune system matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Silva; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2017-01-15

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis involves proliferation, survival, differentiation and integration of newborn neurons into pre-existing neuronal networks. Although its functional significance in the central nervous system (CNS) has not comprehensively elucidated, adult neurogenesis has been attributed a role in cognition, learning and memory. There is a growing body of evidence that CNS resident as well as peripheral immune cells participate in regulating hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Microglial cells are closely associated with neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) in the neurogenic niche engaged in a bidirectional communication with neurons, which may be important for adult neurogenesis. Microglial and neuronal crosstalk is mediated in part by CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling and a disruption in this pathway has been associated with impaired neurogenesis. It has been also reported that microglial neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in adult neurogenesis occur in a context-dependent manner. Apart from microglia other brain resident and peripheral immune cells including pericytes, perivascular macrophages, mast cells and T-cells also modulate this phenomenon. It is worth mentioning that under some physiological circumstances such as normal aging there is a significant decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. A role for innate and adaptive immune system in adult neurogenesis has been also reported during aging. Here, we review the current evidence regarding neuro-immune interactions in the regulation of neurogenesis under distinct conditions, including aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced expression of Pafah1b1 causes over-migration of cerebral cortical neurons into the marginal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kei-Ichi; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Inoue, Seika; Sakaguchi, Kazushige; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Mutations of PAFAH1B1 cause classical lissencephaly in humans. In addition, duplications and triplications of PAFAH1B1 are found in individuals with intellectual disability and other neurological disorders suggesting that proper brain development is highly sensitive to the PAFAH1B1 dosage. To examine the effect of PAFAH1B1 over-dosage in neural development, especially in migration of neurons and layer formation during cerebral cortical development, we overexpressed Pafah1b1 in migrating neurons in the mouse embryonic cortex using in utero electroporation. Enhanced expression of Pafah1b1 in radially-migrating neurons resulted in their over-migration into the marginal zone. Neurons that invaded the marginal zone were oriented abnormally. Layer distribution of Pafaha1b1-overexpressing neurons shifted more superficially than control neurons. Some of the Pafaha1b1-overexpressing future layer 4 neurons changed their positions to layers 2/3. Furthermore, they also changed their layer marker expression from layer 4 to layers 2/3. These results suggest that overexpression of Pafah1b1 affects the migration of neurons and disrupts layer formation in the developing cerebral cortex, and further support the idea that appropriate dosage of Pafah1b1 is crucial for the proper development of the brain.

  11. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  12. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Varela-Nallar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (ANDRO is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  13. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system. PMID:25722694

  14. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yangling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Emerging evidence has indicated that altered neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus represents an early critical event in the course of AD. Although causal links have not been established, a variety of key molecules involved in AD pathogenesis have been shown to impact new neuron generation, either positively or negatively. From a functional point of view, hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in structural plasticity and network maintenance. Therefore, dysfunctional neurogenesis resulting from early subtle disease manifestations may in turn exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to AD and contribute to memory impairment, whereas enhanced neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and represent an endogenous brain repair mechanism. Here we review recent findings on alterations of neurogenesis associated with pathogenesis of AD, and we discuss the potential of neurogenesis-based diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for AD.

  15. Neurogenesis in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Solano-Fonseca, Rene; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair. In this review, we describe NSCs and their niches during tissue homeostasis and how they undergo age-associated remodeling and dysfunction. We also discuss some of the functional ramifications in the brain from NSC aging. Finally, we discuss some recent insights from interventions in NSC aging that could eventually translate into therapies for healthy brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  17. Automated method for tracing leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in confocal image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Gleason, Shaun S.; Trivedi, Niraj; Solecki, David J.

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation, tracking, and tracing of neurons in video imagery are important steps in many neuronal migration studies and can be inaccurate and time-consuming when performed manually. In this paper, we present an automated method for tracing the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons in time-lapse image stacks acquired with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In our approach, we first locate and track the soma of the cell of interest by smoothing each frame and tracking the local maxima through the sequence. We then trace the leading process in each frame by starting at the center of the soma and stepping repeatedly in the most likely direction of the leading process. This direction is found at each step by examining second derivatives of fluorescent intensity along curves of constant radius around the current point. Tracing terminates after a fixed number of steps or when fluorescent intensity drops below a fixed threshold. We evolve the resulting trace to form an improved trace that more closely follows the approximate centerline of the leading process. We apply a similar algorithm to the trailing process of the cell by starting the trace in the opposite direction. We demonstrate our algorithm on two time-lapse confocal video sequences of migrating cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We show that the automated traces closely approximate ground truth traces to within 1 or 2 pixels on average. Additionally, we compute line intensity profiles of fluorescence along the automated traces and quantitatively demonstrate their similarity to manually generated profiles in terms of fluorescence peak locations.

  18. Mutation of the α-tubulin Tuba1a leads to straighter microtubules and perturbs neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvindrah, Richard; Natarajan, Kathiresan; Shabajee, Preety; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Bernard, Jennifer; Goutierre, Marie; Moutkine, Imane; Jaglin, Xavier H; Savariradjane, Mythili; Irinopoulou, Theano; Poncer, Jean-Christophe; Janke, Carsten; Francis, Fiona

    2017-08-07

    Brain development involves extensive migration of neurons. Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular effectors of neuronal displacement that are assembled from α/β-tubulin heterodimers. Mutation of the α-tubulin isotype TUBA1A is associated with cortical malformations in humans. In this study, we provide detailed in vivo and in vitro analyses of Tuba1a mutants. In mice carrying a Tuba1a missense mutation (S140G), neurons accumulate, and glial cells are dispersed along the rostral migratory stream in postnatal and adult brains. Live imaging of Tuba1a-mutant neurons revealed slowed migration and increased neuronal branching, which correlated with directionality alterations and perturbed nucleus-centrosome (N-C) coupling. Tuba1a mutation led to increased straightness of newly polymerized MTs, and structural modeling data suggest a conformational change in the α/β-tubulin heterodimer. We show that Tuba8, another α-tubulin isotype previously associated with cortical malformations, has altered function compared with Tuba1a. Our work shows that Tuba1a plays an essential, noncompensated role in neuronal saltatory migration in vivo and highlights the importance of MT flexibility in N-C coupling and neuronal-branching regulation during neuronal migration. © 2017 Belvindrah et al.

  19. Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qin; Ren, Bo-Xu; Tang, Feng-Ru

    2016-02-01

    The mobilization of endogenous neural stem cells in order to substitute lost neurons in the adult brain may reduce the negative effects of patients with chronic neurodegenerative diseases. However, abnormal neurogenesis may be harmful and could lead to the worsening of patients' symptoms. In the brains of patients and animal models with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), increased newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at early stages after brain insults have been speculated to be involved in epileptogenesis. However, this argument is unsupported by evidence showing that (1) hippocampal neurogenesis is reduced at chronic stages of intractable TLE, (2) decreased neurogenesis is involved in epileptogenesis, and (3) spontaneous recurrent seizures occur before newly generated neurons are integrated into hippocampal neural pathways. Therefore, the hypothesis of increased neurogenesis in epileptogenesis may need to be re-evaluated. In this paper, we systemically reviewed brain neurogenesis and relevant molecules in the regulation of neurogenesis in SGZ. We aimed to update researchers and epileptologists on current progresses on pathophysiological changes of neurogenesis at different stages of TLE in patients and animal models of TLE. The interactions among neurogenesis, epileptogenesis and cognitive impairment, and molecules' mechanism involved in neurogenesis would also be discussed. Future research directions are proposed at the end of this paper.

  20. Diazoxide enhances excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis and attenuates neurodegeneration in the rat non-neurogenic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, M; Batlle, M; Ortega, F J; Gimeno-Bayón, J; Andrade, C; Mahy, N; Rodríguez, M J

    2016-10-01

    Diazoxide, a well-known mitochondrial KATP channel opener with neuroprotective effects, has been proposed for the effective and safe treatment of neuroinflammation. To test whether diazoxide affects the neurogenesis associated with excitotoxicity in brain injury, we induced lesions by injecting excitotoxic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) into the rat hippocampus and analyzed the effects of a daily oral administration of diazoxide on the induced lesion. Specific glial and neuronal staining showed that NMDA elicited a strong glial reaction associated with progressive neuronal loss in the whole hippocampal formation. Doublecortin immunohistochemistry and bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-NeuN double immunohistochemistry revealed that NMDA also induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the lesioned non-neurogenic hippocampus. Furthermore, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the injured hippocampus expressed transcription factor Sp8 indicating that the excitotoxic lesion elicited the migration of progenitors from the subventricular zone and/or the reprograming of reactive astrocytes. Diazoxide treatment attenuated the NMDA-induced hippocampal injury in rats, as demonstrated by decreases in the size of the lesion, neuronal loss and microglial reaction. Diazoxide also increased the number of BrdU/NeuN double-stained cells and elevated the number of Sp8-positive cells in the lesioned hippocampus. These results indicate a role for KATP channel activation in regulating excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis in brain injury. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current Opinion on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, and Ischemic Stroke; Considering Neuronal Voiding Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Lee, Eun-Hye; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells. There have been many limitations in the clinical application of both endogenous and exogenous neurogenesis for neurological disorders. However, many studies have investigated novel mechanisms in neurogenesis and have shown that these limitations can potentially be overcome with appropriate stimulation and various approaches. We will review concepts related to possible therapeutic strategies focused on the perspective of neurogenesis for the treatment of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and ischemic stroke based on current reports.

  2. Involvement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk-yu; Li, Ang; So, Kwok-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting. PMID:26380120

  3. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  4. RNA interference of Marlin-1/Jakmip1 results in abnormal morphogenesis and migration of cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, René L; Fuentes, Patricio; Valenzuela, José Ignacio; Alvarado-Diaz, Carlos P; Ramírez, Omar A; Kukuljan, Manuel; Couve, Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The formation of the nervous systems requires processes that coordinate proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells, which extend axons, generate dendritic branching and establish synaptic connections during development. The structural organization and dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton and its association to the secretory pathway are critical determinants of cell morphogenesis and migration. Marlin-1 (Jakmip1) is a microtubule-associated protein predominantly expressed in neurons and lymphoid cells. Marlin-1 participates in polarized secretion in lymphocytes, but its functional association with the neuronal cytoskeleton and its contribution to brain development have not been explored. Combining in vitro and in vivo approaches we show that Marlin-1 contributes to the establishment of neuronal morphology. Marlin-1 associates to the cytoskeleton in neurites, is required for the maintenance of an intact Golgi apparatus and its depletion produces the down-regulation of kinesin-1, a plus-end directed molecular motor with a central function in morphogenesis and migration. RNA interference of Marlin-1 in vivo results in abnormal migration of newborn pyramidal neurons during the formation of the cortex. Our results support the involvement of Marlin-1 in the acquisition of the complex architecture and migration of pyramidal neurons, two fundamental processes for the laminar layering of the cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Double cortex. A neuronal migration anomaly as a possible cause of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Cusmai, R; Fariello, G; Fusco, L; Vigevano, F

    1992-01-01

    Band heterotopia, or "double cortex," is a neuronal migration disorder that consists of a symmetrical subcortical neuronal band. The overlying cortex may be normal or macrogyric. We describe two severely mentally retarded girls, aged 14 and 18 years, who had band heterotopia and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Band heterotopia was evident in both hemispheres as a subcortical symmetrical layer isointense with gray matter on magnetic resonance T1- and T2-weighted images. Both patients had atonic seizures, atypical absences, and tonic seizures. The electroencephalograms in both cases showed frequent generalized paroxysms and slow background activity. The association of a Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with double cortex in these two patients and in a previously reported autopsy-confirmed case suggests that this malformation may be responsible for other similar cases.

  6. Characterizing PCDH19 in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived developing neurons: emerging role of a protein involved in controlling polarity during neurogenesis

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    Compagnucci, Claudia; Petrini, Stefania; Higuraschi, Norimichi; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Nicola; Hirose, Shinichi; Bertini, Enrico; Terracciano, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    PCDH19 (Protocadherin 19), a member of the cadherin superfamily, is involved in the pathogenic mechanism of an X-linked model of neurological disease. The biological function of PCHD19 in human neurons and during neurogenesis is currently unknown. Therefore, we decided to use the model of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to characterize the location and timing of expression of PCDH19 during cortical neuronal differentiation. Our data show that PCDH19 is expressed in pluripotent cells before differentiation in a homogeneous pattern, despite its localization is often limited to one pole of the cell. During neuronal differentiation, positional information on the progenitor cells assumes an important role in acquiring polarization. The proper control of the cell orientation ensures a fine balancing between symmetric (giving rise to two progenitor sister cells) versus asymmetric (giving rise to one progenitor cell and one newborn neuron) division. This process results in the polar organization of the neural tube with a lumen indicating the basal part of the polarized neuronal progenitor cell; in the iPSC model the cells are organized in the ‘neural rosette’ and interestingly, PCDH19 is located at the center of the rosette, with other well-known markers of the lumen (N-cadherin and ZO-1). These data suggest that PCDH19 has a role in instructing the apico-basal polarity of the progenitor cells, thus regulating the development of a properly organized human brain. PMID:26450854

  7. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Dyall Simon C.

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in limited areas of the adult mammalian brain, and has been reported in the hippocampus of rodents and man. Neurogenesis is enhanced in conditions associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity and following neuronal injury, suggesting a role for neurogenesis in cognition and brain repair. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in a variety of models. Importantly, recent work has shown that the fat-1 transgenic mouse, ...

  8. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

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    Carina eFernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on neurogenesis.

  9. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

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    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  10. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis.

  11. Retinoblastoma protein controls growth, survival and neuronal migration in human cerebral organoids.

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    Matsui, Takeshi; Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Kyrychenko, Sergii; Schneider, Jay W; Hsieh, Jenny

    2017-03-15

    The tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB) regulates S-phase cell cycle entry via E2F transcription factors. Knockout (KO) mice have shown that RB plays roles in cell migration, differentiation and apoptosis, in developing and adult brain. In addition, the RB family is required for self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Since little is known about the role of RB in human brain development, we investigated its function in cerebral organoids differentiated from gene-edited hESCs lacking RB. We show that RB is abundantly expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells in organoids at 15 and 28 days of culture. RB loss promoted S-phase entry in DCX + cells and increased apoptosis in Sox2 + neural stem and progenitor cells, and in DCX + and Tuj1 + neurons. Associated with these cell cycle and pro-apoptotic effects, we observed increased CCNA2 and BAX gene expression, respectively. Moreover, we observed aberrant Tuj1 + neuronal migration in RB-KO organoids and upregulation of the gene encoding VLDLR, a receptor important in reelin signaling. Corroborating the results in RB-KO organoids in vitro , we observed ectopically localized Tuj1 + cells in RB-KO teratomas grown in vivo Taken together, these results identify crucial functions for RB in the cerebral organoid model of human brain development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Germline and somatic mutations in cortical malformations: Molecular defects in Argentinean patients with neuronal migration disorders.

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    Dolores González-Morón

    Full Text Available Neuronal migration disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of malformations of cortical development, frequently responsible for severe disability. Despite the increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this group of diseases, their genetic diagnosis remains unattainable in a high proportion of cases. Here, we present the results of 38 patients with lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia from Argentina. We performed Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of DCX, FLNA and ARX and searched for copy number variations by MLPA in PAFAH1B1, DCX, POMT1, and POMGNT1. Additionally, somatic mosaicism at 5% or higher was investigated by means of targeted high coverage NGS of DCX, ARX, and PAFAH1B1. Our approach had a diagnostic yield of 36%. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified in 14 patients, including 10 germline (five novel and 4 somatic mutations in FLNA, DCX, ARX and PAFAH1B1 genes. This study represents the largest series of patients comprehensively characterized in our population. Our findings reinforce the importance of somatic mutations in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of neuronal migration disorders and contribute to expand their phenotype-genotype correlations.

  13. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

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    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  14. Long Course Hyperbaric Oxygen Stimulates Neurogenesis and Attenuates Inflammation after Ischemic Stroke

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    Ying-Sheng Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have provided evidence with regard to the neuroprotection benefits of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in cases of stroke, and HBO also promotes bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs proliferation and mobilization. This study investigates the influence of HBO therapy on the migration of BMSCs, neurogenesis, gliosis, and inflammation after stroke. Rats that sustained transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO were treated with HBO three weeks or two days. The results were examined using a behavior test (modified neurological severity score, mNSS and immunostaining to evaluate the effects of HBO therapy on migration of BMSCs, neurogenesis, and gliosis, and expression of neurotrophic factors was also evaluated. There was a lower mNSS score in the three-week HBO group when compared with the two-day HBO group. Mobilization of BMSCs to an ischemic area was more improved in long course HBO treatments, suggesting the duration of therapy is crucial for promoting the homing of BMSCs to ischemic brain by HBO therapies. HBO also can stimulate expression of trophic factors and improve neurogenesis and gliosis. These effects may help in neuronal repair after ischemic stroke, and increasing the course of HBO therapy might enhance therapeutic effects on ischemic stroke.

  15. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice.

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    Gebara, Elias; Udry, Florian; Sultan, Sébastien; Toni, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Brainstem respiratory oscillators develop independently of neuronal migration defects in the Wnt/PCP mouse mutant looptail.

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    Muriel Thoby-Brisson

    Full Text Available The proper development and maturation of neuronal circuits require precise migration of component neurons from their birthplace (germinal zone to their final positions. Little is known about the effects of aberrant neuronal position on the functioning of organized neuronal groups, especially in mammals. Here, we investigated the formation and properties of brainstem respiratory neurons in looptail (Lp mutant mice in which facial motor neurons closely apposed to some respiratory neurons fail to migrate due to loss of function of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP protein Vangl2. Using calcium imaging and immunostaining on embryonic hindbrain preparations, we found that respiratory neurons constituting the embryonic parafacial oscillator (e-pF settled at the ventral surface of the medulla in Vangl2(Lp/+ and Vangl2(Lp/Lp embryos despite the failure of tangential migration of its normally adjacent facial motor nucleus. Anatomically, the e-pF neurons were displaced medially in Lp/+ embryos and rostro-medially Lp/Lp embryos. Pharmacological treatments showed that the e-pF oscillator exhibited characteristic network properties in both Lp/+ and Lp/Lp embryos. Furthermore, using hindbrain slices, we found that the other respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger complex, was also anatomically and functionally established in Lp mutants. Importantly, the displaced e-pF oscillator established functional connections with the preBötC oscillator in Lp/+ mutants. Our data highlight the robustness of the developmental processes that assemble the neuronal networks mediating an essential physiological function.

  17. Impairment of radial glial scaffold-dependent neuronal migration and formation of double cortex by genetic ablation of afadin.

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    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mandai, Kenji; Konno, Daijiro; Maruo, Tomohiko; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Takai, Yoshimi

    2015-09-16

    Studies of human brain malformations, such as lissencephaly and double cortex, have revealed the importance of neuronal migration during cortical development. Afadin, a membrane scaffolding protein, regulates the formation of adherens junctions (AJs) and cell migration to form and maintain tissue structures. Here, we report that mice with dorsal telencephalon-specific ablation of afadin gene exhibited defects similar to human double cortex, in which the heterotopic cortex was located underneath the normotopic cortex. The normotopic cortex of the mutant mice was arranged in the pattern similar to the cortex of the control mice, while the heterotopic cortex was disorganized. As seen in human patients, double cortex in the mutant mice was formed by impaired neuronal migration during cortical development. Genetic ablation of afadin in the embryonic cerebral cortex disrupted AJs of radial glial cells, likely resulting in the retraction of the apical endfeet from the ventricular surface and the dispersion of radial glial cells from the ventricular zone to the subventricular and intermediate zones. These results indicate that afadin is required for the maintenance of AJs of radial glial cells and that the disruption of AJs might cause an abnormal radial scaffold for neuronal migration. In contrast, the proliferation or differentiation of radial glial cells was not significantly affected. Taken together, these findings indicate that afadin is required for the maintenance of the radial glial scaffold for neuronal migration and that the genetic ablation of afadin leads to the formation of double cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethosuximide Induces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reverses Cognitive Deficits in an Amyloid-β Toxin-induced Alzheimer Rat Model via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Karmakar, Madhumita; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Sharma, Abhay; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-11-20

    Neurogenesis involves generation of new neurons through finely tuned multistep processes, such as neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration into existing neuronal circuitry in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in cognitive functions and altered in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Ethosuximide (ETH), an anticonvulsant drug is used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the effects of ETH on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism(s) are yet unexplored. Herein, we studied the effects of ETH on rat multipotent NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an amyloid β (Aβ) toxin-induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes. ETH potently induced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus-derived NSC in vitro. ETH enhanced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and reduced Aβ toxin-mediated toxicity and neurodegeneration, leading to behavioral recovery in the rat AD model. ETH inhibited Aβ-mediated suppression of neurogenic and Akt/Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in the hippocampus. ETH activated the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin transduction pathways that are known to be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. Inhibition of the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin pathways effectively blocked the mitogenic and neurogenic effects of ETH. In silico molecular target prediction docking studies suggest that ETH interacts with Akt, Dkk-1, and GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that ETH stimulates NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling.

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    Marc J Geisen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pontine neurons (PN represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP and dorsoventral (DV axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain.

  20. HIV Tat Impairs Neurogenesis through Functioning As a Notch Ligand and Activation of Notch Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Ying; He, Johnny J

    2016-11-02

    Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain. In vitro NPC-derived neurosphere assays showed that Tat-containing conditioned media from astrocytes or recombinant Tat protein inhibited NPC proliferation and migration and altered NPC differentiation, while immunodepletion of Tat from Tat-containing conditioned media or heat inactivation of recombinant Tat abrogated those effects. Notch signaling downstream gene Hes1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blotting showed that recombinant Tat or Tat-containing conditioned media activated Hes1 transcription and protein expression, which were abrogated by Tat heat inactivation, immunodepletion, and cysteine mutation at position 30. Last, Notch signaling inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) significantly rescued Tat-impaired NPC differentiation in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo Together, these results show that Tat adversely affects NPCs and neurogenesis through Notch signaling and point to the potential of developing Notch signaling inhibitors as HIV/neuroAIDS therapeutics. HIV infection of the CNS causes cognitive and memory deficits, which have become more prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Neurogenesis is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have

  1. A Transgenic Rat for Specifically Inhibiting Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason S; Grigereit, Laura; Russo, Alexandra; Seib, Désirée R; Brewer, Michelle; Pickel, James; Cameron, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    The growth of research on adult neurogenesis and the development of new models and tools have greatly advanced our understanding of the function of newborn neurons in recent years. However, there are still significant limitations in the ability to identify the functions of adult neurogenesis in available models. Here we report a transgenic rat (TK rat) that expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in GFAP+ cells. Upon treating TK rats with the antiviral drug valganciclovir, granule cell neurogenesis can be completely inhibited in adulthood, in both the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Interestingly, neurogenesis in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb was only partially inhibited, suggesting that some adult-born neurons in these regions derive from a distinct precursor population that does not express GFAP. Within the hippocampus, blockade of neurogenesis was rapid and nearly complete within 1 week of starting treatment. Preliminary behavioral analyses indicate that general anxiety levels and patterns of exploration are generally unaffected in neurogenesis-deficient rats. However, neurogenesis-deficient TK rats showed reduced sucrose preference, suggesting deficits in reward-related behaviors. We expect that TK rats will facilitate structural, physiological, and behavioral studies that complement those possible in existing models, broadly enhancing understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  2. The relationship between MR images and clinical findings in neuronal migration disorders

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    Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko [Takuto Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children, Sendai (Japan); Iinuma, Kazuie

    1997-07-01

    Among the variable manifestating conditions of neuronal migration disorders, mental retardation, motor disturbance and epilepsy are the main features of developmental disabilities. We analyzed the relationship between clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance (MR) images, including surface anatomy scan (SAS). Thirty-nine patients (23 males, 16 females; mean age 6.1 years) with neuronal migration disorders were studied. The diagnoses were cerebral palsy in 23 cases, mental retardation in 4, West syndrome in 4, Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) in 6, Walker-Warburg syndrome in 1 and Dubowitz syndrome in 1. Cortical dysplasias were classified into the following 7 groups, mainly based on the SAS findings: complete agyria (AG 1), mixture of agyria and pachygyria (AG 2), bilateral complete pachygyria (BP 1), diffuse pachygyria with marked widening of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (BP 2), unilateral pachygyria with hemispheric atrophy or hemimegalencephaly (UP), focal cortical dysplasia (FP) and other findings such as solitary schizencephaly (Others). Most cases of AG 1 and AG 2 showed spastic quadriplegia (6/7) and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (5/7), whereas cases of BP 1 showed spasticity only in 1/8 and epilepsy in 7/8. Hemiplegia was observed in 6/7 of UP, 2/8 of FP and 2/4 of Others. Partial epilepsy was observed in 2/7 of UP and 1/8 of FP. Intellectual level was variable in BP 1, UP, FP and Others, but all cases showed severe mental retardation in AG 1, AG 2 and BP 2. BP 2 was observed in all cases of typical FCMD (5/5). The birth weight was less than 2,500 g in 6/7 of UP. The structural findings well correlated with clinical symptoms and epileptic seizure types. The surface anatomy scan was a very useful technique for detecting cortical dysplasias. (author)

  3. A behavioral evaluation of sex differences in a mouse model of severe neuronal migration disorder.

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    Dongnhu T Truong

    Full Text Available Disruption of neuronal migration in humans is associated with a wide range of behavioral and cognitive outcomes including severe intellectual disability, language impairment, and social dysfunction. Furthermore, malformations of cortical development have been observed in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism and dyslexia, where boys are much more commonly diagnosed than girls (estimates around 4 to 1. The use of rodent models provides an excellent means to examine how sex may modulate behavioral outcomes in the presence of comparable abnormal neuroanatomical presentations. Initially characterized by Rosen et al. 2012, the BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mouse mutant exhibits a highly penetrant neuroanatomical phenotype that consists of bilateral midline subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. In the current study, we confirm our initial findings of a severe impairment in rapid auditory processing in affected male mice. We also report that BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J (mutant female mice show no sparing of rapid auditory processing, and in fact show deficits similar to mutant males. Interestingly, female BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mice do display superiority in Morris water maze performance as compared to wild type females, an affect not seen in mutant males. Finally, we report new evidence that BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J mice, in general, show evidence of hyper-social behaviors. In closing, the use of the BXD29- Tlr4(lps-2J /J strain of mice - with its strong behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype - may be highly useful in characterizing sex independent versus dependent mechanisms that interact with neural reorganization, as well as clinically relevant abnormal behavior resulting from aberrant neuronal migration.

  4. Occurrence of new neurons in the piriform cortex

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    Ti-Fei eYuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been well studied in hippocampus and subventricular zone; while this is much less appreciated in other brain regions, including amygdala, hypothalamus and piriform cortex. The present review aims at summarizing recent advances on the occurrence of new neurons in the piriform cortex, their potential origin and migration route from the subventricular zone. We further discuss the relevant implications in olfactory dysfunction accompanying the neuro-degenerative diseases.

  5. Targeted deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre defects neuronal migration and projection in the mouse inner ear.

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    YanYan Mao

    Full Text Available Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents.

  6. N1-Src Kinase Is Required for Primary Neurogenesis in Xenopus tropicalis.

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    Lewis, Philip A; Bradley, Isobel C; Pizzey, Alastair R; Isaacs, Harry V; Evans, Gareth J O

    2017-08-30

    The presence of the neuronal-specific N1-Src splice variant of the C-Src tyrosine kinase is conserved through vertebrate evolution, suggesting an important role in complex nervous systems. Alternative splicing involving an N1-Src-specific microexon leads to a 5 or 6 aa insertion into the SH3 domain of Src. A prevailing model suggests that N1-Src regulates neuronal differentiation via cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone. Here we investigated the role of n1-src in the early development of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis, and found that n1-src expression is regulated in embryogenesis, with highest levels detected during the phases of primary and secondary neurogenesis. In situ hybridization analysis, using locked nucleic acid oligo probes complementary to the n1-src microexon, indicates that n1-src expression is highly enriched in the open neural plate during neurula stages and in the neural tissue of adult frogs. Given the n1-src expression pattern, we investigated a possible role for n1-src in neurogenesis. Using splice site-specific antisense morpholino oligos, we inhibited n1-src splicing, while preserving c-src expression. Differentiation of neurons in the primary nervous system is reduced in n1-src-knockdown embryos, accompanied by a severely impaired touch response in later development. These data reveal an essential role for n1-src in amphibian neural development and suggest that alternative splicing of C-Src in the developing vertebrate nervous system evolved to regulate neurogenesis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases acts in signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, cell adhesion, and proliferation. Srcs are also enriched in the brain, where they play key roles in neuronal development and neurotransmission. Vertebrates have evolved a neuron-specific splice variant of C-Src, N1-Src, which differs from C-Src by just 5 or 6 aa. N1-Src is poorly understood and its high similarity to C-Src has made it difficult to

  7. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  8. Abrogated inflammatory response promotes neurogenesis in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis.

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    Sulagna Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV induces neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. The detrimental effects of inflammation on neurogenesis have been reported in various models of acute and chronic inflammation. We investigated whether JEV-induced inflammation has similar adverse effects on neurogenesis and whether those effects can be reversed using an anti-inflammatory compound minocycline.Here, using in vitro studies and mouse models, we observed that an acute inflammatory milieu is created in the subventricular neurogenic niche following Japanese encephalitis (JE and a resultant impairment in neurogenesis occurs, which can be reversed with minocycline treatment. Immunohistological studies showed that proliferating cells were replenished and the population of migrating neuroblasts was restored in the niche following minocycline treatment. In vitro, we checked for the efficacy of minocycline as an anti-inflammatory compound and cytokine bead array showed that production of cyto/chemokines decreased in JEV-activated BV2 cells. Furthermore, mouse neurospheres grown in the conditioned media from JEV-activated microglia exhibit arrest in both proliferation and differentiation of the spheres compared to conditioned media from control microglia. These effects were completely reversed when conditioned media from JEV-activated and minocycline treated microglia was used.This study provides conclusive evidence that JEV-activated microglia and the resultant inflammatory molecules are anti-proliferative and anti-neurogenic for NSPCs growth and development, and therefore contribute to the viral neuropathogenesis. The role of minocycline in restoring neurogenesis may implicate enhanced neuronal repair and attenuation of the neuropsychiatric sequelae in JE survivors.

  9. Methylene Blue promotes cortical neurogenesis and ameliorates behavioral deficit after photothrombotic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Tucker, Donovan; Dong, Yan; Lu, Yujiao; Zhao, Ningjun; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Quanguang

    2016-11-12

    Ischemic stroke in rodents stimulates neurogenesis in the adult brain and the proliferation of newborn neurons that migrate into the penumbra zone. The present study investigated the effect of Methylene Blue (MB) on neurogenesis and functional recovery in a photothrombotic (PT) model of ischemic stroke in rats. PT stroke model was induced by photo-activation of Rose Bengal dye in cerebral blood flow by cold fiber light. Rats received intraperitoneal injection of either MB (0.5mg/kg/day) from day 1 to day 5 after stroke or an equal volume of saline solution as a control. Cell proliferative marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected twice daily (50mg/kg) from day 2 to day 8 and animals were sacrificed on day 12 after PT induction. We report that MB significantly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis, as evidenced by the increased co-localizations of BrdU/NeuN, BrdU/DCX, BrdU/MAP2 and BrdU/Ki67 in the peri-infarct zone compared with vehicle controls. MB thus effectively limited infarct volume and improved neurological deficits compared to PT control animals. The effects of MB were accompanied with an attenuated level of reactive gliosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as elevated levels of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production in peri-infarct regions. Our study provides important information that MB has the ability to promote neurogenesis and enhance the newborn-neurons' survival in ischemic brain repair by inhibiting microenvironmental inflammation and increasing mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interleukin-17 inhibits Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Wei; He, Ping; Turner, Dharshaun; Yin, Junxiang; Gan, Yan; Shi, Fu-Dong; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 17(A) (IL-17) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that acts as a central regulator of inflammatory response within the brain, but its physiological roles under non-inflammatory conditions remain elusive. Here we report that endogenous IL-17 ablates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. Genetic deletion of IL-17 increased the number of adult-born neurons in the DG. Further, we found that IL-17 deletion altered cytokine network, facilitated basal excitatory synaptic transmission, enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability, and increased expression of proneuronal genes in neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). Our findings suggest a profound role of IL-17 in the negative regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiology conditions. PMID:25523081

  11. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

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    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  12. Activity Dependency and Aging in the Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Age and activity might be considered the two antagonistic key regulators of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis decreases with age but remains present, albeit at a very low level, even in the oldest individuals. Activity, be it physical or cognitive, increases adult neurogenesis and thereby seems to counteract age effects. It is, thus, proposed that activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis might contribute to some sort of “neural reserve,” the brain’s ability to compensate functional loss associated with aging or neurodegeneration. Activity can have nonspecific and specific effects on adult neurogenesis. Mechanistically, nonspecific stimuli that largely affect precursor cell stages might be related by the local microenvironment, whereas more specific, survival-promoting effects take place at later stages of neuronal development and require the synaptic integration of the new cell and its particular synaptic plasticity. PMID:26525149

  13. Oligodendrogenesis and neurogenesis in remyelination in the cuprizone model of multiple sclerosis: correlation with the degree of lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchelko, A.; Khodanovich, M.; Pan, E.; Glazacheva, V.; Akulov, A.; Yarnykh, V.

    2017-08-01

    In this research, a cuprizone model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to study oligodendrogenesis and neurogenesis in remyelination. It has been shown that, with the administration of cuprizone, the amount of myelin in a number of structures of white and gray matter and the level of neurogenesis decrease, while the level of oligodendrogenesis increases. The withdrawal of cuprizone leads to the restoration of myelin content, the reduction of the excessive production of oligodendrocytes and to the restoration of the number of neurons to control values. The negative correlation between the number of oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and the degree of demyelination of the corpus callosum indicates migration of OLG precursors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) to the structure during demyelination.

  14. The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, Jose A; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Feilding, Amanda; Perez-Castillo, Ana; Riba, Jordi

    2017-07-13

    Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro. In neurospheres prepared from progenitor cells obtained from the subventricular and the subgranular zones of adult mice brains, all compounds stimulated neural stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into adult neurons. These findings suggest that modulation of brain plasticity could be a major contribution to the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca. They also expand the potential application of B. caapi alkaloids to other brain disorders that may benefit from stimulation of endogenous neural precursor niches.

  15. Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Taupin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized in the brain by amyloid plaque deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. It is the most common form of dementia among older people. There is at present no cure for AD, and current treatments consist mainly in drug therapy. Potential therapies for AD involve gene and cellular therapy. The recent confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS provide new opportunities for cellular therapy in the CNS, particularly for AD, and to better understand brain physiopathology. Hence, researchers have aimed at characterizing neurogenesis in patients with AD. Studies show that neurogenesis is increased in these patients, and in animal models of AD. The effect of drugs used to treat AD on neurogenesis is currently being investigated, to identify whether neurogenesis contributes to their therapeutic activities.

  16. Foxp1 and lhx1 coordinate motor neuron migration with axon trajectory choice by gating Reelin signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Palmesino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Topographic neuronal maps arise as a consequence of axon trajectory choice correlated with the localisation of neuronal soma, but the identity of the pathways coordinating these processes is unknown. We addressed this question in the context of the myotopic map formed by limb muscles innervated by spinal lateral motor column (LMC motor axons where the Eph receptor signals specifying growth cone trajectory are restricted by Foxp1 and Lhx1 transcription factors. We show that the localisation of LMC neuron cell bodies can be dissociated from axon trajectory choice by either the loss or gain of function of the Reelin signalling pathway. The response of LMC motor neurons to Reelin is gated by Foxp1- and Lhx1-mediated regulation of expression of the critical Reelin signalling intermediate Dab1. Together, these observations point to identical transcription factors that control motor axon guidance and soma migration and reveal the molecular hierarchy of myotopic organisation.

  17. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  18. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein impairs the developmental program controlling neurogenesis and reduces human GABAergic neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordel, Chloé; Huttin, Alexandra; Cochet-Bernoin, Marielle; Szelechowski, Marion; Poulet, Aurélie; Richardson, Jennifer; Benchoua, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Eloit, Marc; Coulpier, Muriel

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that persistent viral infection may impair cellular function of specialized cells without overt damage. This concept, when applied to neurotropic viruses, may help to understand certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Borna disease virus (BDV) is an excellent example of a persistent virus that targets the brain, impairs neural functions without cell lysis, and ultimately results in neurobehavioral disturbances. Recently, we have shown that BDV infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and impairs neurogenesis, revealing a new mechanism by which BDV may interfere with brain function. Here, we sought to identify the viral proteins and molecular pathways that are involved. Using lentiviral vectors for expression of the bdv-p and bdv-x viral genes, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein P, but not the X protein, diminishes human neurogenesis and, more particularly, GABAergic neurogenesis. We further reveal a decrease in pro-neuronal factors known to be involved in neuronal differentiation (ApoE, Noggin, TH and Scg10/Stathmin2), demonstrating that cellular dysfunction is associated with impairment of specific components of the molecular program that controls neurogenesis. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a viral protein impairs GABAergic human neurogenesis, a process that is dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. They improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which a persistent virus may interfere with brain development and function in the adult.

  19. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein impairs the developmental program controlling neurogenesis and reduces human GABAergic neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Scordel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that persistent viral infection may impair cellular function of specialized cells without overt damage. This concept, when applied to neurotropic viruses, may help to understand certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Borna disease virus (BDV is an excellent example of a persistent virus that targets the brain, impairs neural functions without cell lysis, and ultimately results in neurobehavioral disturbances. Recently, we have shown that BDV infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs and impairs neurogenesis, revealing a new mechanism by which BDV may interfere with brain function. Here, we sought to identify the viral proteins and molecular pathways that are involved. Using lentiviral vectors for expression of the bdv-p and bdv-x viral genes, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein P, but not the X protein, diminishes human neurogenesis and, more particularly, GABAergic neurogenesis. We further reveal a decrease in pro-neuronal factors known to be involved in neuronal differentiation (ApoE, Noggin, TH and Scg10/Stathmin2, demonstrating that cellular dysfunction is associated with impairment of specific components of the molecular program that controls neurogenesis. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a viral protein impairs GABAergic human neurogenesis, a process that is dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. They improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which a persistent virus may interfere with brain development and function in the adult.

  20. Reducing central serotonin in adulthood promotes hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Hu, Ling; Lan, Wei; Chen, Ling; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lin; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-02-03

    Chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which up-regulates central serotonin (5-HT) system function, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the relationship between central 5-HT system and adult neurogenesis has not fully been understood. Here, we report that lowering 5-HT level in adulthood is also able to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We used tamoxifen (TM)-induced Cre in Pet1-CreER(T2) mice to either deplete central serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons or inactivate 5-HT synthesis in adulthood and explore the role of central 5-HT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. A dramatic increase in hippocampal neurogenesis is present in these two central 5-HT-deficient mice and it is largely prevented by administration of agonist for 5-HTR2c receptor. In addition, the survival of new-born neurons in the hippocampus is enhanced. Furthermore, the adult 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced depression-like behaviors but enhanced contextual fear memory. These findings demonstrate that lowering central 5-HT function in adulthood can also enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis, thus revealing a new aspect of central 5-HT in regulating adult neurogenesis.

  1. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Downregulation of L1 perturbs neuronal migration and alters the expression of transcription factors in murine neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tomokazu; Itoh, Kyoko; Umekage, Masafumi; Tonosaki, Madoka; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fukui, Kenji; Lemmon, Vance P; Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    L1 is a cell adhesion molecule associated with a spectrum of human neurological diseases, the most well-known being X-linked hydrocephalus. L1 knockout (L1-KO) mice have revealed a variety of functions of L1 that were crucial in brain development in different brain regions. However; the function of L1 in neuronal migration during cortical histogenesis remains to be clarified. We therefore investigated the corticogenesis of mouse embryos in which L1 molecules were knocked down in selected neurons, by employing in utero electroporation with shRNAs targeting L1 (L1 shRNA). Although more than 50% of the cells transfected with no small hairpin RNA (shRNA; monster green fluorescent protein: MGFP only) vector at embryonic day 13 (E13) reached the cortical plate at E16, significantly fewer (27%) cells transfected with L1 shRNA migrated to the same extent. At E17, 22% of cells transfected with the MGFP-only vector were found in the intermediate zone, and significantly more (34%) cells transfected with L1 shRNA remained in the same zone. Furthermore, the directions of the leading process of neurons transfected with L1 shRNA became more dispersed compared with cells with the MGFP-only vector. In addition, two transcription factors expressed in the neurons, Satb2 and Tbr1, were shown to be reduced or aberrantly expressed in neurons transfected with L1 shRNA. These observations suggest that L1 plays an important role in regulating the locomotion and orientation of migrating neurons and the expression of transcription factors during neocortical development that might partially be responsible for the abnormal tract formation seen in L1-KO mice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A mathematical model of adult subventricular neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbourn, J M A; Miller, J J; Reumers, V; Baekelandt, V; Geris, L

    2012-10-07

    Neurogenesis has been the subject of active research in recent years and many authors have explored the phenomenology of the process, its regulation and its purported purpose. Recent developments in bioluminescent imaging (BLI) allow direct in vivo imaging of neurogenesis, and in order to interpret the experimental results, mathematical models are necessary. This study proposes such a mathematical model that describes adult mammalian neurogenesis occurring in the subventricular zone and the subsequent migration of cells through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). This model assumes that a single chemoattractant is responsible for cell migration, secreted both by the OB and in an endocrine fashion by the cells involved in neurogenesis. The solutions to the system of partial differential equations are compared with the physiological rodent process, as previously documented in the literature and quantified through the use of BLI, and a parameter space is described, the corresponding solution to which matches that of the rodent model. A sensitivity analysis shows that this parameter space is stable to perturbation and furthermore that the system as a whole is sloppy. A large number of parameter sets are stochastically generated, and it is found that parameter spaces corresponding to physiologically plausible solutions generally obey constraints similar to the conditions reported in vivo. This further corroborates the model and its underlying assumptions based on the current understanding of the investigated phenomenon. Concomitantly, this leaves room for further quantitative predictions pertinent to the design of future proposed experiments.

  4. Epigenetics, hippocampal neurogenesis, and neuropsychiatric disorders: unraveling the genome to understand the mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    In mature, differentiated neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), epigenetic mechanisms – including DNA methylation, histone modification, and regulatory noncoding RNAs – play critical roles in encoding experience and environmental stimuli into stable, behaviorally-meaningful changes in gene expression. For example, epigenetic changes in mature hippocampal neurons have been implicated in learning and memory and in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. With all the recent (and warranted) attention given to epigenetic modifications in mature neurons, it is easy to forget that epigenetic mechanisms were initially described for their ability to promote differentiation and drive cell fate in embryonic and early postnatal development, including neurogenesis. Given the discovery of ongoing neurogenesis in the adult brain and the intriguing links among adult hippocampal neurogenesis, hippocampal function, and neuropsychiatric disorders, it is timely to complement the ongoing discussions on the role of epigenetics in mature neurons with a review on what is currently known about the role of epigenetics in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is complex, with neural stem cells (NSCs) giving rise to fate-restricted progenitors and eventually mature dentate gyrus granule cells. Notably, neurogenesis occurs within an increasingly well-defined “neurogenic niche”, where mature cellular elements like vasculature, astrocytes, and neurons release signals that can dynamically regulate neurogenesis. Here we review the evidence that key stages and aspects of adult neurogenesis are driven by epigenetic mechanisms. We discuss the intrinsic changes occurring within NSCs and their progeny that are critical for neurogenesis. We also discuss how extrinsic changes occurring in cellular components in the niche can result in altered neurogenesis. Finally we describe the potential relevance of epigenetics for

  5. Light stimuli control neuronal migration by altering of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Komuro, Yutaro; Fahrion, Jennifer K; Hu, Taofang; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Fenner, Kathleen B; Wooton, Jessica; Raoult, Emilie; Galas, Ludovic; Vaudry, David; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2012-02-14

    The role of genetic inheritance in brain development has been well characterized, but little is known about the contributions of natural environmental stimuli, such as the effect of light-dark cycles, to brain development. In this study, we determined the role of light stimuli in neuronal cell migration to elucidate how environmental factors regulate brain development. We show that in early postnatal mouse cerebella, granule cell migration accelerates during light cycles and decelerates during dark cycles. Furthermore, cerebellar levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are high during light cycles and low during dark cycles. There are causal relationships between light-dark cycles, speed of granule cell migration, and cerebellar IGF-1 levels. First, changes in light-dark cycles result in corresponding changes in the fluctuations of both speed of granule cell migration and cerebellar IGF-1 levels. Second, in vitro studies indicate that exogenous IGF-1 accelerates the migration of isolated granule cells through the activation of IGF-1 receptors. Third, in vivo studies reveal that inhibiting the IGF-1 receptors decelerates granule cell migration during light cycles (high IGF-1 levels) but does not alter migration during dark cycles (low IGF-1 levels). In contrast, stimulating the IGF-1 receptors accelerates granule cell migration during dark cycles (low IGF-1 levels) but does not alter migration during light cycles (high IGF-1 levels). These results suggest that during early postnatal development light stimuli control granule cell migration by altering the activity of IGF-1 receptors through modification of cerebellar IGF-1 levels.

  6. Cholinergic influences on cortical development and adult neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruel-Jungerman, E.; Lucassen, P.J.; Francis, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we focus on immature neurons and their regulation by the cholinergic system, both during cortical development as well as during adult neurogenesis. We discuss various studies that indicate roles for acetylcholine in precursor development and neuronal differentiation. Cholinergic

  7. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka [Department of Immunobiology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Toda, Ken-ichi [Department of Dermatology, Kitano Hospital, The Tazuke Kofukai Nedical Institute, 2-4-20 Ohgimachi, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-8480 (Japan); Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru, E-mail: imwalrus@mukogawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunobiology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan); Institute for Biosciences, Mukogawa Women' s University, 11-68 Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8179 (Japan)

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  8. The Caenorhabditis elegans matrix non-peptidase MNP-1 is required for neuronal cell migration and interacts with the Ror receptor tyrosine kinase CAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Teresa R; Forrester, Wayne C

    2017-04-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans development many neuronal, muscle and other cell types migrate. Multiple classes of proteins have been implicated in cell migration including secreted guidance cues, receptors for guidance cues and intracellular proteins that respond to cues to polarize cells and produce the forces that move them. In addition, cell surface and secreted proteases have been identified that may clear the migratory route and process guidance cues. We report here that mnp-1 is required for neuronal cell and growth cone migrations. MNP-1 is expressed by migrating cells and functions cell autonomously for cell migrations. We also find a genetic interaction between mnp-1 and cam-1, which encodes a Ror receptor tyrosine kinase required for some of the same cell migrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of filamin A and filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) in controlling the start and cell shape of radially migrating cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Nagano, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    Precisely regulated radial cell migration out of the ventricular zone is essential for corticogenesis. However, molecular mechanisms controlling the start of migration and the dynamics of migrating cell shape remain elusive. Here, we show novel mechanisms that can tether ventricular zone cells and control migrating cell shape. The novel protein Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) interacts with Filamin A, an indispensable actin-binding protein for cell motility, and induces its degradation in COS-7 cells. Degradation of Filamin A is indicated in the cortical ventricular zone where FILIP mRNA localizes. Furthermore, most ventricular zone cells that overexpress FILIP fail to migrate in explants. These results indicate that FILIP acts through a Filamin A-F-actin axis to control the start of neocortical cell migration from the ventricular zone. Filamin A also determines the shape of migrating neocortical neurons, which show global morphological changes and complicated behavior during that migration. Dysfunction of Filamin A, caused by a mutant Filamin A expression, prevents cells from acquiring consistent polarity toward specific direction and decreases motility in the subventricular and intermediate zones. In contrast, Filamin A overexpression, achieved by a short interfering RNA for FILIP, promotes the development and maintenance of a bipolar shape also in the subventricular and intermediate zones. These results suggest that the amount of Filamin A helps migrating neurons determine their mode of migration, multipolar or bipolar, prior to entering the cortical plate and that FILIP is responsible, at least in part, for the Filamin A content of migrating neurons.

  10. A novel CNS gene required for neuronal migration and involved in X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Portes, V; Pinard, J M; Billuart, P; Vinet, M C; Koulakoff, A; Carrié, A; Gelot, A; Dupuis, E; Motte, J; Berwald-Netter, Y; Catala, M; Kahn, A; Beldjord, C; Chelly, J

    1998-01-09

    X-SCLH/LIS syndrome is a neuronal migration disorder with disruption of the six-layered neocortex. It consists of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH, band heterotopia, or double cortex) in females and lissencephaly (LIS) in males, leading to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. We report the characterization of a novel CNS gene encoding a 40 kDa predicted protein that we named Doublecortin and the identification of mutations in four unrelated X-SCLH/LIS cases. The predicted protein shares significant homology with the N-terminal segment of a protein containing a protein kinase domain at its C-terminal part. This novel gene is highly expressed during brain development, mainly in fetal neurons including precursors. The complete disorganization observed in lissencephaly and heterotopia thus seems to reflect a failure of early events associated with neuron dispersion.

  11. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eSakamoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  12. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  13. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult...... toward the olfactory bulb showed high specificity, similar to the mammalian rostral migratory stream. Thus, different mechanisms appear to organize area-specific neuron recruitment in different recipients of the adult songbird brain, unrelated to global plasticity of brain regions....

  14. Neurogenesis-based epigenetic therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (Review).

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    Li, Xueyuan; Bao, Xinjie; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a worldwide health problem with multiple pathogenic causes including aging, and genetic and environmental factors. As the interfaces between genes and the environment, epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs, are also involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the normal adult brain of mammals. The neurogenic process, consisting of the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of neural stem cells (NSC), is regulated via epigenetic mechanisms by controlling the expression of specific sets of genes. In the pathology of AD, due to impairments in epigenetic mechanisms, the generation of neurons from NSCs is damaged, which exacerbates the loss of neurons and the deficits in learning and memory function associated with AD. Based on neurogenesis, a number of therapeutic strategies have shown capability in promoting neuronal generation to compensate for the neurons lost in AD, thereby improving cognitive function through epigenetic modifications. This provides potential for the treatment of AD by stimulating neurogenesis using epigenetic strategies. The present review discusses the epigenetics of AD and adult neurogenesis, and summarizes the neurogenesis-based epigenetic therapies targeted at AD. Such a review may offer information for the guidance of future developments of therapeutic strategies for AD.

  15. Cross-species functional analyses reveal shared and separate roles for Sox11 in frog primary neurogenesis and mouse cortical neuronal differentiation

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    Chao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning brain requires production of the correct number and types of cells during development; cascades of transcription factors are essential for cellular coordination. Sox proteins are transcription factors that affect various processes in the development of the nervous system. Sox11, a member of the SoxC family, is expressed in differentiated neurons and supports neuronal differentiation in several systems. To understand how generalizable the actions of Sox11 are across phylogeny, its function in the development of the frog nervous system and the mouse cerebral cortex were compared. Expression of Sox11 is largely conserved between these species; in the developing frog, Sox11 is expressed in the neural plate, neural tube and throughout the segmented brain, while in the mouse cerebral cortex, Sox11 is expressed in differentiated zones, including the preplate, subplate, marginal zone and cortical plate. In both frog and mouse, data demonstrate that Sox11 supports a role in promoting neuronal differentiation, with Sox11-positive cells expressing pan-neural markers and becoming morphologically complex. However, frog and mouse Sox11 cannot substitute for one another; a functional difference likely reflected in sequence divergence. Thus, Sox11 appears to act similarly in subserving neuronal differentiation but is species-specific in frog neural development and mouse corticogenesis.

  16. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

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    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Olfactory ensheathing glia are required for embryonic olfactory axon targeting and the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

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    Perrine Barraud

    2013-06-01

    Kallmann's syndrome is caused by the failure of olfactory axons and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons to enter the embryonic forebrain, resulting in anosmia and sterility. Sox10 mutations have been associated with Kallmann's syndrome phenotypes, but their effect on olfactory system development is unknown. We recently showed that Sox10 is expressed by neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. Here, we demonstrate that in homozygous Sox10lacZ/lacZ mouse embryos, OEC differentiation is disrupted; olfactory axons accumulate in the ventromedial olfactory nerve layer and fewer olfactory receptor neurons express the maturation marker OMP (most likely owing to the failure of axonal targeting. Furthermore, GnRH neurons clump together in the periphery and a smaller proportion enters the forebrain. Our data suggest that human Sox10 mutations cause Kallmann's syndrome by disrupting the differentiation of OECs, which promote embryonic olfactory axon targeting and hence olfactory receptor neuron maturation, and GnRH neuron migration to the forebrain.

  18. Hard-Diet Feeding Recovers Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone and Olfactory Functions of Mice Impaired by Soft-Diet Feeding

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    Utsugi, Chizuru; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Osada, Kazumi; Sasajima, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Matsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) generates an immense number of neurons even during adulthood. These neurons migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and differentiate into granule cells and periglomerular cells. The information broadcast by general odorants is received by the olfactory sensory neurons and transmitted to the OB. Recent studies have shown that a reduction of mastication impairs both neurogenesis in the hippocampus and brain functions. To examine these effects, we first measured the difference in Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) at the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Pr5), which receives intraoral touch information via the trigeminal nerve, when female adult mice ingested a hard or soft diet to explore whether soft-diet feeding could mimic impaired mastication. Ingestion of a hard diet induced greater expression of Fos-ir cells at the Pr5 than did a soft diet or no diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-ir) structures in sagittal sections of the SVZ and in the OB of mice fed a soft or hard diet were studied to explore the effects of changes in mastication on newly generated neurons. After 1 month, the density of BrdU-ir cells in the SVZ and OB was lower in the soft-diet-fed mice than in the hard-diet-fed mice. The odor preferences of individual female mice to butyric acid were tested in a Y-maze apparatus. Avoidance of butyric acid was reduced by the soft-diet feeding. We then explored the effects of the hard-diet feeding on olfactory functions and neurogenesis in the SVZ of mice impaired by soft-diet feeding. At 3 months of hard-diet feeding, avoidance of butyric acid was reversed and responses to odors and neurogenesis were recovered in the SVZ. The present results suggest that feeding with a hard diet improves neurogenesis in the SVZ, which in turn enhances olfactory function at the OB. PMID:24817277

  19. Alzheimer’s disease and Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis; Exploring Shared Mechanisms

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    Orly eLazarov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available New neurons incorporate into the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurogenesis is modulated by behavior and plays a major role in hippocampal plasticity. Along with older mature neurons, new neurons structure the dentate gyrus and determine its function. Recent data suggest that the level of hippocampal neurogenesis is substantial in the human brain, suggesting that neurogenesis may have important implications for human cognition. In support of that, impaired neurogenesis compromises hippocampal function and plays a role in cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease mouse models. We review current work suggesting that neuronal differentiation is defective in Alzheimer’s disease, leading to dysfunction of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, alterations in critical signals regulating neurogenesis, such as presenilin-1, Notch 1, soluble amyloid precursor protein, CREB, and β-catenin underlie dysfunctional neurogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Lastly, we discuss the detectability of neurogenesis in the live mouse and human brain, as well as the therapeutic implications of enhancing neurogenesis for the treatment of cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα regulates Fabp7 and modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Anna Schnell

    Full Text Available The function of the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα (Nr1d1 in the brain is, apart from its role in the circadian clock mechanism, unknown. Therefore, we compared gene expression profiles in the brain between wild-type and Rev-erbα knock-out (KO animals. We identified fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, Blbp as a direct target of repression by REV-ERBα. Loss of Rev-erbα manifested in memory and mood related behavioral phenotypes and led to overexpression of Fabp7 in various brain areas including the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus, where neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs can initiate adult neurogenesis. We found increased proliferation of hippocampal neurons and loss of its diurnal pattern in Rev-erbα KO mice. In vitro, proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells were affected by manipulating either Fabp7 expression or REV-ERBα activity. These results suggest an important role of Rev-erbα and Fabp7 in adult neurogenesis, which may open new avenues for treatment of gliomas as well as neurological diseases such as depression and Alzheimer.

  1. The interesting interplay between interneurons and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Masiulis, Irene; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a unique form of plasticity found in the hippocampus, a brain region key to learning and memory formation. While many external stimuli are known to modulate the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus, little is known about the local circuitry mechanisms that regulate the process of adult neurogenesis. The neurogenic niche in the hippocampus is highly complex and consists of a heterogeneous population of cells including interneurons. Because interneurons are already highly integrated into the hippocampal circuitry, they are in a prime position to influence the proliferation, survival, and maturation of adult-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. Here we review the current state of our understanding on the interplay between interneurons and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We focus on activity- and signaling-dependent mechanisms, as well as research on human diseases that could provide better insight into how interneurons in general might add to our comprehension of the regulation and function of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:21956642

  2. Neurotransmitters couple brain activity to subventricular zone neurogenesis

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    Young, Stephanie Z.; Taylor, M. Morgan; Bordey, Angélique

    2011-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in two privileged microenvironments, the hippocampal subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricle. This review focuses on accumulating evidence suggesting that the activity of specific brain regions or bodily states influences SVZ cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Neuromodulators such as dopamine and serotonin have been shown to have long-range effects through neuronal projections into the SVZ. Local GABA and glutamate signaling have demonstrated effects on SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, but an extra-niche source of these neurotransmitters remains to be explored and options will be discussed. There is also accumulating evidence that diseases and bodily states such as Alzheimer's disease, seizures, sleep, and pregnancy influence SVZ cell proliferation. With such complex behavior and environmentally-driven factors that control subregion-specific activity, it will become necessary to account for overlapping roles of multiple neurotransmitter systems on neurogenesis when developing cell therapies or drug treatments. PMID:21395856

  3. Disruption of zebrafish cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK function impairs the expression of Notch-dependent genes during neurogenesis and causes defects in neuronal development

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    Szeto Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The J-domain-containing protein auxilin, a critical regulator in clathrin-mediated transport, has been implicated in Drosophila Notch signaling. To ask if this role of auxilin is conserved and whether auxilin has additional roles in development, we have investigated the functions of auxilin orthologs in zebrafish. Results Like mammals, zebrafish has two distinct auxilin-like molecules, auxilin and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK, differing in their domain structures and expression patterns. Both zebrafish auxilin and GAK can functionally substitute for the Drosophila auxilin, suggesting that they have overlapping molecular functions. Still, they are not completely redundant, as morpholino-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitously expressed GAK alone can increase the specification of neuronal cells, a known Notch-dependent process, and decrease the expression of Her4, a Notch target gene. Furthermore, inhibition of GAK function caused an elevated level of apoptosis in neural tissues, resulting in severe degeneration of neural structures. Conclusion In support of the notion that endocytosis plays important roles in Notch signaling, inhibition of zebrafish GAK function affects embryonic neuronal cell specification and Her4 expression. In addition, our analysis suggests that zebrafish GAK has at least two functions during the development of neural tissues: an early Notch-dependent role in neuronal patterning and a late role in maintaining the survival of neural cells.

  4. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction

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    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Freitas, Beatriz C.; Qian, Hao; Lux, Jacques; Acab, Allan; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Herai, Roberto H.; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Wen, Jessica H.; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Engler, Adam J.; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Muotri, Alysson R.; Almutairi, Adah

    2016-03-01

    Probing a wide range of cellular phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders using patient-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be facilitated by 3D assays, as 2D systems cannot entirely recapitulate the arrangement of cells in the brain. Here, we developed a previously unidentified 3D migration and differentiation assay in layered hydrogels to examine how these processes are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome. Our soft 3D system mimics the brain environment and accelerates maturation of neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NPCs, yielding electrophysiologically active neurons within just 3 wk. Using this platform, we revealed a genotype-specific effect of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) dysfunction on iPSC-derived neuronal migration and maturation (reduced neurite outgrowth and fewer synapses) in 3D layered hydrogels. Thus, this 3D system expands the range of neural phenotypes that can be studied in vitro to include those influenced by physical and mechanical stimuli or requiring specific arrangements of multiple cell types.

  5. Potential Involvement of Snail Members in Neuronal Survival and Astrocytic Migration during the Gecko Spinal Cord Regeneration

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    Yongjun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration. Both Snail1 and Snail3 have been shown to promote neuronal survival and astrocytic migration via anti-apoptotic and GTPases signaling following gecko tail amputation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ, together with other cytokines were involved in inducing expression of Snail protein. Our data indicate a conserved function of Snail proteins in embryonic development and tissue regeneration, which may provide clues for CNS repair in the mammals.

  6. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

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    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  7. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

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    Samantha J Fung

    Full Text Available Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque and density of white matter neurons (humans during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37 and matched controls (n = 37 and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in

  8. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

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    Fung, Samantha J; Joshi, Dipesh; Allen, Katherine M; Sivagnanasundaram, Sinthuja; Rothmond, Debora A; Saunders, Richard; Noble, Pamela L; Webster, Maree J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque) and density of white matter neurons (humans) during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37) and matched controls (n = 37) and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in schizophrenia.

  9. Negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation.

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    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kamidozono, Yoshika; Ishiizumi, Atsushi; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kita, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function, but the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. Mice in the ExC group were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 wk and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0). Following exercise cessation, the density of DCX-positive neurons gradually decreased and was significantly lower than that in the Con group at 5 and 8 wk after cessation, indicating that exercise cessation leads to a negative rebound in hippocampal neurogenesis. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that the negative rebound in neurogenesis is caused by diminished cell survival, not by suppression of cell proliferation and neural maturation. Neither elevated expression of ΔFosB, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis regulation, nor increased plasma corticosterone, were involved in the negative neurogenesis rebound. Importantly, exercise cessation suppressed ambulatory activity, and a significant correlation between change in activity and DCX-positive neuron density suggested that the decrease in activity is involved in neurogenesis impairment. Forced treadmill running following exercise cessation failed to prevent the negative neurogenesis rebound. This study indicates that cessation of exercise or a decrease in physical activity is associated with an increased risk for impaired hippocampal function, which might increase vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

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    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  11. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Dyall Simon C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in limited areas of the adult mammalian brain, and has been reported in the hippocampus of rodents and man. Neurogenesis is enhanced in conditions associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity and following neuronal injury, suggesting a role for neurogenesis in cognition and brain repair. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in a variety of models. Importantly, recent work has shown that the fat-1 transgenic mouse, an animal model of endogenous omega-3 PUFA enrichment, exhibits enhanced neurogenesis, with concomitant improvements in spatial memory compared to wild type mice. During ageing, the rate of neurogenesis declines significantly and there is a strong correlation between memory impairment in hippocampal-dependent tasks and this decline. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between omega-3 PUFA and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, and we have recently shown that supplementation of aged rats with omega-3 PUFAs partially reverses the age-related decline in neurogenesis. Thus omega-3 PUFAs positively influence neurogenesis, and these effects may contribute to improved cognitive performance. However, the mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs regulate neurogenesis remain unclear, although a number or putative targets have been suggested. The aims of this paper are to review the role of omega-3 PUFA in hippocampal neurogenesis, and explore some of the potential mechanisms of action which may underlie the observed effects.

  12. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  13. The neural plasticity theory of depression: assessing the roles of adult neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM within the hippocampus.

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    Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a devastating and prevalent disease, with profound effects on neural structure and function; however the etiology and neuropathology of depression remain poorly understood. Though antidepressant drugs exist, they are not ideal, as only a segment of patients are effectively treated, therapeutic onset is delayed, and the exact mechanism of these drugs remains to be elucidated. Several theories of depression do exist, including modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, alterations in neurotrophic factors, and the upregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and are briefly mentioned in the review. However none of these theories sufficiently explains the pathology and treatment of depression unto itself. Recently, neural plasticity theories of depression have postulated that multiple aspects of brain plasticity, beyond neurogenesis, may bridge the prevailing theories. The term "neural plasticity" encompasses an array of mechanisms, from the birth, survival, migration, and integration of new neurons to neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and the modulation of mature synapses. This review critically assesses the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM (which is known to be involved in many facets of neural plasticity), in depression and antidepressant treatment.

  14. Propofol Inhibits Neurogenesis of Rat Neural Stem Cells by Upregulating MicroRNA-141-3p.

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    Jiang, Qiliang; Wang, Yingwei; Shi, Xueyin

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged or high-dose exposure to anesthetics, such as propofol, can cause brain cell degeneration and subsequent long-term learning or memory deficits, particularly in the developing brain. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of propofol at certain stages of development remain unclear. In this study we found that propofol inhibited the proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) while upregulating miR-141-3p. Silencing of miR-141-3p abrogated the effects of propofol on NSC neurogenesis. Propofol treatment downregulated IGF2BP2, a direct target of miR-141-3p, whereas overexpression of IGF2BP2 attenuated the effects of propofol and miR-141-3p on NSC neurogenesis. In short, propofol inhibits NSC neurogenesis through a mechanism involving the miR-141-3p/IGF2BP2 axis. Our results may provide a potential approach for preventing the neurodegenerative effects of propofol in the developing brain.

  15. Perlecan controls neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon

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    Fairén Alfonso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perlecan is a proteoglycan expressed in the basal lamina of the neuroepithelium during development. Perlecan absence does not impair basal lamina assembly, although in the 55% of the mutants early disruptions of this lamina conducts to exencephaly, impairing brain development. The rest of perlecan-null brains complete its prenatal development, maintain basal lamina continuity interrupted by some isolated ectopias, and are microcephalic. Microcephaly consists of thinner cerebral walls and underdeveloped ganglionic eminences. We have studied the mechanisms that generate brain atrophy in telencephalic areas where basal lamina is intact. Results Brain atrophy in the absence of perlecan started in the ventral forebrain and extended to lateral and dorsal parts of the cortex in the following stages. First, the subpallial forebrain developed poorly in early perlecan-null embryos, because of a reduced cell proliferation: the number of cells in mitosis decreased since the early stages of development. This reduction resulted in a decreased tangential migration of interneurons to the cerebral cortex. Concomitant with the early hypoplasia observed in the medial ganglionic eminences, Sonic Hedgehog signal decreased in the perlecan-null floor plate basal lamina at E12.5. Second, neurogenesis in the pallial neuroepithelium was affected in perlecan deficient embryos. We found reductions of nearly 50% in the number of cells exiting the cell cycle at E12–E13. The labeling index, which was normal at this age, significantly decreased with advancing corticogenesis. Moreover, nestin+ or PCNA+ progenitors increased since E14.5, reaching up to about 150% of the proportion of PCNA+ cells in the wild-type at E17.5. Thus, labeling index reduction together with increased progenitor population, suggests that atrophy is the result of altered cell cycle progression in the cortical progenitors. Accordingly, less neurons populated the cortical plate and

  16. Gut-derived factors promote neurogenesis of CNS-neural stem cells and nudge their differentiation to an enteric-like neuronal phenotype.

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    Kulkarni, Subhash; Zou, Bende; Hanson, Jesse; Micci, Maria-Adelaide; Tiwari, Gunjan; Becker, Laren; Kaiser, Martin; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Pasricha, Pankaj Jay

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have explored the potential of central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (CNS-NSC) to repopulate the enteric nervous system. However, the exact phenotypic fate of gut-transplanted CNS-NSC has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the gut microenvironment on phenotypic fate of CNS-NSC in vitro. With the use of Transwell culture, differentiation of mouse embryonic CNS-NSC was studied when cocultured without direct contact with mouse intestinal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations (LM-MP) compared with control noncocultured cells, in a differentiating medium. Differentiated cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR to assess the expression of specific markers and by whole cell patch-clamp studies for functional characterization of their phenotype. We found that LM-MP cocultured cells had a significant increase in the numbers of cells that were immune reactive against the panneuronal marker β-tubulin, neurotransmitters neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and showed an increase in expression of these genes, compared with control cells. Whole cell patch-clamp analysis showed that coculture with LM-MP decreases cell excitability and reduces voltage-gated Na(+) currents but significantly enhances A-current and late afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and increases the expression of the four AHP-generating Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel genes (KCNN), compared with control cells. In a separate experiment, differentiation of LM-MP cocultured CNS-NSC produced a significant increase in the numbers of cells that were immune reactive against the neurotransmitters nNOS, ChAT, and the neuropeptide VIP compared with CNS-NSC differentiated similarly in the presence of neonatal brain tissue. Our results show that the gut microenvironment induces CNS-NSC to produce neurons that share some of the

  17. Adult Neurogenesis and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systems Biology Perspective

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    Horgusluoglu, Emrin; Nudelman, Kelly; Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain, the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and are incorporated into the hippocampal network circuitry; disruption of this process has been postulated to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Known modulators of adult neurogenesis include signal transduction pathways, the vascular and immune systems, metabolic factors, and epigenetic regulation. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotrophic factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle regulators control neural stem cell proliferation, maintenance in the adult neurogenic niche, and differentiation into mature neurons; these factors act in networks of signaling molecules that influence each other during construction and maintenance of neural circuits, and in turn contribute to learning and memory. The immune system and vascular system are necessary for neuronal formation and neural stem cell fate determination. Inflammatory cytokines regulate adult neurogenesis in response to immune system activation, whereas the vasculature regulates the neural stem cell niche. Vasculature, immune/support cell populations (microglia/astrocytes), adhesion molecules, growth factors, and the extracellular matrix also provide a homing environment for neural stem cells. Epigenetic changes during hippocampal neurogenesis also impact memory and learning. Some genetic variations in neurogenesis related genes may play important roles in the alteration of neural stem cells differentiation into new born neurons during adult neurogenesis, with important therapeutic implications. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of and interactions between these modulators of adult neurogenesis, as well as implications for neurodegenerative disease and current therapeutic research. PMID:26879907

  18. Adult neurogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases: A systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgusluoglu, Emrin; Nudelman, Kelly; Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain, the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and are incorporated into the hippocampal network circuitry; disruption of this process has been postulated to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Known modulators of adult neurogenesis include signal transduction pathways, the vascular and immune systems, metabolic factors, and epigenetic regulation. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotrophic factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle regulators control neural stem cell proliferation, maintenance in the adult neurogenic niche, and differentiation into mature neurons; these factors act in networks of signaling molecules that influence each other during construction and maintenance of neural circuits, and in turn contribute to learning and memory. The immune system and vascular system are necessary for neuronal formation and neural stem cell fate determination. Inflammatory cytokines regulate adult neurogenesis in response to immune system activation, whereas the vasculature regulates the neural stem cell niche. Vasculature, immune/support cell populations (microglia/astrocytes), adhesion molecules, growth factors, and the extracellular matrix also provide a homing environment for neural stem cells. Epigenetic changes during hippocampal neurogenesis also impact memory and learning. Some genetic variations in neurogenesis related genes may play important roles in the alteration of neural stem cells differentiation into new born neurons during adult neurogenesis, with important therapeutic implications. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of and interactions between these modulators of adult neurogenesis, as well as implications for neurodegenerative disease and current therapeutic research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Fang Tan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  20. AAV-mediated delivery of BDNF augments neurogenesis in the normal and quinolinic acid-lesioned adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rebecca A; Hughes, Stephanie M; Connor, Bronwen

    2007-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a major role in regulating the survival and fate of progenitor cells in the adult brain. In order to extend previous observations in the normal adult brain and advance our knowledge regarding the effect of BDNF on neurogenesis in the injured brain, this study directly compared the effect of BDNF on basal and injury-induced neurogenesis in relation to progenitor cell distribution and levels of neuronal differentiation and survival. BDNF was overexpressed in the subventricular zone (SVZ) via recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV(1/2)) delivery, and newly generated cells were identified using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling. Selective striatal cell loss was induced in a subgroup of rats by unilateral striatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA) 21 days after AAV(1/2) injection. In the normal brain, BDNF overexpression significantly increased BrdU-positive cell numbers in the rostral migratory stream, indicating enhanced progenitor cell migration. Following QA lesioning, we observed a reduction in BrdU immunoreactivity in the SVZ. Overexpression of BDNF restored BrdU-positive cell numbers in the QA-lesioned SVZ to that observed in the normal brain. Most significantly, BDNF enhanced the recruitment of progenitor cells to the QA-lesioned striatum and promoted neuronal differentiation in both the normal and QA-lesioned striatum. Our findings indicate that BDNF augments the recruitment, neuronal differentiation and survival of progenitor cells in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions of the normal or QA-lesioned brain. Enhanced expression of BDNF may therefore be a viable strategy for augmenting neurogenesis from endogenous progenitor cells.

  1. A Putative Role for Neurogenesis in Neurocomputational Terms: Inferences from a Hippocampal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Victoria I.; Argibay, Pablo F.

    2009-01-01

    New neurons are generated daily in the hippocampus during adult life. They are integrated into the existing neuronal circuits according to several factors such as age, physical exercise and hormonal status. At present, the role of these new neurons is debated. Computational simulations of hippocampal function allow the effects of neurogenesis to…

  2. Signaling mechanisms controlling cranial placode neurogenesis and delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Stark, Michael R; Zhao, Tianyu; Zhou, Chengji J

    2014-05-01

    The neurogenic cranial placodes are a unique transient epithelial niche of neural progenitor cells that give rise to multiple derivatives of the peripheral nervous system, particularly, the sensory neurons. Placode neurogenesis occurs throughout an extended period of time with epithelial cells continually recruited as neural progenitor cells. Sensory neuron development in the trigeminal, epibranchial, otic, and olfactory placodes coincides with detachment of these neuroblasts from the encompassing epithelial sheet, leading to delamination and ingression into the mesenchyme where they continue to differentiate as neurons. Multiple signaling pathways are known to direct placodal development. This review defines the signaling pathways working at the finite spatiotemporal period when neuronal selection within the placodes occurs, and neuroblasts concomitantly delaminate from the epithelium. Examining neurogenesis and delamination after initial placodal patterning and specification has revealed a common trend throughout the neurogenic placodes, which suggests that both activated FGF and attenuated Notch signaling activities are required for neurogenesis and changes in epithelial cell adhesion leading to delamination. We also address the varying roles of other pathways such as the Wnt and BMP signaling families during sensory neurogenesis and neuroblast delamination in the differing placodes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Gonadectomy increases neurogenesis in the male adolescent rhesus macaque hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K M; Fung, S J; Rothmond, D A; Noble, P L; Weickert, C Shannon

    2014-02-01

    New neurons are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of the adult hippocampus and can modulate hippocampal plasticity across life. Adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes in sex hormone levels, and social and emotional behaviors. It is also an age for increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, which may involve altered hippocampal neurogenesis. The extent to which testosterone and other testicular hormones modulate hippocampal neurogenesis and adolescent behavioral development is unclear. This study aimed to determine if removal of testicular hormones during adolescence alters neurogenesis in the male rhesus macaque hippocampus. We used stereology to examine levels of cell proliferation, cell survival and neuronal differentiation in late adolescent male rhesus macaques (4.6-yrs old) that had previously been gonadectomized or sham operated prior to puberty (2.4-yrs old). While the absence of adolescent testicular hormones had no effect on cell proliferation, cell survival was increased by 65% and indices of immature neuronal differentiation were increased by 56% in gonadectomized monkeys compared to intact monkeys. We show for the first time that presence of circulating testicular hormones, including testosterone, may decrease neuronal survival in the primate hippocampus during adolescence. Our findings are in contrast to existing studies in adults where testosterone tends to be a pro-survival factor and demonstrate that testicular hormones may reduce hippocampal neurogenesis during the age typical of schizophrenia onset. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sleep and adult neurogenesis : Implications for cognition and mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Anka D.; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological and behavioral factors known to affect

  5. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects on adult neurogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder...

  6. Persistent gliosis interferes with neurogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGerlach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has become an intensively investigated research topic, as it is essential for proper hippocampal function and considered to bear therapeutic potential for the replacement of pathologically lost neurons. On the other hand, neurogenesis itself is frequently affected by CNS insults. To identify processes leading to the disturbance of neurogenesis, we made use of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC, which, for unknown reasons, lose their neurogenic potential during cultivation. In the present study, we show by BrdU/Prox1 double-immunostaining that the generation of new granule cells drops by 90% during the first week of cultivation. Monitoring neurogenesis dynamically in OHSC from POMC-eGFP mice, in which immature granule cells are endogenously labeled, revealed a gradual decay of the eGFP signal, reaching 10% of initial values within seven days of cultivation. Accordingly, RT-qPCR analysis showed the downregulation of the neurogenesis-related genes doublecortin and Hes5, a crucial target of the stem cell-maintaining Notch signaling pathway. In parallel, we demonstrate a strong and long-lasting activation of astrocytes and microglial cells, both, morphologically and on the level of gene expression. Enhancement of astroglial activation by treating OHSC with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF accelerated the loss of neurogenesis, whereas treatment with indomethacin or an antagonist of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor exhibited potent protective effects on the neurogenic outcome. Therefore, we conclude that OHSC rapidly lose their neurogenic capacity due to persistent inflammatory processes taking place after the slice preparation. As inflammation is also considered to affect neurogenesis in many CNS pathologies, OHSC appear as a useful tool to study this interplay and its molecular basis. Furthermore, we propose that modification of glial activation might bear the therapeutic potential of enabling

  7. Radial and tangential neuronal migration pathways in the human fetal brain: anatomically distinct patterns of diffusion MRI coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, James; Takahashi, Emi; Stevens, Allison A.; Benner, Thomas; Fischl, Bruce; Zöllei, Lilla; Grant, P. Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Corticogenesis is underpinned by a complex process of subcortical neuroproliferation, followed by highly orchestrated cellular migration. A greater appreciation of the processes involved in human fetal corticogenesis is vital to gaining an understanding of how developmental disturbances originating in gestation could establish a variety of complex neuropathology manifesting in childhood, or even in adult life. Magnetic resonance imaging modalities offer a unique insight into anatomical structure, and increasingly infer information regarding underlying microstructure in the human brain. In this study we applied a combination of high-resolution structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to a unique cohort of three post-mortem fetal brain specimens, aged between 19 and 22 post-conceptual weeks. Specifically, we sought to assess patterns of diffusion coherence associated with subcortical neuroproliferative structures: the pallial ventricular/subventricular zone and subpallial ganglionic eminence. Two distinct three-dimensional patterns of diffusion coherence were evident: a clear radial pattern originating in ventricular/subventricular zone, and a tangentio-radial patterns originating in ganglionic eminence. These patterns appeared to regress in a caudo-rostral and lateral-ventral to medial-dorsal direction across the short period of fetal development under study. Our findings demonstrate for the first time distinct patterns of diffusion coherence associated with known anatomical proliferative structures. The radial pattern associated with dorsopallial ventricular/subventricular zone and the tangentio-radial pattern associated with subpallial ganglionic eminence are consistent with reports of radial-glial mediated neuronal migration pathways identified during human corticogenesis, supported by our prior studies of comparative fetal diffusion MRI and histology. The ability to assess such pathways in the fetal brain using MR imaging offers a unique

  8. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu., E-mail: khodanovich@mail.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics, Laboratory of Neurobiology (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  10. Purposeful Activity in Psychiatric Rehabilitation: Is Neurogenesis a Key Player?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siu-Chong Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, defined as the generation of new neurons in adulthood, has been a fascinating discovery in neuroscience, as the continuously replenishing neuronal population provides a new perspective to understand neuroplasticity. Besides maintaining normal physiological function, neurogenesis also plays a key role in pathophysiology and symptomatology for psychiatric conditions. In the past decades, extensive effort has been spent on the understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis in psychiatric conditions, mechanisms of pharmacological treatment, and discovery of novel drug candidates for different conditions. In a clinical situation, however, long-term rehabilitation treatment, in which occupational therapy is the key discipline, is a valuable, economical, and commonly used treatment alternative to psychotropic medications. Surprisingly, comparatively few studies have investigated the biological and neurogenic effects of different psychiatric rehabilitative treatments. To address the possible linkage between psychiatric rehabilitation and neurogenesis, this review discusses the role of neurogenesis in schizophrenia, major depression, and anxiety disorders. The review also discusses the potential neurogenic effect of currently used psychiatric rehabilitation treatments. With a better understanding of the biological effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods and future translational studies, it is hoped that the therapeutic effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods could be explained with a novel perspective. Furthermore, this knowledge will benefit future formulation of treatment methods, especially purposeful activities in occupational therapy, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  12. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solecki, Dr. David [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Govek, Eve-Ellen [Rockefeller University, The; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Hatten, Mary E [Rockefeller University, The

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  13. Frizzled3a and Celsr2 function in the neuroepithelium to regulate migration of facial motor neurons in the developing zebrafish hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Tanaka, Hideomi; Nakayama, Satomi; Iwasaki, Miki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2006-12-01

    Migration of neurons from their birthplace to their final target area is a crucial step in brain development. Here, we show that expression of the off-limits/frizzled3a (olt/fz3a) and off-road/celsr2 (ord/celsr2) genes in neuroepithelial cells maintains the facial (nVII) motor neurons near the pial surface during their caudal migration in the zebrafish hindbrain. In the absence of olt/fz3a expression in the neuroepithelium, nVII motor neurons extended aberrant radial processes towards the ventricular surface and mismigrated radially to the dorsomedial part of the hindbrain. Our findings reveal a novel role for these genes, distinctive from their already known functions, in the regulation of the planar cell polarity (i.e. preventing integration of differentiated neurons into the neuroepithelial layer). This contrasts markedly with their reported role in reintegration of neuroepithelial daughter cells into the neuroepithelial layer after cell division.

  14. Perspectives of TRPV1 Function on the Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barrantes, R; Cordova, C; Poblete, H; Muñoz, P; Marchant, I; Wianny, F; Olivero, P

    2016-01-01

    The development of new strategies to renew and repair neuronal networks using neural plasticity induced by stem cell graft could enable new therapies to cure diseases that were considered lethal until now. In adequate microenvironment a neuronal progenitor must receive molecular signal of a specific cellular context to determine fate, differentiation, and location. TRPV1, a nonselective calcium channel, is expressed in neurogenic regions of the brain like the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the telencephalic subventricular zone, being valuable for neural differentiation and neural plasticity. Current data show that TRPV1 is involved in several neuronal functions as cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, survival, and regeneration of injured neurons, incorporating several stimuli in neurogenesis and network integration. The function of TRPV1 in the brain is under intensive investigation, due to multiple places where it has been detected and its sensitivity for different chemical and physical agonists, and a new role of TRPV1 in brain function is now emerging as a molecular tool for survival and control of neural stem cells.

  15. Quantifying the Behavioural Relevance of Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E.; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies that examine the neurogenesis–behaviour relationship formally establish covariation between neurogenesis and behaviour or rule out competing explanations. The behavioural relevance of neurogenesis might therefore be overestimated if other mechanisms account for some, or even all, of the experimental effects. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and the data reanalysed using causal mediation analysis, which can estimate the behavioural contribution of new hippocampal neurons separately from other mechanisms that might be operating. Results from eleven eligible individual studies were then combined in a meta-analysis to increase precision (representing data from 215 animals) and showed that neurogenesis made a negligible contribution to behaviour (standarised effect  = 0.15; 95% CI  = −0.04 to 0.34; p = 0.128); other mechanisms accounted for the majority of experimental effects (standardised effect  = 1.06; 95% CI  = 0.74 to 1.38; p = 1.7×10−11). PMID:25426717

  16. Spreading depression and focal venous cerebral ischemia enhance cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or “enriched environment” as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham, induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO. As an additional control, 15 naïve rats received no intervention except 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU treatment for 7 days. Sagittal brain slices (40 μm thick were co-stained for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX; new immature neuronal cells on day 9 or NeuN (new mature neuronal cells on day 28. On day 9 after sham operation, cell proliferation and neurogenesis occurred in the cortex in rats. The sole induction of CSD had no effect. But on days 9 and 28, more proliferating cells and newly formed neurons in the ipsilateral cortex were observed in rats subjected to CSD + 2VO than in rats subjected to sham operation. On days 9 and 28, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus was increased in sham-operated rats than in naïve rats. Our data supports the hypothesis that induced cortical neurogenesis after CSD + 2-VO is a direct effect of ischemia, rather than of CSD alone.

  17. Using causal models to distinguish between neurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of research on the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and behaviour over the past 15 years, but the causal role that new neurons have on cognitive and affective behavioural tasks is still far from clear. This is partly due to the difficulty of manipulating levels of neurogenesis without inducing off-target effects, which might also influence behaviour. In addition, the analytical methods typically used do not directly test whether neurogenesis mediates the effect of an intervention on behaviour. Previous studies may have incorrectly attributed changes in behavioural performance to neurogenesis because the role of known (or unknown) neurogenesis-independent mechanisms was not formally taken into consideration during the analysis. Causal models can tease apart complex causal relationships and were used to demonstrate that the effect of exercise on pattern separation is via neurogenesis-independent mechanisms. Many studies in the neurogenesis literature would benefit from the use of statistical methods that can separate neurogenesis-dependent from neurogenesis-independent effects on behaviour. PMID:21957118

  18. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  19. Stress in early life inhibits neurogenesis in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, Yashmin J G; Olariu, Ana; Cameron, Heather A

    2005-04-01

    Both structure and function of the hippocampus are altered by stress: by increasing levels of corticosteroids, stress causes atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites, inhibits adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning. A recent study shows that adverse experience limited to early life, specifically removal of rat pups from their mother for three hours each day, decreases production of new granule neurons in adulthood through a corticosteroid-dependent mechanism. This finding suggests that stress in early life could permanently impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and increase susceptibility to depression by inhibiting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  20. Neuropeptide y promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agasse, Fabienne; Bernardino, Liliana; Christiansen, Søren H

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) represent a reliable source of neurons for cell replacement. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular layer and the olfactory epithelium and may be useful for the stimulation of SVZ dynamic in brain repair purposes. We......-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase signal in growing axons, consistent with axonogenesis. NPY, as a promoter of SVZ neurogenesis, is a crucial factor for future development of cell-based brain therapy. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article....

  1. Aging and Exercise Affect Hippocampal Neurogenesis via Different Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-Ting; Lo, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Tzu-Feng; Chen, Yun-Wen; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The rate of neurogenesis is determined by 1) the number of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), 2) proliferation of NSCs, 3) neuron lineage specification, and 4) survival rate of the newborn neurons. Aging lowers the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis, while exercise (Ex) increases this rate. However, it remains unclear which of the determinants are affected by aging and Ex. We characterized the four determinants in different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 21 months) of mice that either received one month of Ex training or remained sedentary. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected two hours before sacrificing the mice to label the proliferating cells. The results showed that the number of newborn neurons massively decreased (>95%) by the time the mice reached nine months of age. The number of NSC was mildly reduced during aging, while Ex delayed such decline. The proliferation rates were greatly decreased by the time the mice were 9-month-old and Ex could not improve the rates. The rates of neuron specification were decreased during aging, while Ex increased the rates. The survival rate was not affected by age or Ex. Aging greatly reduced newborn neuron maturation, while Ex potently enhanced it. In conclusion, age-associated decline of hippocampal neurogenesis is mainly caused by reduction of NSC proliferation. Although Ex increases the NSC number and neuron specification rates, it doesn't restore the massive decline of NSC proliferation rate. Hence, the effect of Ex on the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis during aging is limited, but Ex does enhance the maturation of newborn neurons.

  2. Interaction between Neurogenesis and Hippocampal Memory System: New Vistas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrous, Djoher Nora; Wojtowicz, Jan Martin

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, the questions on the functionality of adult neurogenesis have changed their emphasis from if to how the adult-born neurons participate in a variety of memory processes. The emerging answers are complex because we are overwhelmed by a variety of behavioral tasks that apparently require new neurons to be performed optimally. With few exceptions, the hippocampal memory system seems to use the newly generated neurons for multiple roles. Adult neurogenesis has given the dentate gyrus new capabilities not previously thought possible within the scope of traditional synaptic plasticity. Looking at these new developments from the perspective of past discoveries, the science of adult neurogenesis has emerged from its initial phase of being, first, a surprising oddity and, later, exciting possibility, to the present state of being an integral part of mainstream neuroscience. The answers to many remaining questions regarding adult neurogenesis will come along only with our growing understanding of the functionality of the brain as a whole. This, in turn, will require integration of multiple levels of organization from molecules and cells to circuits and systems, ultimately resulting in comprehension of behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Interaction between Neurogenesis and Hippocampal Memory System: New Vistas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrous, Djoher Nora; Wojtowicz, Jan Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, the questions on the functionality of adult neurogenesis have changed their emphasis from if to how the adult-born neurons participate in a variety of memory processes. The emerging answers are complex because we are overwhelmed by a variety of behavioral tasks that apparently require new neurons to be performed optimally. With few exceptions, the hippocampal memory system seems to use the newly generated neurons for multiple roles. Adult neurogenesis has given the dentate gyrus new capabilities not previously thought possible within the scope of traditional synaptic plasticity. Looking at these new developments from the perspective of past discoveries, the science of adult neurogenesis has emerged from its initial phase of being, first, a surprising oddity and, later, exciting possibility, to the present state of being an integral part of mainstream neuroscience. The answers to many remaining questions regarding adult neurogenesis will come along only with our growing understanding of the functionality of the brain as a whole. This, in turn, will require integration of multiple levels of organization from molecules and cells to circuits and systems, ultimately resulting in comprehension of behavioral outcomes. PMID:26032718

  4. The role of α-E-catenin in cerebral cortex development: radial glia specific effect on neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Marie-Theres; Weinandy, Franziska; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Huttner, Wieland B; Cappello, Silvia; Götz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    During brain development, radial glial cells possess an apico-basal polarity and are coupled by adherens junctions (AJs) to an F-actin belt. To elucidate the role of the actin, we conditionally deleted the key component α-E-catenin in the developing cerebral cortex. Deletion at early stages resulted in severe disruption of tissue polarity due to uncoupling of AJs with the intracellular actin fibers leading to the formation of subcortical band heterotopia. Interestingly, this phenotype closely resembled the phenotype obtained by conditional RhoA deletion, both in regard to the macroscopic subcortical band heterotopia and the subcellular increase in G-actin/F-actin ratio. These data therefore together corroborate the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its anchoring to the AJs for neuronal migration disorders.

  5. The role of α-E-catenin in cerebral cortex development: radial glia specific effect on neuronal migration

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    Marie-Theres eSchmid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During brain development, radial glial cells possess an apico-basal polarity and are coupled by adherens junctions to an F-actin belt. To elucidate the role of the actin, we conditionally deleted the key component α-E-catenin in the developing cerebral cortex. Deletion at early stages resulted in severe disruption of tissue polarity due to uncoupling of adherens junctions with the intracellular actin fibers leading to the formation of subcortical band heterotopia. Interestingly, this phenotype closely resembled the phenotype obtained by conditional RhoA deletion, both in regard to the macroscopic subcortical band heterotopia and the subcellular increase in G-actin/F-actin ratio. These data therefore together corroborate the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its anchoring to the adherens junctions for neuronal migration disorders.

  6. Neuronal and glial purinergic receptors functions in neuron development and brain disease.

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    Del Puerto, Ana; Wandosell, Francisco; Garrido, Juan José

    2013-10-28

    Brain development requires the interaction of complex signaling pathways, involving different cell types and molecules. For a long time, most attention has focused on neurons in a neuronocentric conceptualization of central nervous system development, these cells fulfilling an intrinsic program that establishes the brain's morphology and function. By contrast, glia have mainly been studied as support cells, offering guidance or as the cells that react to brain injury. However, new evidence is appearing that demonstrates a more fundamental role of glial cells in the control of different aspects of neuronal development and function, events in which the influence of neurons is at best weak. Moreover, it is becoming clear that the function and organization of the nervous system depends heavily on reciprocal neuron-glia interactions. During development, neurons are often generated far from their final destination and while intrinsic mechanisms are responsible for neuronal migration and growth, they need support and regulatory influences from glial cells in order to migrate correctly. Similarly, the axons emitted by neurons often have to reach faraway targets and in this sense, glia help define the way that axons grow. Moreover, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells ultimately envelop axons, contributing to the generation of nodes of Ranvier. Finally, recent publications show that astrocytes contribute to the modulation of synaptic transmission. In this sense, purinergic receptors are expressed widely by glial cells and neurons, and recent evidence points to multiple roles of purines and purinergic receptors in neuronal development and function, from neurogenesis to axon growth and functional axonal maturation, as well as in pathological conditions in the brain. This review will focus on the role of glial and neuronal secreted purines, and on the purinergic receptors, fundamentally in the control of neuronal development and function, as well as in diseases of the nervous

  7. Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus

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    Taruna eIkrar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell layer (GCL is conducive for pattern separation. A sparse coding scheme is thought to facilitate the distribution of similar entorhinal inputs across the GCL to decorrelate overlapping representations and minimize interference. Here we used fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging combined with laser photostimulation and electrical stimulation to examine how selectively increasing adult DG neurogenesis influences local circuit activity and excitability. We show that DG of mice with more adult-born neurons exhibits decreased strength of neuronal activation and more restricted excitation spread in GCL while maintaining effective output to CA3c. Conversely, blockade of adult hippocampal neurogenesis changed excitability of the DG in the opposite direction. Analysis of GABAergic inhibition onto mature dentate granule neurons in the DG of mice with more adult-born neurons shows a modest readjustment of perisomatic inhibitory synaptic gain without changes in overall inhibitory tone, presynaptic properties or GABAergic innervation pattern. Retroviral labeling of connectivity in mice with more adult-born neurons showed increased number of excitatory synaptic contacts of adult-born neurons onto hilar interneurons. Together, these studies demonstrate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies excitability of mature dentate granule neurons and that this non-cell autonomous effect may be mediated by local circuit mechanisms such as excitatory drive onto hilar interneurons. Modulation of DG excitability by adult-born dentate granule neurons may enhance sparse coding in the GCL to influence pattern

  8. A stochastic model of neurogenesis controlled by a single factor.

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    Barton, A; Fendrik, A J; Rotondo, E

    2014-08-21

    The researches on cortical neurogenesis reveal that asymmetric division plays a key role in controlling the balance between the self-renewal of stem cells and the beginning of the neural differentiation. In such a process a neural stem cell divides by mitosis, originating a postmitotic neuron and other pluripotent stem cell available for subsequent differentiation events. In addition, studies of cell lineage trees of cultured neural progenitors reveal tree shapes and subtrees recurrent, consistent with a stochastic model of division symmetrical/asymmetrical. These considerations have led us to develop a stochastic model of neurogenesis in order to explore the possibility that this is controlled primarily by a single factor (i.e. the concentration of mNumb in the cell). We contrast the predictions of our model with experimental data and compare it with other models of neurogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing: psychosocial genomics of therapeutic hypnosis.

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    Rossi, Ernest L

    2003-01-01

    The historical lineage of therapeutic hypnosis in James Braid's "psychophysiology", Pierre Janet's "physiological modification", and Milton Erickson's "neuro-psycho-physiology" is extended to include current neuroscience research on activity-dependent gene expression, neurogenesis, and stem cells in memory, learning, behavior change, and healing. Three conditions that optimize gene expression and neurogenesis--novelty, environmental enrichment, and exercise--could integrate fundamentals of the theory, research, and practice of therapeutic hypnosis. Continuing research on immediate-early, activity-dependent, behavior state-related, and clock gene expression could enhance our understanding of how relaxation, sleep, dreaming, consciousness, arousal, stress and trauma are modulated by therapeutic hypnosis. It is speculated that therapeutic and post-hypnotic suggestion could be focused more precisely with the time parameters of gene expression and neurogenesis that range from minutes and hours for synthesizing new synapses to weeks and months for the generation and maturation of new, functioning neurons in the adult brain.

  10. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

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    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  11. Prox1 regulates the notch1-mediated inhibition of neurogenesis.

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    Valeria Kaltezioti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of Notch1 signaling in neural progenitor cells (NPCs induces self-renewal and inhibits neurogenesis. Upon neuronal differentiation, NPCs overcome this inhibition, express proneural genes to induce Notch ligands, and activate Notch1 in neighboring NPCs. The molecular mechanism that coordinates Notch1 inactivation with initiation of neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that Prox1, a transcription repressor and downstream target of proneural genes, counteracts Notch1 signaling via direct suppression of Notch1 gene expression. By expression studies in the developing spinal cord of chick and mouse embryo, we showed that Prox1 is limited to neuronal precursors residing between the Notch1+ NPCs and post-mitotic neurons. Physiological levels of Prox1 in this tissue are sufficient to allow binding at Notch1 promoter and they are critical for proper Notch1 transcriptional regulation in vivo. Gain-of-function studies in the chick neural tube and mouse NPCs suggest that Prox1-mediated suppression of Notch1 relieves its inhibition on neurogenesis and allows NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Moreover, loss-of-function in the chick neural tube shows that Prox1 is necessary for suppression of Notch1 outside the ventricular zone, inhibition of active Notch signaling, down-regulation of NPC markers, and completion of neuronal differentiation program. Together these data suggest that Prox1 inhibits Notch1 gene expression to control the balance between NPC self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.

  12. Of Mice and Men: Neurogenesis, Cognition and Alzheimer’s disease

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    Orly eLazarov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells are maintained in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone in the adult mammalian brain throughout life. Neurogenesis is continuous, but its extent is tightly regulated by environmental factors, behavior, hormonal state, age and brain health. Increasing evidence supports a role for new neurons in cognitive function in rodents. Recent evidence delineates potential significant differences between adult neurogenesis in rodents and humans. Being context-dependent, neurogenesis in the human brain might be manifested differently than in the rodent brain. Decline in neurogenesis may play a role in cognitive deterioration, leading to the development of progressive learning and memory disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. This review discusses the different observations concerning neurogenesis in the rodent and human brain, and their functional implications for the healthy and diseased brain.

  13. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1β signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions.

  14. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica: racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons

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    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  15. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica): racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons.

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    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2017-07-01

    Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  16. RIT1 GTPase Regulates Sox2 Transcriptional Activity and Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Sajad; Cai, Weikang; Andres, Douglas A

    2017-02-10

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating mature neurons from neuronal progenitor cells, makes critical contributions to neural circuitry and brain function in both healthy and disease states. Neurogenesis is a highly regulated process in which diverse environmental and physiological stimuli are relayed to resident neural stem cell populations to control the transcription of genes involved in self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing neurogenesis is necessary for the development of translational strategies to harness this process for neuronal repair. Here we report that the Ras-related GTPase RIT1 serves to control the sequential proliferation and differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells, with in vivo expression of active RIT1 driving robust adult neurogenesis. Gene expression profiling analysis demonstrates increased expression of a specific set of transcription factors known to govern adult neurogenesis in response to active RIT1 expression in the hippocampus, including sex-determining region Y-related HMG box 2 (Sox2), a well established regulator of stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis. In adult hippocampal neuronal precursor cells, RIT1 controls an Akt-dependent signaling cascade, resulting in the stabilization and transcriptional activation of phosphorylated Sox2. This study supports a role for RIT1 in relaying niche-derived signals to neural/stem progenitor cells to control transcription of genes involved in self-renewal and differentiation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The role of adult neurogenesis in psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

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    Apple, Deana M; Fonseca, Rene Solano; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-01-15

    Neurogenesis in mammals occurs throughout life in two brain regions: the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Development and regulation of the V-SVZ and SGZ is unique to each brain region, but with several similar characteristics. Alterations to the production of new neurons in neurogenic regions have been linked to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Decline in neurogenesis in the SGZ correlates with affective and psychiatric disorders, and can be reversed by antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Likewise, neurogenesis in the V-SVZ can also be enhanced by antidepressant drugs. The regulation of neurogenesis by neurotransmitters, particularly monoamines, in both regions suggests that aberrant neurotransmitter signaling observed in psychiatric disease may play a role in the pathology of these mental health disorders. Similarly, the cognitive deficits that accompany neurodegenerative disease may also be exacerbated by decreased neurogenesis. This review explores the regulation and function of neural stem cells in rodents and humans, and the involvement of factors that contribute to psychiatric and cognitive deficits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:StemsCellsinPsychiatry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of amphetamine administration on neurogenesis in adult rats

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    Tomasz Stępień

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In our study expression of phospho-(Ser-10-histone H3 (pH3S10, a marker for the early stage of neurogenesis, and cellular early response genes were investigated using c-Fos protein as an example of a transcription factor in the neurogenic process in rats. Neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated by endo- and exogenous factors, which influence the proliferation potential of progenitor cells and accelerate the dendritic development of newborn neurons. D-amphetamine, a psychoactive substance, is one of the exogenous factors able to influence the process of neurogenesis. The rats were injected with D-amphetamine at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/body weight (b.w. under one administration scheme. Analysis of the pH3S10 and c-Fos expression levels in the group of D-amphetamine administered rats provided evidence of enhanced expression of these proteins in the regions of neurogenesis occurrence in rats. However, conclusions concerning stimulant effects of amphetamine on neurogenesis should be formulated with great caution, taking into account amphetamine dosage and the administration scheme. It should also be remembered that doses of psychoactive substances used in animal models can be lethal to humans.

  19. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  20. Impaired neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus is associated with pattern separation deficits: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    The separation of input patterns received from the entorhinal cortex (EC) by the dentate gyrus (DG) is a well-known critical step of information processing in the hippocampus. Although the role of interneurons in separation pattern efficiency of the DG has been theoretically known, the balance of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons and interneurons as well as its potential role in information processing in the DG is not fully understood. In this work, we study separation efficiency of the DG for different rates of neurogenesis of interneurons and excitatory neurons using a novel computational model in which we assume an increase in the synaptic efficacy between excitatory neurons and interneurons and then its decay over time. Information processing in the EC and DG was simulated as information flow in a two layer feed-forward neural network. The neurogenesis rate was modeled as the percentage of new born neurons added to the neuronal population in each time bin. The results show an important role of an optimal neurogenesis rate of interneurons and excitatory neurons in the DG in efficient separation of inputs from the EC in pattern separation tasks. The model predicts that any deviation of the optimal values of neurogenesis rates leads to different decreased levels of the separation deficits of the DG which influences its function to encode memory.

  1. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  2. Barhl1 regulates migration and survival of cerebellar granule cells by controlling expression of the neurotrophin-3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengguo; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Anlong; Price, Sandy M; Xiang, Mengqing

    2004-03-24

    The neurons generated at the germinal rhombic lip undergo long distance migration along divergent pathways to settle in widely dispersed locations within the hindbrain, giving rise to cerebellar granule cells and precerebellar nuclei. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) signaling has been shown to be required for proper migration and survival of cerebellar granule cells. The molecular bases that govern NT-3 expression within the cerebellum, however, remain unknown at present. Here we report that, during early mouse neurogenesis, the Barhl1 homeobox gene is highly expressed by the rhombic lip and rhombic lip-derived migratory neurons. Its expression is later restricted to cerebellar granule cells and precerebellar neurons extending mossy fibers, two groups of neurons that synaptically connect in the adult cerebellar system. Loss of Barhl1 function causes cerebellar phenotypes with a striking similarity to those of NT-3 conditional null mice, which include attenuated cerebellar foliation as well as defective radial migration and increased apoptotic death of granule cells. Correlating with these defects, we find that NT-3 expression is dramatically downregulated in granule cells of the posterior lobe of Barhl1(-)/- cerebella. Moreover, in the precerebellar system of Barhl1(-/-) mice, all five nuclei that project mossy fibers fail to form correctly because of aberrant neuronal migration and elevated apoptosis. These results suggest that Barhl1 plays an essential role in the migration and survival of cerebellar granule cells and precerebellar neurons and functionally link Barhl1 to the NT-3 signaling pathway during cerebellar development.

  3. Using causal models to distinguish between neurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects on behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley E. Lazic

    2011-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of research on the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and behaviour over the past fifteen years, but the causal role that new neurons have on cognitive and affective behavioural tasks is still far from clear. This is partly due to the difficulty of manipulating levels of neurogenesis without inducing off-target effects, which might also influence behaviour. In addition, the analytical methods typically used do not directly test whether neurogenes...

  4. Involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the regulation of migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M; Muñoz, J M; Arruebo, M P; Murillo, M D; Arnal, C; Bonafonte, J I; Plaza, M A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS) in the regulation of the migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep using electromyography and their expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry. Intravenous administration of L-NAME or the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) decreased the MMC interval. Myoelectric activity of intestinal phase II was increased, whereas antral activity was reduced. These effects were blocked by L-arginine. Inhibitors of either iNOS (aminoguanidine and S-methylisothiourea) or eNOS (L-NIO) were ineffective. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside decreased GI myoelectric activity, inhibited the MMC pattern, and prevented the effects induced by L-NAME and 7-NI in the intestine. Intracerebroventricular administration of these agents did not modify GI motility. In the rumen, abomasal antrum, duodenum, and jejunum, WB showed three bands at about 155, 145, and 135kDa corresponding to nNOS, and a 140-kDa band (eNOS); however iNOS was not detected. Positive nNOS immunostaining was observed in neurons of the myenteric and submucous plexus of all GI tissues, while eNOS was found in the endothelial cells, ruminal and intestinal epithelium, as well as in some enteric neurons and in endocrine-like cells of the duodenal Brunner's glands. In contrast, only weak iNOS immunoreactivity was found in ruminal epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that NO, synthesized at a peripheral level by nNOS, is tonically inhibiting the MMC pattern and intestinal motility in sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cathepsin E generates a sumoylated intracellular fragment of the cell adhesion molecule L1 to promote neuronal and Schwann cell migration as well as myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David; Wolters-Eisfeld, Gerrit; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates cellular responses in the developing and adult nervous system. Here, we show that stimulation of cultured mouse cerebellar neurons by a function-triggering L1 antibody leads to cathepsin E-mediated generation of a sumoylated 30 kDa L1 fragment (L1-30) and to import of L1-30 into the nucleus. Mutation of the sumoylation site at K1172 or the cathepsin E cleavage site at E1167 abolishes generation of L1-30, while mutation of the nuclear localization signal at K1147 prevents nuclear import of L1-30. Moreover, the aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin impairs the generation of L1-30 and inhibits L1-induced migration of cerebellar neurons and Schwann cells as well as L1-dependent in vitro myelination on axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons by Schwann cells. L1-stimulated migration of HEK293 cells expressing L1 with mutated cathepsin E cleavage site is diminished in comparison to migration of cells expressing non-mutated L1. In addition, L1-stimulated migration of HEK293 cells expressing non-mutated L1 is also abolished upon knock-down of cathepsin E expression and enhanced by over-expression of cathepsin E. The findings of the present study indicate that generation and nuclear import of L1-30 regulate neuronal and Schwann cell migration as well as myelination. Cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates cellular responses in the developing and adult nervous system. L1 stimulation triggers sumoylation and cleavage of L1, thus generating the L1-70 fragment (1) which is cleaved by cathepsin E (2) yielding the L1-30 fragment that is imported to the nucleus (3), may bind to DNA and/or nuclear proteins (4), to regulate diverse cellular functions. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis is not limited to the embryonic stage, but continually proceeds in the adult brain throughout life. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNA, play important roles in neurogenesis. For decades, DNA methylation was thought to be a stable modification, except for demethylation in the early embryo. In recent years, DNA methylation has proved to be dynamic during development. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding about DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis, including the roles of different methylation forms (5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine), as well as their ‘writers’, ‘readers’ and interactions with histone modifications. PMID:26950681

  7. Role of hippocampal neurogenesis in mnemonic segregation: implications for human mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Tarique D; Thirumangalakudi, Lakshmi; Glennon, Erin; Park, Sungshic; Insanally, Michele; Persky, Michael; Fonseka, Janaki; Dwork, Andrew J; Sackeim, Harold A; Coplan, Jeremy D; Fenton, André A

    2013-12-01

    Although hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in mood disorders, the precise role new neurons play in mood regulation is not fully elucidated. Here we examine whether neurogenesis improves mood by facilitating segregation of novel experiences that conflict with older maladaptive memories. Study 1: Four groups (N = 9 each) of adult male rats (exposed to stress or control conditions plus antidepressant or placebo) underwent active training on the place-avoidance task (PAT) on week 0; tested on recalling the "Initial PAT" on weeks 4 and 8; learning a subtly "Altered PAT" on week 8; and euthanazed on week 9. Study-2: Two groups (N = 12 each) rats tested either on the Initial-PAT or Altered-PAT 3 days post-training and immediately euthanized. Stressed subjects treated with placebo were slower in learning the week 8 Altered Task and had lower neurogenesis rates than non-stressed animals and Stressed subjects given drug (Study 1). Synaptic activation of mature hippocampal neurons inversely correlated with Altered-PAT performance and with neurogenesis rates (Study 2). Increasing neurogenesis enhances acquisition of novel experiences possibly by suppressing activation of mature hippocampal neurons that mediate established, conflicting memories. Therefore, antidepressants may improve mood by stimulating new hippocampal neurogenesis that facilitate detection of positive experiences while suppressing interference from recurring depressogenic thought patterns.

  8. Rapid neurogenesis through transcriptional activation in human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busskamp, Volker; Lewis, Nathan E; Guye, Patrick; Ng, Alex H M; Shipman, Seth L; Byrne, Susan M; Sanjana, Neville E; Murn, Jernej; Li, Yinqing; Li, Shangzhong; Stadler, Michael; Weiss, Ron; Church, George M

    2014-11-17

    Advances in cellular reprogramming and stem cell differentiation now enable ex vivo studies of human neuronal differentiation. However, it remains challenging to elucidate the underlying regulatory programs because differentiation protocols are laborious and often result in low neuron yields. Here, we overexpressed two Neurogenin transcription factors in human-induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained neurons with bipolar morphology in 4 days, at greater than 90% purity. The high purity enabled mRNA and microRNA expression profiling during neurogenesis, thus revealing the genetic programs involved in the rapid transition from stem cell to neuron. The resulting cells exhibited transcriptional, morphological and functional signatures of differentiated neurons, with greatest transcriptional similarity to prenatal human brain samples. Our analysis revealed a network of key transcription factors and microRNAs that promoted loss of pluripotency and rapid neurogenesis via progenitor states. Perturbations of key transcription factors affected homogeneity and phenotypic properties of the resulting neurons, suggesting that a systems-level view of the molecular biology of differentiation may guide subsequent manipulation of human stem cells to rapidly obtain diverse neuronal types. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Reelin-dependent ApoER2 downregulation uncouples newborn neurons from progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Pérez-Martínez

    2012-10-01

    Reelin and its receptor machinery are well known to be required for the migration and positioning of neocortical projection neurons. More recently, reelin has been shown both necessary and sufficient to determine the rate of neocortical neurogenesis. The molecular links underlying its seemingly distinct proliferative and post-proliferative functions remain unknown. Here we reveal an enriched expression of functional reelin receptors, largely of Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 (ApoER2, in radial glia basal processes and intermediate progenitor cells during mid/late cortical development. In vivo, ApoER2 overexpression inhibits neuronal migration. In contrast, precluding excessive levels of ApoER2 in reelin-deficient cortices, by either ApoER2 knock-down or the transgenic expression of reelin in neural progenitor cells, improves neuronal migration and positioning. Our study provides groundwork for the highly orchestrated clearance of neocortical neurons from their birth site, suggesting that a reelin-dependent ApoER2 downregulation mechanism uncouples newborn neurons from progenitor cells, thereby enabling neurons to migrate.

  10. Exercise Enhances Learning and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praag, Henriette van; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging. PMID:16177036

  11. BIRDS AS A MODEL TO STUDY ADULT NEUROGENESIS: BRIDGING EVOLUTIONARY, COMPARATIVE AND NEUROETHOLOGICAL APPROCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNEA, ANAT; PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. Such diversity of naturally-occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications. PMID:21929623

  12. Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kempermann, Gerd; Song, Hongjun; Gage, Fred H

    2015-01-01

    Of the neurogenic zones in the adult brain, adult hippocampal neurogenesis attracts the most attention, because it is involved in higher cognitive function, most notably memory processes, and certain affective behaviors...

  13. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  14. Apoptosis, neurogenesis, and information content in Hebbian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Christopher; Miranker, Willard

    2006-01-01

    The functional significance of alternate forms of plasticity in the brain (such as apoptosis and neurogenesis) is not easily observable with biological methods. Employing Hebbian dynamics for synaptic weight development, a three-layer neural network model of the hippocampus is used to simulate nonsupervised (autonomous) learning in the context of apoptosis and neurogenesis. This learning is applied to the characters of a pair of related alphabets, first the Roman and then the Greek, resulting in a set of encodings endogenously developed by the network. The learning performance takes the form of a U-shaped curve, showing that apoptosis and neurogenesis favorably inform memory development. We also discover that networks that converge very quickly on the Roman alphabet take much longer to handle the Greek, while networks which converge over an extended timeframe can then adapt very quickly to the new language. We find that the effect becomes increasingly pronounced as the number of neurons in the dentate gyrus layer decreases, and identify a strong correlation between cases where the Roman alphabet is quickly learned and cases where a few neurons saturate many of their weights almost immediately, minimizing participation of other neurons. Cases where learning the Roman alphabet requires more time lead to larger numbers of neurons participating with a larger diversity in synaptic weights. We present an information-theoretic argument about why this implies a better, more flexible learning system and why it leads to faster subsequent correlated Greek alphabet learning, and propose that the reason that apoptosis and neurogenesis work is that they promote this effect.

  15. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Modulates Fear Learning through Associative and Nonassociative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Oh; Carillo, Mary Ann; Chih-Hsiung Lim, Sean; Tanaka, Kenji F; Drew, Michael R

    2015-08-12

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is believed to support hippocampus-dependent learning and emotional regulation. These putative functions of adult neurogenesis have typically been studied in isolation, and little is known about how they interact to produce adaptive behavior. We used trace fear conditioning as a model system to elucidate mechanisms through which adult hippocampal neurogenesis modulates processing of aversive experience. To achieve a specific ablation of neurogenesis, we generated transgenic mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase specifically in neural progenitors and immature neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of the prodrug ganciclovir caused a robust suppression of neurogenesis without suppressing gliogenesis. Neurogenesis ablation via this method or targeted x-irradiation caused an increase in context conditioning in trace but not delay fear conditioning. Data suggest that this phenotype represents opposing effects of neurogenesis ablation on associative and nonassociative components of fear learning. Arrest of neurogenesis sensitizes mice to nonassociative effects of fear conditioning, as evidenced by increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field after (but not in the absence of) fear conditioning. In addition, arrest of neurogenesis impairs associative trace conditioning, but this impairment can be masked by nonassociative fear. The results suggest that adult neurogenesis modulates emotional learning via two distinct but opposing mechanisms: it supports associative trace conditioning while also buffering against the generalized fear and anxiety caused by fear conditioning. The role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in fear learning is controversial, with some studies suggesting neurogenesis is needed for aspects of fear learning and others suggesting it is dispensable. We generated transgenic mice in which neural progenitors can be selectively and inducibly ablated. Our data suggest that adult neurogenesis supports

  16. Peripheral nerve injury induces adult brain neurogenesis and remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities. We demonstrate that these anatomical changes, partially reversible in the long term, result from adult neurogenesis. Neurogenic markers Mash1, Ngn2, doublecortin and Notch3 are widely expressed in the rodent cerebellum and pons, both under normal and injured conditions. CCI-induced hindbrain structural plasticity is absent in Notch3 knockout mice, a strain with impaired neuronal differentiation, demonstrating its dependence on adult neurogenesis. Grey matter and white matter structural changes in human brain, as a result of pain, injury or learned behaviours have been previously detected using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Because neurogenesis-mediated structural plasticity is thought to be restricted to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, such anatomical rearrangements in other parts of the brain have been thought to result from neuronal plasticity or glial hypertrophy. Our findings suggest the presence of extensive neurogenesis-based structural plasticity in the adult mammalian brain, which may maintain a memory of basal sensory levels, and act as an adaptive mechanism to changes in sensory inputs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Agonistic behavior enhances adult neurogenesis in male Acheta domesticus crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Kaushik; Gupta, Mohit; Killian, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effect of agonistic behavior on cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult male Acheta domesticus crickets. We combined 5-bromo,2'deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling of dividing cells with immunocytochemical detection of the neuronal marker horseradish peroxidase to examine the proliferation of progenitor cells and the survival of newborn neurons. In crickets, the mushroom bodies of the brain contain clusters of proliferative cells that divide and generate new neurons in adulthood. Pairs of male crickets were allowed to fight and establish social rank and were then injected with BrdU. Proliferation of mushroom body neurogenic cluster cells was unaffected by agonistic interactions; 24 h after a fight, the number of BrdU positive cells in fought and un-fought males did not significantly differ. However, agonistic interactions did influence cell survival. Two weeks after an agonistic interaction, fought males had more newborn neurons than males that did not fight. There was also a rank-specific effect because dominant males had significantly more new neurons than subordinates. We also report for the first time that neurogenesis in adult crickets can occur in other regions of the brain and in other CNS ganglia, including the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Agonistic interactions enhanced the proliferation of these distributed precursor cells but did not increase the survival of the newborn neurons generated by these cells.

  18. Therapeutic Intervention of Learning and Memory Decays by Salidroside Stimulation of Neurogenesis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huijuan; Pei, Lei; Shu, Xiaogang; Yang, Xin; Yan, Tianhua; Wu, Yan; Wei, Na; Yan, Honglin; Wang, Shan; Yao, Chengye; Liu, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Lin; Lu, Youming

    2016-03-01

    Cognition in all mammals including human beings declines during aging. The cellular events responsible for this decay involve a reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Here, we show that treatment with a nature product from a traditional Chinese medicine, namely salidroside restores the capacity of the dentate gyrus to generate new neurons and intercepts learning and memory decays in mice during aging. We uncover that new neurons in aging mice have functional features of an adult granule neuron by forming excitatory synapses with their putative targeting neurons. Genetic inhibition of synaptic transmission from new neurons abolishes the therapeutic effects of salidroside in behavioral tests. We also identify that salidroside targets CREB transcription for the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of old mice. Thus, salidroside is therapeutically effective against learning and memory decays via stimulation of CREB-dependent functional neurogenesis in aging.

  19. Induction of striatal neurogenesis enhances functional recovery in an adult animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, S H; Yu, J H; Park, E S; Lee, J E; Kim, H O; Park, K I; Kim, G W; Park, C I; Cho, S-R

    2010-08-11

    While intraventricular administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) expands the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ), overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is particularly effective in enhancing striatal neurogenesis. We assessed the induction of striatal neurogenesis and consequent functional recovery after chronic infusion of BDNF and EGF in an adult animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Permanent brain damage was induced in CD-1 (ICR) mice (P7) by applying the ligation of unilateral carotid artery and hypoxic condition. At 6 weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to groups receiving a continuous 2-week infusion of one of the following treatments into the ventricle: BDNF, EGF, BDNF/EGF, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Two weeks after treatment, immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in the number of BrdU(+) cells in the SVZ and striata of BDNF/EGF-treated mice. The number of new neurons co-stained with BrdU and betaIII-tubulin was also significantly increased in the neostriata of BDNF/EGF-treated mice, compared with PBS group. In addition, the newly generated cells were expressed as migrating neuroblasts labeled with PSA-NCAM or doublecortin in the SVZ and the ventricular side of neostriata. The new striatal neurons were also differentiated as mature neurons co-labeled with BrdU(+)/NeuN(+). When evaluated post-surgical 8 weeks, BDNF/EGF-treated mice exhibited significantly longer rotarod latencies at constant speed (48 rpm) and under accelerating condition (4-80 rpm), relative to PBS and untreated controls. In the forelimb-use asymmetry test, BDNF/EGF-treated mice showed significant improvement in the use of the contralateral forelimb. In contrast, this BDNF/EGF-associated functional recovery was abolished in mice receiving a co-infusion of 2% cytosine-b-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C), a mitotic inhibitor. Induction of striatal neurogenesis by the

  20. Cometin is a novel neurotrophic factor that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuroblast migration in vitro and supports survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Roland; Fransson, Anette; Fjord-Larsen, Lone

    2012-01-01

    properties in vitro, combined with the restricted inner ear expression during development, we further investigated Cometin in relation to deafness. In neomycin deafened guinea pigs, two weeks intracochlear infusion of recombinant Cometin supports spiral ganglion neuron survival and function. In contrast......Neurotrophic factors are secreted proteins responsible for migration, growth and survival of neurons during development, and for maintenance and plasticity of adult neurons. Here we present a novel secreted protein named Cometin which together with Meteorin defines a new evolutionary conserved...... protein family. During early mouse development, Cometin is found exclusively in the floor plate and from E13.5 also in dorsal root ganglions and inner ear but apparently not in the adult nervous system. In vitro, Cometin promotes neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion cells which can be blocked...

  1. Treatment with Anti-EGF Ab Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Induction of Neurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Amir-Levy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The neural stem cells (NSCs migrate to the damaged sites in multiple sclerosis (MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, the differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes is blocked. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulates NSC proliferation and mobilization to demyelinated lesions but also induces astrogenesis and glial scar. Objective. To examine the clinical and histopathological effects of EGF neutralization on EAE. Methods. EAE-induced SJL mice were intravenously treated with either anti-EGF neutralizing antibody (Ab or isotype control or PBS. On day 9 after immunization, 3 mice of each group were daily treated for 9 days with BrdU and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis. Results. Treatment with anti-EGF Ab significantly ameliorated EAE symptoms during the second relapse. Anti-EGF Ab induced a shift from BrdU+GFAP+ NSCs to BrdU+DCX+ neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ, increased BrdU+NeuN+ neurons in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, and increased BrdU+O4+ oligodendrocytes in the SVZ. There was no change in the inflammatory infiltrates in response to anti-EGF Ab. Conclusions. Therapy with anti-EGF Ab ameliorates EAE via induction of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. No immunosuppressive effect was found. Further investigation is needed to support these notions of beneficial effect of anti-EGF Ab in MS.

  2. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging.

  4. Prion diseases and adult neurogenesis: how do prions counteract the brain's endogenous repair machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relaño-Ginés, Aroa; Lehmann, Sylvain; Crozet, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Scientific advances in stem cell biology and adult neurogenesis have raised the hope that neurodegenerative disorders could benefit from stem cell-based therapy. Adult neurogenesis might be part of the physiological regenerative process, however it might become impaired by the disease's mechanism and therefore contribute to neurodegeneration. In prion disorders this endogenous repair system has rarely been studied. Whether adult neurogenesis plays a role or not in brain repair or in the propagation of prion pathology remains unclear. We have recently investigated the status of adult neural stem cells isolated from prion-infected mice. We were able to show that neural stem cells accumulate and replicate prions thus resulting in an alteration of their neuronal destiny. We also reproduced these results in adult neural stem cells, which were infected in vitro. The fact that endogenous adult neurogenesis could be altered by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein represents another great challenge. Inhibiting prion propagation in these cells would thus help the endogenous neurogenesis to compensate for the injured neuronal system. Moreover, understanding the endogenous modulation of the neurogenesis system would help develop effective neural stem cell-based therapies.

  5. Reduction in subventricular zone-derived olfactory bulb neurogenesis in a rat model of Huntington's disease is accompanied by striatal invasion of neuroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kandasamy

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene (HTT. The primary neuropathology of HD has been attributed to the preferential degeneration of medium spiny neurons (MSN in the striatum. Reports on striatal neurogenesis have been a subject of debate; nevertheless, it should be considered as an endogenous attempt to repair the brain. The subventricular zone (SVZ might offer a close-by region to supply the degenerated striatum with new cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that R6/2 mice, a widely used preclinical model representing an early onset HD, showed reduced olfactory bulb (OB neurogenesis but induced striatal migration of neuroblasts without affecting the proliferation of neural progenitor cell (NPCs in the SVZ. The present study revisits these findings, using a clinically more relevant transgenic rat model of late onset HD (tgHD rats carrying the human HTT gene with 51 CAG repeats and mimicking many of the neuropathological features of HD seen in patients. We demonstrate that cell proliferation is reduced in the SVZ and OB of tgHD rats compared to WT rats. In the OB of tgHD rats, although cell survival was reduced, the frequency of neuronal differentiation was not altered in the granule cell layer (GCL compared to the WT rats. However, an increased frequency of dopamenergic neuronal differentiation was noticed in the glomerular layer (GLOM of tgHD rats. Besides this, we observed a selective proliferation of neuroblasts in the adjacent striatum of tgHD rats. There was no evidence for neuronal maturation and survival of these striatal neuroblasts. Therefore, the functional role of these invading neuroblasts still needs to be determined, but they might offer an endogenous alternative for stem or neuronal cell transplantation strategies.

  6. FMRP regulates neurogenesis in vivo in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Regina L; Wishard, Tyler J; Thompson, Christopher K; Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading known monogenic form of autism and the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. FXS results from silencing the FMR1 gene during embryonic development, leading to loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA transport, stability, and translation. FXS is commonly thought of as a disease of synaptic dysfunction, however, FMRP expression is lost early in embryonic development, well before most synaptogenesis occurs. Recent studies suggest that loss of FMRP results in aberrant neurogenesis, but neurogenic defects have been variable. We investigated whether FMRP affects neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles which express a homolog of FMR1. We used in vivo time-lapse imaging of neural progenitor cells and their neuronal progeny to evaluate the effect of acute loss or over-expression of FMRP on neurogenesis in the developing optic tectum. We complimented the time-lapse studies with SYTOX labeling to quantify apoptosis and CldU labeling to measure cell proliferation. Animals with increased or decreased levels of FMRP have significantly decreased neuronal proliferation and survival. They also have increased neuronal differentiation, but deficient dendritic arbor elaboration. The presence and severity of these defects was highly sensitive to FMRP levels. These data demonstrate that FMRP plays an important role in neurogenesis and suggest that endogenous FMRP levels are carefully regulated. These studies show promise in using Xenopus as an experimental system to study fundamental deficits in brain development with loss of FMRP and give new insight into the pathophysiology of FXS.

  7. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  8. Gene - environment interaction in programming hippocampal plasticity: focus on adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eKoehl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between genes and environment are a critical feature of development and both contribute to shape individuality. They are at the chore of vulnerability / resiliency for mental illnesses. During the early postnatal period, several brain structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing, such as the hippocampus, still develop and it is likely that interferences with this neuronal development, which is genetically determined, might lead to long-lasting structural and functional consequences and increase the risk of developing psychopathology. One particular target is adult neurogenesis, which is involved in the regulation of cognitive and emotional processes. Insights into the dynamic interplay between genes and environmental factors in setting up individual rates of neurogenesis have come from laboratory studies exploring experience-dependent changes in adult neurogenesis as a function of individual’s genetic makeup. These studies have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis, which could constitute a link between environmental challenges and psychopathology.

  9. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  10. Roles of taurine-mediated tonic GABAA receptor activation in the radial migration of neurons in the fetal mouse cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori eFurukawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA depolarizes embryonic cerebrocortical neurons and continuous activation of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR contributes to their tonic depolarization. Although multiple reports have demonstrated a role of GABAAR activation in neocortical development, including in migration, most of these studies have used pharmacological blockers. Herein, we performed in utero electroporation in GABA synthesis-lacking homozygous GAD67-GFP knock-in mice (GAD67GFP/GFP to label neurons born in the ventricular zone. Three days after electroporation, there were no differences in the distribution of labeled cells between the genotypes. The dose-response properties of cells labeled to detect GABA were equivalent among genotypes. However, continuous blockade of GABAAR with the GABAAR antagonist SR95531 accelerated radial migration. This effect of GABAAR blockade in GAD67GFP/GFP mice suggested a role for alternative endogenous GABAAR agonists. Thus, we tested the role of taurine, which is derived from maternal blood but is abundant in the fetal brain. The taurine-evoked currents in labeled cells were mediated by GABAAR. Taurine uptake was blocked by a taurine transporter inhibitor, 2-(guanidinoethanesulfonic acid (GES, and taurine release was blocked by a volume-sensitive anion channel blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl oxobutyric acid (DCPIB, as examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. GES increased the extracellular taurine concentration and induced an inward shift of the holding current, which was reversed by SR95531. In a taurine-deficient mouse model, the GABAAR-mediated tonic currents were greatly reduced, and radial migration was accelerated. As the tonic currents were equivalent among the genotypes of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, taurine, rather than GABA, might play a major role as an endogenous agonist of embryonic tonic GABAAR conductance, regulating the radial migration of neurons in the

  11. SOX2 is required for inner ear neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevens, Aleta R; Sookiasian, Danielle L; Glatzer, Jenna C; Kiernan, Amy E

    2017-06-22

    Neurons of the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) transmit hearing and balance information to the brain. During development, a select population of early otic progenitors express NEUROG1, delaminate from the otocyst, and coalesce to form the neurons that innervate all inner ear sensory regions. At present, the selection process that determines which otic progenitors activate NEUROG1 and adopt a neuroblast fate is incompletely understood. The transcription factor SOX2 has been implicated in otic neurogenesis, but its requirement in the specification of the CVG neurons has not been established. Here we tested SOX2's requirement during inner ear neuronal specification using a conditional deletion paradigm in the mouse. SOX2 deficiency at otocyst stages caused a near-absence of NEUROG1-expressing neuroblasts, increased cell death in the neurosensory epithelium, and significantly reduced the CVG volume. Interestingly, a milder decrease in neurogenesis was observed in heterozygotes, indicating SOX2 levels are important. Moreover, fate-mapping experiments revealed that the timing of SOX2 expression did not parallel the established vestibular-then-auditory sequence. These results demonstrate that SOX2 is required for the initial events in otic neuronal specification including expression of NEUROG1, although fate-mapping results suggest SOX2 may be required as a competence factor rather than a direct initiator of the neural fate.

  12. Neuronal Migration Disorders

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  13. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  14. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-04

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors.

  15. Multitype Bellman-Harris branching model provides biological predictors of early stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Sierra, Amanda; Deudero, Juan Jose; Semerci, Fatih; Laitman, Andrew; Kimmel, Marek; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2017-10-03

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the process of formation of new neurons, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus. New neurons have been associated with learning and memory as well as mood control, and impaired neurogenesis has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and cognitive decline during aging. Thus, understanding the biological properties of adult neurogenesis has important implications for human health. Computational models of neurogenesis have attempted to derive biologically relevant knowledge, hard to achieve using experimentation. However, the majority of the computational studies have predominantly focused on the late stages of neurogenesis, when newborn neurons integrate into hippocampal circuitry. Little is known about the early stages that regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neural stem cells and their immediate progeny. Here, based on the branching process theory and biological evidence, we developed a computational model that represents the early stage hippocampal neurogenic cascade and allows prediction of the overall efficiency of neurogenesis in both normal and diseased conditions. Using this stochastic model with a simulation program, we derived the equilibrium distribution of cell population and simulated the progression of the neurogenic cascade. Using BrdU pulse-and-chase experiment to label proliferating cells and their progeny in vivo, we quantified labeled newborn cells and fit the model on the experimental data. Our simulation results reveal unknown but meaningful biological parameters, among which the most critical ones are apoptotic rates at different stages of the neurogenic cascade: apoptotic rates reach maximum at the stage of neuroblasts; the probability of neuroprogenitor cell renewal is low; the neuroblast stage has the highest temporal variance within the cell types of the neurogenic cascade, while the apoptotic stage is short. At a practical level, the stochastic model and simulation framework

  16. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Increases the Acute Effects of Kainic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sloka S.; LaFrancois, John J.; Friedman, Daniel; Drew, Liam J.; Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Wu, Melody V.; Hsieh, Jenny; Hen, René; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of all mammals, but the functions of these new neurons are not entirely clear. Originally, adult-born neurons were considered to have excitatory effects on the DG network, but recent studies suggest a net inhibitory effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that selective removal of newborn neurons would lead to increased susceptibility to the effects of a convulsant. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the response to the chemoconvulsant kainic acid (KA) in mice with reduced adult neurogenesis, produced either by focal X-irradiation of the DG, or by pharmacogenetic deletion of dividing radial glial precursors. In the first 4 hrs after KA administration, when mice have the most robust seizures, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis had more severe convulsive seizures, exhibited either as a decreased latency to the first convulsive seizure, greater number of convulsive seizures, or longer convulsive seizures. Nonconvulsive seizures did not appear to change or they decreased. Four-21 hrs after KA injection, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis showed more interictal spikes (IIS) and delayed seizures than controls. Effects were greater when the anticonvulsant ethosuximide was injected 30 min prior to KA administration; ethosuximide allows forebrain seizure activity to be more easily examined in mice by suppressing seizures dominated by the brainstem. These data support the hypothesis that reduction of adult-born neurons increases the susceptibility of the brain to effects of KA. PMID:25476494

  17. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation and Completion of Episodic Information.

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    Aimone, James Bradley; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Verzi, Stephen Joseph.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus region of the brain is a neurobiological process that is believed to contribute to the brain's advanced abilities in complex pattern recognition and cognition. Here, we describe how realistic scale simulations of the neurogenesis process can offer both a unique perspective on the biological relevance of this process and confer computational insights that are suggestive of novel machine learning techniques. First, supercomputer based scaling studies of the neurogenesis process demonstrate how a small fraction of adult-born neurons have a uniquely larger impact in biologically realistic scaled networks. Second, we describe a novel technical approach by which the information content of ensembles of neurons can be estimated. Finally, we illustrate several examples of broader algorithmic impact of neurogenesis, including both extending existing machine learning approaches and novel approaches for intelligent sensing.

  18. Selective gene expression by postnatal electroporation during olfactory interneuron neurogenesis.

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    Alexander T Chesler

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis persists in the olfactory system throughout life. The mechanisms of how new neurons are generated, how they integrate into circuits, and their role in coding remain mysteries. Here we report a technique that will greatly facilitate research into these questions. We found that electroporation can be used to robustly and selectively label progenitors in the Subventicular Zone. The approach was performed postnatally, without surgery, and with near 100% success rates. Labeling was found in all classes of interneurons in the olfactory bulb, persisted to adulthood and had no adverse effects. The broad utility of electroporation was demonstrated by encoding a calcium sensor and markers of intracellular organelles. The approach was found to be effective in wildtype and transgenic mice as well as rats. Given its versatility, robustness, and both time and cost effectiveness, this method offers a powerful new way to use genetic manipulation to understand adult neurogenesis.

  19. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (Pneurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  20. Growth Factors Released from Gelatin Hydrogel Microspheres Increase New Neurons in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Kanako; Jinnou, Hideo; Kaneko, Naoko; Sawada, Masato; Hikita, Takao; Saitoh, Shinji; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain. Some of these new neurons migrate to injured brain tissues and differentiate into mature neurons, suggesting that such new neurons may be able to replace neurons lost to degenerative disease or injury and improve or repair neurological deficits. Here, we tested whether delivering growth factors via gelatin hydrogel microspheres would support neurogenesis in the SVZ. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons in the SVZ. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons migrating from the SVZ towards the injured striatum in a stroke model in mouse. These results suggest that the strategy of using gelatin hydrogel microspheres to achieve the sustained release of growth factors holds promise for the clinical regeneration of damaged brain tissues from endogenous neural stem cells in the adult SVZ. PMID:23093979

  1. Growth Factors Released from Gelatin Hydrogel Microspheres Increase New Neurons in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Nakaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult mammalian brain. Some of these new neurons migrate to injured brain tissues and differentiate into mature neurons, suggesting that such new neurons may be able to replace neurons lost to degenerative disease or injury and improve or repair neurological deficits. Here, we tested whether delivering growth factors via gelatin hydrogel microspheres would support neurogenesis in the SVZ. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons in the SVZ. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons migrating from the SVZ towards the injured striatum in a stroke model in mouse. These results suggest that the strategy of using gelatin hydrogel microspheres to achieve the sustained release of growth factors holds promise for the clinical regeneration of damaged brain tissues from endogenous neural stem cells in the adult SVZ.

  2. The long and the short of TRF2 in neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Mattson, Mark P; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-11-16

    Gene expression patterns change dramatically during neuronal development. Proliferating cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), express telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), a nuclear protein that associates with telomeric proteins, DNA, and RNA telomeres. In NSCs TRF2 also binds to the transcription regulator REST to facilitate repression of numerous neuron-specific genes, thereby keeping the NSCs in a self-renewing state. Upon neuronal differentiation, TRF2 levels decline, REST-regulated neuronal genes are derepressed, and a short isoform of TRF2 arises (TRF2-S) which localizes in the cytoplasm, associates with different subsets of proteins and transcripts, and mobilizes axonal G-rich mRNAs. We recently identified two RNA-binding proteins, HNRNPH1 and H2 (referred to jointly as HNRNPH due to their high homology), which mediate the alternative splicing of an exon required for the expression of full-length TRF2. As HNRNPH levels decline during neurogenesis, TRF2 abundance decreases and TRF2-S accumulates. Here, we discuss the shared and unique functions of TRF2 and TRF2-S, the distinct subcellular compartment in which each isoform resides, the subsets of proteins and nucleic acids with which each interacts, and the functional consequences of these ribonucleoprotein interactions. This paradigm illustrates the dynamic mechanisms through which splicing regulation by factors like HNRNPH enable distinct protein functions as cells adapt to developmental programs such as neurogenesis.

  3. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (Nsmf) plays a novel role in myoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Myogenesis, the formation and regeneration of muscular tissue, is a fundamental factor in embryonic development. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (Nsmf) mediates NMDA receptor endocytosis in GnRH neuronal cells. NMDA receptor is involved in myoblast differentiation by regulating Ca2 (+) dependent fusion of myocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of Nsmf in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry results showed that the Nsmf expression levels increased during both the differentiation and proliferation of myocytes. Knockdown of Nsmf in myocytes by siRNA did not affect the myocyte differentiation marker myogenin. However, flow cytometry showed that the proliferation rate of the Nsmf-knockdown cells was reduced compared to the control cells. Therefore, our results indicate that Nsmf is a novel myogenic factor that can enhance myoblast proliferation. Furthermore, Nsmf may be an important therapeutic target in diseases associated with aging, muscular dystrophy, or cachexia.

  4. Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampus-Dependent Memory, Contextual Fear Extinction and Remote Contextual Memory: New Insights from ERK5 MAP Kinase

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    Pan, Yung-Wei; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in two discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SGZ are currently an active area of investigation. Adult-born neurons in the DG functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and form functional synapses, suggesting a role for these neurons in hippocampus-dependent memory formation....

  5. The mammalian adult neurogenesis gene ontology (MANGO provides a structural framework for published information on genes regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

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    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not a single phenotype, but consists of a number of sub-processes, each of which is under complex genetic control. Interpretation of gene expression studies using existing resources often does not lead to results that address the interrelatedness of these processes. Formal structure, such as provided by ontologies, is essential in any field for comprehensive interpretation of existing knowledge but, until now, such a structure has been lacking for adult neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have created a resource with three components 1. A structured ontology describing the key stages in the development of adult hippocampal neural stem cells into functional granule cell neurons. 2. A comprehensive survey of the literature to annotate the results of all published reports on gene function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (257 manuscripts covering 228 genes to the appropriate terms in our ontology. 3. An easy-to-use searchable interface to the resulting database made freely available online. The manuscript presents an overview of the database highlighting global trends such as the current bias towards research on early proliferative stages, and an example gene set enrichment analysis. A limitation of the resource is the current scope of the literature which, however, is growing by around 100 publications per year. With the ontology and database in place, new findings can be rapidly annotated and regular updates of the database will be made publicly available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The resource we present allows relevant interpretation of gene expression screens in terms of defined stages of postnatal neuronal development. Annotation of genes by hand from the adult neurogenesis literature ensures the data are directly applicable to the system under study. We believe this approach could also serve as an example to other fields in a 'bottom-up' community effort complementing the already

  6. Targeting Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Restore Adult Neurogenesis.

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    Wang, Shu-Na; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Wen-Lin; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons throughout life in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of most mammalian species, which is closely related to aging and disease. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also an adipokine known as visfatin, is the rate-limiting enzyme for mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage synthesis by generating nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide. Recent findings from our laboratory and other laboratories have provided much evidence that NAMPT might serve as a therapeutic target to restore adult neurogenesis. NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis in neural stem/progenitor cells is important for their proliferation, self-renewal, and formation of oligodendrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Therapeutic interventions by the administration of NMN, NAD, or recombinant NAMPT are effective for restoring adult neurogenesis in several neurological diseases. We summarize adult neurogenesis in aging, ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disease and review the advances of targeting NAMPT in restoring neurogenesis. Specifically, we provide emphasis on the P7C3 family, a class of proneurogenic compounds that are potential NAMPT activators, which might shed light on future drug development in neurogenesis restoration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

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    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  8. Pattern Separation: A Potential Marker of Impaired Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis in Major Depressive Disorder

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    Kellen Gandy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis involves the generation of new neurons, particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Decreased hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in both animal models of depression and in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, despite some inconsistency in the literature. Here, we build upon current models to generate a new testable hypothesis, linking impaired neurogenesis to downstream psychological outcomes commonly observed in MDD. We contend that disruption in adult neurogenesis impairs pattern separation, a hippocampus-dependent function requiring the careful discrimination and storage of highly similar, but not identical, sensory inputs. This, in turn, can affect downstream processing and response selection, of relevance to emotional wellbeing. Specifically, disrupted pattern separation leads to misperceived stimuli (i.e., stimulus confusion, triggering the selection and deployment of established responses inappropriate for the actual stimuli. We speculate that this may be akin to activation of automatic thoughts, described in the Cognitive Behavior Theory of MDD. Similarly, this impaired ability to discriminate information at a fundamental sensory processing level (e.g., impaired pattern separation could underlie impaired psychological flexibility, a core component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy of MDD. We propose that research is needed to test this model by examining the relationship between cognitive functioning (e.g., pattern separation ability, psychological processes (e.g., perseveration and psychological inflexibility, and neurogenesis, taking advantage of emerging magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based imaging that measures neurogenesis in-vivo.

  9. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates amygdalar neurogenesis and extinction of fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chi; Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Gean, Po-Wu

    2015-10-01

    It is now recognized that neurogenesis occurs throughout life predominantly in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between neurogenesis in the amygdala and extinction of fear memory. Mice received 15 tone-footshock pairings. Twenty-four hours after training, the mice were given 15 tone-alone trials (extinction training) once per day for 7 days. Two hours before extinction training, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-3-deoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-positive and NeuN-positive cells were analyzed 52 days after the training. A group of mice that received tone-footshock pairings but no extinction training served as controls (FC+No-Ext). The number of BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells was significantly higher in the extinction (FC+Ext) than in the FC+No-Ext mice. Proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) or DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) reduced neurogenesis and retarded extinction. Silencing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene with short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) by means of a retrovirus expression system to knockdown Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons reduced neurogenesis and retarded extinction. By contrast, over-expression of Shh increased neurogenesis and facilitated extinction. These results suggest that amygdala neurogenesis and Shh signaling are involved in the extinction of fear memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult Neurogenesis in Sheep: Characterization and Contribution to Reproduction and Behavior

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    Frederic Lévy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics. The present review reveals the distinctive features of the hippocampal, olfactory, and hypothalamic neurogenesis in sheep. In particular, the organization of the subventricular zone and the dynamic of neuronal maturation differs from that of rodents. In addition, we show that various physiological conditions, such as seasonal reproduction, gestation, and lactation differently modulate these three neurogenic niches. Last, we discuss recent evidence indicating that hypothalamic neurogenesis acts as an important regulator of the seasonal control of reproduction and that olfactory neurogenesis could be involved in odor processing in the context of maternal behavior.

  11. Adult Neurogenesis in Sheep: Characterization and Contribution to Reproduction and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Frederic; Batailler, Martine; Meurisse, Maryse; Migaud, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics. The present review reveals the distinctive features of the hippocampal, olfactory, and hypothalamic neurogenesis in sheep. In particular, the organization of the subventricular zone and the dynamic of neuronal maturation differs from that of rodents. In addition, we show that various physiological conditions, such as seasonal reproduction, gestation, and lactation differently modulate these three neurogenic niches. Last, we discuss recent evidence indicating that hypothalamic neurogenesis acts as an important regulator of the seasonal control of reproduction and that olfactory neurogenesis could be involved in odor processing in the context of maternal behavior. PMID:29109674

  12. Effects of active shock avoidance learning on hippocampal neurogenesis and plasma levels of corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borght, Karin; Meerlo, Peter; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Eggen, Bart J.L.; van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal granule neurons that are newly formed during adulthood might be involved in learning and memory processes. Experimental data suggest that only hippocampus-dependent learning tasks stimulate neurogenesis. To further address this issue, the effects of active shock avoidance (ASA) learning

  13. Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelle, Carla; Polese, Gianluca; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization. It is considered the most "intelligent" invertebrate for its advanced cognitive capabilities, as learning and memory, and its sophisticated behaviors. The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration. Furthermore, we showed how enriched environmental conditions affect adult neurogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  15. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Lithium Improves Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Neuropathology and Cognitive Functions in APP Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Anna; Rosi, Maria Cristina; Grossi, Cristina; Luccarini, Ilaria; Casamenti, Fiorella

    2010-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles within neocortex and hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in learning and memory processes and its abnormal regulation might account for cognitive impairments associated with AD. Methodology/Principal Findings The double transgenic (Tg) CRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 2 and 6 months, were used to examine in vivo the effects of 5 weeks lithium treatment. BrdU labelling showed a decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of Tg mice compared to non-Tg mice. The decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis was accompanied by behavioural deficits and worsened with age and pathology severity. The differentiation into neurons and maturation of the proliferating cells were also markedly impaired in the Tg mice. Lithium treatment to 2-month-old Tg mice significantly stimulated the proliferation and neuron fate specification of newborn cells and fully counteracted the transgene-induced impairments of cognitive functions. The drug, by the inhibition of GSK-3β and subsequent activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, the data show that the lithium's ability to stimulate neurogenesis and cognitive functions was lost in the aged Tg mice, thus indicating that the lithium-induced facilitation of neurogenesis and cognitive functions declines as brain Aβ deposition and pathology increases. Conclusions Lithium, when given on time, stimulates neurogenesis and counteracts AD-like pathology. PMID:21187954

  17. Lithium improves hippocampal neurogenesis, neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fiorentini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles within neocortex and hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in learning and memory processes and its abnormal regulation might account for cognitive impairments associated with AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The double transgenic (Tg CRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 2 and 6 months, were used to examine in vivo the effects of 5 weeks lithium treatment. BrdU labelling showed a decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of Tg mice compared to non-Tg mice. The decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis was accompanied by behavioural deficits and worsened with age and pathology severity. The differentiation into neurons and maturation of the proliferating cells were also markedly impaired in the Tg mice. Lithium treatment to 2-month-old Tg mice significantly stimulated the proliferation and neuron fate specification of newborn cells and fully counteracted the transgene-induced impairments of cognitive functions. The drug, by the inhibition of GSK-3β and subsequent activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, the data show that the lithium's ability to stimulate neurogenesis and cognitive functions was lost in the aged Tg mice, thus indicating that the lithium-induced facilitation of neurogenesis and cognitive functions declines as brain Aβ deposition and pathology increases. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium, when given on time, stimulates neurogenesis and counteracts AD-like pathology.

  18. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development

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    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles

    2013-12-01

    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1—which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells—regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  19. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-03-08

    Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

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    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  1. From Blood to Brain: Adult-Born Neurons in the Crayfish Brain Are the Progeny of Cells Generated by the Immune System

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    Barbara S. Beltz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New neurons continue to be born and integrated into the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. Evidence in crayfish indicates that the 1st-generation neural precursors that generate these adult-born neurons originate in the immune system and travel to the neurogenic niche via the circulatory system. These precursors are attracted to the niche, become integrated amongst niche cells, and undergo mitosis within a few days; both daughters of this division migrate away from the niche toward the brain clusters where they will divide again and differentiate into neurons. In the crustacean brain, the rate of neuronal production is highly sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT levels. These effects are lineage-dependent, as serotonin's influence is limited to late 2nd-generation neural precursors and their progeny. Experiments indicate that serotonin regulates adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain by multiple mechanisms: via direct effects of serotonin released from brain neurons into the hemolymph or by local release onto target cells, or by indirect influences via a serotonin-mediated release of agents from other regions, such as hormones from the sinus gland and cytokines from hematopoietic tissues. Evidence in crayfish also indicates that serotonin mediates the attraction of neural precursors generated by the immune system to the neurogenic niche. Thus, studies in the crustacean brain have revealed multiple roles for this monoamine in adult neurogenesis, and identified several pathways by which serotonin influences the generation of new neurons.

  2. Neurogenesis in sea urchin embryos and the diversity of deuterostome neurogenic mechanisms.

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    Garner, Sarah; Zysk, Ivona; Byrne, Glynis; Kramer, Marabeth; Moller, Daniel; Taylor, Valerie; Burke, Robert D

    2016-01-15

    A single origin to the diverse mechanisms of metazoan neurogenesis is suggested by the involvement of common signaling components and similar classes of transcription factors. However, in many forms we lack details of where neurons arise, patterns of cell division, and specific differentiation pathway components. The sea urchin larval nervous system is composed of an apical organ, which develops from neuroepithelium and functions as a central nervous system, and peripheral neurons, which differentiate in the ciliary band and project axons to the apical organ. To reveal developmental mechanisms of neurogenesis in this basal deuterostome, we developed antibodies to SoxC, SoxB2, ELAV and Brn1/2/4 and used neurons that develop at specific locations to establish a timeline for neurogenesis. Neural progenitors express, in turn, SoxB2, SoxC, and Brn1/2/4, before projecting neurites and expressing ELAV and SynB. Using pulse-chase labeling of cells with a thymidine analog to identify cells in S-phase, we establish that neurons identified by location are in their last mitotic cycle at the time of hatching, and S-phase is coincident with expression of SoxC. The number of cells expressing SoxC and differentiating as neurons is reduced in embryos injected with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to SoxC, SoxB2 or Six3. Injection of RNA encoding SoxC into eggs does not enhance neurogenesis. In addition, inhibition of FGF receptors (SU5402) or a morpholino to FGFR1 reduces expression of SoxC. These data indicate that there are common features of neurogenesis in deuterostomes, and that sea urchins employ developmental mechanisms that are distinct from other ambulacraria. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

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    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  4. Normal radial migration and lamination are maintained in dyslexia-susceptibility candidate gene homolog Kiaa0319 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garay, Isabel; Guidi, Luiz G; Holloway, Zoe G; Bailey, Melissa A G; Lyngholm, Daniel; Schneider, Tomasz; Donnison, Timothy; Butt, Simon J B; Monaco, Anthony P; Molnár, Zoltán; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common disorder with a strong genetic component, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Several candidate dyslexia-susceptibility genes, including KIAA0319, DYX1C1, and DCDC2, have been identified in humans. RNA interference experiments targeting these genes in rat embryos have shown impairments in neuronal migration, suggesting that defects in radial cortical migration could be involved in the disease mechanism of dyslexia. Here we present the first characterisation of a Kiaa0319 knockout mouse line. Animals lacking KIAA0319 protein do not show anatomical abnormalities in any of the layered structures of the brain. Neurogenesis and radial migration of cortical projection neurons are not altered, and the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Kiaa0319-deficient neurons do not differ from those of wild-type neurons. Kiaa0319 overexpression in cortex delays radial migration, but does not affect final neuronal position. However, knockout animals show subtle differences suggesting possible alterations in anxiety-related behaviour and in sensorimotor gating. Our results do not reveal a migration disorder in the mouse model, adding to the body of evidence available for Dcdc2 and Dyx1c1 that, unlike in the rat in utero knockdown models, the dyslexia-susceptibility candidate mouse homolog genes do not play an evident role in neuronal migration. However, KIAA0319 protein expression seems to be restricted to the brain, not only in early developmental stages but also in adult mice, indicative of a role of this protein in brain function. The constitutive and conditional knockout lines reported here will be useful tools for further functional analyses of Kiaa0319.

  5. Nootropic agents stimulate neurogenesis. Brain Cells, Inc.: WO2007104035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    The application is in the field of adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells and cellular therapy. It aims to characterize the activity of nootropic agents on adult neurogenesis in vitro. Nootropic agents are substances improving cognitive and mental abilities. AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) and nootropic agents were assessed for the potential to differentiate human neural progenitor and stem cells into neuronal cells in vitro. They were also tested for their behavioural activity on the novel object recognition task. AMPA, piracetam, FK-960 and SGS-111 induce and stimulate neuronal differentiation of human-derived neural progenitor and stem cells. SGS-111 increases the number of visits to the novel object. The neurogenic activity of piracetam and SGS-111 is mediated through AMPA receptor. The neurogenic activity of SGS-111 may contribute and play a role in its nootropic activity. These results suggest that nootropic agents may elicit some of their effects through their neurogenic activity. The application claims the use of nootropic agents for their neurogenic activity and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating or increasing the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain.

  6. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis poststroke: More new granule cells but aberrant morphology and impaired spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, Florus; Ceanga, Mihai; Rudolph, Max; Niv, Fanny; Witte, Otto W; Redecker, Christoph; Kunze, Albrecht; Keiner, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Stroke significantly stimulates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, though the functional role of this postlesional response is mostly unclear. Recent findings suggest that newborn neurons generated in the context of stroke may fail to correctly integrate into pre-existing networks. We hypothesized that increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus following stroke is associated with aberrant neurogenesis and impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. To address these questions we used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) in mice. Animals were housed either under standard conditions or with free access to running wheels. Newborn granule cells were labelled with the thymidine analoque EdU and retroviral vectors. To assess memory performance, we employed a modified version of the Morris water maze (MWM) allowing differentiation between hippocampus dependent and independent learning strategies. Newborn neurons were morphologically analyzed using confocal microscopy and Neurolucida system at 7 weeks. We found that neurogenesis was significantly increased following MCAO. Animals with MCAO needed more time to localize the platform and employed less hippocampus-dependent search strategies in MWM versus controls. Confocal studies revealed an aberrant cell morphology with basal dendrites and an ectopic location (e.g. hilus) of new granule cells born in the ischemic brain. Running increased the number of new neurons but also enhanced aberrant neurogenesis. Running, did not improve the general performance in the MWM but slightly promoted the application of precise spatial search strategies. In conclusion, ischemic insults cause hippocampal-dependent memory deficits which are associated with aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus indicating ischemia-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus.

  7. Dynamics and function of distal regulatory elements during neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulation in mammals involves a complex interplay between promoters and distal regulatory elements that function in concert to drive precise spatiotemporal gene expression programs. However, the dynamics of the distal gene regulatory landscape and its function in the transcriptional reprogramming that underlies neurogenesis and neuronal activity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a combinatorial analysis of genome-wide data sets for chromatin accessibility (FAIRE-seq) and the enhancer mark H3K27ac, revealing the highly dynamic nature of distal gene regulation during neurogenesis, which gets progressively restricted to distinct genomic regions as neurons acquire a post-mitotic, terminally differentiated state. We further find that the distal accessible and active regions serve as target sites for distinct transcription factors that function in a stage-specific manner to contribute to the transcriptional program underlying neuronal commitment and maturation. Mature neurons respond to a sustained activity of NMDA receptors by epigenetic reprogramming at a large number of distal regulatory regions as well as dramatic reorganization of super-enhancers. Such massive remodeling of the distal regulatory landscape in turn results in a transcriptome that confers a transient loss of neuronal identity and gain of cellular plasticity. Furthermore, NMDA receptor activity also induces many novel prosurvival genes that function in neuroprotective pathways. Taken together, these findings reveal the dynamics of the distal regulatory landscape during neurogenesis and uncover novel regulatory elements that function in concert with epigenetic mechanisms and transcription factors to generate the transcriptome underlying neuronal development and activity. PMID:26170447

  8. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system shapes odor memory and perception.

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    Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory. After outlining the properties of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system, and after describing their regulation by internal and environmental factors, we ask how the process of odorant perception can be influenced by constant neuronal turnover. We then explore the possible functional roles that newborn neurons might have for olfactory memory. Throughout this review, and as we concentrate almost exclusively on mammalian models, we stress the idea that adult neurogenesis is yet another form of plasticity used by the brain to copes with a constantly changing olfactory world. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits.

  10. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Is it the alpha and omega of antidepressant action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Hoda; Belzung, Catherine; Surget, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    It is now well established that all clinically available antidepressants share a common aptitude: they increase the production of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This was first observed in animal models and subsequently in human populations, highlighting the clinical relevance of this finding. Later, it was suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis was not an epiphenomenal correlate of antidepressant action but was causally involved. Indeed, when neurogenesis is suppressed, antidepressant compounds can no longer achieve remission. This action of adult-born neurons seems necessary to achieve remission, but less evidence exists to show that it is sufficient alone. In the following decades, a new generation of putative antidepressants that act through different non-monoaminergic mechanisms were proposed in preclinical research as potential therapies. Interestingly, these treatments all increased neurogenesis in animal models of pathological states: this was observed with drugs acting through peptidergic or glutamatergic mechanisms and with neurostimulation strategies not targeting the hippocampus. However, the involvement of neurogenesis was not always causal. To advance further in this field, an understanding of how adult-generated neurons induce therapeutic effects and how this is related to the pathophysiology of depression are required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lactation-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is reversed by repeated stress exposure.

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    Hillerer, Katharina M; Neumann, Inga D; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Slattery, David A

    2014-06-01

    The peripartum period is a time of high susceptibility for mood and anxiety disorders, some of which have recently been associated with alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. Several factors including stress, aging, and, perhaps unexpectedly, lactation have been shown to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis. Intriguingly, lactation is also a time of reduced stress responsivity suggesting that the effect of stress on neurogenic processes may differ during this period. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of repeated stress during lactation [2 h restraint stress from lactation day (LD) 2 to LD13] on brain weight, hippocampal volume, cell proliferation and survival, and on neuronal and astroglial differentiation. In addition to confirming the known lactation-associated decrease in cell proliferation and survival, we could reveal that stress reversed the lactation-induced decrease in cell proliferation, while it did not affect survival of newly born cells, nor the number of mature neurons , nor did it alter immature neuron production or the number of astroglial cells in lactation. Stress exposure increased relative brain weight and hippocampal volume mirroring the observed changes in neurogenesis. Interestingly, hippocampal volume and relative brain weight were lower in lactation as compared to nulliparous females under nonstressed conditions. This study assessed the effect of stress during lactation on hippocampal neurogenesis and indicates that stress interferes with important peripartum adaptations at the level of the hippocampus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Training your brain: Do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus?

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    Curlik, D.M.; Shors, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    New neurons are produced each day in the hippocampus through the process of neurogenesis. Both mental and physical training can modify this process by increasing the number of new cells that mature into functional neurons in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms whereby these increases occur are not necessarily the same. Physical activity, especially aerobic exercise greatly increases the number of new neurons that are produced in the hippocamal formation. In contrast, mental training via ...

  13. The noradrenergic component in tapentadol action counteracts μ-opioid receptor-mediated adverse effects on adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Vasco; Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Bortolotto, Valeria; Ramazzotti, Vera; Ubezio, Federica; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2014-05-01

    Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus. Literature data also suggest that norepinephrine is a positive modulator of hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. On the basis of these observations, we investigated whether tapentadol, a novel central analgesic combining μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism with norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI), may produce less inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis compared with morphine. When tested in vitro, morphine inhibited neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and survival of adult mouse hippocampal neural progenitors and their progeny, via MOR interaction. By contrast, tapentadol was devoid of these adverse effects on cell survival and reduced neurite outgrowth and the number of newly generated neurons only at nanomolar concentrations where the MOR component is predominant. On the contrary, at higher (micromolar) concentrations, tapentadol elicited proneurogenic and antiapoptotic effects via activation of β2 and α2 adrenergic receptors, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that the noradrenergic component in tapentadol has the potential to counteract the adverse MOR-mediated effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. As a proof of concept, we showed that reboxetine, an NRI antidepressant, counteracted both antineurogenic and apoptotic effects of morphine in vitro. In line with these observations, chronic tapentadol treatment did not negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. In light of the increasing long-term use of opiates in chronic pain, in principle, the tapentadol combined mechanism of action may result in less or no reduction in adult neurogenesis compared with classic opiates.

  14. Knockdown of the glucocorticoid receptor alters functional integration of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and impairs fear-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C P; van Hooijdonk, L W A; Schouten, M; Zalachoras, I; Brinks, V; Zheng, T; Schouten, T G; Saaltink, D J; Dijkmans, T; Steindler, D A; Verhaagen, J; Verbeek, F J; Lucassen, P J; de Kloet, E R; Meijer, O C; Karst, H; Joels, M; Oitzl, M S; Vreugdenhil, E

    2013-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) secreted after stress reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process that has been implicated in cognitive aspects of psychopathology, amongst others. Yet, the exact role of the GC receptor (GR), a key mediator of GC action, in regulating adult neurogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that GR knockdown, selectively in newborn cells of the hippocampal neurogenic niche, accelerates their neuronal differentiation and migration. Strikingly, GR knockdown induced ectopic positioning of a subset of the new granule cells, altered their dendritic complexity and increased their number of mature dendritic spines and mossy fiber boutons. Consistent with the increase in synaptic contacts, cells with GR knockdown exhibit increased basal excitability parallel to impaired contextual freezing during fear conditioning. Together, our data demonstrate a key role for the GR in newborn hippocampal cells in mediating their synaptic connectivity and structural as well as functional integration into mature hippocampal circuits involved in fear memory consolidation.

  15. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  16. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

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    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  17. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor regulation of adult forebrain neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Batt, Myra K; Cronier, Brigitte A; Jackson, Michele C; Bruno Garza, Jennifer L; Trinh, Dennis S; Mason, Carter O; Spearry, Rachel P; Bhattacharya, Shayon; Robitz, Rachel; Nakafuku, Masato; MacLennan, A John

    2013-01-16

    Appropriately targeted manipulation of endogenous neural stem progenitor (NSP) cells may contribute to therapies for trauma, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. A prerequisite to such therapies is a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adult NSP cells in vivo. Indirect data suggest that endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor signaling may inhibit neuronal differentiation of NSP cells. We challenged subventricular zone (SVZ) cells in vivo with low concentrations of CNTF to anatomically characterize cells containing functional CNTF receptors. We found that type B "stem" cells are highly responsive, whereas type C "transit-amplifying" cells and type A neuroblasts are remarkably unresponsive, as are GFAP(+) astrocytes found outside the SVZ. CNTF was identified in a subset of type B cells that label with acute BrdU administration. Disruption of in vivo CNTF receptor signaling in SVZ NSP cells, with a "floxed" CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) mouse line and a gene construct driving Cre recombinase (Cre) expression in NSP cells, led to increases in SVZ-associated neuroblasts and new olfactory bulb neurons, as well as a neuron subtype-specific, adult-onset increase in olfactory bulb neuron populations. Adult-onset receptor disruption in SVZ NSP cells with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV-Cre) also led to increased neurogenesis. However, the maintenance of type B cell populations was apparently unaffected by the receptor disruption. Together, the data suggest that endogenous CNTF receptor signaling in type B stem cells inhibits adult neurogenesis, and further suggest that the regulation may occur in a neuron subtype-specific manner.

  18. Borna disease virus infects human neural progenitor cells and impairs neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Dragan; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Cochet, Marielle; Agier, Cécilia; Richardson, Jennifer; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Milhavet, Ollivier; Eloit, Marc; Coulpier, Muriel

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the complex mechanisms by which infectious agents can disrupt behavior represents a major challenge. The Borna disease virus (BDV), a potential human pathogen, provides a unique model to study such mechanisms. Because BDV induces neurodegeneration in brain areas that are still undergoing maturation at the time of infection, we tested the hypothesis that BDV interferes with neurogenesis. We showed that human neural stem/progenitor cells are highly permissive to BDV, although infection does not alter their survival or undifferentiated phenotype. In contrast, upon the induction of differentiation, BDV is capable of severely impairing neurogenesis by interfering with the survival of newly generated neurons. Such impairment was specific to neurogenesis, since astrogliogenesis was unaltered. In conclusion, we demonstrate a new mechanism by which BDV might impair neural function and brain plasticity in infected individuals. These results may contribute to a better understanding of behavioral disorders associated with BDV infection.

  19. Correlations between Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Metabolic Indices in Adult Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique D. Perera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased neurogenesis in feeding centers of the murine hypothalamus is associated with weight loss in diet-induced obese rodents (Kokoeva et al., 2005 and Matrisciano et al., 2010, but this relationship has not been examined in other species. Postmortem hippocampal neurogenesis rates and premortem metabolic parameters were statistically analyzed in 8 chow-fed colony-reared adult bonnet macaques. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis, reflected by the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin (DCX, and expression of the antiapoptotic gene factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2, but not the precursor proliferation mitotic marker, Ki67, was inversely correlated with body weight and crown-rump length. DCX and BCL-2 each correlated positively with blood glucose level and lipid ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. This study demonstrates that markers of dentate gyrus neuroplasticity correlate with metabolic parameters in primates.

  20. Long-Range GABAergic Inputs Regulate Neural Stem Cell Quiescence and Control Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hechen; Asrican, Brent; Li, Weidong; Gu, Bin; Wen, Zhexing; Lim, Szu-Aun; Haniff, Issac; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Philpot, Benjamin; Song, Juan

    2017-11-02

    The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA. Functionally, these long-range GABAergic inputs are necessary and sufficient to maintain adult NSC quiescence and ablating them leads to NSC activation and subsequent depletion of the NSC pool. Taken together, these findings delineate a GABAergic network involving long-range GABAergic projection neurons and local PV interneurons that couples dynamic brain activity to the neurogenic niche in controlling NSC quiescence and hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  2. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Fabel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  3. A Smaug2-Based Translational Repression Complex Determines the Balance between Precursor Maintenance versus Differentiation during Mammalian Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, Gianluca; Zander, Mark A; Yang, Guang; Dumelie, Jason G; Vessey, John P; Lipshitz, Howard D; Smibert, Craig A; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2015-11-25

    Here, we have asked about post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating murine developmental neurogenesis, focusing upon the RNA-binding proteins Smaug2 and Nanos1. We identify, in embryonic neural precursors of the murine cortex, a Smaug2 protein/nanos1 mRNA complex that is present in cytoplasmic granules with the translational repression proteins Dcp1 and 4E-T. We show that Smaug2 inhibits and Nanos1 promotes neurogenesis, with Smaug2 knockdown enhancing neurogenesis and depleting precursors, and Nanos1 knockdown inhibiting neurogenesis and maintaining precursors. Moreover, we show that Smaug2 likely regulates neurogenesis by silencing nanos1 mRNA. Specifically, Smaug2 knockdown inappropriately increases Nanos1 protein, and the Smaug2 knockdown-mediated neurogenesis is rescued by preventing this increase. Thus, Smaug2 and Nanos1 function as a bimodal translational repression switch to control neurogenesis, with Smaug2 acting in transcriptionally primed precursors to silence mRNAs important for neurogenesis, including nanos1 mRNA, and Nanos1 acting during the transition to neurons to repress the precursor state. The mechanisms instructing neural stem cells to generate the appropriate progeny are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the RNA-binding proteins Smaug2 and Nanos1 are critical regulators of this balance and provide evidence supporting the idea that neural precursors are transcriptionally primed to generate neurons but translational regulation maintains these precursors in a stem cell state until the appropriate developmental time. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515666-16$15.00/0.

  4. The neurogenesis hypothesis of affective and anxiety disorders: are we mistaking the scaffolding for the building?

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    Petrik, David; Lagace, Diane C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypotheses are scaffoldings erected in front of a building and then dismantled when the building is finished. They are indispensable for the workman; but you mustn't mistake the scaffolding for the building. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The neurogenesis hypothesis of affective disorders – in its simplest form – postulates that the generation of neurons in the postnatal hippocampal dentate gyrus is involved in the etiology and treatment efficacy of major depressive disorder (MDD). The hypothesis was established in the 1990s but was built on a broad foundation of earlier research on the hippocampus, serotonin and MDD. It has gone through several growth phases fueled by discoveries both correlative and causative in nature. Recently, the hypothesis has also been broadened to also include potential relevance for anxiety disorders, like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As any hypothesis should be, it has been tested and challenged, sometimes vigorously. Here we review the current standing of the neurogenesis hypothesis of affective and anxiety disorders, noting in particular how a central postulate – that decreased neurogenesis results in depression or anxiety – has, in general, been rejected. We also review the controversies on whether treatments for these disorders, like antidepressants, rely on intact neurogenesis for their efficacy, and the existence of neurogenesis-dependent and -independent effects of antidepressants. In addition, we review the implications that the hypothesis has for the response to stress, PTSD, and the neurobiology of resilience, and highlight our own work showing that adult-generated neurons are functionally important for the behavioral response to social stress. We conclude by emphasizing how advancements in transgenic mouse technology, rodent behavioral analyses, and our understanding of the neurogenesis process will allow us to refine our conclusions and perform ever more specific experiments. Such scrutiny is critical, since if

  5. Tubulin isotype specificity in neuronal migration: Tuba8 can't fill in for Tuba1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Takeshi

    2017-08-07

    Several tubulin isotypes, including Tuba1a, are associated with brain malformations. In this issue, Belvindrah et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607074) show that Tuba1a and Tuba8 differentially regulate microtubule organization in neurons, and they provide insights into the mechanisms by which Tuba1a mutations disrupt adult mouse brain morphology. © 2017 Kawauchi.

  6. Hippocampal Injury Induced Cognitive and Mood Dysfunction, Altered Neurogenesis and Epilepsy: Can Early Neural Stem Cell Grafting Intervention Provide Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Damage to hippocampus can occur through many causes including head trauma, ischemia, stroke, status epilepticus and Alzheimer’s disease. Certain changes such as increased levels of neurogenesis and elevated concentrations of multiple neurotrophic factors that ensue in the acute phase after injury seem beneficial for restraining hippocampal dysfunction. However, many alterations that arise in the intermediate to chronic phase after injury such as abnormal migration of newly born neurons, aberrant synaptic reorganization, progressive loss of inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid positive interneurons including those expressing reelin, greatly declined neurogenesis and sustained inflammation are detrimental. Consequently, the net effect of post-injury plasticity in the hippocampus remains inadequate for promoting significant functional recovery. Hence, ideal therapeutic interventions ought to be efficient for restraining these detrimental changes in order to block the propensity of most hippocampal injuries to evolve into learning deficits, memory dysfunction, depression, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Neural stem cell (NSC) grafting into the hippocampus early after injury appears alluring from this perspective because several recent studies have demonstrated therapeutic value of this intervention, especially for preventing/easing memory dysfunction, depresion and temporal lobe epilepsy development in the chronic phase after injury. These beneficial effects of NSC grafting appeared to be mediated through considerable modulation of aberrant hippocampal post-injury plasticity with additions of new inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid positive interneurons, and astrocytes secreting a variety of neurotrophic factors and anticonvulsant proteins. This review confers advancements made in NSC grafting therapy for treating hippocampal injury in animal models of excitotoxic injury, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease and status epilepticus, potential mechanisms of

  7. The impact of cocaine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Potential neurobiological mechanisms and contributions to maladaptive cognition in cocaine addiction disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2017-10-01

    After discovering that addictive drugs alter adult neurogenesis, the potential role of adult-born hippocampal neurons in drug addiction has become a promising research field, in which cocaine is the most frequently investigated drug. Although a substantial amount of pre-clinical evidence has accumulated, additional studies are required to reveal the mechanisms by which cocaine modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and determine whether these adult-born neurons have a role in cocaine-related behaviors, such as cocaine-mediated cognitive symptoms. First, this review will summarize the cocaine-induced alterations in a number of neurobiological factors (neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, glucocorticoids, inflammatory mediators) that likely regulate both hippocampal-dependent learning and adult hippocampal neurogenesis after cocaine exposure. A separate section will provide a detailed review of the available literature that challenges the common view that cocaine reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In fact, cocaine has a short-term anti-proliferative role, but the young adult-born neurons are apparently spared, or even enhanced, following certain cocaine protocols. Thus, we will try to reconcile this evidence with the hippocampal-dependent cognitive symptoms that are typically observed in cocaine addicts, and we will propose new directions for future studies to test the relevant hypothesis. Based on the evidence presented here, the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of the many mechanisms by which cocaine sculpts hippocampus-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential interactions between Notch and ID factors control neurogenesis by modulating Hes factor autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Iber, Dagmar; Taylor, Verdon

    2017-10-01

    During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate the correct number and types of neurons in a temporospatial fashion. Control of NSC activity and fate is crucial for brain formation and homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain differ considerably, but Notch signaling and inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) factors are pivotal in both. Notch and ID factors regulate NSC maintenance; however, it has been difficult to evaluate how these pathways potentially interact. Here, we combined mathematical modeling with analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data to elucidate unforeseen interactions between the Notch and ID factor pathways. During brain development, Notch signaling dominates and directly regulates Id4 expression, preventing other ID factors from inducing NSC quiescence. Conversely, during adult neurogenesis, Notch signaling and Id2/3 regulate neurogenesis in a complementary manner and ID factors can induce NSC maintenance and quiescence in the absence of Notch. Our analyses unveil key molecular interactions underlying NSC maintenance and mechanistic differences between embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Similar Notch and ID factor interactions may be crucial in other stem cell systems. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Magnolol Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effects in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobuaki; Akae, Haruka; Hirashima, Nana; Kido, Yuki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Koseki, Mayumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Akagi, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    Magnolol is the main constituent of Magnolia bark and has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in rodent models. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor are integrally involved in the action of conventional antidepressants. Here, we investigated the effects of magnolol on depressive behaviours, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related signal transduction in an olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) mouse model of depression. Mice were submitted to OBX to induce depressive behaviour, which was evaluated in the tail suspension test. Magnolol was administered orally by gavage needle. Neurogenesis was assessed by analysis of cells expressing NeuN, a neuronal marker, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein were evaluated by Western blot. Fourteen day treatment with magnolol (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) significantly improved OBX-induced depressive behaviour in tail suspension test. In agreement, magnolol significantly rescued impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, single treatments with magnolol (50 mg/kg) significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein after 3 h. The present data indicate that magnolol exerts antidepressant-like effects on behaviours by enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related intracellular signalling in OBX mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. TET1 contributes to neurogenesis onset time during fetal brain development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyerim; Jang, Woo Young; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Jain; Choi, Minjee; Sung, Yonghun; Park, Song; Kwon, Wookbong; Jang, Soyoung; Kim, Myoung Ok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2016-03-18

    Epigenetic mechanisms are relevant to development and contribute to fetal neurogenesis. DNA methylation and demethylation contribute to neural gene expression during mouse brain development. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) regulates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). TET1 specifically regulates 5hmC in the central nervous system (CNS), including during neurogenesis in the adult brain. However little is known about its function in fetal neurogenesis. In order to evaluate the role of TET1 in fetal brain development, we generated TET1-overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice. TET1 overexpression was confirmed in the brains of fetal mice, and we detected 5hmC overexpression in the TG brains compared to that in the wild type (WT) brains, using a dot-blot assay. In order to observe the role of TET1 in fetal brain development, we examined fetal brain samples at varied time points by using real-time PCR, Western blotting, and Immunofluorescence (IF). We confirmed that TET1 contributes to neurogenesis by upregulating the protein expressions of neuronal markers in the TG mouse brains, as determined by Western blotting. However the cortex structure or brain mass between WT and TG mice showed no significant difference by IF. In conclusion, TET1 makes the start time of neurogenesis earlier in the TG brains compared to that in the WT brains during fetal brain development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J.; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. PMID:23346419

  12. Hippocampal Neurogenesis Levels Predict WATERMAZE Search Strategies in the Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Will; Gothard, Russ; Simpson, Jessica M.; Christie, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation of spatial memories, and it is thought that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may participate in this form of learning. To better elucidate the relationship between neurogenesis and spatial learning, we examined both across the entire life span of mice. We found that cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neurogenesis significantly decrease with age, and that there is an abrupt reduction in these processes early on, between 1.5-3 months of age. After this, the neurogenic capacity continues to decline steadily. The initial abrupt decline in adult neurogenesis was paralleled by a significant reduction in Morris Water Maze performance, however overall learning and memory remained constant thereafter. Further analysis of the search strategies employed revealed that reductions in neurogenesis in the aging brain were strongly correlated with the adoption of spatially imprecise search strategies. Overall, performance measures of learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze were maintained at relatively constant levels in aging animals due to an increase in the use of spatially imprecise search strategies. PMID:24086453

  13. Neurogenesis and neuroprotection in postischemic brain neurodegeneration with Alzheimer phenotype: is there a role for curcumin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Ryszard; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Januszewski, Sławomir; Brzozowska, Judyta; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Kocki, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, humankind has used plants for therapeutics. Nowadays, there is a renewed public interest in naturally occurring treatments with minimal toxicity and diets related to health. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis have been recognized as an integral part of brain ischemia. Neuronal stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus are positively and negatively regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic agents. One positive regulator of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is curcumin in the diet. This review provides an assessment of the current state of the field in hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroprotection studies in brain ischemia and focuses on the role of curcumin in the diet. Data suggest that dietary intake of curcumin enhances neurogenesis. Recent studies performed in ischemic models have suggested that curcumin also has neuroprotective features. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent ageing-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation after ischemia such as β-amyloid peptide and tau protein. Here, we also review the evidence from ischemic models that curcumin improves cognition and health span by overexpression of life supporting genes and preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative changes. Available data provide evidence that curcumin induces neurogenesis and neuroprotection and may provide a novel therapeutic agent for both regenerative medicine and for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as postischemic brain neurodegeneration with Alzheimer phenotype.

  14. Functional Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heechul Jun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment.

  15. Temporal Control of Mammalian Cortical Neurogenesis by m6A Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Jun; Ringeling, Francisca Rojas; Vissers, Caroline; Jacob, Fadi; Pokrass, Michael; Jimenez-Cyrus, Dennisse; Su, Yijing; Kim, Nam-Shik; Zhu, Yunhua; Zheng, Lily; Kim, Sunghan; Wang, Xinyuan; Doré, Louis C; Jin, Peng; Regot, Sergi; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Canzar, Stefan; He, Chuan; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2017-11-02

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A), installed by the Mettl3/Mettl14 methyltransferase complex, is the most prevalent internal mRNA modification. Whether m6A regulates mammalian brain development is unknown. Here, we show that m6A depletion by Mettl14 knockout in embryonic mouse brains prolongs the cell cycle of radial glia cells and extends cortical neurogenesis into postnatal stages. m6A depletion by Mettl3 knockdown also leads to a prolonged cell cycle and maintenance of radial glia cells. m6A sequencing of embryonic mouse cortex reveals enrichment of mRNAs related to transcription factors, neurogenesis, the cell cycle, and neuronal differentiation, and m6A tagging promotes their decay. Further analysis uncovers previously unappreciated transcriptional prepatterning in cortical neural stem cells. m6A signaling also regulates human cortical neurogenesis in forebrain organoids. Comparison of m6A-mRNA landscapes between mouse and human cortical neurogenesis reveals enrichment of human-specific m6A tagging of transcripts related to brain-disorder risk genes. Our study identifies an epitranscriptomic mechanism in heightened transcriptional coordination during mammalian cortical neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in Neurogenesis and Neuritogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jan; Zatkova, Martina; Bacova, Zuzana; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a source of neural progenitor cells which give rise to different populations of specialized and differentiated cells during brain development. Newly formed neurons in the hypothalamus can synthesize and release various neuropeptides. Although term neuropeptide recently undergoes redefinition, small-size hypothalamic neuropeptides remain major signaling molecules mediating short- and long-term effects on brain development. They represent important factors in neurite growth and formation of neural circuits. There is evidence suggesting that the newly generated hypothalamic neurons may be involved in regulation of metabolism, energy balance, body weight, and social behavior as well. Here we review recent data on the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in adult neurogenesis and neuritogenesis with special emphasis on the development of food intake and social behavior related brain circuits. PMID:26881105

  17. Simulated apoptosis/neurogenesis regulates learning and memory capabilities of adaptive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R Andrew; Potenza, Marc N; Hoffman, Ralph E; Miranker, Willard

    2004-04-01

    Characterization of neuronal death and neurogenesis in the adult brain of birds, humans, and other mammals raises the possibility that neuronal turnover represents a special form of neuroplasticity associated with stress responses, cognition, and the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Multilayer neural network models capable of learning alphabetic character representations via incremental synaptic connection strength changes were used to assess additional learning and memory effects incurred by simulation of coordinated apoptotic and neurogenic events in the middle layer. Using a consistent incremental learning capability across all neurons and experimental conditions, increasing the number of middle layer neurons undergoing turnover increased network learning capacity for new information, and increased forgetting of old information. Simulations also showed that specific patterns of neural turnover based on individual neuronal connection characteristics, or the temporal-spatial pattern of neurons chosen for turnover during new learning impacts new learning performance. These simulations predict that apoptotic and neurogenic events could act together to produce specific learning and memory effects beyond those provided by ongoing mechanisms of connection plasticity in neuronal populations. Regulation of rates as well as patterns of neuronal turnover may serve an important function in tuning the informatic properties of plastic networks according to novel informational demands. Analogous regulation in the hippocampus may provide for adaptive cognitive and emotional responses to novel and stressful contexts, or operate suboptimally as a basis for psychiatric disorders. The implications of these elementary simulations for future biological and neural modeling research on apoptosis and neurogenesis are discussed.

  18. Impaired adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J Rodríguez

    Full Text Available It has become generally accepted that new neurones are added and integrated mainly in two areas of the mammalian CNS, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, which is of central importance in learning and memory. The newly generated cells display neuronal morphology, are able to generate action potentials and receive functional synaptic inputs, i.e. their properties are similar to those found in mature neurones. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the primary and widespread cause of dementia and is an age-related, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease that deteriorates cognitive functions. Here, we have used male and female triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD harbouring three mutant genes (beta-amyloid precursor protein, presenilin-1 and tau and their respective non-transgenic (non-Tg controls at 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months of age to establish the link between AD and neurogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry we determined the area density of proliferating cells within the SGZ of the DG, measured by the presence of phosphorylated Histone H3 (HH3, and their possible co-localisation with GFAP to exclude a glial phenotype. Less than 1% of the HH3 labeled cells co-localised with GFAP. Both non-Tg and 3xTg-AD showed an age-dependent decrease in neurogenesis. However, male 3xTg-AD mice demonstrated a further reduction in the production of new neurones from 9 months of age (73% decrease and a complete depletion at 12 months, when compared to controls. In addition, female 3xTg-AD mice showed an earlier but equivalent decrease in neurogenesis at 4 months (reduction of 63% with an almost inexistent rate at 12 months (88% decrease compared to controls. This reduction in neurogenesis was directly associated with the presence of beta-amyloid plaques and an increase in the number of beta-amyloid containing neurones in the hippocampus; which in the case of 3xgTg females was directly correlated. These

  19. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether......Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  20. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  1. Extremely weak magnetic field exposure may inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis of Sprague Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals brains and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors. Lines of evidences have shown that the magnetic field is an important physics environmental factor influencing many animals' growth and development, and extremely weak magnetic field exposures have been proved having serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in some animals, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we experimentally examined the extremely weak magnetic field effects on neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, an extremely weak magnetic field (≤ 0.5μT) and the geomagnetic fields (strength 31-58μT) as controls. Thirty-two SD rats (3-weeks old) were used in this study. New cell survival in hippocampus was assessed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days after a 7-day intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Meanwhile, the amounts of immature neurons and mature neurons which are both related to hippocampal neurogenesis, as documented by labeling with doublecortin (DCX) and neuron (NeuN), respectively, were also analyzed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days. Compared with geomagnetic field exposure groups, numbers of BrdU-, DCX-positive cells of DG of hippocampus in tested rats reduces monotonously and more rapidly after 14 days, and NeuN-positive cells significantly decreases after 28days when exposed in the extremely weak magnetic field condition. Our data suggest that the exposure to an extremely weak magnetic field may suppress the neurogenesis in DG of SD rats.

  2. In vivo imaging of adult human hippocampal neurogenesis: progress, pitfalls and promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, NF; Hooker, JM; Sahay, A; Holt, DJ; Roffman, JL

    2013-01-01

    New neurons are produced within the hippocampus of the mammalian brain throughout life. Evidence from animal studies has suggested that the function of these adult-born neurons is linked to cognition and emotion. Until we are able to detect and measure levels of adult neurogenesis in living human brains—a formidable challenge for now—we cannot establish its functional importance in human health, disease and new treatment development. Current non-invasive neuroimaging modalities can provide live snapshots of the brain’s structure, chemistry, activity and connectivity. This review explores whether existing macroscopic imaging methods can be used to understand the microscopic dynamics of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in living individuals. We discuss recent studies that have found correlations between neuroimaging measures of human hippocampal biology and levels of pro- or anti-neurogenic stimuli, weigh whether these correlations reflect changes in adult neurogenesis, detail the conceptual and technical limitations of these studies and elaborate on what will be needed to validate in vivo neuroimaging measures of adult neurogenesis for future investigations. PMID:23439487

  3. Contribution of constitutively proliferating precursor cell subtypes to dentate neurogenesis after cortical infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberland Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion. Results Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14. These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct. Conclusions Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.

  4. BET bromodomain inhibition promotes neurogenesis while inhibiting gliogenesis in neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjun Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers. Through screening small molecule libraries with annotated targets, we identified BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel mechanism for enhancing neurogenesis. BET bromodomain proteins, Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4 were found to be downregulated in NPCs upon differentiation, while their levels remain unaltered in proliferating NPCs. Consistent with the pharmacological study using bromodomain selective inhibitor (+-JQ-1, knockdown of each BET protein resulted in an increase in the number of neurons with simultaneous reduction in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Gene expression profiling analysis demonstrated that BET bromodomain inhibition induced a broad but specific transcription program enhancing directed differentiation of NPCs into neurons while suppressing cell cycle progression and gliogenesis. Together, these results highlight a crucial role of BET proteins as epigenetic regulators in NPC development and suggest a therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in treating brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Sonti, Anup N; Cameron, Heather A; Gould, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP-thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP-thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367027-12$15.00/0.

  6. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

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    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  7. Oppositional effects of serotonin receptors 5-HT1a, 2 and 2c in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Friederike Klempin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT appears to play a major role in controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis and thereby it is relevant for theories linking failing adult neurogenesis to the pathogenesis of major depression and the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. Serotonergic drugs lack acute effects on adult neurogenesis in many studies, which suggests a surprising long latency phase. Here we report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, which has no acute effect on precursor cell proliferation, causes the well-described increase in net neurogenesis upon prolonged treatment partly by promoting the survival and maturation of new postmitotic neurons. We hypothesized that this result is the cumulative effect of several 5-HT-dependent events in the course of adult neurogenesis. Thus, we used specific agonists and antagonists to 5-HT1a, 2, and 2c receptor subtypes to analyze their impact on different developmental stages. We found that 5-HT exerts acute and opposing effects on proliferation and survival or differentiation of precursor cells by activating the diverse receptor subtypes on different stages within the neuronal lineage in vivo. This was confirmed in vitro by demonstrating that 5-HT1a receptors are involved in self-renewal of precursor cells, whereas 5-HT2 receptors effect both proliferation and promote neuronal differentiation. We propose that under acute conditions 5-HT2 effects counteract the positive proliferative effect of 5-HT1a receptor activation. However, prolonged 5-HT2c receptor activation fosters an increase in late stage progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons, leading to a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Our data indicate that serotonin does not show effect latency in the adult dentate gyrus. Rather, the delayed response to serotonergic drugs with respect to endpoints downstream of the immediate receptor activity is largely due to the initially antagonistic and un-balanced action of different 5-HT

  8. Neurogenesis dan Faktor-Faktor yang Berpengaruh

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    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nerve tissue is known as neurogenesis. Vertebrate neve system has various functional capabilities from sensory perception, motor coordination, to the ability in producing motivation, spatial abilities, learning and memorizing due to various cell types that accurately connected and interact to each other. The connections between various nerve cells are continuously developed from the embryonic time until the early period of life. Recent studies have showed that neurogenesis in certain regions of nerve tissue can still be found in adults. This article reviews the cellular mechanism of neurogenesis and conditions that have role in the process.

  9. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its partial reversal by chronic treatment of fluoxetine in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Dey, Parthanarayan; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-04

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits, caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited Ube3a. Ube3a-maternal deficient mice (AS model mice) recapitulate many essential features of AS, but how the deficiency of Ube3a lead to such behavioural abnormalities is poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated significant impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice brain. Although, the number of BrdU and Ki67-positive cell in the hippocampal DG region was nearly equal at early postnatal days among wild type and AS mice, they were significantly reduced in adult AS mice compared to wild type controls. Reduced number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in this region of AS mice further indicated impaired neurogenesis. Unaltered BrdU and Ki67-positive cells number in the sub ventricular zone of adult AS mice brain along with the absence of imprinted expression of Ube3a in the neural progenitor cell suggesting that Ube3a may not be directly linked with altered neurogenesis. Finally, we show that the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in these mice can be partially rescued by the chronic treatment of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results suggest that the chronic stress may lead to reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice and that impaired neurogenesis could contribute to cognitive disturbances observed in these mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BACE1 Deficiency Causes Abnormal Neuronal Clustering in the Dentate Gyrus

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    Hailong Hou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACE1 is validated as Alzheimer's β-secretase and a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. In examining BACE1-null mice, we discovered that BACE1 deficiency develops abnormal clusters of immature neurons, forming doublecortin-positive neuroblasts, in the developing dentate gyrus, mainly in the subpial zone (SPZ. Such clusters were rarely observed in wild-type SPZ and not reported in other mouse models. To understand their origins and fates, we examined how neuroblasts in BACE1-null SPZ mature and migrate during early postnatal development. We show that such neuroblasts are destined to form Prox1-positive granule cells in the dentate granule cell layer, and mainly mature to form excitatory neurons, but not inhibitory neurons. Mechanistically, higher levels of reelin potentially contribute to abnormal neurogenesis and timely migration in BACE1-null SPZ. Altogether, we demonstrate that BACE1 is a critical regulator in forming the dentate granule cell layer through timely maturation and migration of SPZ neuroblasts.

  11. MicroRNA-Mediated Regulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis : Implications for Hippocampus-dependent Cognition and Related Disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielefeld, P.; Pustjens, B.; Schouten, M.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; De Pietri Tonelli, D.

    2017-01-01

    The adult hippocampus contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC) that proliferate and differentiate to generate new neurons across the lifespan of most mammalians in a process, termed “adult neurogenesis.” This process takes place within a characteristic local microenvironment where NSPC interact

  12. Newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb: unique properties for specific odor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton-Provencher, Vincent; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2012-02-14

    The generation of new cells in the adult brain reveals a new form of plasticity in the neuronal network. New cells are constantly migrating to and integrating into the pre-existing neuronal network in the olfactory bulb. The exact role of new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb and in odor behavior remains elusive despite continuous progress. The unique properties of these adult-born interneurons that distinguish them from pre-existing bulbar neurons allow them to adapt the processing of odor information in the neuronal network of the olfactory bulb in response to sensory experience. The combination of diverse methods for modulating neurogenesis levels with distinct behavioral paradigms has revealed that interneurons generated during adulthood play a role in olfactory behavior. In this review we provide an overview of the unique properties of adult-born neurons that integrate into the olfactory bulb as well as their role in odor behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Moving Neurons back into place

    OpenAIRE

    Kerjan, Geraldine; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a neuron migration disorder characterized by an aberrant ‘band-like’ accumulation of neurons within the neocortical white matter, frequently leading to mental retardation and epilepsy. SBH can now be regressed by reactivating neuronal migration.

  14. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  15. Impaired neurogenesis by HIV-1-Gp120 is rescued by genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, H K; Jiang, S; Fu, Y; Rockenstein, E; Makriyannis, A; Wood, J; Wang, L; Masliah, E; Avraham, S

    2015-10-01

    The HIV-envelope glycoprotein Gp120 is involved in neuronal injury and is associated with neuro-AIDS pathogenesis in the brain. Endocannabinoids are important lipid ligands in the CNS regulating neural functions, and their degeneration is controlled by hydrolysing enzymes such as the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we examined whether in vivo genetic deletion of Faah gene prevents HIV-1 Gp120-mediated effects on neurogenesis. We generated new GFAP/Gp120 transgenic (Tg) mice that have genetic deletion of Faah gene by mating glial fribillary acidic protein (GFAP)/Gp120 Tg mice with Faah-/- mice. Neurogenesis and cell death were assessed by immunocytochemical analysis. Endocannabinoid levels in the brain of the double GFAP/Gp120//Faah-/- mice were similar to those observed in Faah-/- mice. However, unlike the impaired neurogenesis observed in GFAP/Gp120 Tg mice and Faah-/- mice, these GFAP/Gp120//Faah-/ mice showed significantly improved neurogenesis in the hippocampus, indicated by a significant increase in neuroblasts and neuronal cells, an increase in BrdU(+) cells and doublecortin positive cells (DCX(+) ), and an increase in the number of PCNA. Furthermore, a significant decrease in astrogliosis and gliogenesis was observed in GFAP/Gp120//Faah-/-mice and neurogenesis was stimulated by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and/or the newly formed NPC niches characterized by increased COX-2 expression and elevated levels of PGE2 . In vivo genetic ablation of Faah, resulted in enhanced neurogenesis through modulation of the newly generated NPC niches in GFAP/Gp120//Faah-/- mice. This suggests a novel approach of using FAAH inhibitors to enhance neurogenesis in HIV-1 infected brain. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Characteristics of brain cell proliferation and migration in animals with experimental Alzheimer’s disease undergoing cognitive training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. K. Komleva

    2016-01-01

    training. However, the number of neuroblasts (р = 0,809 and proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells (p = 0,083 were not significantly affected compared with the group without training.Conclusions. Decreased level of brain cells proliferation, alterations in their migration and development of cognitive dysfunction have been found in the rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, thus suggesting impairment of neurogenesis induced by amyloid. Possible involvement of local insulin resistance into the development of neurogenesis alterations is discussed.

  17. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is an early- or late-stage disease marker. In the present study, we used the genomic-based hTau mouse model of tauopathy to examine the temporal and spatial regulation of adult neurogenesis during the course of the disease. Surprisingly, hTau mice exhibited reductions in adult neurogenesis in 2 different brain regions by as early as 2 months of age, before the development of robust MAPT pathology in this model. This reduction was found to be due to reduced proliferation and not because of enhanced apoptosis in the hippocampus. At these same time points, hTau mice also exhibited altered MAPT phosphorylation with neurogenic precursors. To examine whether the effects of MAPT on neurogenesis were cell autonomous, neurospheres prepared from hTau animals were examined in vitro, revealing a growth deficit when compared with non-transgenic neurosphere cultures. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that altered adult neurogenesis is a robust and early marker of altered, cell-autonomous function of MAPT in the hTau mouse mode of tauopathy and that altered adult neurogenesis should be examined as a potential marker and therapeutic target for human tauopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrients, neurogenesis and brain ageing: From disease mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaleo, Marco; Cavallucci, Virve; Pani, Giovambattista

    2017-10-01

    Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis has also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies points to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process. While the cellular and molecular circuitries underlying metabolic regulation of neurogenesis are still incompletely understood, the key role of mitochondrial activity and dynamics, and the importance of autophagy have begun to be fully appreciated; moreover, nutrient-sensitive pathways and transducers such as the insulin-IGF cascade, the AMPK/mTOR axis and the transcription regulators CREB and Sirt-1 have been included, beside more established "developmental" signals like Notch and Wnt, in the molecular networks that dictate neural-stem-cell self-renewal, migration and differentiation in response to local and systemic inputs. Many of these nutrient-related cascades are deregulated in the contest of metabolic diseases and in ageing, and may contribute to impaired neurogenesis and thus to cognition defects observed in these conditions. Importantly, accumulating knowledge on the metabolic control of neurogenesis provides a theoretical framework for the trial of new or repurposed drugs capable of interfering with nutrient sensing as enhancers of neurogenesis in the context of neurodegeneration and brain senescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Czaja Michele Fornaro Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system...

  20. Hippocampal neurogenesis response: What can we expect from two different models of hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Daniela; Nunes, Ana R; Diogo, Lucília N; Oudot, Carole; Monteiro, Emília C; Brenner, Catherine; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular disease, white matter lesion and cognitive deficit, both in experimental models and clinical observations. Furthermore, in non-clinical models it is shown that hippocampus is affected by hypertension and hypoxia. Herein, two distinct hypertension models were used to study neurogenic response in hippocampus. Dahl salt sensitive (DSS) rat model is a genetic based idiopathic model, while chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) mimics the hypertension observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Both models are chronic and trigger hypertension. No macroscopic alterations based on histological analysis were found in hippocampus derived from DSS and CIH exposure rats. Nevertheless, in hippocampus derived from CIH-induced hypertensive rats, there was a decrease on neuronal population (MAP2 and NeuN positive cells) and an increase on astrocytic marker GFAP. Accordingly, a higher increase on Ki67 expressing cells was found in dentate gyrus (DG) region, suggesting an enhancement of cell proliferation, concomitantly with an increase of Nestin staining, which indicates the presence of immature neurons under differentiation. While, in hippocampus of DSS rats with or without high salt diet, there was no remarkable difference indicating potential neuronal loss, astrocytic activation or neurogenesis. Furthermore, in both models hypertension did not alter the levels of expression of the stress response enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in DG. These data indicate that intermittent hypoxia might be the key factor involved in neurogenesis modulation in hippocampus. Furthermore, two hypotheses can be explored: (i) activation of neurogenesis is a response against neuronal loss induced by hypertension and/or hypoxia or (ii) neurogenesis can be directly stimulated by hypoxia as a neuroprotective mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult neurogenesis transiently generates oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M Walton

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence suggests that alterations in neurogenesis and oxidative stress are associated with a wide variety of CNS diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, as well as routine loss of function accompanying aging. Interestingly, the association between neurogenesis and the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS remains largely unexamined. The adult CNS harbors two regions of persistent lifelong neurogenesis: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus (DG. These regions contain populations of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs that generate mature progeny via rapidly-dividing progenitor cells. We hypothesized that the energetic demands of highly proliferative progenitors generates localized oxidative stress that contributes to ROS-mediated damage within the neuropoietic microenvironment. In vivo examination of germinal niches in adult rodents revealed increases in oxidized DNA and lipid markers, particularly in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus. To further pinpoint the cell types responsible for oxidative stress, we employed an in vitro cell culture model allowing for the synchronous terminal differentiation of primary hippocampal NSCs. Inducing differentiation in primary NSCs resulted in an immediate increase in total mitochondria number and overall ROS production, suggesting oxidative stress is generated during a transient window of elevated neurogenesis accompanying normal neurogenesis. To confirm these findings in vivo, we identified a set of oxidation-responsive genes, which respond to antioxidant administration and are significantly elevated in genetic- and exercise-induced model of hyperactive hippocampal neurogenesis. While no direct evidence exists coupling neurogenesis-associated stress to CNS disease, our data suggest that oxidative stress is produced as a result of routine adult neurogenesis.

  2. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  3. MicroRNA-9 Couples Brain Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Madelaine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression. This untimely increase of neuronal VEGF-A signal leads to the thickening of blood vessels at the expense of the normal formation of the neurovascular network in the brain and retina. Thus, this conserved transcriptional cascade is critical for proper brain development in vertebrates. Because of this dual role on neural stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis, miR-9 and its downstream targets are promising factors for cellular regenerative therapy following stroke and for brain tumor treatment.

  4. Effects of Aging on Hippocampal Neurogenesis After Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zoey [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, Yu-Qing [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wong, C. Shun, E-mail: shun.wong@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of aging on hippocampal neuronal development after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: Male mice, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 18 months of age, were given a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy of IR. A bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study was used to label newborn cells. Neural progenitors, newborn neurons, and microglia in dentate gyrus (DG) were identified by phenotypic markers, and their numbers were quantified by nonbiased stereology 9 weeks after IR. Results: BrdU-positive or newborn cells in DG decreased with aging and after IR. The number of neuroblasts and newborn neurons decreased with aging, and a further significant reduction was observed after IR. Total type 1 cells (the putative neural stem cells), and newborn type 1 cells decreased with aging, and further reduction in total type 1 cells was observed after IR. Aging-associated activation of microglia in hippocampus was enhanced after IR. Conclusions: The aging-associated decline in hippocampal neurogenesis was further inhibited after IR. Ablation of neural progenitors and activation of microglia may contribute to the inhibition of neuronal development after IR across all ages.

  5. The COX-2 inhibitors, meloxicam and nimesulide, suppress neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Maria Beatriz; Williams, Emma-Jane; Yip, Ping; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: In adults, neurogenesis persists in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ), and this is important for learning and memory. Inhibitors of COX-2 suppress ischaemia-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Here, we have determined the effects of COX-2 inhibitors on neurogenesis throughout the normal adult mouse brain. Experimental approach: Young adult mice were treated with COX-2 inhibitors, and the proliferation of neural progenitor cells was measured in the SVZ and hippocampus. In addition, the local uptake of lentiviral vectors in the rostral migratory stream enabled the formation of new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) to be assessed. Key results: The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam suppressed progenitor cell proliferation in the SVZ and hippocampus. A significant decrease in the appearance of new neurons in the OB was also observed. Similar effects on progenitor proliferation in the SVZ were seen with nimesulide. The absence of COX-2 expression in the proliferating progenitors in vivo, and the lack of effect of the COX-2 inhibitors on the growth rate of a cultured progenitor cell line, suggest that the effect is indirect. The specific expression of COX-2 in resting microglia that closely associate with the proliferating progenitor cells provides for a possible site of action. Conclusions and implications: Treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor results in a substantial inhibition of adult neurogenesis. Studies on human tissues are warranted in order to determine if this effect extends to humans, and whether inhibition of neurogenesis should be considered as an adverse effect of these drugs. PMID:20136845

  6. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.

  7. n-3 Fatty Acids Induce Neurogenesis of Predominantly POMC-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas F R; Souza, Gabriela F P; Morari, Joseane; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Solon, Carina; Moura, Rodrigo F; Victório, Sheila C; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Razolli, Daniela S; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Velloso, Lício A

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons is believed to play an important role in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Similar to the hippocampus, the hypothalamus presents constitutive and stimulated neurogenesis, suggesting that obesity-associated hypothalamic dysfunction can be repaired. Here, we explored the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce hypothalamic neurogenesis. Both in the diet and injected directly into the hypothalamus, PUFAs were capable of increasing hypothalamic neurogenesis to levels similar or superior to the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Most of the neurogenic activity induced by PUFAs resulted in increased numbers of proopiomelanocortin but not NPY neurons and was accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40). The inhibition of GPR40 was capable of reducing the neurogenic effect of a PUFA, while the inhibition of BDNF resulted in the reduction of global hypothalamic cell. Thus, PUFAs emerge as a potential dietary approach to correct obesity-associated hypothalamic neuronal loss. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

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    Dawe Gavin S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Towards a Better Treatment Option for Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Adult Neurogenesis.

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    Farzanehfar, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of midbrain. Given the fact that current treatment options are mostly symptomatic and based on increasing DA level in the nigrostriatal system, it is generally believed the most effective and long-lasting treatment for PD motor symptoms will be replacing SNc DA cells, either by endogenous repair (i.e. neurogenesis) or cell transplantation. While cell transplantation is hindered by failure of acquisition and maintenance of the DA phenotype by transplanted cells, hope rests upon non-invasive cell replacement therapy (CRT) with endogenous neural stem cells, which have the potential to give rise to new neurons including DA neurons. Understanding underlying mechanisms and signalling pathways of neurogenesis in the adult brain could shed light on obstacles to achieve effective CRTs and better treatments for PD. This paper first reviews different therapeutic strategies in context of PD along with their advantages and disadvantages followed by an extensive review of adult neurogenesis.

  10. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination.

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    Astha Malik

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis creates new neurons and glia from stem cells in the human brain throughout life. It is best understood in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ. Circadian rhythms have been identified in the hippocampus, but the role of any endogenous circadian oscillator cells in hippocampal neurogenesis and their importance in learning or memory remains unclear. Any study of stem cell regulation by intrinsic circadian timing within the DG is complicated by modulation from circadian clocks elsewhere in the brain. To examine circadian oscillators in greater isolation, neurosphere cultures were prepared from the DG of two knockout mouse lines that lack a functional circadian clock and from mPer1::luc mice to identify circadian oscillations in gene expression. Circadian mPer1 gene activity rhythms were recorded in neurospheres maintained in a culture medium that induces neurogenesis but not in one that maintains the stem cell state. Although the differentiating neural stem progenitor cells of spheres were rhythmic, evidence of any mature neurons was extremely sparse. The circadian timing signal originated in undifferentiated cells within the neurosphere. This conclusion was supported by immunocytochemistry for mPER1 protein that was localized to the inner, more stem cell-like neurosphere core. To test for effects of the circadian clock on neurogenesis, media conditions were altered to induce neurospheres from BMAL1 knockout mice to differentiate. These cultures displayed unusually high differentiation into glia rather than neurons according to GFAP and NeuN expression, respectively, and very few BetaIII tubulin-positive, immature neurons were observed. The knockout neurospheres also displayed areas visibly devoid of cells and had overall higher cell death. Neurospheres from arrhythmic mice lacking two other core clock genes, Cry1 and Cry2, showed significantly reduced growth and increased astrocyte

  11. Neuronal migration defect of the developing cerebellar vermis in substrains of C57BL/6 mice: cytoarchitecture and prevalence of molecular layer heterotopia.

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    Mangaru, Zareema; Salem, Elsaid; Sherman, Matthew; Van Dine, Sarah E; Bhambri, Ankur; Brumberg, Joshua C; Richfield, Eric K; Gabel, Lisa A; Ramos, Raddy L

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal development of the cerebellum is often associated with disorders of movement, postural control, and motor learning. Rodent models are widely used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar development and have revealed the roles of many important genetic and environmental factors. In the present report we describe the prevalence and cytoarchitecture of molecular-layer heterotopia, a malformation of neuronal migration, in the cerebellar vermis of C57BL/6 mice and closely-related strains. In particular, we found a diverse number of cell-types affected by these malformations including Purkinje cells, granule cells, inhibitory interneurons (GABAergic and glycinergic), and glia. Heterotopia were not observed in a sample of wild-derived mice, outbred mice, or inbred mice not closely related to C57BL/6 mice. These data are relevant to the use of C57BL/6 mice as models in the study of brain and behavior relationships and provide greater understanding of human cerebellar dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation...... Cdc42 and Rac1 in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis....

  13. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis and p21 expression in depression: dependent on antidepressants, sex, age, and antipsychotic exposure.

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    Epp, Jonathan R; Beasley, Clare L; Galea, Liisa Am

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus continues to generate new neurons throughout life. The function of adult-generated neurons remains controversial, but adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is related to depression. Studies show that neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by antidepressants in both humans and rodents, but no studies have examined the effects of age, sex, or antipsychotic exposure on the relationship between depression, antidepressant exposure, and hippocampal neurogenesis in humans. Hippocampal sections were obtained from the Stanley Medical Research Institute and were immunohistochemically labeled for the immature neuron marker doublecortin and the cell cycle arrest marker p21. We compared the number of cells in the granule cell layer and subgranular zone that expressed these proteins in brains from control subjects (n=12), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms (n=12), and patients with MDD and psychotic symptoms (n=12). We show here that the density of doublecortin/NeuN expression was increased in MDD patients compared with controls and MDD patients with psychosis, with the effect greater in women. Further, we show that older depressed patients without psychosis had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression and that depressed individuals prescribed antidepressants had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression, but only in older women. We show for the first time that changes in neurogenesis due to prescribed antidepressants or depression are dependent on age, sex, and the presence of antipsychotics or psychotic symptoms.

  14. Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.

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    Benson Wui-Man Lau

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.

  15. ACTIONS OF PROLACTIN IN THE BRAIN: FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO STRESS AND NEUROGENESIS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

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    Luz eTorner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin is one of the most versatile hormones known. It is considered an adaptive hormone due to the key roles it plays in the modulation of the stress response and during pregnancy and lactation. Within the brain, prolactin acts as a neuropeptide to promote physiological responses related to reproduction, stress adaptation, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. The action of prolactin on the nervous system contributes to the wide array of changes that occur in the female brain during pregnancy and result in the attenuation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Together, all these changes promote behavioral and physiological adaptations of the new mother to enable reproductive success. Brain adaptations driven by prolactin are also important for the regulation of maternal emotionality and wellbeing Prolactin also affects the male brain during the stress response but its effects have been less studied. Prolactin regulates neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus. Therefore, alterations in the prolactin system due to stress, or exposure to substances that reduce neurogenesis or other conditions, could contribute to maladaptive responses and pathological behavioral outcomes. Here we review the prolactin system and the role it plays in the modulation of stress response and emotion regulation. We discuss the effects of prolactin on neurogenesis and neuroprotection, the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects, and their contribution to the onset of psychopathological states like depression.

  16. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Odette Leiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus—a region crucial for learning and memory.

  17. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acupuncture for neurogenesis in experimental ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Zhong, Linda L D; Chen, Zi-xian; Li, Yan; Zheng, Guo-qing; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2016-01-20

    Acupuncture has been used for patients with stroke and post-stroke rehabilitation for thousands of years. Previous studies reported that acupuncture enhanced stroke recovery through neurogenesis. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for preclinical studies to assess the current evidence for acupuncture effect on neurogenesis in treating ischaemic stroke. Studies were obtained from six databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP information database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Ultimately, 34 studies containing 1617 animals were identified. Neurogenesis markers of Brdu, Nestin, PSA-NCAM, NeuN and GFAP were selected as major outcomes. The pooled results of 15 studies marked with Brdu showed significant effects of acupuncture for improving proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for increasing proliferation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for enhancing migration when compared with control groups (P acupuncture for stimulating differentiation when compared with control groups (P acupuncture is a prospective therapy targeting neurogenesis for ischemic stroke.

  19. NKCC1 controls GABAergic signaling and neuroblast migration in the postnatal forebrain

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    Murray Kerren

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From an early postnatal period and throughout life there is a continuous production of olfactory bulb (OB interneurons originating from neuronal precursors in the subventricular zone. To reach the OB circuits, immature neuroblasts migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS. In the present study, we employed cultured postnatal mouse forebrain slices and used lentiviral vectors to label neuronal precursors with GFP and to manipulate the expression levels of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. We investigated the role of this Cl- transporter in different stages of postnatal neurogenesis, including neuroblast migration and integration in the OB networks once they have reached the granule cell layer (GCL. We report that NKCC1 activity is necessary for maintaining normal migratory speed. Both pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that NKCC1 maintains high [Cl-]i and regulates the resting membrane potential of migratory neuroblasts whilst its functional expression is strongly reduced at the time cells reach the GCL. As in other developing systems, NKCC1 shapes GABAA-dependent signaling in the RMS neuroblasts. Also, we show that NKCC1 controls the migration of neuroblasts in the RMS. The present study indeed indicates that the latter effect results from a novel action of NKCC1 on the resting membrane potential, which is independent of GABAA-dependent signaling. All in all, our findings show that early stages of the postnatal recruitment of OB interneurons rely on precise, orchestrated mechanisms that depend on multiple actions of NKCC1.

  20. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

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    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deafferentation Enhances Neurogenesis in the Young and Middle Aged Hippocampus but not in the Aged Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S.; Shuai, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) after brain insults such as excitotoxic lesions, seizures or stroke is a well known phenomenon in the young hippocampus. This plasticity reflects an innate compensatory response of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the young hippocampus to preserve function or minimize damage after injury. However, injuries to the middle-aged and aged hippocampi elicit either no or dampened neurogenesis response, which could be due to an altered plasticity of NSCs and/or the hippocampus with age. We examined whether the plasticity of NSCs to increase neurogenesis in response to a milder injury such as partial deafferentation is preserved during aging. We quantified DG neurogenesis in the hippocampus of young, middle-aged and aged F344 rats after partial deafferentation. A partial deafferentation of the left hippocampus without any apparent cell loss was induced via administration of Kainic acid (0.5 μg in 1.0 μl) into the right lateral ventricle of the brain. In this model, degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons and dentate hilar neurons in the right hippocampus results in loss of commissural axons which leads to partial deafferentation of the dendrites of dentate granule cells and CA1-CA3 pyramidal neurons in the left hippocampus. Quantification of newly born cells that are added to the dentate granule cell layer at post-deafferentation days 4-15 using 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling revealed greatly increased addition of newly born cells (~3 fold increase) in the deafferented young and middle-aged hippocampi but not in the deafferented aged hippocampus. Measurement of newly born neurons using doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining also revealed similar findings. Analyses using BrdU-DCX dual immunofluorescence demonstrated no changes in neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells after deafferentation, in comparison to the age-matched naive hippocampus in all age groups. Thus, the plasticity of hippocampal NSCs to increase DG

  2. Appearance of cholinergic myenteric neurons during enteric nervous system development: comparison of different ChAT fluorescent mouse reporter lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, C S; Lee, S J; Barlow-Anacker, A J; Druckenbrod, N R; Epstein, M L; Gosain, A

    2014-06-01

    Cholinergic neurons have been identified with the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). However, ChAT is difficult to localize in newly differentiated peripheral neurons making the study of cholinergic neuronal development problematic. Consequently, researchers have used mouse reporter lines to indicate the presence of ChAT. Our objective was to determine which ChAT reporter line was the most sensitive indicator of ChAT expression. We utilized two different fluorescent ChAT reporter lines (ChAT-GFP and ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato) together with immunolocalization of ChAT protein (ChAT-IR) to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of ChAT in myenteric neurons throughout enteric nervous system (ENS) development. ChAT-IR cells were first seen in the intestine at E10.5, even within the migration wavefront of neural precursors. Myenteric neurons within the distal small intestine (dSI) and proximal colon were first labeled by ChAT-IR, then ChAT-GFP, and finally ChAT-Cre tdTomato. The percentage of ChAT-IR neurons is equivalent to adult levels in the dSI by E13.5 and proximal colon by P0. After these stages, the percentages remained relatively constant throughout development despite dramatic changes in neuronal density. These observations indicate that neurotransmitter expression occurs early and there is only a brief gap between neurogenesis and neurotransmitter expression. Our finding that the proportion of ChAT myenteric neurons reached adult levels during embryonic development suggests that the fate of cholinergic neurons is tightly regulated and that their differentiation might influence further neuronal development. ChAT-GFP is a more accurate indicator of early ENS cholinergic neuronal differentiation than the ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato reporter mouse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetic Demonstration of a Role for Stathmin in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Spinogenesis, and NMDA Receptor-Dependent Memory.

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    Martel, Guillaume; Uchida, Shusaku; Hevi, Charles; Chévere-Torres, Itzamarie; Fuentes, Ileana; Park, Young Jin; Hafeez, Hannah; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Shumyatsky, Gleb P

    2016-01-27

    Neurogenesis and memory formation are essential features of the dentate gyrus (DG) area of the hippocampus, but to what extent the mechanisms responsible for both processes overlap remains poorly understood. Stathmin protein, whose tubulin-binding and microtubule-destabilizing activity is negatively regulated by its phosphorylation, is prominently expressed in the DG. We show here that stathmin is involved in neurogenesis, spinogenesis, and memory formation in the DG. tTA/tetO-regulated bitransgenic mice, expressing the unphosphorylatable constitutively active Stathmin4A mutant (Stat4A), exhibit impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced spine density in the DG granule neurons. Although Stat4A mice display deficient NMDA receptor-dependent memory in contextual discrimination learning, which is dependent on hippocampal neurogenesis, their NMDA receptor-independent memory is normal. Confirming NMDA receptor involvement in the memory deficits, Stat4A mutant mice have a decrease in the level of synaptic NMDA receptors and a reduction in learning-dependent CREB-mediated gene transcription. The deficits in neurogenesis, spinogenesis, and memory in Stat4A mice are not present in mice in which tTA/tetO-dependent transgene transcription is blocked by doxycycline through their life. The memory deficits are also rescued within 3 d by intrahippocampal infusion of doxycycline, further indicating a role for stathmin expressed in the DG in contextual memory. Our findings therefore point to stathmin and microtubules as a mechanistic link between neurogenesis, spinogenesis, and NMDA receptor-dependent memory formation in the DG. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the role of stathmin in neuronal and behavioral functions. We characterized the neurogenic, behavioral, and molecular consequences of the gain-of-function stathmin mutation using a bitransgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active form of stathmin. We found that stathmin plays an important role in adult

  4. Novel effects of Rosa damascena extract on memory and neurogenesis in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Karimipour, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Ghannadian, Mustafa; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Daryoush; Hosseini, Nasrin; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2014-04-01

    The number of older people who are suffering from memory impairment is increasing among populations throughout the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects about 5% of people over 65 years old. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage in the early stages of AD. Emerging evidence suggests that loss of neurons and synapses are correlated with dementia in this devastating disease. Therefore, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in adulthood could serve as a preventive as well as a therapeutic target for AD. This study investigated the effect of Rosa damascena extract on neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in an animal model of AD. Molecular, cellular, and behavioral experiments revealed that this treatment could induce neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and improve memory in AD. Our study suggests that R. damascena is a promising treatment for mild memory impairments and AD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradazzi, Marino; Gulino, Rosario; Fieramosca, Francesco; Falzacappa, Lucia Verga; Riggi, Margherita; Leanza, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired, as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls. Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance (i.e., working memory) possibly via newly generated progenitors in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Agonists of fibroblast growth factor receptor induce neurite outgrowth and survival of cerebellar granule neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Christensen, Claus; Køhler, Lene B

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is pivotal in the regulation of neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival, and synaptic plasticity both during development and in adulthood. In order to develop low molecular weight agonists of FGFR, seven peptides, termed hexafins...

  7. Relationship between brain accumulation of manganese and aberration of hippocampal adult neurogenesis after oral exposure to manganese chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchihara, Yoh; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kato, Mizuho; Wang, Liyun; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-05-04

    We previously found persistent aberration of hippocampal adult neurogenesis, along with brain manganese (Mn) accumulation, in mouse offspring after developmental exposure to 800-ppm dietary Mn. Reduction of parvalbumin (Pvalb)(+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus along with promoter region hypermethylation are thought to be responsible for this aberrant neurogenesis. The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between the induction of aberrant neurogenesis and brain Mn accumulation after oral Mn exposure as well as the responsible mechanism in young adult animals. We used two groups of mice with 28- or 56-day exposure periods to oral MnCl2·xH2O at 800 ppm as Mn, a dose sufficient to lead to aberrant neurogenesis after developmental exposure. A third group of mice received intravenous injections of Mn at 5-mg/kg body weight once weekly for 28 days. The 28-day oral Mn exposure did not cause aberrations in neurogenesis. In contrast, 56-day oral exposure caused aberrations in neurogenesis suggestive of reductions in type 2b and type 3 progenitor cells and immature granule cells in the dentate subgranular zone. Brain Mn accumulation in 56-day exposed cases, as well as in directly Mn-injected cases occurred in parallel with reduction of Pvalb(+) GABAergic interneurons in the dentate hilus, suggesting that this may be responsible for aberrant neurogenesis. For reduction of Pvalb(+) interneurons, suppression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling of mature granule cells may occur via suppression of c-Fos-mediated neuronal plasticity due to direct Mn-toxicity rather than promoter region hypermethylation of Pvalb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A modified collagen scaffold facilitates endogenous neurogenesis for acute spinal cord injury repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Caixia; Li, Xing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Yannan; Liang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Han, Sufang; Li, Xiaoran; Xu, Bai; Wang, Nuo; Liu, Sumei; Xue, Weiwei; Dai, Jianwu

    2017-03-15

    Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules. A collagen-binding EGFR antibody Fab fragment, CBD-Fab, was constructed to neutralize the myelin inhibitory molecules, which was demonstrated to promote neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth under myelin in vitro. This fragment could also specifically bind to the collagen and undergo sustained release from collagen scaffold. Then, the scaffolds modified with CBD-Fab were transplanted into an acute rat SCI model. The robust neurogenesis of endogenous injury-activated NSCs was observed, and these NSCs could not only differentiate into neurons but further mature into functional neurons to reconnect the injured gap. The results indicated that the modified collagen scaffold could be an ideal candidate for spinal cord regeneration after acute SCI. A linearly ordered collagen scaffold was specifically modified with collagen-binding EGFR antibody, allowed for sustained release of this EGFR neutralizing factor, to block the myelin associated inhibitory molecules and guide spinal cord regeneration along its linear fibers. Dorsal root ganglion neurons and neural stem cells induced by CBD-Fab exhibited enhanced neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation rate under myelin in vitro. Transplantation of the modified collagen scaffold with moderate EGFR neutralizing proteins showed greatest advantage on endogenous neurogenesis of injury-activated neural stem cells for acute

  9. Barhl1, a gene belonging to a new subfamily of mammalian homeobox genes, is expressed in migrating neurons of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, A; Menguzzato, E; Broccoli, V; Marchitiello, A; Gattuso, C; Mariani, M; Consalez, G G; Martinez, S; Ballabio, A; Banfi, S

    2000-05-22

    The BarH1 and BarH2 ( Bar ) Drosophila genes are homeobox-containing genes, which are required for the fate determination of external sensory organs in the fly. By means of a bioinformatic approach, we have identified in mouse and human two homeobox genes highly related to the Bar Drosophila genes, Barhl1 and Barhl2. While Barhl1 represents a novel gene, Barhl2 turned out to correspond to the mBH1 cDNA recently described in rat. We isolated and sequenced the full-length mouse Barhl1 and mapped both the human BARHL1 and BARHL2 genes to chromosomes 9q34 and 1p22, respectively. Detailed analysis of the murine Barhl1 expression pattern by in situ hybridization revealed that this transcript is exclusively expressed in restricted domains of the developing CNS, which suggests that this gene, similar to its Drosophila counterparts BarH1 and BarH2, may play a crucial role in cell fate determination of neural structures. In particular, Barhl1 showed specific domains of expression in the diencephalon and in the rhombencephalon where it was found to be expressed in migrating cells giving rise to the cerebellar external granular layer and to specific populations of dorsal sensory interneurons of the spinal cord. Thus, Barhl1 function may be required for the generation of these specific subtypes of neuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the mapping assignment and the expression pattern make BARHL1 an attractive positional candidate gene for a form of Joubert syndrome, a rare developmental anomaly of the cerebellum in humans.

  10. The role of additive neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal memory model with grid-cell like input.

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    Peter A Appleby

    Full Text Available Recently, we presented a study of adult neurogenesis in a simplified hippocampal memory model. The network was required to encode and decode memory patterns despite changing input statistics. We showed that additive neurogenesis was a more effective adaptation strategy compared to neuronal turnover and conventional synaptic plasticity as it allowed the network to respond to changes in the input statistics while preserving representations of earlier environments. Here we extend our model to include realistic, spatially driven input firing patterns in the form of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. We compare network performance across a sequence of spatial environments using three distinct adaptation strategies: conventional synaptic plasticity, where the network is of fixed size but the connectivity is plastic; neuronal turnover, where the network is of fixed size but units in the network may die and be replaced; and additive neurogenesis, where the network starts out with fewer initial units but grows over time. We confirm that additive neurogenesis is a superior adaptation strategy when using realistic, spatially structured input patterns. We then show that a more biologically plausible neurogenesis rule that incorporates cell death and enhanced plasticity of new granule cells has an overall performance significantly better than any one of the three individual strategies operating alone. This adaptation rule can be tailored to maximise performance of the network when operating as either a short- or long-term memory store. We also examine the time course of adult neurogenesis over the lifetime of an animal raised under different hypothetical rearing conditions. These growth profiles have several distinct features that form a theoretical prediction that could be tested experimentally. Finally, we show that place cells can emerge and refine in a realistic manner in our model as a direct result of the sparsification performed by the dentate gyrus

  11. Melatonin synergizes with citalopram to induce antidepressant-like behavior and to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

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    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Oikawa-Sala, Julián; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2014-05-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is affected in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Numerous evidence indicates that plasma levels of melatonin are decreased in depressed patients. Also, melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behavior. In addition, antidepressants revert alterations of hippocampal neurogenesis present in models of depression following a similar time course to the improvement of behavior. In this study, we analyzed the effects of both, citalopram, a widely used antidepressant, and melatonin in the Porsolt forced swim test. In addition, we investigated the potential antidepressant role of the combination of melatonin and citalopram (MLTCITAL), its type of pharmacological interaction on depressive behavior, and its effect on hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we found decreased immobility behavior in mice treated with melatonin (29%), survival (>39%), and the absolute number of -associated new neurons (>53%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These results indicate that the MLTCITAL combination exerts synergism to induce an antidepressant-like action that could be related to the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This outcome opens the opportunity of using melatonin to promote behavioral benefits and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression and also supports the use of the MLTCITAL combination as an alternative to treat depression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

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    Shanu eGeorge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

  13. Control of Neuronal Development by T-Box Genes in the Brain.

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    Mihalas, A B; Hevner, R F

    2017-01-01

    T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons. At each stage, Tbr2 and Tbr1 regulate laminar and regional identity of cortical projection neurons, cell migration, and axon guidance. In the OB, Tbr1 subfamily genes regulate neurogenesis of mitral and tufted cells, and glutamatergic juxtaglomerular interneurons. Tbr2 is also prominent in the development of retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming pathways. Other regions that require Tbr2 or Tbr1 in development or adulthood include the cerebellum and adult dentate gyrus. In humans, de novo mutations in TBR1 are important causes of sporadic autism and intellectual disability. Further studies of T-box transcription factors will enhance our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders and inform approaches to new therapies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wnt signaling in neuropsychiatric disorders: ties with adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior

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    Hussaini, Syed Mohammed Qasim; Choi, Chan-Il; Cho, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Jun, Heechul; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to better understand and treat mental disorders, the Wnt pathway and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have received increased attention in recent years. One is a signaling pathway regulating key aspects of embryonic patterning, cell specification, and adult tissue homeostasis. The other is the generation of newborn neurons in adulthood that integrate into the neural circuit and function in learning and memory, and mood behavior. In this review, we discuss the growing relationship between Wnt signaling-mediated regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as it applies to neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence suggests dysfunctional Wnt signaling may aberrantly regulate new neuron development and cognitive function. Indeed, altered expression of key Wnt pathway components are observed in the hippocampus of patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinically-utilized mood stabilizers also proceed through modulation of Wnt signaling in the hippocampus, while Wnt pathway antagonists can regulate the antidepressant response. Here, we review the role of Wnt signaling in disease etiology and pathogenesis, regulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior, and the therapeutic targeting of disease symptoms. PMID:25263701

  15. F3/Contactin acts as a modulator of neurogenesis during cerebral cortex development.

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    Bizzoca, Antonella; Corsi, Patrizia; Polizzi, Angela; Pinto, Marco F; Xenaki, Dia; Furley, Andrew J W; Gennarini, Gianfranco

    2012-05-01

    The expression of the cell recognition molecule F3/Contactin (CNTN1) is generally associated with the functions of post-mitotic neurons. In the embryonic cortex, however, we find it expressed by proliferating ventricular zone (VZ) precursors. In contrast to previous findings in the developing cerebellum, F3/Contactin transgenic overexpression in the early cortical VZ promotes proliferation and expands the precursor pool at the expense of neurogenesis. At later stages, when F3/Contactin levels subside, however, neurogenesis resumes, suggesting that F3/Contactin expression in the VZ is inversely related to neurogenesis and plays a role in a feedback control mechanism, regulating the orderly progression of cortical development. The modified F3/Contactin profile therefore results in delayed corticogenesis, as judged by downregulation in upper and lower layer marker expression and by BrdU birth dating, indicating that, in this transgenic model, increased F3/Contactin levels counteract neuronal precursor commitment. These effects also occur in primary cultures and are reproduced by addition of an F3/Fc fusion protein to wild type cultures. Together, these data indicate a completely novel function for F3/Contactin. Parallel changes in the generation of the Notch Intracellular Domain and in the expression of the Hes-1 transcription factor indicate that activation of the Notch pathway plays a role in this phenotype, consistent with previous in vitro reports that F3/Contactin is a Notch1 ligand. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Opiate Analgesics as Negative Modulators of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Potential Implications in Clinical Practice

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    Valeria Bortolotto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, studies of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG have significantly progressed. At present, it is proposed that adult born neurons may contribute to a variety of hippocampal-related functions, including specific cognitive aspects and mood regulation. Several groups focussed on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC, including clinically relevant drugs. Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus. Since that initial report, a vast array of information has been collected on the effect of opiate drugs, by either modulating proliferation of stem/progenitor cells or interfering with differentiation, maturation and survival of adult born neurons. The goal of this review is to critically revise the present state of knowledge on the effect of opiate drugs on the different developmental stages of ahNG, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We will also highlight the potential impact of deregulated hippocampal neurogenesis on patients undergoing chronic opiate treatment. Finally, we will discuss the differences in the negative impact on ahNG among clinically relevant opiate drugs, an aspect that may be potentially taken into account to avoid long-term deregulation of neural plasticity and its associated functions in the clinical practice.

  17. Voluntary exercise induces neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle.

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    Niwa, Atsuko; Nishibori, Masahiro; Hamasaki, Shinichi; Kobori, Takuro; Liu, Keyue; Wake, Hidenori; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    In the adult hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle, tanycytes function as multipotential progenitor cells that enable continuous neurogenesis, suggesting that tanycytes may be able to mediate the restoration of homeostatic function after stroke. Voluntary wheel running has been shown to alter neurochemistry and neuronal function and to increase neurogenesis in rodents. In the present study, we found that voluntary exercise improved the survival rate and energy balance of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Kpo). We also investigated the effect of exercise on the proliferation and differentiation of hypothalamic cells using immunoreactivity for tanycytes and neural markers. The proliferation of elongated cells, which may be the tanycytes, was enhanced in exercising SHRSP compared to sedentary rats before and after stroke. In addition, the proliferation of cells was correlated with the induction of fibroblast growth factor-2 in the subependymal cells of the third ventricle and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Some of the newborn cells of exercising SHRSP showed differentiation into mature neurons after stroke. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise correlates with hypothalamic neurogenesis, leading to recovery of homeostatic functions in the adult brain after stroke.

  18. Regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis - implications for novel theories of major depression.

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    Kempermann, Gerd

    2002-02-01

    Major depression, whose biological origins have been difficult to grasp for decades, might result from a disturbance in neuronal plasticity. New theories begin to consider a fundamental role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in this loss of plasticity. Could depression and other mood disorders therefore be 'stem cell disorders'? In this review, the potential role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and of neuronal stem or progenitor cells in depression is discussed with regard to those aspects that are brought up by recent research on how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. What is known about this regulation today are mosaic pieces and indicates that regulation is complex and is modulated on several levels. Accordingly, emphasis is here laid on those regulatory feedback mechanisms and interdependencies that could help to explain how the pathogenic progression from a hypothesized disruptive cause can occur and lead to the complex clinical picture in mood disorders. While the 'neurogenic theory' of depression remains highly speculative today, it might stimulate the generation of sophisticated working hypotheses, useful animal experiments and the first step towards new therapeutic approaches.

  19. Myeloperoxidase Inhibition Increases Neurogenesis after Ischemic Stroke.

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    Kim, HyeonJu; Wei, Ying; Lee, Ji Yong; Wu, Yue; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between inflammation and neurogenesis in stroke is currently not well understood. Focal ischemia enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic regions, including the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus, as well as the non-neurogenic striatum, and cortex in the ischemic hemisphere. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a potent oxidizing enzyme secreted during inflammation by activated leukocytes, and its enzymatic activity is highly elevated after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of MPO activity by a specific irreversible inhibitor, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) (MPO(-/-) mice) can increase neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. ABAH administration increased the number of proliferating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells expressing markers for neural stems cells, astrocytes, neuroprogenitor cells (Nestin), and neuroblasts (doublecortin) in the ischemic SVZ, anterior SVZ, striatum, and cortex. MPO inhibition also increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133), acetylated H3, and NeuN to promote neurogenesis in the ischemic SVZ. ABAH treatment also increased chemokine CXC receptor 4 expression in the ischemic SVZ. MPO-deficient mice treated with vehicle or ABAH both showed similar effects on the number of BrdU(+) cells in the ischemic hemisphere, demonstrating that ABAH is specific to MPO. Taken together, our results underscore a detrimental role of MPO activity to postischemia neurogenesis and that a strategy to inhibit MPO activity can increase cell proliferation and improve neurogenesis after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Effects of active shock avoidance learning on hippocampal neurogenesis and plasma levels of corticosterone.

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    Van der Borght, Karin; Meerlo, Peter; Luiten, Paul G M; Eggen, Bart J L; Van der Zee, Eddy A

    2005-02-10

    Hippocampal granule neurons that are newly formed during adulthood might be involved in learning and memory processes. Experimental data suggest that only hippocampus-dependent learning tasks stimulate neurogenesis. To further address this issue, the effects of active shock avoidance (ASA) learning on hippocampal progenitor proliferation and survival of newly formed cells were investigated. ASA training, although considered as hippocampus-independent, is known to induce several neurobiological alterations in the hippocampus. Adult Wistar rats were trained in a shuttle box using a 1-day or 4-day paradigm and brains were analyzed for the mitotic marker Ki-67. Effects on survival of newly generated cells were examined by immunocytochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), which was injected 1 week before the training. Neither proliferation nor survival was affected by the ASA learning task. Because elevated glucocorticoid levels have a negative impact on hippocampal neurogenesis, blood samples were taken throughout the 4-day training paradigm. Both trained animals and control rats that were only placed in the shuttle box without receiving foot shocks showed a similar rise in corticosterone, enabling us to exclusively investigate the effects of ASA learning on neurogenesis without differential interference of stress between groups. On the other hand, the finding that ASA induced elevations in plasma corticosterone, but did not influence proliferation or survival of newly formed cells, indicates that this type of stress does not affect neurogenesis. The present study shows that, in line with the existing data on other hippocampus-independent learning tasks, ASA training has no effect on hippocampal neurogenesis.

  1. Chronic pain and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: translational implications from preclinical studies

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    Grilli M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariagrazia Grilli Laboratory of Neuroplasticity, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Abstract: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG occurs in the human brain. Adult generated neurons have been proposed to functionally contribute to relevant hippocampal functions such as learning and memory, mood regulation, and stress response. Learning, environmental enrichment, and physical exercise exert positive effects on ahNG. In parallel, these proneurogenic stimuli have been shown to ameliorate cognitive performance and/or depressive-like behavior in animal models. Conversely, aging, social isolation, and chronic stress exert negative effects on ahNG. Interestingly, reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis is suggested to potentially contribute to cognitive decline and mood alterations associated with aging and several neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical observation demonstrates that patients affected by chronic pain often exhibit increased anxiety and depression, impaired cognitive flexibility, and memory capacities. As of today, our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that may underlie the comorbidity of chronic pain, depression, and cognitive impairment is limited. Herein we review recent preclinical data suggesting that chronic pain may induce profound changes in hippocampal plasticity, including reduced ahNG. We discuss the possibility that deregulated hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic pain may, at least in part, contribute to cognitive and mood alterations. Based on this hypothesis, the mechanisms underlying chronic pain-associated changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and related functions need to be addressed experimentally. One interesting feature of ahNG is its susceptibility to pharmacological modulation. Again, based on preclinical data we discuss the possibility that, at least in principle, distinct analgesic drugs commonly used in chronic pain states (typical and atypical

  2. Early Postnatal but Not Late Adult Neurogenesis Is Impaired in the Pitx3-Mutant Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

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    Moritz D. Brandt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus has functional implications for hippocampal formation. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in various animal models of hippocampal dysfunction such as dementia and depression, which are both common non-motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. As dopamine plays an important role in regulating precursor cell proliferation, the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN in PD may be related to the reduced neurogenesis observed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain: subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG. Here we examined adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the Pitx3-mutant mouse model of PD (aphakia mice, which phenotypically shows a selective embryonic degeneration of dopamine neurons within the SN and to a smaller extent in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Proliferating cells were labeled with BrdU in aphakia mice and healthy controls from 3 to 42 weeks of age. Three weeks old mutant mice showed an 18% reduction of proliferating cells in the DG and of 26% in the SVZ. Not only proliferation but also the number of new neurons was impaired in young aphakia mice resulting in 33% less newborn cells 4 weeks after BrdU-labeling. Remarkably, however, the decline in the number of proliferating cells in the neurogenic regions vanished in older animals (8–42 weeks indicating that aging masks the effect of dopamine depletion on adult neurogenesis. Region specific reduction in precursor cells proliferation correlated with the extent of dopaminergic degeneration in mesencephalic subregions (VTA and SN, which supports the theory of age- and region-dependent regulatory effects of dopaminergic projections. Physiological stimulation of adult neurogenesis by physical activity (wheel running almost doubled the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of 8 weeks old aphakia mice to a number comparable to that of wild-type mice, abolishing the slight

  3. FGF Signaling Is Necessary for Neurogenesis in Young Mice and Sufficient to Reverse Its Decline in Old Mice.

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    Kang, Wenfei; Hébert, Jean M

    2015-07-15

    The mechanisms regulating hippocampal neurogenesis remain poorly understood. Particularly unclear is the extent to which age-related declines in hippocampal neurogenesis are due to an innate decrease in precursor cell performance or to changes in the environment of these cells. Several extracellular signaling factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis have been identified. However, the role of one important family, FGFs, remains uncertain. Although a body of literature suggests that FGFs can promote the proliferation of cultured adult hippocampal precursor cells, their requirement for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and the cell types within the neurogenic lineage that might depend on FGFs remain unclear. Here, specifically targeting adult neural precursor cells, we conditionally express an activated form of an FGF receptor or delete the FGF receptors that are expressed in these cells. We find that FGF receptors are required for neural stem-cell maintenance and that an activated receptor expressed in all precursors can increase the number of neurons produced. Moreover, in older mice, an activated FGF receptor can rescue the age-related decline in neurogenesis to a level found in young adults. These results suggest that the decrease in neurogenesis with age is not simply due to fewer stem cells, but also to declining signals in their niche. Thus, enhancing FGF signaling in precursors can be used to reverse age-related declines in hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampal deficits can result from trauma, neurodegeneration, or aging and can lead to loss of memory and mood control. The addition of new neurons to the hippocampus facilitates memory formation, but how this process is regulated and how we might manipulate it to reverse hippocampal dysfunction remains unclear. The FGF signaling pathway has been hypothesized to be important, but its role in generating new neurons had been poorly defined. Our study indicates that FGF signaling maintains and expands

  4. Role of Neuroinflammation in Adult Neurogenesis and Alzheimer Disease: Therapeutic Approaches

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    Llorens-Martín, María; Hernández, Félix; Avila, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, a specialized immune response that takes place in the central nervous system, has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, and specially, it has been considered as a hallmark of Alzheimer disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly nowadays. Furthermore, neuroinflammation has been demonstrated to affect important processes in the brain, such as the formation of new neurons, commonly known as adult neurogenesis. For this, many therapeutic approaches have been developed in order to avoid or mitigate the deleterious effects caused by the chronic activation of the immune response. Considering this, in this paper we revise the relationships between neuroinflammation, Alzheimer disease, and adult neurogenesis, as well as the current therapeutic approaches that have been developed in the field. PMID:23690659

  5. Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Cognitive Impairments following Prenatal Treatment of the Antiepileptic Drug Valproic Acid

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    Berry Juliandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, an established antiepileptic drug, has been reported to impair postnatal cognitive function in children born to VPA-treated epileptic mothers. However, how these defects arise and how they can be overcome remain unknown. Using mice, we found that comparable postnatal cognitive functional impairment is very likely correlated to the untimely enhancement of embryonic neurogenesis, which led to depletion of the neural precursor cell pool and consequently a decreased level of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Moreover, hippocampal neurons in the offspring of VPA-treated mice showed abnormal morphology and activity. Surprisingly, these impairments could be ameliorated by voluntary running. Our study suggests that although prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs such as VPA may have detrimental effects that persist until adulthood, these effects may be offset by a simple physical activity such as running.

  6. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

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    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Interaction between Cannabinoid Type 1 and Type 2 Receptors in the Modulation of Subventricular Zone and Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis

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    Rui S. Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain occurs mainly in two neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG. Cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R have been shown to differently modulate neurogenesis. However, low attention has been given to the interaction between CB1R and CB2R in modulating postnatal neurogenesis (proliferation, neuronal differentiation and maturation. We focused on a putative crosstalk between CB1R and CB2R to modulate neurogenesis and cultured SVZ and DG stem/progenitor cells from early postnatal (P1-3 Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 promotes DG cell proliferation (measured by BrdU staining, an effect blocked by either CB1R or CB2R selective antagonists. Experiments with selective agonists showed that facilitation of DG cell proliferation requires co-activation of both CB1R and CB2R. Cell proliferation in the SVZ was not affected by the non-selective receptor agonist, but it was enhanced by CB1R selective activation. However, either CB1R or CB2R selective antagonists abolished the effect of the CB1R agonist in SVZ cell proliferation. Neuronal differentiation (measured by immunocytochemistry against neuronal markers of different stages and calcium imaging was facilitated by WIN55,212-2 at both SVZ and DG. This effect was mimicked by either CB1R or CB2R selective agonists and blocked by either CB1R or CB2R selective antagonists, cross-antagonism being evident. In summary, our findings indicate a tight interaction between CB1R and CB2R to modulate neurogenesis in the two major neurogenic niches, thus contributing to further unraveling the mechanisms behind the action of endocannabinoids in the brain.

  8. Effects of psilocybin on hippocampal neurogenesis and extinction of trace fear conditioning.

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    Catlow, Briony J; Song, Shijie; Paredes, Daniel A; Kirstein, Cheryl L; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Drugs that modulate serotonin (5-HT) synaptic concentrations impact neurogenesis and hippocampal (HPC)-dependent learning. The primary objective is to determine the extent to which psilocybin (PSOP) modulates neurogenesis and thereby affects acquisition and extinction of HPC-dependent trace fear conditioning. PSOP, the 5-HT2A agonist 25I-NBMeO and the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin were administered via an acute intraperitoneal injection to mice. Trace fear conditioning was measured as the amount of time spent immobile in the presence of the conditioned stimulus (CS, auditory tone), trace (silent interval) and post-trace interval over 10 trials. Extinction was determined by the number of trials required to resume mobility during CS, trace and post-trace when the shock was not delivered. Neurogenesis was determined by unbiased counts of cells in the dentate gyrus of the HPC birth-dated with BrdU co-expressing a neuronal marker. Mice treated with a range of doses of PSOP acquired a robust conditioned fear response. Mice injected with low doses of PSOP extinguished cued fear conditioning significantly more rapidly than high-dose PSOP or saline-treated mice. Injection of PSOP, 25I-NBMeO or ketanserin resulted in significant dose-dependent decreases in number of newborn neurons in hippocampus. At the low doses of PSOP that enhanced extinction, neurogenesis was not decreased, but rather tended toward an increase. Extinction of "fear conditioning" may be mediated by actions of the drugs at sites other than hippocampus such as the amygdala, which is known to mediate the perception of fear. Another caveat is that PSOP is not purely selective for 5-HT2A receptors. PSOP facilitates extinction of the classically conditioned fear response, and this, and similar agents, should be explored as potential treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and related conditions.

  9. The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.

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    Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mice with conditional NeuroD1 knockout display reduced aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis but no change in epileptic seizures.

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    Brulet, Rebecca; Zhu, Jingfei; Aktar, Mahafuza; Hsieh, Jenny; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2017-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is significantly increased in the hippocampus of rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These adult-generated neurons have recently been shown to play a contributing role in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). In order to eventually target pro-epileptic adult neurogenesis in the clinical setting, it will be important to identify molecular players involved in the control of aberrant neurogenesis after seizures. Here, we focused on NeuroD1 (ND1), a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors previously shown to play an essential role in the differentiation and maturation of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus. Wild-type mice treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus (SE) showed a significant up-regulation of NeuroD1+ immature neuroblasts located in both the granule cell layer (GCL), and ectopically localized to the hilar region of the hippocampus. As expected, conditional knockout (cKO) of NeuroD1 in Nestin-expressing stem/progenitors and their progeny led to a reduction in the number of NeuroD1+ adult-generated neurons after pilocarpine treatment compared to WT littermates. Surprisingly, there was no change in SRS in NeuroD1 cKO mice, suggesting that NeuroD1 cKO fails to reduce aberrant neurogenesis below the threshold needed to impact SRS. Consistent with this conclusion, the total number of adult-generated neurons in the pilocarpine model, especially the total number of Prox1+ hilar ectopic granule cells were unchanged after NeuroD1 cKO, suggesting strategies to reduce SRS will need to achieve a greater removal of aberrant adult-generated neurons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Adult Neurogenesis, Chronic Stress and Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Encinas, J.M.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Canales, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    A major risk factor for depression in vulnerable individuals is exposure to stress during critical periods. Stress affects mood and cognition and is also one of the best known inhibitors of adult neurogenesis that has been associated with hippocampal changes and atrophy, common findings in major

  12. Growth hormone signaling and hippocampal neurogenesis: insights from genetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Mark I; Turnley, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is modulated by a variety of factors through effects on the proliferation-differentiation-survival regulatory axis. We have employed growth hormone receptor knockout (GH-R-/-) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 transgenic (SOCS-2 Tg) mice as models of altered GH-signaling to assess their affects on basal and exercised-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Assessment of proliferation 24-h after 7-days of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling with or without voluntary running showed that the density of BrdU(+) cells in the subgranular zone remained unchanged between genotypes in control housing, while running induced significant increases in BrdU-labeled cells in WT, GH-R-/-, and SOCS-2 Tg mice. The proportion of BrdU/doublecortin and BrdU/S100beta cells did not vary between genotype or running conditions at this time-point. Assessment of cell survival 28-days after BrdU labeling showed that SOCS-2 Tg animals had significantly higher BrdU(+) cell densities in the granule cell layer compared to WT and GH-R-/- animals in control housing and after voluntary running. There were no differences in cell survival between WT and GH-R-/- mice with or without running. Mature phenotype analysis showed similar proportions of BrdU/NeuN and BrdU/S100beta in all groups. While SOCS-2 Tg mice had similar social interaction behaviors and sensorimotor gating, they appeared to be less anxious with heightened basal locomotor activity and showed enhanced performance in the Morris watermaze test. Overall, our data indicated that mice over-expressing SOCS-2 showed increased survival of neurons generated during AHN, which correlated with improved performance in a hippocampal-dependent cognitive task. Furthermore, voluntary running increased AHN in WT, SOCS-2 Tg, and serum-IGF-1-deficient GH-R-/- mice.

  13. Neurogenesis impairment: An early developmental defect in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Fiorenza; Giacomini, Andrea; Emili, Marco; Guidi, Sandra; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2017-07-27

    Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by brain hypotrophy and intellectual disability starting from early life stages. Accumulating evidence shows that the phenotypic features of the DS brain can be traced back to the fetal period since the DS brain exhibits proliferation potency reduction starting from the critical time window of fetal neurogenesis. This defect is worsened by the fact that neural progenitor cells exhibit reduced acquisition of a neuronal phenotype and an increase in the acquisition of an astrocytic phenotype. Consequently, the DS brain has fewer neurons in comparison with the typical brain. Although apoptotic cell death may be increased in DS, this does not seem to be the major cause of brain hypocellularity. Evidence obtained in brains of individuals with DS, DS-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and DS mouse models has provided some insight into the mechanisms underlying the developmental defects due to the trisomic condition. Although many triplicated genes may be involved, in the light of the studies reviewed here, DYRK1A, APP, RCAN1 and OLIG1/2 appear to be particularly important determinants of many neurodevelopmental alterations that characterize DS because their triplication affects both the proliferation and fate of neural precursor cells as well as apoptotic cell death. Based on the evidence reviewed here, pathways downstream to these genes may represent strategic targets, for the design of possible interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Live imaging of neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Bottes, Sara; Betizeau, Marion; Jörg, David J; Carta, Stefano; Simons, Benjamin D; Helmchen, Fritjof; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2018-02-09

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) generate neurons throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus. We used chronic in vivo imaging and followed genetically labeled individual NSPCs and their progeny in the mouse hippocampus for up to 2 months. We show that NSPCs targeted by the endogenous Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1) promoter undergo limited rounds of symmetric and asymmetric divisions, eliciting a burst of neurogenic activity, after which they are lost. Further, our data reveal unexpected asymmetric divisions of nonradial glia-like NSPCs. Cell fates of Ascl1-labeled lineages suggest a developmental-like program involving a sequential transition from a proliferative to a neurogenic phase. By providing a comprehensive description of lineage relationships, from dividing NSPCs to newborn neurons integrating into the hippocampal circuitry, our data offer insight into how NSPCs support life-long hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Amplifying mitochondrial function rescues adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetin, Kevin; Moulis, Manon; Millet, Aurélie; Arràzola, Macarena S; Andraini, Trinovita; Hua, Jennifer; Davezac, Noélie; Roybon, Laurent; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Rampon, Claire

    2017-06-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is strongly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In several mouse models of AD, it was shown that adult-born neurons exhibit reduced survival and altered synaptic integration due to a severe lack of dendritic spines. In the present work, using the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD, we reveal that this reduced number of spines is concomitant of a marked deficit in their neuronal mitochondrial content. Remarkably, we show that targeting the overexpression of the pro-neural transcription factor Neurod1 into APPxPS1 adult-born neurons restores not only their dendritic spine density, but also their mitochondrial content and the proportion of spines associated with mitochondria. Using primary neurons, a bona fide model of neuronal maturation, we identified that increases of mitochondrial respiration accompany the stimulating effect of Neurod1 overexpression on dendritic growth and spine formation. Reciprocally, pharmacologically impairing mitochondria prevented Neurod1-dependent trophic effects. Thus, since overexpression of Neurod1 into new neurons of APPxPS1 mice rescues spatial memory, our present data suggest that manipulating the mitochondrial system of adult-born hippocampal neurons provides neuronal plasticity to the AD brain. These findings open new avenues for far-reaching therapeutic implications towards neurodegenerative diseases associated with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of Postnatal Neurogenesis by Perinatal Asphyxia: Effect of D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Bustos, A; Perez-Lobos, R; Vío, V; Lespay-Rebolledo, C; Palacios, E; Chiti-Morales, A; Bustamante, D; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Morales, P

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is associated to delayed cell death, affecting neurocircuitries of basal ganglia and hippocampus, and long-term neuropsychiatric disabilities. Several compensatory mechanisms have been suggested to take place, including cell proliferation and neurogenesis. There is evidence that PA can increase postnatal neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ), modulated by dopamine, by still unclear mechanisms. We have studied here the effect of selective dopamine receptor agonists on cell death, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in organotypic cultures from control and asphyxia-exposed rats. Hippocampus and SVZ sampled at 1-3 postnatal days were cultured for 20-21 days. At day in vitro (DIV) 19, cultures were treated either with SKF38393 (10 and 100 µM, a D1 agonist), quinpirole (10 µM, a D2 agonist) or sulpiride (10 μM, a D2 antagonist) + quinpirole (10 μM) and BrdU (10 μM, a mitosis marker) for 24 h. At DIV 20-21, cultures were processed for immunocytochemistry for microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2, a neuronal marker), and BrdU, evaluated by confocal microscopy. Some cultures were analysed for cell viability at DIV 20-21 (LIVE/DEAD kit). PA increased cell death, cell proliferation and neurogenesis in hippocampus and SVZ cultures. The increase in cell death, but not in cell proliferation, was inhibited by both SKF38393 and quinpirole treatment. Neurogenesis was increased by quinpirole, but only in hippocampus, in cultures from both asphyxia-exposed and control-animals, effect that was antagonised by sulpiride, leading to the conclusion that dopamine modulates neurogenesis in hippocampus, mainly via D2 receptors.

  17. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Iascone

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  18. Long-term effects of an acute and systemic administration of LPS on adult neurogenesis and spatial memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eValero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive reserve is the capacity of the brain to maintain normal performance while exposed to insults or ageing. Increasing evidences point to a role for the interaction between inflammatory conditions and cognitive reserve status during Alzheimer's disease (AD progression. The production of new neurons along adult life can be considered as one of the components of the cognitive reserve. Interestingly, adult neurogenesis is decreased in mouse models of AD and following inflammatory processes. The aim of this work is to reveal the long-term impact of a systemic inflammatory event on memory and adult neurogenesis in wild type (WT and triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD.4 month-old mice were intraperitoneally injected once with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS and their performance on spatial memory analyzed with the Morris water maze (MWM test 7 weeks later. Our data showed that a single intraperitoneal injection with LPS has a long-term impact in the production of hippocampal neurons. Consistently, LPS-treated WT mice showed less doublecortin-positive neurons, less synaptic contacts in newborn neurons, and decreased dendritic volume and complexity. These surprising observations were accompanied with memory deficits. 3xTg-AD mice showed a decrease in new neurons in the dentate gyrus compatible with, although exacerbated, the pattern observed in WT LPS-treated mice. In 3xTg-AD mice, LPS injection did not significantly affected the production of new neurons but reduced their number of synaptic puncta and impaired memory performance, when compared to the observations made in saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. These data indicate that LPS treatment induces a long-term impairment on hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Our results show that acute neuroinflammatory events influence the production of new hippocampal neurons, affecting the cognitive reserve and leading to the development of memory deficits associated to Alzheimer's disease

  19. Aggravation of Chronic Stress Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in LPA1 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor regulates plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Here, we studied whether absence of the LPA1 receptor modulated the detrimental effects of chronic stress on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory. Methodology/Principal Findings Male LPA1-null (NULL) and wild-type (WT) mice were assigned to control or chronic stress conditions (21 days of restraint, 3 h/day). Immunohistochemistry for bromodeoxyuridine and endogenous markers was performed to examine hippocampal cell proliferation, survival, number and maturation of young neurons, hippocampal structure and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Corticosterone levels were measured in another a separate cohort of mice. Finally, the hole-board test assessed spatial reference and working memory. Under control conditions, NULL mice showed reduced cell proliferation, a defective population of young neurons, reduced hippocampal volume and moderate spatial memory deficits. However, the primary result is that chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in NULLs more severely than in WT mice in terms of cell proliferation; apoptosis; the number and maturation of young neurons; and both the volume and neuronal density in the granular zone. Only stressed NULLs presented hypocortisolemia. Moreover, a dramatic deficit in spatial reference memory consolidation was observed in chronically stressed NULL mice, which was in contrast to the minor effect observed in stressed WT mice. Conclusions/Significance These results reveal that the absence of the LPA1 receptor aggravates the chronic stress-induced impairment to hippocampal neurogenesis and its dependent functions. Thus, modulation of the LPA1 receptor pathway may be of interest with respect to the treatment of stress-induced hippocampal pathology. PMID:21980482

  20. Time-dependent enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory after treatment with memantine: Implications for enhanced hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kim, Ryang; Namba, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Uchino, Shigeo; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play modulatory roles in learning and memory. Importantly, previous studies have shown that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are integrated into the dentate gyrus circuit and are recruited more efficiently into the hippocampal memory trace of mice when they become 3 weeks old. Interestingly, a single high-dose treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine (MEM) has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis dramatically by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, to understand the impact of increased adult neurogenesis on memory performance, we examined the effects of a single treatment of MEM on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. Interestingly, mice treated with MEM showed an improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial and social recognition memories when they were trained and tested at 3-6 weeks, but not at 3 days or 4 months, after treatment with MEM. Importantly, we observed a significant positive correlation between the scores for spatial memory (probe trial in the Morris water maze task) and the number of young mature neurons (3 weeks old) in MEM-treated mice, but not saline-treated mice. We also observed that the young mature neurons generated by treatment with MEM were recruited into the trace of spatial memory similarly to those generated through endogenous neurogenesis. Taken together, our observations suggest that treatment with MEM temporally improves hippocampus-dependent memory formation and that the newborn neurons increased by treatment with MEM contribute to this improvement when they become 3 weeks old. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  2. Neurogenesis paradoxically decreases both pattern separation and memory interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory eFinnegan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been the focus of memory research for decades. While the functional role of this structure is not fully understood, it is widely recognized as being vital for rapid yet accurate encoding of associative memories. Since the discovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by Altman and Das in the 1960's, many theories and models have been put forward to explain the functional role it plays in learning and memory. These models postulate different ways new in which