WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuroenergetics pharmacology cognition

  1. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers – Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    SACHDEVA, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. ...

  2. [Non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; Yubero, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the effect of non-pharmacological therapies in persons with cognitive impairment, especially treatments aimed at brain stimulation and functional maintenance, since both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies affecting the cognitive and psychoaffective domains are reviewed in another article in this supplement. The article also discusses the close and reciprocal relationship between cognitive impairment, diet and nutritional status and describes the main nutritional risk factors and protective factors in cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied.

  4. Neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis in the brain: master regulation by nitric oxide and consequences in aging and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Cátia F; Ledo, Ana; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2017-07-01

    The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O 2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. This axis incorporates and links previously independent processes that need to be coordinated in the normal brain. We here review evidence supporting the role of neuronal-derived nitric oxide ( • NO) as the master regulator of this axis. Nitric oxide is produced in tight association with glutamatergic activation and, diffusing several cell diameters, may interact with different molecular targets within each cell type. Hemeproteins such as soluble guanylate cyclase, cytochrome c oxidase and hemoglobin, with which • NO reacts at relatively fast rates, are but a few of the key in determinants of the regulatory role of • NO in the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. Accordingly, critical literature supporting this concept is discussed. Moreover, in view of the controversy regarding the regulation of catabolism of different neural cells, we further discuss key aspects of the pathways through which • NO specifically up-regulates glycolysis in astrocytes, supporting lactate shuttling to neurons for oxidative breakdown. From a biomedical viewpoint, derailment of neurovascular-neuroenergetic axis is precociously linked to aberrant brain aging, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we summarize current knowledge of how both neurovascular and neuroenergetic coupling are compromised in

  5. Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelle, K.J.; Faulmüller, N.S.; Caviola, L.; Hewstone, M.

    2014-01-01

    A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is "pharmacological cognitive enhancement" (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place

  6. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi C Banjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  7. Neuroenergetics: How energy constraints shape brain function

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nervous system consumes a disproportionate fraction of the resting body’s energy production. In humans, the brain represents 2% of the body’s mass, yet it accounts for ~20% of the total oxygen consumption. Expansion in the size of the brain relative to the body and an increase in the number of connections between neurons during evolution underpin our cognitive powers and are responsible for our brains’ high metabolic rate. The molecules at the center of cellular energy metabolism also act as intercellular signals and constitute an important communication pathway, coordinating for instance the immune surveillance of the brain. Despite the significance of energy consumption in the nervous system, how energy constrains and shapes brain function is often under appreciated. I will illustrate the importance of brain energetics and metabolism with two examples from my recent work. First, I will show how the brain trades information for energy savings in the visual pathway. Indeed, a significant fraction ...

  8. CNS safety pharmacology: A focus on cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernier, Anne Marie; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The guidelines from different agencies do not include studies on cognitive functions as part of safety pharmacology. This is unfortunate as it seems important to verify that drugs entering into the central nervous system (CNS) are devoid of detrimental effects on cognition. Our aim is to show examples on how an evaluation of unwanted effects of drugs on cognitive functions may be included in preclinical studies. Rather than a review of the scientific context, the present text is an appeal for a wider consideration of cognition as a safety pharmacology endpoint. The following procedures provide an index of the ability of substances to induce cognitive deficits in rodents. In the passive avoidance (PA) test, rats receiving an electric shock show on a later occasion an avoidance of the shock-associated environment. In the social recognition (SR) test, rats recognize familiar congeners. In the Morris water maze (MWM) test, rats placed into a tank containing water learn to find an invisible escape platform using extra-maze visual cues. In the delayed alternation (DA) test, rats placed in a Skinner box learn to alternate their pressing behavior between two levers in order to obtain food rewards. In the operant reversal (OR) test, rats adapt their behavior following a change of the reinforcement rule. Standard reference agents were used to confirm that the different assays were able to detect pharmacologically induced cognitive impairments. Diazepam decreased associative memory performances in the PA test. MK-801-induced memory deficits in SR. Haloperidol increased escape latencies in the MWM test. Scopolamine decreased the number of correct responses in the DA test, and nicotine decreased the number of correct responses in the OR test. The relationship between the doses administered and the effects observed was also evaluated. Cognitive assays may provide utility in determining potential undesirable effects or discharging perceived risks with novel CNS drugs under

  9. Swiss University Students' Attitudes toward Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Larissa J; Liakoni, Evangelia; Schildmann, Jan; Schaub, Michael P; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students' attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used prescription drugs (12%) or recreational substances including alcohol (14%) at least once for PCE. The use of prescription drugs or recreational substances including alcohol prior to the last exam was reported by 16%. Users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers were more likely to consider PCE fair (24%) compared with nonusers (11%). Only a minority of the participants agreed with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs by fellow students when assuming weak (7%) or hypothetically strong efficacy and availability to everyone (14%). Two-thirds (68%) considered performance that is obtained with PCE less worthy of recognition. Additionally, 80% disagreed that PCE is acceptable in a competitive environment. More than half (64%) agreed that PCE in academia is similar to doping in sports. Nearly half (48%) claimed that unregulated access to pharmacological cognitive enhancers increases the pressure to engage in PCE and educational inequality (55%). In conclusion, Swiss students' main concerns regarding PCE were related to coercion and fairness. As expected, these concerns were more prevalent among nonusers than among users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers. More balanced information on PCE should be shared with students, and future monitoring of PCE is recommended.

  10. Modafinil combined with cognitive training: pharmacological augmentation of cognitive training in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Panayiota G; Lewis, Shôn W; Drake, Richard J; Reichenberg, Abraham; Emsley, Richard; Kalpakidou, Anastasia K; Lees, Jane; Bobin, Tracey; Gilleen, James K; Pandina, Gahan; Applegate, Eve; Wykes, Til; Kapur, Shitij

    2015-08-01

    Several efforts to develop pharmacological treatments with a beneficial effect on cognition in schizophrenia are underway, while cognitive remediation has shown modest effects on cognitive performance. Our goal was to test if pharmacological augmentation of cognitive training would result in enhancement of training-induced learning. We chose modafinil as the pharmacological augmenting agent, as it is known to have beneficial effects on learning and cognition. 49 participants with chronic schizophrenia were enroled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study across two sites and were randomised to either modafinil (200mg/day) or placebo. All participants engaged in a cognitive training program for 10 consecutive weekdays. The primary outcome measure was the performance on the trained tasks and secondary outcome measures included MATRICS cognitive battery, proxy measures of everyday functioning and symptom measures. 84% of the participants completed all study visits. Both groups showed significant improvement in the performance of the trained tasks suggesting potential for further learning. Modafinil did not induce differential enhancement on the performance of the trained tasks or any differential enhancement of the neuropsychological and functional measures compared to placebo. Modafinil showed no significant effects on symptom severity. Our study demonstrated that combining pharmacological compounds with cognitive training is acceptable to patients and can be implemented in large double-blind randomised controlled trials. The lack of differential enhancement of training-induced learning raises questions, such as choice and optimal dose of drug, cognitive domains to be trained, type of cognitive training, intervention duration and chronicity of illness that require systematic investigation in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroethical issues in pharmacological cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Dahir

    2014-09-01

    Neuroethics is an emerging field that in general deals with the ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics. In particular, it is concerned with the ethical issues in the translation of neuroscience to clinical practice and in the public domain. Numerous ethical issues arise when healthy individuals use pharmacological substances known as pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs) for non-medical purposes in order to boost higher-order cognitive processes such as memory, attention, and executive functions. However, information regarding their actual use, benefits, and harms to healthy individuals is currently lacking. Neuroethical issues that arise from their use include the unknown side effects that are associated with these drugs, concerns about the modification of authenticity and personhood, and as a result of inequality of access to these drugs, the lack of distributive justice and competitive fairness that they may cause in society. Healthy individuals might be coerced by social institutions that force them to take these drugs to function better. These drugs might enable or hinder healthy individuals to gain better moral and self-understanding and autonomy. However, how these drugs might achieve this still remains speculative and unknown. Hence, before concrete policy decisions are made, the cognitive effects of these drugs should be determined. The initiation of accurate surveys to determine the actual usage of these drugs by healthy individuals from different sections of the society is proposed. In addition, robust empirical research need to be conducted to delineate not only whether or not these drugs modify complex higher-order cognitive processes but also how they might alter important human virtues such as empathy, moral reasoning, creativity, and motivation in healthy individuals. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:533-549. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1306 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no

  12. Absent without leave; a neuroenergetic theory of mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Killeen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT, this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron’s preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of information processing accounts for response-time statistics in a paradigm often used to study inattention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART. It is suggested that errors and slowing in this fast-paced, response-engaging task may have little to due with inattention. Slower-paced and less response-demanding tasks give greater license for inattention—aka absent-mindedness, mind-wandering. The basic NeT is therefore extended with an ancillary model of attentional drift and recapture. This Markov model, called NEMA, assumes probability λ of lapses of attention from one second to the next, and probability α of drifting back to the attentional state. These parameters measure the strength of attraction back to the task (α, or away to competing mental states or action patterns (λ; their proportion determines the probability of the individual being inattentive at any point in time over the long run. Their values are affected by the fatigue of the brain units they traffic between. The deployment of the model is demonstrated with a data set involving paced responding.

  13. Absent without leave; a neuroenergetic theory of mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of information processing accounts for response-time statistics in a paradigm often used to study inattention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). It is suggested that errors and slowing in this fast-paced, response-engaging task may have little to due with inattention. Slower-paced and less response-demanding tasks give greater license for inattention-aka absent-mindedness, mind-wandering. The basic NeT is therefore extended with an ancillary model of attentional drift and recapture. This Markov model, called NEMA, assumes probability λ of lapses of attention from 1 s to the next, and probability α of drifting back to the attentional state. These parameters measure the strength of attraction back to the task (α), or away to competing mental states or action patterns (λ); their proportion determines the probability of the individual being inattentive at any point in time over the long run. Their values are affected by the fatigue of the brain units they traffic between. The deployment of the model is demonstrated with a data set involving paced responding.

  14. Systematic review of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions to manage cognitive alterations after chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond J; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Devenish, Jackie; Sullivan, Karen A; Chan, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive alterations are reported in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This has adverse effects on patients' quality of life and function. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions to manage cognitive alterations associated with breast cancer treatment. Medline via EBSCO host, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for the period January 1999-May 2014 for prospective randomised controlled trials related to the management of chemotherapy-associated cognitive alterations. Included studies investigated the management of chemotherapy-associated cognitive alterations and used subjective or objective measures in patients with breast cancer during or after chemotherapy. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Thirteen studies involving 1138 participants were included. Overall, the risk of bias for the 13 studies was either high (n=11) or unclear (n=2). Pharmacologic interventions included psychostimulants (n=4), epoetin alfa (n=1) and Ginkgo biloba (n=1). Non-pharmacologic interventions were cognitive training (n=5) and physical activity (n=2). Pharmacologic agents were ineffective except for self-reported cognitive function in an epoetin alfa study. Cognitive training interventions demonstrated benefits in self-reported cognitive function, memory, verbal function and language and orientation/attention. Physical activity interventions were effective in improving executive function and self-reported concentration. Current evidence does not favour the pharmacologic management of cognitive alterations associated with breast cancer treatment. Cognitive training and physical activity interventions appear promising, but additional studies are required to establish their efficacy. Further research is needed to overcome methodological shortfalls such as heterogeneity in participant characteristics and non-standardised neuropsychological outcome measures. Copyright

  15. Non-Pharmacological Treatment in People With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubmeier, Melanie; Behrndt, Elisa-Marie; Seidl, Hildegard; Özbe, Dominik; Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar

    2017-12-01

    A number of non-pharmacological methods are available to help elderly people with cognitive impairment. Unstructured and non-evidencebased interventions are commonly used. The multicomponent therapy MAKS (a German acronym for Motor, Activities of daily living, Cognitive, Social) has already been evaluated in nursing homes; in this study, we investigated its use in day care centers (DCCs). A cluster-randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial involving a 6-month intervention phase was performed. 362 cognitively impaired persons in 32 DCCs took part in the trial. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether MAKS therapy led to any statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement over time (compared to membership in the control group) in these persons' cognitive abilities and activities of daily living (ADL) abilities, as assessed, respectively, with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living in Persons with Mild Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (ETAM). A primary per-protocol analysis was supplemented by an intention-to-treat analysis. Two secondary outcomes (social behavior and neuropsychiatric symptoms) were analyzed exploratively as well. Study registration: ISRCTN16412551. In the primary per-protocol analysis at 6 months, the intervention group had significantly better MMSE and ETAM scores than the control group (Cohen's d, 0.26 and 0.21, respectively; p = 0.012 for both). The same was found in the ITT analysis at 6 months (Cohen's d = 0.21, p = 0.033; and Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.019, respectively). Neuropsychiatric symptoms, one of the secondary outcomes, also evolved more favorably in the intervention group (Cohen's d = 0.23, p = 0.055). MAKS therapy is effective for persons with cognitive impairment ranging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to moderate dementia who live at home and regularly visit a day care center. The fact that 32 day care facilities from all over Germany

  16. Attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Johanna Schelle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is ‘pharmacological cognitive enhancement’ (PCE. The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place on that topic, several empirical studies have been conducted to assess the attitudes towards PCE of groups outside the normative academic debate. In this review, we provide an overview of the 40 empirical studies published so far, reporting both their methodology and results. Overall, we find that several concerns about the use of PCE are prevalent in the public. These concerns largely match those discussed in the normative academic debate. We present our findings structured amongst the three most common concerns: medical safety, coercion and fairness. Fairness is divided into three subthemes: equality of opportunity, honesty and authenticity. Attitudes regarding some concerns are more coherent across studies (e.g. coercion, whereas for others we find mixed results (e.g. authenticity. Moreover, we find differences in how specific groups—such as users, nonusers, students, parents, and health care providers—perceive PCE: a coherent finding is that nonusers display more concerns regarding medical safety and fairness than users. We discuss potential psychological explanations for these differences.

  17. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE. We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness.We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have.

  18. Effects of Pharmacologic and Genetic Inhibition of Alk on Cognitive Impairments in NF1 Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    genetic interaction between Alk and Nf1 in mice is similar to the behavioral phenotypes of Alk and NF1 mutations in flies and that pharmacologic or...the predicted improvement in hippocampal-dependent cognitive function using both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of Alk in heterozygous NF1...phenotypes of Alk and NF1 mutations in flies and that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Alk in NF1 mutant mice will attenuate or even rescue

  19. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Pharmacological Treatments of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: Critique and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Larry K.; Marchione, Karen

    1991-01-01

    Examines theoretical, methodologic, and research issues as well as strengths, limitations, and possible interactions pertaining to behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological treatments of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Compares attrition, outcome, and maintenance effects and presents composite indices of significant improvement, endstate…

  20. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  1. Pharmacological Isolation of Cognitive Components Influencing the Pupillary Light Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart R. Steinhauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive operations can be detected by reduction of the pupillary light response. Neurophysiological pathways mediating this reduction have not been distinguished. We utilized selective blockade of pupillary sphincter or dilator muscles to isolate parasympathetic or sympathetic activity during cognition, without modifying central processes. Pupil diameter was measured during the light reaction in 29 normal adults under three processing levels: No Task, during an easy task (Add 1, or a difficult task (Subtract 7. At three separate sessions, the pupil was treated with placebo, tropicamide (blocking the muscarinic sphincter receptor, or dapiprazole (blocking the adrenergic dilator receptor. With placebo, pupil diameter increased with increasing task difficulty. The light reaction was reduced only in the Subtract 7 condition. Dapiprazole (which decreased overall diameter showed similar task-related changes in diameter and light reflex as for placebo. Following tropicamide (which increased overall diameter, there was a further increase in diameter only in the difficult task. Findings suggest two separate inhibitory components at the parasympathetic oculomotor center. Changes in baseline diameter are likely related to reticular activation. Inhibition of the light reaction in the difficult task is likely associated with cortical afferents. Sustained sympathetic activity also was present during the difficult task.

  2. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-02-26

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  3. Rational Pharmacological Approaches for Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Rincón, Maritza; Sáenz-Farret, Michel; Miguel-Puga, Adán; Micheli, Federico; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not a single entity but rather a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. The present study aims to conduct a critical systematic review of the literature to describe the main pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive dysfunction and major depressive disorder in PD patients. We performed a search of articles cited in PubMed from 2004 to 2014 using the following MeSH terms (Medical subject headings) “Parkinson disease”; “Delirium,” “Dementia,” “Amnestic,” “Cognitive disorders,” and “Parkinson disease”; “depression,” “major depressive disorder,” “drug therapy.” We found a total of 71 studies related to pharmacological treatment in cognitive dysfunction and 279 studies for pharmacological treatment in major depressive disorder. After fulfillment of all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles remained for cognitive dysfunction and 11 for major depressive disorder, which are presented and discussed in this study. Further research into non-motor symptoms of PD may provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration, and provide better quality of life by using rational drugs. PMID:25873910

  4. Preventing information overload: cognitive load theory as an instructional framework for teaching pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Sara K

    2014-02-01

    Nursing students are challenged by content-laden curricula and learning environments that emphasize testing outcomes. Likewise, educators are challenged to support student-centered learning in a manner that encourages students to connect and act upon their personal motivations. This article describes the use of cognitive load theory (CLT) as an instructional design framework for an undergraduate pharmacology for nursing course. Guided by the principles of CLT, four instructional strategies were used in this course: (a) opening review activities, (b) providing students with lecture notes, (c) a "Top Five" prototype approach, and (d) deciphering "Need to Knows" from "Nice to Knows." Instructional style and strategies received positive student feedback and were found to promote a student-centered environment and active learning. On the basis of this feedback, cognitive load theory may be a successful and effective framework for undergraduate pharmacology and other nursing courses, thus assisting students and educators alike in overcoming obstacles imposed on learning environments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Clinical pharmacology of analgesic medicines in older people: impact of frailty and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Andrew J; Bath, Sally; Naganathan, Vasi; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G; Gibson, Stephen J; Blyth, Fiona M

    2011-03-01

    Pain is highly prevalent in frail older people who often have multiple co-morbidities and multiple medicines. Rational prescribing of analgesics in frail older people is complex due to heterogeneity in drug disposition, comorbid medical conditions, polypharmacy and variability in analgesic response in this population. A critical issue in managing older people with pain is the need for judicious choice of analgesics based on a comprehensive medical and medication history. Care is needed in the selection of analgesic medicine to avoid drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. People living with dementia and cognitive impairment have suboptimal pain relief which in part may be related to altered pharmacodynamics of analgesics and challenges in the systematic assessment of pain intensity in this patient group. In the absence of rigorously controlled trials in frail older people and those with cognitive impairment a pharmacologically-guided approach can be used to optimize pain management which requires a systematic understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of analgesics in frail older people with or without changes in cognition. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Cognitive decline in normal aging and its prevention: a review on non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova,1,2 Martin Valis,2 Kamil Kuca3,4 1Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, 2Department of Neurology, 3Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the selected non-pharmacological lifestyle activities on the delay of cognitive decline in normal aging. This was done by conducting a literature review in the four acknowledged databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that physical activities, such as walking and aerobic exercises, music therapy, adherence to Mediterranean diet, or solving crosswords, seem to be very promising lifestyle intervention tools. The results indicate that non-pharmacological lifestyle intervention activities should be intense and possibly done simultaneously in order to be effective in the prevention of cognitive decline. In addition, more longitudinal randomized controlled trials are needed in order to discover the most effective types and the duration of these intervention activities in the prevention of cognitive decline, typical of aging population groups. Keywords: cognitive impairment, healthy older individuals, intervention, benefits

  7. Nutritional and Pharmacological Strategies to Regulate Microglial Polarization in Cognitive Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Peña-Altamira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of microglia, the immune cells of the brain, has experienced a renaissance after the discovery of microglia polarization. In fact, the concept that activated microglia can shift into the M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 neuroprotective phenotypes, depending on brain microenvironment, has completely changed the understanding of microglia in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia polarization is particularly important in aging since an increased inflammatory status of body compartments, including the brain, has been reported in elderly people. In addition, inflammatory markers, mainly derived from activated microglia, are widely present in neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial inflammatory dysfunction, also linked to microglial senescence, has been extensively demonstrated and associated with cognitive impairment in neuropathological conditions related to aging. In fact, microglia polarization is known to influence cognitive function and has therefore become a main player in neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia. As the life span of human beings increases, so does the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed to modify microglia polarization are currently being developed. Pharmacological approaches able to shift microglia from M1 pro-inflammatory to M2 neuroprotective phenotype are actually being studied, by acting on many different molecular targets, such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 β, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, histone deacetylases (HDACs, etc. Furthermore, nutritional approaches can also modify microglia polarization and, consequently, impact cognitive function. Several bioactive compounds normally present in foods, such as polyphenols, can have anti-inflammatory effects on microglia. Both pharmacological and nutritional approaches seem to be promising, but still need further development. Here we review recent data on these approaches and propose that their combination

  8. Pharmacological approaches in bipolar disorders and the impact on cognition: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, V V; Balanzá-Martinez, V; Soeiro-de-Souza, M G; Moreno, R A; Figueira, M L; Machado-Vieira, R; Vieta, E

    2012-11-01

    Historically, pharmacological treatments for bipolar disorders (BD) have been associated with neurocognitive side-effects. We reviewed studies which assessed the impact of several psychopharmacological drugs on the neurocognitive function of BD patients. The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1980 and February 2011, using the following terms: bipolar, bipolar disorder, mania, manic episode, or bipolar depression, cross-referenced with cognitive, neurocognitive, or neuropsychological, cross-referenced with treatment. Despite methodological flaws in the older studies and insufficient research concerning the newer agents, some consistent findings emerged from the review; lithium appears to have definite, yet subtle, negative effects on psychomotor speed and verbal memory. Among the newer anticonvulsants, lamotrigine appears to have a better cognitive profile than carbamazepine, valproate, topiramate, and zonisamide. More long-term studies are needed to better understand the impact of atypical antipsychotics on BD patients' neurocognitive functioning, both in monotherapy and in association with other drugs. Other agents, like antidepressants and cognitive enhancers, have not been adequately studied in BD so far. Pharmacotherapies for BD should be chosen to minimize neurocognitive side-effects, which may already be compromised by the disease process itself. Neurocognitive evaluation should be considered in BD patients to better evaluate treatment impact on neurocognition. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation also addressing potential variables and key aspects such as more severe cognitive deficits, comorbidities, differential diagnosis, and evaluation of multiple cognitive domains in longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive impairment due to systemic cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Charlene J; McMenamin, Una C; O'Neill, Roisin F; Cardwell, Chris R; Clarke, Mike J; Cantwell, Marie; Donnelly, Michael

    2016-08-16

    It is estimated that up to 75% of cancer survivors may experience cognitive impairment as a result of cancer treatment and given the increasing size of the cancer survivor population, the number of affected people is set to rise considerably in coming years. There is a need, therefore, to identify effective, non-pharmacological interventions for maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment among people with a previous cancer diagnosis. To evaluate the cognitive effects, non-cognitive effects, duration and safety of non-pharmacological interventions among cancer patients targeted at maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment as a result of cancer or receipt of systemic cancer treatment (i.e. chemotherapy or hormonal therapies in isolation or combination with other treatments). We searched the Cochrane Centre Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PUBMED, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PsycINFO databases. We also searched registries of ongoing trials and grey literature including theses, dissertations and conference proceedings. Searches were conducted for articles published from 1980 to 29 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive impairment or to maintain cognitive functioning among survivors of adult-onset cancers who have completed systemic cancer therapy (in isolation or combination with other treatments) were eligible. Studies among individuals continuing to receive hormonal therapy were included. We excluded interventions targeted at cancer survivors with central nervous system (CNS) tumours or metastases, non-melanoma skin cancer or those who had received cranial radiation or, were from nursing or care home settings. Language restrictions were not applied. Author pairs independently screened, selected, extracted data and rated the risk of bias of studies. We were unable to conduct planned

  10. [Effectiveness of occupational therapy and other non-pharmacological therapies in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Mora, Rosa; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa María; Fernández Huete, Javier

    A review is presented on the existing knowledge about the usefulness of the occupational therapy in the non-pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After conducting a literature search of the period 2010-2015, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The evidence obtained showed the efficiency and effectiveness of OT in delaying the progression of various disorders, especially when structured home OT programs are used. These programs should include aerobic and strengthening, sensory stimulation, and cognitive and memory training exercises based on learning without mistakes. These have shown benefits in the performance of activities of daily living, cognitive and emotional functioning. The importance is stressed of the combined and individual household level intervention and caregiver education. Finally, the need for more studies on the effectiveness of long-term sensory stimulation is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive and pharmacological insights from the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L; Mobley, William C

    2012-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a multi-faceted condition resulting in the most common genetic form of intellectual disability. Mouse models of DS, especially the Ts65Dn model, have been pivotal in furthering our understanding of the genetic, molecular and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie learning and memory impairments in DS. Cognitive and pharmacological insights from the Ts65Dn mouse model have led to remarkable translational progress in the development of therapeutic targets and in the emergence of DS clinical trials. Unravelling the pathogenic role of trisomic genes on human chromosome 21 and the genotype-phenotype relationship still remains a pertinent goal for tackling cognitive deficits in DS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A preliminary study on cognitive enhancer consumption behaviors and motives of French Medicine and Pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; MacGregor, A; Fond, G

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption in college students is a rather unknown phenomenon in Europe and particularly in France, where surprisingly only one study was conducted in 1988. Our objective is to assess prevalence and motivations for licit (use inside medical indication) and illicit pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption (tablet form) in a non-selected French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students. A validated questionnaire was send to French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students using email. The questionnaire investigate motives for use of pharmaceutical licit (vitamin C and caffeine tablets) and illicit (methylphenidate, amphetamines, modafinil, piracetam). Among 206 undergraduate students, 139 students (67.4%) declared to have consumed at least one cognitive enhancer in the past 12 months. Twelve students (8.6% of cognitive enhancers users and 5.8% of our total sample) used illicit pharmaceutical neuroenhancer. The motivations were first to improve their academic performances, second to improve their wakefulness/ vigilance, and third to improve their attention/concentration. Neuroenhancement is a widespread means of using pharmaceutical drugs in French as well as in US college campuses. Despites some limitations, these preliminary results highlight the need to boost the interest of professionals for the neuroenhancement issue in French and European students.

  13. Low compliance to pharmacological treatment is linked to cognitive impairment in euthymic phase of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ileana; Rizo-Méndez, Alfredo; Jarne-Esparcia, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment and low compliance to pharmacological treatment are frequent complications in bipolar disorder. Moreover, low compliance in patients with bipolar disorder is one of the main reasons for relapse. This in turn, is associated with an increase in neurocognitive symptoms. The current study aimed to determine whether attention, memory, and executive function are related to the level of compliance to pharmacological treatment in individuals with bipolar disorder in euthymic phase. We examined 34 patients with bipolar disorder (12 with low compliance to the treatment and 22 with high compliance to the treatment) according to the DSM-IV criteria, in the range of 18-55 years. All patients were assessed through a neuropsychological battery in one single session. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare neuropsychological test scores between low and high compliance patients. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were included as covariates in the study. Patients with low level of compliance performed significantly worse than high treatment compliance on verbal memory immediate free recall (F (1)=12.14, p=.002), verbal memory immediate cued recall (F (1)=10.45, p=.003), verbal memory delayed free recall (F (1)=5.52, p=.027), and verbal memory delayed cued recall (F (1)=6.11, p=.021). Covariates such as number of manic episodes, history of psychosis and years of education were found significant for executive functions and processing speed. We found that low compliance to pharmacological treatment is consistently linked to immediate and delayed verbal memory. In addition, executive function and processing speed were associated with clinical and demographic characteristics. Limitations of this study include the small sample size, a cross-sectional design that cannot address causality, and inability to account for pharmacologic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement—how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslen, Hannah; Faulmüller, Nadira; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few (if any) ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can improve capacities such as working memory and concentration in some healthy individuals. Unlike their more mundane predecessors, these methods of “cognitive enhancement” are thought to raise a multitude of ethical issues. This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs)—issues such as whether: (1) the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required use; (2) the enhanced mind can be an “authentic” mind; (3) individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4), there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment vs. enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5) unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6) PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts. In reviewing the six principal issues, the paper discusses how neuroscientific research might help advance the ethical debate. In particular, the paper presents new arguments about the contribution neuroscience could make to debates about justice, fairness, and cheating, ultimately concluding that neuroscientific research into “personalized enhancement” will be essential if policy is to be truly informed and ethical. We propose an “ethical agenda” for neuroscientific research into PCEs. PMID:24999320

  15. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement – how future neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah eMaslen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few (if any ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can improve capacities such as working memory and concentration in some healthy individuals. Unlike their more mundane predecessors, these methods of ‘cognitive enhancement’ are thought to raise a multitude of ethical issues. This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs – issues such as whether: (1 the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required use; (2 the enhanced mind can be an ‘authentic’ mind; (3 individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4, there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment versus enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5 unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6 PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts. In reviewing the six principal issues, the paper discusses how future neuroscientific research might help advance the ethical debate. In particular, the paper presents new arguments about the contribution neuroscience could make to debates about justice, fairness and cheating, ultimately concluding that neuroscientific research into ‘personalised enhancement’ will be essential if policy is to be truly informed and ethical. We propose an ‘ethical agenda’ for neuroscientific research into PCEs.

  16. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about non-pharmacological interventions for treating cognitive decline and dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Vitória Carvalho; Pacheco, Rafael Leite; Latorraca, Carolina Oliveira Cruz; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Its chronic and progressive presentation has an impact on physical and psychosocial characteristics and on public healthcare. Our aim was to summarize evidence from Cochrane reviews on non-pharmacological treatments for cognitive disorders and dementia. Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Cochrane reviews on non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive dysfunctions and/or type of dementia were included. For this, independent assessments were made by two authors. Twenty-four reviews were included. These showed that carbohydrate intake and validation therapy may be beneficial for cognitive disorders. For dementia, there is a potential benefit from physical activity programs, cognitive training, psychological treatments, aromatherapy, light therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy in association with donepezil, functional analysis, reminiscence therapy, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, structured decision-making on feeding options, case management approaches, interventions by non-specialist healthcare workers and specialized care units. No benefits were found in relation to enteral tube feeding, acupuncture, Snoezelen stimulation, respite care, palliative care team and interventions to prevent wandering behavior. Many non-pharmacological interventions for patients with cognitive impairment and dementia have been studied and potential benefits have been shown. However, the strength of evidence derived from these studies was considered low overall, due to the methodological limitations of the primary studies.

  17. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about non-pharmacological interventions for treating cognitive decline and dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Carvalho Vilela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dementia is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Its chronic and progressive presentation has an impact on physical and psychosocial characteristics and on public healthcare. Our aim was to summarize evidence from Cochrane reviews on non-pharmacological treatments for cognitive disorders and dementia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Cochrane reviews on non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive dysfunctions and/or type of dementia were included. For this, independent assessments were made by two authors. RESULTS: Twenty-four reviews were included. These showed that carbohydrate intake and validation therapy may be beneficial for cognitive disorders. For dementia, there is a potential benefit from physical activity programs, cognitive training, psychological treatments, aromatherapy, light therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy in association with donepezil, functional analysis, reminiscence therapy, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, structured decision-making on feeding options, case management approaches, interventions by non-specialist healthcare workers and specialized care units. No benefits were found in relation to enteral tube feeding, acupuncture, Snoezelen stimulation, respite care, palliative care team and interventions to prevent wandering behavior. CONCLUSION: Many non-pharmacological interventions for patients with cognitive impairment and dementia have been studied and potential benefits have been shown. However, the strength of evidence derived from these studies was considered low overall, due to the methodological limitations of the primary studies.

  18. Non-pharmacological Interventions for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Dementia: An Updated Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Saghafi, Ester; Butters, Meryl A.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the science related to non-pharmacological interventions designed to slow decline for older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or early-stage dementia. We reviewed 32 unique randomized controlled trials that employed cognitive training (remediation or compensation approaches), physical exercise, or psychotherapeutic interventions that were published before November 2014. Evidence suggests that cognitive training focused on remediation and physical exercise interventions may promote small improvements in selected cognitive abilities. Cognitive training focused on compensation interventions and selected psychotherapeutic interventions may influence how cognitive changes impact daily living. However, confidence in these findings is limited due methodological limitations. To better assess the value of non-pharmacological interventions for this population, we recommend: 1) adoption of universal criteria for “early stage cognitive decline” among studies, 2) adherence to guidelines for the conceptualization, operationalization, and implementation of complex interventions, 3) consistent characterization of the impact of interventions on daily life, and 3) long-term follow-up of clinical outcomes to assess maintenance and meaningfulness of reported effects over time. PMID:26070444

  19. Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Bagusat, Christiana; Rust, Sebastian; Engel, Alice; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of

  20. Using Pharmacological Manipulation and High-precision Radio Telemetry to Study the Spatial Cognition in Free-ranging Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Timothy C; Krochmal, Aaron R; Gerwig, William B; Rush, Sage; Simmons, Nathaniel T; Sullivan, Jeffery D; Wachter, Katrina

    2016-11-06

    An animal's ability to perceive and learn about its environment plays a key role in many behavioral processes, including navigation, migration, dispersal and foraging. However, the understanding of the role of cognition in the development of navigation strategies and the mechanisms underlying these strategies is limited by the methodological difficulties involved in monitoring, manipulating the cognition of, and tracking wild animals. This study describes a protocol for addressing the role of cognition in navigation that combines pharmacological manipulation of behavior with high-precision radio telemetry. The approach uses scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, to manipulate cognitive spatial abilities. Treated animals are then monitored with high frequency and high spatial resolution via remote triangulation. This protocol was applied within a population of Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that has inhabited seasonally ephemeral water sources for ~100 years, moving between far-off sources using precise (± 3.5 m), complex (i.e., non-linear with high tortuosity that traverse multiple habitats), and predictable routes learned before 4 years of age. This study showed that the processes used by these turtles are consistent with spatial memory formation and recall. Together, these results are consistent with a role of spatial cognition in complex navigation and highlight the integration of ecological and pharmacological techniques in the study of cognition and navigation.

  1. Pharmacological approaches to improving cognitive function in Down syndrome: current status and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), also known as trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Although ID can be mild, the average intelligence quotient is in the range of 40–50. All individuals with DS will also develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by the age of 30–40 years, and approximately half will display an AD-like dementia by the age of 60 years. DS is caused by an extra copy of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and the consequent elevated levels of expression, due to dosage, of trisomic genes. Despite a worldwide incidence of one in 700–1,000 live births, there are currently no pharmacological treatments available for ID or AD in DS. However, over the last several years, very promising results have been obtained with a mouse model of DS, the Ts65Dn. A diverse array of drugs has been shown to rescue, or partially rescue, DS-relevant deficits in learning and memory and abnormalities in cellular and electrophysiological features seen in the Ts65Dn. These results suggest that some level of amelioration or prevention of cognitive deficits in people with DS may be possible. Here, we review information from the preclinical evaluations in the Ts65Dn, how drugs were selected, how efficacy was judged, and how outcomes differ, or not, among studies. We also summarize the current state of human clinical trials for ID and AD in DS. Lastly, we describe the genetic limitations of the Ts65Dn as a model of DS, and in the preclinical testing of pharmacotherapeutics, and suggest additional targets to be considered for potential pharmacotherapies. PMID:25552901

  2. Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2014-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pharmacological approaches to improving cognitive function in Down syndrome: current status and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner KJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Katheleen J Gardiner Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Human Medical Genetics and Genomics Program, Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Down syndrome (DS, also known as trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID. Although ID can be mild, the average intelligence quotient is in the range of 40–50. All individuals with DS will also develop the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by the age of 30–40 years, and approximately half will display an AD-like dementia by the age of 60 years. DS is caused by an extra copy of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 and the consequent elevated levels of expression, due to dosage, of trisomic genes. Despite a worldwide incidence of one in 700–1,000 live births, there are currently no pharmacological treatments available for ID or AD in DS. However, over the last several years, very promising results have been obtained with a mouse model of DS, the Ts65Dn. A diverse array of drugs has been shown to rescue, or partially rescue, DS-relevant deficits in learning and memory and abnormalities in cellular and electrophysiological features seen in the Ts65Dn. These results suggest that some level of amelioration or prevention of cognitive deficits in people with DS may be possible. Here, we review information from the preclinical evaluations in the Ts65Dn, how drugs were selected, how efficacy was judged, and how outcomes differ, or not, among studies. We also summarize the current state of human clinical trials for ID and AD in DS. Lastly, we describe the genetic limitations of the Ts65Dn as a model of DS, and in the preclinical testing of pharmacotherapeutics, and suggest additional targets to be considered for potential pharmacotherapies. Keywords: Ts65Dn, pharmacotherapy, clinical trials, Hsa21

  4. Pharmacological interventions for the MATRICS cognitive domains in schizophrenia: what's the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina A.M. Vingerhoets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disabling, chronic psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 0.5-1% in the general population. Symptoms include positive (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, negative (e.g. blunted affect, social withdrawal, as well as cognitive symptoms (e.g. memory and attention problems. Although 75-85% of patients with schizophrenia report cognitive impairments, the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms are not well understood and currently no effective treatment is available for these impairments. This has led to the MATRICS initiative (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which established seven cognitive domains that are fundamentally impaired in schizophrenia. These domains include verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, working memory, attention and vigilance, processing speed, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. Recently, a growing number of studies have been conducted trying to identify the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia patients. Specific cognitive impairments seem to arise from different underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms. However, most review articles describe cognition in general and an overview of the mechanisms involved in these seven separate cognitive domains is currently lacking. Therefore, we reviewed the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms focussing on the domains as established by the MATRICS initiative which are considered most crucial in schizophrenia.

  5. Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure-based therapy of fear, anxiety and trauma-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singewald, N.; Schmuckermair, C.; Whittle, N.; Holmes, A.; Ressler, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological fear and anxiety are highly debilitating and, despite considerable advances in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy they remain insufficiently treated in many patients with PTSD, phobias, panic and other anxiety disorders. Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that pharmacological treatments including cognitive enhancers, when given as adjuncts to psychotherapeutic approaches [cognitive behavioral therapy including extinction-based exposure therapy] enhance treatment efficacy, while using anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines as adjuncts can undermine long-term treatment success. The purpose of this review is to outline the literature showing how pharmacological interventions targeting neurotransmitter systems including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine, glutamate, GABA, cannabinoids, neuropeptides (oxytocin, neuropeptides Y and S, opioids) and other targets (neurotrophins BDNF and FGF2, glucocorticoids, L-type-calcium channels, epigenetic modifications) as well as their downstream signaling pathways, can augment fear extinction and strengthen extinction memory persistently in preclinical models. Particularly promising approaches are discussed in regard to their effects on specific aspects of fear extinction namely, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, including long-term protection from return of fear (relapse) phenomena like spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal of fear. We also highlight the promising translational value of the preclinial research and the clinical potential of targeting certain neurochemical systems with, for example d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, and L-DOPA. The current body of research reveals important new insights into the neurobiology and neurochemistry of fear extinction and holds significant promise for pharmacologically-augmented psychotherapy as an improved approach to treat trauma and anxiety-related disorders in a more efficient and persistent way promoting enhanced symptom

  6. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement—how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslen, H.; Faulmüller, N.S.; Savulescu, J.

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have

  7. Alzheimer Disease: Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Cognitive and Functional Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperly, Ted; Dunay, Megan A; Boice, Jack L

    2017-06-15

    Alzheimer disease comprises a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. Treatments should target cognitive and functional symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and a combination of a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine have produced statistically significant but clinically small delays in various domains of cognitive and functional decline in select patients with Alzheimer disease. Vitamin E has been shown to delay functional decline in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, especially when taken in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Structured programs of physical exercise improve physical function and reduce rates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild to severe Alzheimer disease. Cognitive stimulation programs show benefit in maintenance of cognitive function and improved self-reported quality of life in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.

  8. Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Ramírez, María J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The precise mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and the risk of cognitive impairment are still largely unknown but potential avenues of further research include insulin resistance, the gut-brain axis, and systemic mediators and central inflammation processes. A common feature of metabolic diseases is a chronic and low-grade activation of the inflammatory system. This inflammation may eventually spread from peripheral tissue to the brain, and recent reports suggest that neuroinflammation is an important causal mechanism in cognitive decline. This inflammatory status could be triggered by changes in the gut microbiota composition. Consumption of diets high in fat and sugar influences the microbiota composition, which may lead to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut. Thus, it has recently been hypothesized that the gut microbiota could be part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of high fat and other unbalanced diets and impaired cognition, termed 'gut-brain axis'. The present review will aim at providing an integrative analysis of the effects of obesity and unbalanced diets on cognitive performance and discusses some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and changes in gut-brain axis. Moreover, the review aims to analyze anti-inflammatory drugs that have been tested for the treatment of cognition and obesity, recently approved anti

  9. Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Obesity and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…

  10. Effects of Pharmacologic and Genetic Inhibition of Alk on Cognitive Impairments in NF1 Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Med Child Neurol 37, 427- 436 (1995). 3 Hyman, S. L., Shores, A. & North, K. N. The nature and frequency of cognitive deficits in children with...neurofibromatosis type 1. Neurology 65, 1037-1044 (2005). 4 Zoller, M. E., Rembeck, B. & Backman, L. Neuropsychological deficits in adults with...associated with neurofibromatosis 1. J Child Neurol 17, 622-626; discussion 627- 629, 646-651 (2002). 15 7 Costa, R. M. et al. Learning deficits, but

  11. Some aspects of treatment for cognitive impairments. Cyticolin: pharmacological characteristics, possible benefits, aspects of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Trofimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the data available in the literature on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cyticolin and its use in cognitive impairments (CIs.It assesses trials investigating the effect of cyticolin on cognitive functions, including its possible role in increasing Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 expression. The results of the latest multicenter trials of the drug used to treat dementia syndrome are analyzed in elderly patients with clinical presentations of mental confusion (the VITA trial and mild vascular CIs (the IDEALE trial.Cyticolin is able to potentiate neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipids, mainly phosphotidylcholine that serves as a source of choline in the metabolic pathways of acetylcholine biosynthesis. The VITA and IDEALE have shown that the parenteral and oral administrations of cyticolin are effective and safe in the treatment of moderate vascular CIs and dementia with clinical presentations of mental confusion. Cyticolin therapy is used to reduce the risk of side effects and to delay of loss of the therapeutic effects of levodopa preparations. Cyticolin has been noted to have a positive effect on cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease if it is used as an additional therapy.

  12. The Pharmacological Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Visual Disorders and Cognition Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Ping; Sun, Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Liang, Li-Peng; Li, Wei; Ding, Hui; Song, Xin-Bo; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2017-04-20

    Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are dietary carotenoids derived from dark green leafy vegetables, orange and yellow fruits that form the macular pigment of the human eyes. It was hypothesized that they protect against visual disorders and cognition diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), age-related cataract (ARC), cognition diseases, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanism by which they are involved in the prevention of eye diseases may be due their physical blue light filtration properties and local antioxidant activity. In addition to their protective roles against light-induced oxidative damage, there are increasing evidences that L and Z may also improve normal ocular function by enhancing contrast sensitivity and by reducing glare disability. Surveys about L and Z supplementation have indicated that moderate intakes of L and Z are associated with decreased AMD risk and less visual impairment. Furthermore, this review discusses the appropriate consumption quantities, the consumption safety of L, side effects and future research directions.

  13. The Pharmacological Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Visual Disorders and Cognition Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z are dietary carotenoids derived from dark green leafy vegetables, orange and yellow fruits that form the macular pigment of the human eyes. It was hypothesized that they protect against visual disorders and cognition diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD, age-related cataract (ARC, cognition diseases, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanism by which they are involved in the prevention of eye diseases may be due their physical blue light filtration properties and local antioxidant activity. In addition to their protective roles against light-induced oxidative damage, there are increasing evidences that L and Z may also improve normal ocular function by enhancing contrast sensitivity and by reducing glare disability. Surveys about L and Z supplementation have indicated that moderate intakes of L and Z are associated with decreased AMD risk and less visual impairment. Furthermore, this review discusses the appropriate consumption quantities, the consumption safety of L, side effects and future research directions.

  14. Effect of pharmacological interventions on the fronto-cingulo-parietal cognitive control network in psychiatric disorders: a transdiagnostic systematic review of fMRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese eVan Amelsvoort

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function deficits such as working memory, decision-making, and attention problems are a common feature of several psychiatric disorders for which no satisfactory treatment exists. Here, we transdiagnostically investigate the effects of pharmacological interventions (other than methylphenidate on the fronto-cingulo-parietal cognitive control network, in order to identify functional brain markers for future pro-cognitive pharmacological interventions. 29 manuscripts investigated the effect of pharmacological treatment on executive function-related brain correlates in psychotic disorders (n=11, depression (n=4, bipolar disorder (n=4, ADHD (n=4, OCD (n=2, smoking dependence (n=2, alcohol dependence (n=1 and pathological gambling (n=1. In terms of impact on the fronto-cingulo-parietal networks, the preliminary evidence for catechol-o-methyl-transferase inhibitors, nicotinic receptor agonists and atomoxetine suggested was relatively consistent, the data for atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants moderate, and interpretation of the data for antidepressants was hampered by the employed study designs. Increased activity in task-relevant areas and decreased activity in task-irrelevant areas were the most common transdiagnostic effects of pharmacological treatment. These markers showed good positive and moderate negative predictive value. It is concluded that fronto-cingulo-parietal activity changes can serve as a marker for future pro-cognitive interventions. Future recommendations include the use of randomized double-blind designs and selective cholinergic and glutamatergic compounds.

  15. Brain Imaging Studies on the Cognitive, Pharmacological and Neurobiological Effects of Cannabis in Humans: Evidence from Studies of Adult Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Livny, Abigail; Weizman, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. Regular cannabis use has been associated with a range of acute and chronic mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments and their neural mechanisms need to be examined. This review summarizes and critically evaluates brain-imaging studies of cannabis in recreational and regular cannabis users between January 2000 and January 2016. The search has yielded eligible 103 structural and functional studies. Regular use of cannabis results in volumetric, gray matter and white matter structural changes in the brain, in particular in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Regular use of cannabis affects cognitive processes such as attention, memory, inhibitory control, decision-making, emotional processing, social cognition and their associated brain areas. There is evidence that regular cannabis use leads to altered neural function during attention and working memory and that recruitment of activity in additional brain regions can compensate for it. Similar to other drugs of abuse, cannabis cues activated areas in the reward pathway. Pharmacological studies showed a modest increase in human striatal dopamine transmission after administration of THC in healthy volunteers. Regular cannabis use resulted in reduced dopamine transporter occupancy and reduced dopamine synthesis but not in reduced striatal D2/D3 receptor occupancy compared with healthy control participants. Studies also showed different effects of Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on emotion, cognition and associated brain regions in healthy volunteers, whereby CBD protects against the psychoactive effects of THC. Brain imaging studies using selective high-affinity radioligands for the imaging of cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) showed downregulation of CB1 in regular users of cannabis. In conclusion, regular use of the cannabinoids exerts

  16. Robust resilience and substantial interest: a survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among university students in the UK and Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina Singh

    Full Text Available Use of 'smart drugs' among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0.3%-4% of the survey population. A substantial majority of students was unaware of and/or uninterested in PCE; however about one third of students were interested in PCE. PCE users were more likely to be male, British and older students; predictors of PCE use included awareness of other students using PCEs, ADHD symptomatology, ethical concerns, and alcohol and cannabis use. The survey addresses the need for better evidence about PCE prevalence and practices among university students in the UK. We recommend PCE-related strategies for universities based on the survey findings.

  17. Robust resilience and substantial interest: a survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among university students in the UK and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ilina; Bard, Imre; Jackson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Use of 'smart drugs' among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0.3%-4% of the survey population. A substantial majority of students was unaware of and/or uninterested in PCE; however about one third of students were interested in PCE. PCE users were more likely to be male, British and older students; predictors of PCE use included awareness of other students using PCEs, ADHD symptomatology, ethical concerns, and alcohol and cannabis use. The survey addresses the need for better evidence about PCE prevalence and practices among university students in the UK. We recommend PCE-related strategies for universities based on the survey findings.

  18. Neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings in dynamic calibrated fMRI: transient oxidative neuroenergetics for block-design and event-related paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Fahmeed Hyder

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast is an important tool for mapping brain activity. Interest in quantitative fMRI has renewed awareness in importance of oxidative neuroenergetics, as reflected by cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2, for supporting brain function. Relationships between BOLD signal and the underlying neurophysiological parameters have been elucidated to allow determination of dynamic changes in CMRO2 by “calibrated fMRI”, which require multi-modal measurements of BOLD signal along with cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV. But how do CMRO2 changes, steady-state or transient, derived from calibrated fMRI compare with neural activity recordings of local field potential (LFP and/or multi-unit activity (MUA? Here we discuss recent findings primarily from animal studies which allow high magnetic fields studies for superior BOLD sensitivity as well as multi-modal CBV and CBF measurements in conjunction with LFP and MUA recordings from activated sites. A key observation is that while relationships between neural activity and sensory stimulus features range from linear to non-linear, associations between hyperemic components (BOLD, CBF, CBV and neural activity (LFP, MUA are almost always linear. More importantly, the results demonstrate good agreement between the changes in CMRO2 and independent measures of LFP or MUA. The tight neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings, observed from steady-state conditions to events separated by <200 ms, suggest rapid oxygen equilibration between blood and tissue pools and thus calibrated fMRI at high magnetic fields can provide high spatiotemporal mapping of CMRO2 changes.

  19. Neurovascular and Neurometabolic Couplings in Dynamic Calibrated fMRI: Transient Oxidative Neuroenergetics for Block-Design and Event-Related Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Maandag, Natasja J. G.; Behar, Kevin L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Rothman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is an important tool for mapping brain activity. Interest in quantitative fMRI has renewed awareness in importance of oxidative neuroenergetics, as reflected by cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption(CMRO2), for supporting brain function. Relationships between BOLD signal and the underlying neurophysiological parameters have been elucidated to allow determination of dynamic changes inCMRO2 by “calibrated fMRI,” which require multi-modal measurements of BOLD signal along with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV). But how doCMRO2 changes, steady-state or transient, derived from calibrated fMRI compare with neural activity recordings of local field potential (LFP) and/or multi-unit activity (MUA)? Here we discuss recent findings primarily from animal studies which allow high magnetic fields studies for superior BOLD sensitivity as well as multi-modal CBV and CBF measurements in conjunction with LFP and MUA recordings from activated sites. A key observation is that while relationships between neural activity and sensory stimulus features range from linear to non-linear, associations between hyperemic components (BOLD, CBF, CBV) and neural activity (LFP, MUA) are almost always linear. More importantly, the results demonstrate good agreement between the changes inCMRO2 and independent measures of LFP or MUA. The tight neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings, observed from steady-state conditions to events separated by <200 ms, suggest rapid oxygen equilibration between blood and tissue pools and thus calibrated fMRI at high magnetic fields can provide high spatiotemporal mapping ofCMRO2 changes. PMID:20838476

  20. Build-ups in the supply chain of the brain: on the neuroenergetic cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Peters

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. A few theoretical frameworks have been set up to derive the possible determinative cause of obesity. One concept views that food availability determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is the result of an external energy “push” into the body. Another one views that the energy milieu within the human organism determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is due to an excessive “pull” from inside the organism. Here we present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism is maintained by a „competent brain-pull“ which serves systemic homeostasis, and that the underlying cause of obesity is “incompetent brain-pull”, i.e. that the brain is unable to properly demand glucose from the body. We describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, towards the brain with a mathematical “supply chain” model and test whether its predictions fit medical and experimental data sets from our and other research groups. In this way, we show data-based support of our hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build-ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain´s high energy level. In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health. Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the “Selfish Brain” theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

  1. The role of citicoline in cognitive impairment: pharmacological characteristics, possible advantages, and doubts for an old drug with new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareri P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Gareri,1 Alberto Castagna,1 Antonino Maria Cotroneo,2 Salvatore Putignano,3 Giovambattista De Sarro,4 Amalia Cecilia Bruni11Centro Regionale di Neurogenetica, ASP Catanzaro, Lamezia Terme, Catanzaro, 2ASL2 Turin, Turin, 3Elderly Assistance Unit, Naples, 4Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: Citicoline is able to potentiate neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipid synthesis, or rather serves as a choline source in the metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Several studies have shown that it can have beneficial effects both in degenerative and in vascular cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this drug and its role in cognitive impairment according to the present medical literature.Methods: A MEDLINE® search was made using the following key words: citicoline, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, elderly, cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent studies on the possible role of citicoline in increasing sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 expression were assessed. Some personal studies were also considered, such as the VITA study and the IDEALE study.Results: Administered by both oral and intravenous routes, citicoline is converted into two major circulating metabolites, cytidine and choline. It is metabolized in the gut wall and liver. Pharmacokinetic studies suggested that it is well absorbed and highly bioavailable with oral dosing. A number of studies have clearly shown the possible role of citicoline in cognitive impairment of diverse etiology. It can also modulate the activity/expression of some protein kinases involved in neuronal death and increases SIRT1 expression in the central nervous system. The VITA study and the IDEALE study suggested that both parenteral and oral citicoline are effective and safe. Other studies have clearly

  2. Changes in cognitive evoked potentials during non pharmacological treatment in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtadze, S Z; Dzhanelidze, M T; Khachapuridze, N S

    2011-03-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most widely spread condition of school aged children affecting 5% of children of this age. The unified consensus of the precise diagnosis of this condition is still absent. This fact encourages the researchers to seek the alternative neurometric tools which will help the clinicians in diagnosis making process of ADHD. The neurophysiologic approaches especially event-related potentials (ERPs) are mostly important from this point of view. The later response of ERPs (P3) reflects the most important parts of executive functioning frequently affected in ADHD children - the process of mental effortfullness to select the appropriate behavior and decision making. Besides the diagnosis the treatment of ADHD is also the point of concern of neurologists and neurophyschologists. In recent years EEG biofeedback ( Neurofeedback-NF) have become the alternative treatment as in some cases pharmacological drugs are non effective. The positive impact of NF was based on improvement detected by various questionnaires which are less valid but its effectiveness on ERPs parameters is still unknown. Thus we aimed to study the changes of ERPs after NF therapy. We have studied 93 children with ADHD of combined subtype (ADHDcom) without any kind of pharmacological treatment. Age range 9-12 years. The children were divided into two subgroups: The first ADHDcom-1 (48 children) were children where NF treatment was carried out and the second subgroup of ADHDcom-2 (45 children) were non treated children. We have observed statistically significant improvement of parameters of later response like P3 in ADHD-1 compared with ADHD-2 whereas NF was non effective for earlier component like N1. NF can positively affect on the P3 parameters which is very important in ADHD children as P3 reflects the speed of information processing as well as selection of appropriate action and decision making which are frequently affected in ADHD children.

  3. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study probing the interface of cognitive and emotional brain systems in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Parnes, Stephanie A; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Sweeney, John A

    2010-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of pharmacotherapy on brain function underlying affect dysregulation and cognitive function in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Healthy controls (HC) (n=14; mean age =14.1 ± 2.4 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic or hypomanic episodes (n=17; mean age =14.3 ± 1.1 years) were matched on intelligence quotient (IQ) and demographic factors. The fMRI studies were performed at baseline and after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated initially with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) followed by lamotrigine monotherapy. The pediatric affective color-matching task was used where subjects matched the color of a positive, negative, or neutral word with one of the two colored circles below in each of the trials. There were five blocks of each emotional word type, with 10 trials per block. Behavioral data showed that the PBD group was modestly slower and less accurate than the HC, regardless of condition or treatment status. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activity was reduced with treatment in the PBD group relative to the HC group during the negative versus neutral condition in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule, but increased in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Similarly, during the positive versus neutral condition, the PBD group, relative to HC, showed reduced activity in right DLPFC, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule and increased activity in the right VMPFC. However, within the PBD group, there was treatment related decrease in VMPFC and DLPFC. Improvement on Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score significantly correlated with the decreased activity in VMPFC within the patient group. Pharmacotherapy in PBD patients led to differential effort with persistently increased activity in the affective regions and decreased activity in the

  4. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  5. Behavioural pharmacology of the α5-GABAA receptor antagonist S44819: Enhancement and remediation of cognitive performance in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacsályi, István; Móricz, Krisztina; Gigler, Gábor; Wellmann, János; Nagy, Katalin; Ling, István; Barkóczy, József; Haller, József; Lambert, Jeremy J; Szénási, Gábor; Spedding, Michael; Antoni, Ferenc A

    2017-10-01

    Previous work has shown that S44819 is a novel GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist, which is selective for extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating the α5 subunit (α5-GABAARs). The present study reports on the preclinical neuropsychopharmacological profile of S44819. Significantly, no sedative or pro-convulsive side effects of S44819 were found at doses up to 30 mg/kg i.p. Object recognition (OR) memory in intact mice was enhanced by S44819 (0.3 mg/kg p.o.) given before the acquisition trial. Mice treated with phencyclidine for two weeks and tested six days after the cessation of treatment failed to show OR memory. This deficit was corrected by a single administration of S44819 (0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg p.o.) prior to the acquisition trial. The amnestic effect of ketamine in rats tested in the eight-arm radial maze (reference and working memory versions) was blocked by S44819 (3 mg/kg p.o.). Extinction of cued fear was preserved during treatment with S44819 (3 mg/kg/diem i.p.). Administration of S44819 had no significant effect in the Vogel-conflict test, the elevated plus maze, the forced swim, the marble-burying and the tail-suspension tests. In contrast, anxiolytic/antidepressant-like effects of the compound were found in paradigms that have mnemonic components, such as social interaction, fear-potentiated startle and social avoidance induced by negative life experience. In summary, S44819 enhanced intact recognition memory and ameliorated memory deficits induced by inhibition of NMDA receptors. Anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy was limited to paradigms involving cognitive function. In conclusion, S44819 is a novel psychoactive pro-cognitive compound with potential as a therapeutic agent in dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metilfenidato e aprimoramento cognitivo farmacológico: representações sociais de universitários Methylphenidate and pharmacological cognitive enhancement: social representations of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo apresentar o resultado da investigação das representações sociais de 20 estudantes universitários sobre o uso de metilfenidato para aprimorar o desempenho cognitivo em pessoas saudáveis. Nesta pesquisa qualitativa, de cunho exploratório, 20 universitários entre 18 e 25 anos, oriundos de cursos das áreas de saúde e humanas, foram distribuídos em três grupos focais para debater sobre o Aprimoramento Cognitivo Farmacológico. A análise dos dados revelou que entre esses estudantes houve uma maior tolerância aos métodos que alteram a neurobiologia a favor do ideal social de melhoria da performance das pessoas. Contudo, os entrevistados expressaram grande preocupação com a possibilidade de este procedimento vir a intensificar injustiças e desigualdades entre as pessoas, principalmente nas sociedades em que já existem significativas diferenças sociais. Assim, apesar de o tema ser pouco estudado no Brasil, a análise dos dados da presente investigação sugere que o Aprimoramento Cognitivo Farmacológico é um assunto atual e relevante. Não apenas por esta prática estar relacionada à construção e manutenção da subjetividade dos indivíduos em uma sociedade que prioriza a melhoria da performance cognitiva, mas também pelo risco de esta interferir em questões de igualdade e justiça social.The article aims to present the outcome of the investigation of social representations of 20 university students on the use of methylphenidate to improve cognitive performance in healthy people. In this qualitative and exploratory research, 20 university students between 18 and 25 years from health and humanities courses were divided into 3 focus groups to discuss about Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement. Data analysis revealed that these students had greater tolerance to methods that alter neurobiology in favor of the social ideal of improving the performance of people. However, respondents expressed great

  7. Anesthetic pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Alex S; Maze, M; Kharasch, Evan D

    2011-01-01

    ...: Section 1 introduces the principles of drug action, Section 2 presents the molecular, cellular and integrated physiology of the target organ/functional system and Section 3 reviews the pharmacology...

  8. Clinical pharmacology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical pharmacology. Acute pain management in children. Early and appropriate pain management, and the reduction of pain during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, are essential in all trauma patients, but paediatric patients present particular challenges. Appropriate analgesia, as well as appropriate routes.

  9. Is "efficiency" a useful concept in cognitive neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldrack, Russell A

    2015-02-01

    It is common in the cognitive neuroscience literature to explain differences in activation in terms of differences in the "efficiency" of neural function. I argue here that this usage of the concept of efficiency is empty and simply redescribes activation differences rather than providing a useful explanation of them. I examine a number of possible explanations for differential activation in terms of task performance, neuronal computation, neuronal energetics, and network organization. While the concept of "efficiency" is vacuous as it is commonly employed in the neuroimaging literature, an examination of brain development in the context of neural coding, neuroenergetics, and network structure provides a roadmap for future investigation, which is fundamental to an improved understanding of developmental effects and group differences in neuroimaging signals. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option.

  11. Pharmacological Enhancement of Memory and Executive Functioning in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Floresco, Stan B.; Jentsch, James D

    2010-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may ...

  12. Neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of pharmacology in medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh F

    2011-03-01

    An introduction to the discipline of pharmacology is a standard part of the scientific foundation of medical school curricula. Neuroimmune pharmacology is a new subtopic that integrates fundamental concepts of neuroscience, immunology, infectious disease, and pharmacology. The integration of these areas is important to medical training in view of the growing concern over neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive disorders. This article introduces a submodule and concomitant syllabus for inclusion of neuroimmune pharmacology as a component of a pharmacology curriculum. The introductory lectures of neuroimmune pharmacology will concentrate on the role of the immune system in (1) schizophrenia and major depression; (2) neurodegenerative disorders; and (3) drug addiction. Emphasis will be placed on the competencies of critical thinking, problem solving, learning interest, and effectiveness of medical students. Problem-based learning and case study discussions will also be applied.

  13. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane's Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals' sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population.

  14. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  15. Oxidative Neuroenergetics in Event-Related Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2009-01-01

    Energetic basis of neural activity provides a solid foundation for noninvasive neuroimaging with calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Calculating dynamic changes in cerebral oxidative energy utilization (CMRO2) is limited by uncertainties about whether or not the conventional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) model can be applied transiently using multimodal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) that affect the BOLD signal. A prerequisite for dynamic calibrated fMRI is testing the linearity of multimodal signals within a temporal regimen, as assessed by signal strength (i.e., both intensity and width). If each hyperemic component (BOLD, CBV, CBF) is demonstrated to be linear with neural activity under various experimental conditions, then the respective transfer functions generated by deconvolution with neural activity should be time invariant and thus could potentially be used for calculating CMRO2 transients. Hyperemic components were investigated at 11.7 T in α-chloralose-anesthetized rats and combined with electrophysiological recordings of local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) from the cortex during forepaw stimulation, in which stimulus number and frequency were varied. Although relationships between neural activity and stimulus features ranged from linear to nonlinear, associations between hyperemic components and neural activity were linear. Specific to each hyperemic component, a universal transfer function (with LFP or MUA) yielded predictions in agreement with experimental measurements. The results identified a component of the BOLD signal that can be attributed to significant changes in CMRO2, even for temporal events separated by <200 ms. PMID:19211878

  16. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatt, J

    2012-01-01

    ... or in human volunteers. Thus, an experimental pharmacology using animal models continues to be the starting point for a new drug research. The book Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by Dr. M. N. Ghosh has really been a cornerstone for postgraduate students and researchers engaged in animal experimentation. It has always been useful for pos...

  17. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, M

    2007-01-01

    ... to its unique approach in comparison to other books available on Experimental pharmacology. The main purpose of this book was to give a theoretical background followed by the appropriate experimental techniques. The late Prof. H. O. Schild, then Professor of Pharmacology, University College London in his brief introduction to the first editi...

  18. Pharmacology Information System Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)

  19. Curriculum Guidelines for Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)

  20. Advancing pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2012-11-01

    Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology are emerging as principal quantitative sciences within drug development and experimental therapeutics. In recognition of the importance of pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology to the discipline of clinical pharmacology, the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, has established CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology to inform the field and shape the discipline.

  1. Advancing Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, SA; Terzic, A

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology are emerging as principal quantitative sciences within drug development and experimental therapeutics. In recognition of the importance of pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology to the discipline of clinical pharmacology, the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, has established CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology to inform the field and shape the discipline. PMID:23085873

  2. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  3. Clinical pharmacology of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, N L

    1990-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant drug in the world. This chapter reviews the human pharmacology of caffeine; the evidence for its role in causing human disease, including addiction; and its potential usefulness as a therapeutic agent.

  4. The pharmacology of psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2002-10-01

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.

  5. [Pharmacological treatment of dyslexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas-Pallarés, J

    Pharmacological approaches aimed at improving dyslexia are almost inexistent. To analyse, based on the current theories of dyslexia, the possibility of applying some pharmacological measure. The different theories on dyslexia are discussed. The multiple deficit model is then outlined, in opposition to the classical single dysfunction model. The model described provides a coherent explanation for several conceptual dilemmas that arise from the analysis of the comorbidity of dyslexia. The few pharmacological interventions that have been proposed to date are also analysed; with the exception of stimulants, however, they are not supported by any solid theoretical base about dyslexia. Lastly, we use the multiple deficit model as an aid to analyse the current data referring to the effect of stimulants on nuclear mechanisms in dyslexia. It is suggested that it would be wise to monitor the response in reading skills in children with dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are being treated with stimulants. We also recommend taking into consideration the comorbidity between dyslexia and ADHD as an argument in favour of pharmacological intervention in patients with apparently mild symptoms of ADHD. In any case, today, pharmacological intervention cannot be expected to go beyond its having a complementary and synergic effect on traditional methods of treatment.

  6. Pharmacological management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Amanda; Apovian, Caroline M

    2017-04-28

    Current management of obesity includes three main arms: behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery. Decades prior, the only pharmacological agents available to treat obesity were approved only for short-term use (≤ 12 weeks) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the last several years, the FDA has approved several medications for longer term treatment of obesity. This highlights the important progression that we, as a society, better appreciate now the chronicity and complexity of obesity as a disease. Also, availability of more medication options gives healthcare providers more possibilities to consider in the management of obesity. Medications for obesity can be simply categorized as FDA approved short-term use (diethylproprion, phendimetrazine, benzphetamine, and phentermine) and long-term use (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate ER, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion ER and liraglutide). Additionally, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is commonly seen in patients with obesity and necessitates consideration of pharmacological options that do not hinder patients' weight loss. Finally, weight-centric prescribing is also an important component to pharmacological management of obesity. It warrants that healthcare providers thoroughly review their patients' medication lists to determine if any of these agents could be contributing to weight gain.

  7. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  8. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF DIURETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Soldatenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacology of diuretics in the international system of ATC (anatomic-therapeutic-chemical is presented. Classification of this group by the action mechanism and caused effects is provided. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features, indications and principles of diuretics usage in clinics are considered. Contraindications, side effects and interaction with other drugs of this group are discussed in detail.

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SECURIDACA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic Extract of the root-bark of Securidaca longipedunculata was tested for pharmacological activity on isolated vascular and extra-vascular smooth muscle preparations. The root barks extract (50-800mg/ml) inhibited and/or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the myogenic, spontaneous contractions ...

  10. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  11. Pharmacological treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Marcio C; HALPERN, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This review offers an overview of physiological agents, current therapeutics, as well as medications, which have been extensively used and those agents not currently available or non-classically considered anti-obesity drugs. As obesity - particularly that of central distribution - represents an important triggering factor for insulin resistance, its pharmacological treatment is relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome control. The authors present an extensive review on the criteria for ...

  12. Functional imaging studies of cognition using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT: empirical validation using the n-back working memory paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Catherine; Ribaupierre, Anik de [University of Geneva, Center for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, Geneva (Switzerland); Chicherio, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology, Berlin (Germany); Terraneo, Luc [Geneva University Hospitals, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [EPFL, Brain Mind Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Slosman, Daniel [Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Nuclear Medicine Institute, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Functional activation protocols are widely applied for the study of brain-cognition relations. Only few take advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of SPECT, particularly those allowing cognitive assessment outside of the camera, in settings close to the standard clinical or laboratory ones. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of a split-dose activation protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO using low irradiation dose. A two-scans protocol was applied to 12 healthy young volunteers using 270 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO per scan, with each image associated to a particular experimental condition of the verbal n-back working memory task (0-back, 2-back). Subtraction method was used to identify regional brain activity related to the task. Voxel-wise statistical analysis showed left lateralized activity associated with the 2-back task, compared to the 0-back task. Activated regions, mainly prefrontal and parietal, were similar to those observed in previous fMRI and {sup 15}O-PET studies. The results support the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT for the investigation of brain-cognition relations and demonstrate the feasibility of optimal quality images despite low radiopharmaceutical doses. The findings also acknowledge the use of HMPAO as a radioligand to capture neuro-energetic modulations linked to cognitive activity. They encourage extending the application of the described activation protocol to clinical populations. (orig.)

  13. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  14. Epigenetics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Barbara; MacEwan, David J

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of gene regulation have shown there to be much more regulation of the genome than first thought, through epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic mechanisms are systems that have evolved to either switch off gene activity altogether, or fine-tune any existing genetic activation. Such systems are present in all genes and include chromatin modifications and remodelling, DNA methylation (such as CpG island methylation rates) and histone covalent modifications (e.g. acetylation, methylation), RNA interference by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These systems regulate genomic activity 'beyond' simple transcriptional factor inducer or repressor function of genes to generate mRNA. Epigenetic regulation of gene activity has been shown to be important in maintaining normal phenotypic activity of cells, as well as having a role in development and diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. Newer classes of drugs regulate epigenetic mechanisms to counteract disease states in humans. The reports in this issue describe some advances in epigenetic understanding that relate to human disease, and our ability to control these mechanisms by pharmacological means. Increasingly the importance of epigenetics is being uncovered - it is pharmacology that will have to keep pace. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. [The mechanism of rosiglitazone compound based on network pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Fan, Xue-mei; Sun, Han; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2015-03-01

    Applications of network pharmacology are increasingly widespread and methods abound in the field of drug development and pharmacological research. In this study, we choose rosiglitazone compound as the object to predict the targets and to discuss the mechanism based on three kinds of prediction methods of network pharmacology. Comparison of the prediction result has identified that the three kinds of prediction methods had their own characteristics: targets and pathways predicted were not in accordance with each other. However, the calcium signaling pathway could be predicted in the three kinds of methods, which associated with diabetes and cognitive impairment caused by diabetes by bioinformatics analysis. The above conclusion indicates that the calcium signaling pathway is important in signal pathway regulation of rosiglitazone compound, which provides a clue to further explain the mechanism of the compound and also provides a reference for the selection and application of methods of network pharmacology in the actual research.

  16. Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sarah E; Williams, Claire M; Iversen, Leslie; Whalley, Benjamin J

    Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational, therapeutic and other uses for thousands of years. The plant contains more than 120 C21 terpenophenolic constituents named phytocannabinoids. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol type class of phytocannabinoids comprises the largest proportion of the phytocannabinoid content. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered in 1971. This led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in mammals, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts its well-known psychotropic effects through the CB1 receptor but this effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol has limited the use of cannabis medicinally, despite the therapeutic benefits of this phytocannabinoid. This has driven research into other targets outside the endocannabinoid system and has also driven research into the other non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids present in cannabis. This chapter presents an overview of the molecular pharmacology of the seven most thoroughly investigated phytocannabinoids, namely Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, cannabigerol, and cannabichromene. The targets of these phytocannabinoids are defined both within the endocannabinoid system and beyond. The pharmacological effect of each individual phytocannabinoid is important in the overall therapeutic and recreational effect of cannabis and slight structural differences can elicit diverse and competing physiological effects. The proportion of each phytocannabinoid can be influenced by various factors such as growing conditions and extraction methods. It is therefore important to investigate the pharmacology of these seven phytocannabinoids further, and characterise the large number of other phytocannabinoids in order to better understand their contributions to the therapeutic and recreational effects claimed for the whole cannabis plant and its extracts.

  17. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  18. Pharmacologic management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries of processes that govern regulation of body weight and energy expenditure have led to development of new anti-obesity pharmacological agents. This article will inform health professionals of new anti-obesity medications that target neuronal systems within the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral humoral proteins that send signals to the CNS. An emerging theme of new therapies is to use combination medications that are directed toward several targets or leverage existing gastrointestinal satiety hormonal signals. By using combination therapies, it is anticipated that greater weight loss will be achieved compared to monotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Epigenetics and pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Barbara; MacEwan, David J

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of gene regulation have shown there to be much more regulation of the genome than first thought, through epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic mechanisms are systems that have evolved to either switch off gene activity altogether, or fine-tune any existing genetic activation. Such systems are present in all genes and include chromatin modifications and remodelling, DNA methylation (such as CpG island methylation rates) and histone covalent modifications (e.g. acetylation, methylation), RNA interference by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These systems regulate genomic activity ‘beyond’ simple transcriptional factor inducer or repressor function of genes to generate mRNA. Epigenetic regulation of gene activity has been shown to be important in maintaining normal phenotypic activity of cells, as well as having a role in development and diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's. Newer classes of drugs regulate epigenetic mechanisms to counteract disease states in humans. The reports in this issue describe some advances in epigenetic understanding that relate to human disease, and our ability to control these mechanisms by pharmacological means. Increasingly the importance of epigenetics is being uncovered – it is pharmacology that will have to keep pace. PMID:25966315

  20. Pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread pain, stiffness, insomnia, fatigue and distress. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown moderate effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for fibromyalgia pain. Evidence from these trials suggests that pharmacological therapy can not only improve pain but also fatigue, function and well-being in patients with fibromyalgia. Duloxetine and milnacipran, two highly selective serotonin-norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitors, and the alpha(2)delta agonist pregabalin have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. In general, about half of all treated patients seem to experience a 30% reduction of symptoms, suggesting that many patients with fibromyalgia will require additional therapies. Thus, other forms of treatment, including exercise, cognitive behavioural therapies and self-management strategies, may be necessary to achieve satisfactory treatment outcomes. Despite promising results of pilot trials, RCTs with dopamine receptor agonists and sodium channel antagonists have so far been disappointing for patients with fibromyalgia. However, new pharmacological approaches for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain and insomnia using sodium oxybate appear to be promising.

  1. Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Veinberg, Grigory; Grinberga, Solveiga; Vorona, Maksims; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-11-01

    Phenotropil [N-carbamoylmethyl-4-aryl-2-pyrrolidone (2-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide; carphedon)] is clinically used in its racemic form as a nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. The aim of this study was to compare the stereoselective pharmacological activity of R- and S-enantiomers of phenotropil in different behavioural tests. Racemic phenotropil and its enantiomers were tested for locomotor, antidepressant and memory-improving activity and influence on the central nervous system (CNS) using general pharmacological tests in mice. After a single administration, the amount of compound in brain tissue extracts was determined using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method in a positive ion electrospray mode. In the open-field test, a significant increase in locomotor activity was observed after a single administration of R-phenotropil at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg and S-phenotropil at a dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swim test, R-phenotropil induced an antidepressant effect at doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and S-phenotropil was active at a dose of 100 mg/kg. R-phenotropil significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test at a dose of 1 mg/kg; the S-enantiomer did not show any activity in this test. However, the concentrations of R- and S-phenotropils in brain tissue were similar. In conclusion, the antidepressant and increased locomotor activity relies on both R- and S-phenotropils, but the memory-improving activity is only characteristic of R-phenotropil. These results may be important for the clinical use of optically pure isomers of phenotropil. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  2. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  3. Clinical pharmacology of labetalol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D. A.; Prichard, B. N. C.

    1979-01-01

    1 The clinical pharmacology of labetalol has been evaluated using pharmacological and physiological test methods. 2 Labetalol displaces the log dose-response curves to the right of isoprenaline-induced increases in heart rate, cardiac output and decreases in diastolic BP. The similarity in the displacements of these curves suggests labetalol has non-selective β-adrenoceptor-blocking properties. 3 Labetalol inhibits exercise-induced increases in heart rate and systolic BP, inhibits tilt tachycardia and that associated with Valsalva's manoeuvre. 4 Direct comparison with propranolol using the methods above have shown that the β-adrenoceptor-blocking effect of labetalol is qualitatively similar to that of propranolol but that propranolol is more potent weight for weight to the order of 4 to 6:1 propranolol:labetalol. In respect of their effects on respiratory function, labetalol and propranolol are qualitatively different; whereas propranolol increases airways resistance in equipotent β-adrenoceptor-blocking doses, labetalol does not. 5 Labetalol displaces the log dose-response curves of phenylephrine and noradrenaline-induced increases in systolic and diastolic BPs to the right consistent with an α-adrenoceptor-blocking action. 6 Labetalol inhibits increases in BP due to a cold stimulus, whereas propranolol does not. 7 The combined α- and β-adrenoceptor-blocking effect of labetalol after acute and chronic administration leads to reductions in BP and peripheral resistance but little change in heart rate or cardiac output at rest. During exercise, increases in BP and heart rate are attenuated but cardiac output increases are only significantly diminished at high levels of exercise. 8 Labetalol is less lipophylic than propranolol, with a partition coefficient of 1.2. It is almost completely metabolized being extensively conjugated. PMID:43165

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs along a continuum from normal cognition to dementia. A roadblock to earlier diagnosis and potential treatment is the lack of consistency with screening for MCI. Universal screening would be ideal, but is limited. Once a diagnosis of MCI is made, it is important for the clinician to evaluate for reversible causes. At present time, there are no pharmacologic treatments proven to slow or cure progression of MCI to dementia; nonetheless, there is evidence that lifestyle modifications including diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation may be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic review of the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in people with Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrin, Hamilton; Fang, Ton; Servant, Donald; Aarsland, Dag; Rajkumar, Anto P

    2017-10-09

    Pharmacological interventions for Lewy body dementia (LBD), especially for its non-cognitive symptoms, are limited in their efficacy and tolerability. Clinicians are often uncertain about non-pharmacological interventions and their efficacy in managing cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of LBD. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the existing literature on non-pharmacological interventions for people with LBD. We carried out a systematic search using six databases. All human studies examining impact of any non-pharmacological intervention on LBD were assessed for cognitive, physical, psychiatric, and quality-of-life outcomes. Study quality was assessed by Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and the CARE criteria checklist. Prevailing evidence supporting the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions is weak. We screened 1,647 papers. Fifteen studies (n = 61) including 11 case reports were found eligible for this systematic review. Interventions and reported outcomes were heterogeneous. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert reportedly conferred cognitive benefit. Electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have been reported to ameliorate depressive symptoms. Transcranial direct current stimulation was observed to improve attention. Exercise-based interventions reportedly improve various clinically important outcomes. Spaced retrieval memory training and environmental intervention for "mirror sign" have also been reported. Several non-pharmacological interventions have been studied in LBD. Although evidence supporting their efficacy is not robust, prevailing preliminary evidence and limitations of available pharmacological interventions indicate the need to consider appropriate non-pharmacological interventions, while planning comprehensive care of LBD patients. Larger trials evaluating the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for LBD are

  6. Pharmacological enhancement of memory and executive functioning in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of FTO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO's demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity.

  8. Ion channel pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2007-04-01

    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  9. Pharmacology of cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2004-01-01

    Dronabinol (Delta 9-tetrahydocannabinol, THC), the main source of the pharmacological effects caused by the use of cannabis, is an agonist to both the CB1 and the CB2 subtype of cannabinoid receptors. It is available on prescription in several countries. The non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), some analogues of natural cannabinoids and their metabolites, antagonists at the cannabinoid receptors and modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system are also promising candidates for clinical research and therapeutic uses. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues including spleen, leukocytes; reproductive, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts; endocrine glands, arteries and heart. Five endogenous cannabinoids have been detected so far, of whom anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are best characterized. There is evidence that besides the two cannabinoid receptor subtypes cloned so far additional cannabinoid receptor subtypes and vanilloid receptors are involved in the complex physiological functions of the cannabinoid system that include motor coordination, memory procession, control of appetite, pain modulation and neuroprotection. Strategies to modulate their activity include inhibition of re-uptake into cells and inhibition of their degradation to increase concentration and duration of action. Properties of cannabinoids that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, anti-allergic effects, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, anti-emesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects.

  10. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined.......Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  11. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  12. Undergraduate pharmacology curriculum at an international medical college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Vasudha; Bhat, Vishal; Shenoy, Ganesh K

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum.

  13. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  14. Pharmacological FMRI: principles and confounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Talk from the 23 & 24 January 2012 "GlaxoSmithKline - Neurophysics Workshop on Pharmacological MRI", an activity hosted at Warwick University and coordinated with the Neurophysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of which GSK is a participant.

  15. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were perform...

  17. Clinical pharmacology of Cilomilast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Geoff; Siederer, Sarah; Lim, Sam; Daley-Yates, Peter

    2006-01-01

    renal or hepatic impairment, but concentrations of unbound cilomilast increased with declining renal or hepatic function. Cilomilast had no clinically relevant interactions with a range of drugs likely to be coadministered to patients with COPD, with the exception of erythromycin where concurrent administration with cilomilast was associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events, a pharmacodynamic interaction predicted by their secondary pharmacology. Nausea was the principal adverse reaction seen in healthy subjects taking cilomilast, but this was reduced by administration with food or by use of simple dose-escalation regimens. Cilomilast has not shown a propensity for any of the serious cardiac or neurological adverse effects associated with theophylline. Cilomilast exhibits favourable and predictable pharmacokinetics, has few clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and has demonstrated effects on measures of inflammation of potential benefit in the treatment of COPD. It is generally well tolerated and has not generated safety concerns in any clinical study.

  18. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types of pharm......Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types...... additional cost. Based on the guidance given in the ICH S7A guideline, it thus appears logical to recommend that test facilities and sponsors consider their organisation of safety pharmacology studies in view of sound study management and formal implementation of GLP, where needed. Organisation of study...

  20. The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Justin M.; Furth, Mark E.; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase “regenerative pharmacology” to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is “the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues.” As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all. PMID:23818131

  1. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Luis F; Naidu, Srihari S; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2018-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy has been rising in prevalence, due to increased awareness and advanced imaging. For the symptomatic patient, pharmacological management remains an effective approach to the majority of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, a significant subset fails to improve sufficiently with medical therapy initially, or progressively becomes more symptomatic despite augmented medications over time. Most of the advances in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have therefore been made in the area of non-pharmacologic management, particularly septal reduction therapy. Both surgical myectomy and alcohol septal ablation have undergone iterative modifications that improve outcomes. Current guidelines support these therapies based on large observational studies, with choice of therapy based on a variety of factors but again based primarily on expert consensus opinion. Areas covered: This article reviews both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve outflow tract obstruction and symptoms, and provides an algorithm for addressing the symptomatic obstructive patient. Expert commentary: Current options for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy allow the majority of patients to live their lives with no more than NYHA Class 2 heart failure symptoms. Treatment algorithms can add in identification of patients who may benefit from advanced therapies, and should be instituted routinely to improve care for the majority of patients with symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  2. A history of glaucoma pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The history of glaucoma pharmacology begins in 1862 with the isolation of physostigmine from the calabar bean. The discovery of epinephrine's intraocular pressure lowering capacity came along some 40 years later. During the 20th century, drug discovery and development accelerated, with the introduction of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, beta blockers, and prostaglandin analogs. This survey of the history of glaucoma medications reviews some of the pivotal stories behind the development of the drugs that we use daily to manage our patients with glaucoma. In addition, some unmet needs that persist in glaucoma pharmacology are discussed.

  3. Pharmacological effects of rosa damascena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-07-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers.

  4. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines...

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha plays a crucial role in behavioral repetition and cognitive flexibility in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe D'Agostino

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Our data indicate that Ppar-α is required for normal cognitive function and that pharmacological stimulation of PPAR-α improves cognitive function in pharmacological and genetic models of impaired cognitive function in mice. These results thereby reveal an unforeseen therapeutic application for a class of drugs currently in human use.

  6. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  7. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and

  8. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and

  9. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  10. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  11. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer ICU stay, increased long-term mortality and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients...... for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...... of reviews is to critically assess the evidence of reviews of randomised clinical trials on the effect of pharmacological management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. METHODS/DESIGN: We will search for reviews in the following databases: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index...

  13. Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkoff, Joshua; Greenfield, Brian

    2006-06-01

    With increased awareness that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist beyond childhood, pharmacological treatment options for adults have expanded. Short-acting stimulants continue to be the first-line approach, demonstrating clinical efficacy and few adverse events in well-controlled trials, with long-acting stimulants also showing promise. Atomoxetine has also been reported to improve ADHD symptoms and associated dysfunction, although longer-term, head-to-head studies with stimulants are needed. Several antidepressants (e.g., desipramine and buproprion) appear to be effective in the treatment of adult ADHD, but to a lesser extent than stimulants. Data are limited in evaluating the impact of combining pharmacological treatments for ADHD and comorbid conditions. This paper describes the safety and efficacy of medications for treating the core symptoms, psychosocial features and cognitive dysfunctions associated with adult ADHD.

  14. Adrenergic Pharmacology and Cognition: Focus on the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Brian P.; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2007-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) has widespread projections throughout brain, and thus is ideally positioned to orchestrate neural functions based on arousal state. For example, NE can increase “signal/noise” ratio in the processing of sensory stimuli, and can enhance long-term memory consolidation in the amygdala and hippocampus through actions at α-1 and β adrenoceptors. Over the last 20 years, NE has also been shown to play a powerful role in regulating the working memory and attention functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Moderate levels of NE released under control conditions strengthen prefrontal cortical functions via actions at post-synaptic α-2A adrenoceptors with high affinity for NE, while high levels of NE release during stress impair PFC cortical functions via α-1 and possibly β-1 receptors with lower affinity for NE. Thus, levels of NE determine whether prefrontal cortical or posterior cortical systems control our behavior and thought. Understanding these receptor mechanisms has led to new, intelligent treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with PFC dysfunction. PMID:17303246

  15. Differential pharmacology of newer antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVane, C L

    1998-01-01

    New antidepressants have become available for clinical use in the 1990s. Before this decade, the drugs available to treat depression consisted essentially of lithium, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants. Trazodone and bupropion, introduced in the mid-1980s, were the first major departures from the pharmacology of the tricyclics. Following the introduction in 1988 of the first serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the United States, the options have expanded and now include four SSRIs (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine), nefazodone, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine. Citalopram and reboxetine are expected to be available by the end of the decade. These newer drugs possess a variety of pharmacological characteristics that are relevant to the choice of an antidepressant for clinical use. This review summarizes some of the major pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic similarities and differences among these drugs.

  16. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.

  17. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Upadhyay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.

  18. Pharmacological Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sugi, MD PhD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation has a variety of purposes, such as pharmacological defibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm, heart rate control to prevent congestive heart failure and prevention of both cerebral infarction and atrial remodeling. Sodium channel blockers are superior to potassium channel blockers for atrial defibrillation, while both sodium and potassium channel blockers are effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. In general, digitalis or Ca antagonists are used to control heart rate during atrial fibrillation to prevent congestive heart failure, while amiodarone or bepridil also reduce heart rates during atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is recommended to prevent cerebral infarction and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonists or angiotensin II receptor blockers are also used to prevent atrial remodeling. One should select appropriate drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation according to the patient's condition.

  19. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay,Aparna; Singh,D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal sap...

  20. Postprandial hyperglycemia. II. Pharmacological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Letiexhe, Michel; Geronooz, I.; Paquot, Nicolas; Jandrain, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Besides dietary approaches, various pharmacological means have been recently developed in order to better control postprandial hyperglycaemia. This objective may be obtained: 1) by slowing down the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates; 2) by insuring a better insulin priming soon after the meal; and 3) by inhibiting post-prandial glucagon secretion or action. Some hormones (amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1) can slow gastric emptying while alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) ret...

  1. Non-pharmacological aspects of acute pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevensen, C

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, non-pharmacological aspects of acute pain management were explored. Much of the research to date with regard to pain management, has been done, addressing the needs of chronic rather than acute pain. It is thought that misconceptions are still held by some health care professionals regarding the adequacy of pharmacology to deal totally with the problems of acute pain management, and it is of more importance to concentrate on issues associated with chronic pain. This is borne out by the relative attention paid to acute and chronic pain in the current body of research. Some aspects of non-pharmacological methods of pain management have been well researched over the last 20 to 30 years, whilst others are more recent innovations. Non-pharmacological aspects of acute pain management were examined under two headings: 1. Psychological approaches: including preoperative information giving, cognitive methods, relaxation training, distraction, guided imagery, humour, hypnosis, music and biofeedback. 2. Complementary therapies and other techniques: including both hands on and other physical therapies using equipment: massage, aromatherapy, reflex zone therapy, acupuncture, shiatsu, therapeutic touch and TENS. There is a sound body of knowledge to support the use of many of the established nonpharmacological methods in the management of acute pain. These include: appropriate preoperative information giving, preoperative relaxation, guided imagery and breathing training, cognitive reframing, distraction in both visual and auditory (music) forms, massage, acupuncture, TENS. Other methods which may be of assistance in acute pain management but are inconclusive in their effect from the current body of available research and may require further examination include: hypnosis, humour therapy, biofeedback techniques, aromatherapy, reflex zone therapy, shiatsu, Therapeutic Touch.

  2. The clinical pharmacology of acamprosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Nicola J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2014-02-01

    Acamprosate is one of the few medications licensed for prevention of relapse in alcohol dependence, and over time it has proved to be significantly, if moderately, effective, safe and tolerable. Its use is now being extended into other addictions and neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanism of action of acamprosate has been less clear, but in the decade or more that has elapsed since its licensing, a body of translational evidence has accumulated, in which preclinical findings are replicated in clinical populations. Acamprosate modulates N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor transmission and may have indirect effects on γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor transmission. It is known to decrease brain glutamate and increase β-endorphins in rodents and man. Acamprosate diminishes reinstatement in ethanolized rodents and promotes abstinence in humans. Although acamprosate has been called an anticraving drug, its subjective effects are subtle and relate to diminished arousal, anxiety and insomnia, which parallel preclinical findings of decreased withdrawal symptoms in animals treated with acamprosate. Further understanding of the pharmacology of acamprosate will allow appropriate targeting of therapy in individuals with alcohol dependence and extension of its use to other addictions. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Treating epileptic emergencies - pharmacological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Johan; Ben-Menachem, Elinor

    2016-10-14

    Epileptic emergencies are frequently encountered and include ictal events as status epilepticus or seizure clusters, and non-ictal situations like postictal psychosis or acute drug side effects. The aim of this review was to describe recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of epileptic emergencies. Areas covered: Based on clinically relevant questions, a literature search was performed. The search showed that most pharmacological advances have been made in management of status epilepticus, where substantial literature has accumulated on several AEDs with potentially less side-effects than the traditional choices. The use of these drugs; valproate, levetiracetam, and lacosamide, was therefore made the main focus of this review. Pharmacological advances in treatment of other epileptic emergencies were scarce, and were therefore covered more briefly in the Expert Opinion section. Expert opinion: This section outlines our current practice in management of status epilepticus and seizures clusters. Our opinion is that valproate is an equal alternative as second line treatment to fosphenytoin, with levetiracetam considered a good choice in frail and elderly patients. Due to the lack of literature, lacosamide is used mainly as a 2nd line drug after the failure of valproate, fosphenytoin and levetiracetam. Our review underlines the need for more research in management of epileptic emergencies.

  4. Insulin, cognition, and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815

  5. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  6. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.

  7. A brief essay on non-pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele

    2017-07-26

    Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques. The practices summarized in this essay are not alternative but, often, complementary therapies to standardized pharmacological treatment. The present mini-review has found encouraging results but also the need for more conclusive evidence for all types of non-invasive/non-pharmacological treatment of AD.

  8. Perioperative Pharmacologic Considerations in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Simon; Bordelon, Gregory J; Rana, Maunak V

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has increased in incidence worldwide. Along with the increased number of obese patients, comorbid conditions are also more prevalent in this population. Obesity leads to changes in the physiology of patients along with an altered response to pharmacologic therapy. Vigilant perioperative physicians must be aware of the unique characteristics of administered agents in order to appropriately provide anesthetic care for obese patients. Because of the variability in tissue content in obese patients and changes in pharmacokinetic modeling, a one-size-fits-all approach is not justified and a more sophisticated and prudent approach is indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  10. Non pharmacological treatments in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spath

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To fully answer the complex question of what modes of non pharmacological treatments are useful for fibromyalgia (FM one should ask different layers of questions, and as with peeling layers of onions, be prepared to shed some tears. The first painful question, or layer of the onion, is related to understanding patients’ complaints. Patients who experience recurrent as well as persistent physical symptoms without any objective evidence are too often classified as “psychosomatic disorders” or worse as “non disease” (see Sarzi this issue...

  11. Evidence-Based, Non-Pharmacological Treatment Guideline for Depression in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Oh, Hong Seok; Oh, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Seung Ah; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Ree-Hun; Choi, Yun-Kyeung; Lee, Min-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Although pharmacological treatment constitutes the main therapeutic approach for depression, non-pharmacological treatments (self-care or psychotherapeutic approach) are usually regarded as more essential therapeutic approaches in clinical practice. However, there have been few clinical practice guidelines concerning self-care or psychotherapy in the management of depression. This study introduces the 'Evidence-Based, Non-Pharmacological Treatment Guideline for Depression in Korea.' For the first time, a guideline was developed for non-pharmacological treatments for Korean adults with mild-to-moderate depression. The guideline development process consisted of establishing several key questions related to non-pharmacologic treatments of depression, searching the literature for studies which answer these questions, assessing the evidence level of each selected study, drawing up draft recommendation, and peer review. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. As a result of this process, the guideline recommends exercise therapy, bibliotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy as the non-pharmacological treatments for adult patients with mild-to-moderate depression in Korea. Hence, it is necessary to develop specific methodologies for several non-pharmacological treatment for Korean adults with depression. PMID:24431900

  12. Patients and ICU nurses' perspectives of non-pharmacological interventions for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Céline; Arbour, Caroline; Michaud, Cécile; Robar, Lauren; Côté, José

    2013-11-01

    Pain is a major stressor for critically ill patients. To maximize pain relief, non-pharmacological interventions are an interesting avenue to explore. The study aim was to describe the perspectives of patients/family members and nurses about the usefulness, relevance and feasibility of non-pharmacological interventions for pain management in the intensive care unit (ICU). A qualitative descriptive design was used. Patients/family members (n = 6) with a previous experience of ICU hospitalization and ICU nurses (n = 32) were recruited. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, participants were asked to share their perspective about non-pharmacological interventions that they found useful, relevant and feasible for pain management in the ICU. Interventions were clustered into five categories: a) cognitive-behavioural, b) physical, c) emotional support, d) helping with activities of daily living and, e) creating a comfortable environment. A total of eight focus groups (FGs) with patients/family members (two FGs) and ICU nurses (six FGs) were conducted. Overall, 33 non-pharmacological interventions were discussed. The top four non-pharmacological interventions found to be useful, relevant and feasible in at least half of the FGs were music therapy and distraction (cognitive-behavioural category), simple massage (physical category) and family presence facilitation (emotional support category). Interestingly, patients/family members and nurses showed different interests towards some interventions. For instance, patients discussed more about active listening/reality orientation, while nurses talked mostly about teaching/positioning. Four non-pharmacological interventions reached consensus in patients and nurses' FGs to be useful, relevant and feasible for pain management in the ICU. Other interventions seemed to be influenced by personal experience or professional role of the participants. While more evidence is required to conclude to their effectiveness, ICU nurses can

  13. Cognitive rehabilitation in neuro-oncological patients: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zucchella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common neurological disorders in neuro-oncological patients, linked with morbidity, disability, and poor quality of life. As pharmacologic interventions have not yet proven effective in the treatment of cognitive deficits, cognitive rehabilitation could represent an alternative approach. This paper presents three case studies, describing the cognitive intervention and discussing its effectiveness in the light of current evidence.

  14. Cognitive function is related to fronto-striatal serotonin transporter levels--a brain PET study in young healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Erritzøe, David Frederik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter...

  15. Pharmacological management of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Marchesi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlo MarchesiPsychiatric Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a disabling condition which appears in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects more frequently women than men. PD is frequently characterized by recurrences and sometimes by a chronic course and, therefore, most patients require longterm treatments to achieve remission, to prevent relapse and to reduce the risks associated with comorbidity. Pharmacotherapy is one of the most effective treatments of PD. In this paper, the pharmacological management of PD is reviewed. Many questions about this effective treatment need to be answered by the clinician and discussed with the patients to improve her/his collaboration to the treatment plan: which is the drug of choice; when does the drug become active; which is the effective dose; how to manage the side effects; how to manage nonresponse; and how long does the treatment last. Moreover, the clinical use of medication in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding or in children and adolescents was reviewed and its risk-benefit balance discussed.Keywords: panic disorder, pharmacological treatment, treatment guidelines

  16. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-12-07

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis.

  17. Let's 'play' with molecular pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Sengupta, Gairik; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Manojit; Roy, Ranendra Kumar; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concepts of molecular mechanisms of drug action involves sequential visualization of physiological processes and drug effects, a task that can be difficult at an undergraduate level. Role-play is a teaching-learning methodology whereby active participation of students as well as clear visualization of the phenomenon is used to convey complex physiological concepts. However, its use in teaching drug action, a process that demands understanding of a second level of complexity over the physiological process, has not been investigated. We hypothesized that role-play can be an effective and well accepted method for teaching molecular pharmacology. In an observational study, students were guided to perform a role-play on a selected topic involving drug activity. Students' gain in knowledge was assessed comparing validated pre- and post-test questionnaires as well as class average normalized gain. The acceptance of role-play among undergraduate medical students was evaluated by Likert scale analysis and thematic analysis of their open-ended written responses. Significant improvement in knowledge (P pharmacology in undergraduate medical curricula.

  18. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  19. The role of epigenetics in cognitive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Karen A; Kwok, John B; Armstrong, Nicola; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-11-01

    As the population is ageing, a better understanding of the underlying causes of age-related cognitive decline (cognitive ageing) is required. Epigenetic dysregulation is proposed as one of the underlying mechanisms for cognitive ageing. We review the current knowledge on epigenetics and cognitive ageing and appraise the potential of epigenetic preventative and therapeutic interventions. Articles on cognitive ageing and epigenetics in English were identified. Epigenetic dysregulation occurs with cognitive ageing, with changes in histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation and non-coding RNA reported. However, human studies are lacking, with most being cross-sectional using peripheral blood samples. Pharmacological and lifestyle factors have the potential to change aberrant epigenetic profiles; but few studies have examined this in relation to cognitive ageing. The relationship between epigenetic modifications and cognitive ageing is only beginning to be investigated. Epigenetic dysregulation appears to be an important feature in cognitive ageing, but whether it is an epiphenomenon or a causal factor remains to be elucidated. Clarification of the relationship between epigenetic profiles of different cell types is essential and would determine whether epigenetic marks of peripheral tissues can be used as a proxy for changes occurring in the brain. The use of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive performance and quality of life of older adults needs more investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  1. Scopolamine provocation-based pharmacological MRI model for testing procognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Nikolett; Laszy, Judit; Gyertyán, István; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Deli, Levente; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2015-04-01

    There is a huge unmet need to understand and treat pathological cognitive impairment. The development of disease modifying cognitive enhancers is hindered by the lack of correct pathomechanism and suitable animal models. Most animal models to study cognition and pathology do not fulfil either the predictive validity, face validity or construct validity criteria, and also outcome measures greatly differ from those of human trials. Fortunately, some pharmacological agents such as scopolamine evoke similar effects on cognition and cerebral circulation in rodents and humans and functional MRI enables us to compare cognitive agents directly in different species. In this paper we report the validation of a scopolamine based rodent pharmacological MRI provocation model. The effects of deemed procognitive agents (donepezil, vinpocetine, piracetam, alpha 7 selective cholinergic compounds EVP-6124, PNU-120596) were compared on the blood-oxygen-level dependent responses and also linked to rodent cognitive models. These drugs revealed significant effect on scopolamine induced blood-oxygen-level dependent change except for piracetam. In the water labyrinth test only PNU-120596 did not show a significant effect. This provocational model is suitable for testing procognitive compounds. These functional MR imaging experiments can be paralleled with human studies, which may help reduce the number of false cognitive clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby...

  3. The Efficacy of Cognitive Stimulation on Depression and Cognition in Elderly Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federerico Filipin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline due to neurodegenerative diseases is a prevalent worldwide problem. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments to improve, delay or stop disease progression are of vital importance. Cognitive stimulation is frequently used in clinical practice; however, there are few studies that demonstrate its efficacy. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of cognitive stimulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (CDR = 0.5 and dementia (CDR = 1. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients with cognitive impairment receiving weekly cognitive stimulation (16 or 24 sessions were evaluated with a complete neuropsychological battery before and after the stimulation program. Each stimulation session was carried out by a trained neuropsychologist. Results: Forty two patients receiving cognitive stimulation were evaluated over a period of 12.53 months (SD 5.5. Patients were grouped as 11 amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, 23 multi domain mild cognitive impairment (mMCI and 8 Mild Alzheimer's Dementia (CDR 1. None of the groups improved their cognitive functions after the cognitive stimulation program. MCI group was also divided according to their global intelligence quotient (IQ into two groups: low (IQ < 98.5 and high (IQ > 98.5. Each group was compared before and after the stimulation program and no significant difference was found (p ≥ 0.05. Moreover, MCI group was also analyzed according to the duration of the stimulation program: less than 9, between 9 and 13 and more than 13 months. Different duration groups were compared before and after the cognitive stimulation program and no significant differences were found. Depression, anxiety and subjective memory symptoms were also analysed and neither improvement nor worsening could be demonstrated. Conclusions: Patients remained stable, both in cognitive and behavioural domains, for more than 18 months. However, no significant cognitive or behavioural

  4. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  5. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-hua LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common non-motor symptom (NMS in Parkinson's disease (PD, which affects the patients' quality of life and increases the burden of caregivers. Cognitive dysfunction in PD can be mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. MCI presents in the early stage of PD and the incidence rate is increasing with the disease progression. In some cases it can advance to dementia. The diagnosis of MCI in PD includes inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and damage level evaluation. Non-pharmacological therapy, such as exercise and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT can improve the symptoms of MCI in PD, while the pharmacological treatment remains to be further studied. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.002

  6. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline.

  7. The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with dementia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Raijmakers, P.G.H.M.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Scheltens, P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.

    2016-01-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical activity interventions, are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatment of cognitive symptoms in patients with dementia. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive

  8. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    -frequency adaptation, pharmacological modulation of SK channels may be of significant clinical importance. Here we report the functional expression of SK3 in HEK293 and demonstrate a broad pharmacological profile for these channels. Brain slice studies commonly employ 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to block voltage...

  9. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present review discusses extensively the available knowledge on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. The review does not include other parts of these plants. Literature evidence has been analyzed to identify responsible phytochemicals and their wide range of pharmacological activities ...

  10. The Dutch vision of clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, J H M; Grouls, R; Guchelaar, H J; Touw, D J; Rongen, G A; de Boer, A; Van Bortel, L M

    Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether

  11. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological ... Abstract. Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum ..... PhD thesis. University of the Witwatersrand;. 2007. 8. Moeng TE. An investigation into the trade of medicinal plants by muthi shops and street vendors in the.

  12. Conception of pharmacological knowledge and needs amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in research-intensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have taken the medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by ...

  13. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-07-30

    Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2009. 1. To compare the clinical efficacy of pharmacological treatments for patients with an acute psychotic depression: antidepressant monotherapy, antipsychotic monotherapy and the combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, compared with each other and/or with placebo.2. To assess whether differences in response to treatment in the current episode are related to non-response to prior treatment. A search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Register (CCDANCTR) was carried out (to 12 April 2013). These registers include reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: EMBASE (1970-), MEDLINE (1950-) and PsycINFO (1960-). Reference lists of all studies and related reviews were screened and key authors contacted. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included participants with acute major depression with psychotic features, as well as RCTs consisting of participants with acute major depression with or without psychotic features, that reported separately on the subgroup of participants with psychotic features. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included studies, according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Data were entered into RevMan 5.1. We used intention-to-treat data. For dichotomous efficacy outcomes, the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. For continuously distributed outcomes, it was not possible to extract data from the RCTs. Regarding the primary outcome of harm, only overall dropout rates were available for all

  14. Non-pharmacological interventions for alleviating pain during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Strydom, Hardus; Katsaros, Christos; MacDonald, Lci; Curatolo, Michele; Fudalej, Piotr; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2016-12-23

    RCTs that randomised 931 participants. Interventions assessed included: low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (4 studies); vibratory devices (5 studies); chewing adjuncts (3 studies); brain wave music or cognitive behavioural therapy (1 study) and post-treatment communication in the form of a text message (1 study). Twelve studies involved self-report assessment of pain on a continuous scale and two studies used questionnaires to assess the nature, intensity and location of pain.We combined data from two studies involving 118 participants, which provided low-quality evidence that LLLT reduced pain at 24 hours by 20.27 mm (95% CI -24.50 to -16.04, P pain at six hours, three days and seven days.Results for the other comparisons assessed are inconclusive as the quality of the evidence was very low. Vibratory devices were assessed in five studies (272 participants), four of which were at high risk of bias and one unclear. Chewing adjuncts (chewing gum or a bite wafer) were evaluated in three studies (181 participants); two studies were at high risk of bias and one was unclear. Brain wave music and cognitive behavioural therapy were evaluated in one trial (36 participants) assessed at unclear risk of bias. Post-treatment text messaging (39 participants) was evaluated in one study assessed at high risk of bias.Adverse effects were not measured in any of the studies. Overall, the results are inconclusive. Although available evidence suggests laser irradiation may help reduce pain during orthodontic treatment in the short term, this evidence is of low quality and therefore we cannot rely on the findings. Evidence for other non-pharmacological interventions is either very low quality or entirely lacking. Further prospective research is required to address the lack of reliable evidence concerning the effectiveness of a range of non-pharmacological interventions to manage orthodontic pain. Future studies should use prolonged follow-up and should measure costs and possible harms.

  15. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  16. Pharmacology of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P F

    2000-02-01

    In the past year significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neurochemistry and neuropharmacology of the peripheral and central vestibular systems. The recognition of the central importance of excitatory amino acids and their receptors at the level of the hair cells, vestibular nerve and vestibular nucleus has progressed further, and the role of nitric oxide in relation to activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype is becoming increasingly clear. Increasing evidence suggests that excessive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation and nitric oxide production after exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics is a critical part of hair cell death, and new pharmacological strategies for preventing aminoglycoside ototoxicity are emerging as a result. Conversely, the use of aminoglycosides to lesion the peripheral vestibular system in the treatment of Meniere's disease has been studied intensively. In the vestibular nucleus, new studies suggest the importance of opioid, nociceptin and glucocorticoid receptors in the control of vestibular reflex function. Finally, the mechanisms of action and optimal use of antihistamines in the treatment of vestibular disorders has also received a great deal of attention.

  17. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  18. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  19. Pharmacological management of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Carlo

    2008-02-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling condition which appears in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects more frequently women than men. PD is frequently characterized by recurrences and sometimes by a chronic course and, therefore, most patients require long-term treatments to achieve remission, to prevent relapse and to reduce the risks associated with comorbidity. Pharmacotherapy is one of the most effective treatments of PD. In this paper, the pharmacological management of PD is reviewed. Many questions about this effective treatment need to be answered by the clinician and discussed with the patients to improve her/his collaboration to the treatment plan: which is the drug of choice; when does the drug become active; which is the effective dose; how to manage the side effects; how to manage nonresponse; and how long does the treatment last. Moreover, the clinical use of medication in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding or in children and adolescents was reviewed and its risk-benefit balance discussed.

  20. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Cognitive based interventions for elderly people with mild cognitive impairement: Review of effects and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima González Palau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the percentage of older adults, as well as degenerative diseases, there is growing interest in the determination of effective psychosocial approaches aimed to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Recent experimental studies indicate positive effects of cognitive interventions in population with DCL in both, traditional methods and computer based interventions. The present review provides a systematic analysis of the literature in order to assess the effect and scope of actual non-pharmacological cognitive interventions, aimed to older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  2. Cognitive enhancement. Effort of definition, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gunia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of cognitive enhancement refers to multifaceted and interdisciplinary approach aimed at improving human mental processes. Cognitive enhancement is the amplification or extension of core mind capacities through improvement or augmentation of either internal or external information processing systems. This includes improvements of intelligence and attention, reinforcement of creativity and memory, or extension of perception range. The main feature of cognitive enhancement is voluntariness of use for overcoming natural mental limitations. This article is a synthesis of current trends in cognitive enhancement from the perspective of transhumanism. The article presents various definitions of cognitive enhancement, methods of cognitive enhancement (biotechnological methods, non-pharmacological methods, IT methods as well as challenges and questions concerning improving human mental processes.

  3. The Swiss Society of Experimental Pharmacology in Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz-Schmidt, Gabriele; Rüegg, Urs

    2016-12-21

    Experimental pharmacology is undergoing fundamental changes. This article describes the challenges and opportunities associated with these changes from the perspective of the Swiss Society of Pharmacology (SSEP), the society which aims to advance experimental pharmacology in Switzerland and abroad.

  4. Clinical pharmacological studies with doxazosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, H. L.; Meredith, P. A.; Vincent, J.; Reid, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    1 The clinical pharmacology of doxazosin is reviewed from studies in normotensive young (21-39 years) and elderly (62-89 years) subjects following oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) administration. 2 In young subjects the mean bioavailability was 65% and the mean terminal elimination half-lives were 9.5 and 10.5 h following acute intravenous and oral administration respectively. These parameters were similar in the elderly with bioavailability of 69% and half-lives of 8.8 and 11.9 h. The apparent volume of distribution and clearance were significantly higher in elderly (1.7 l kg-1 and 140 ml min-1) than in young subjects (1.0 l kg-1 and 83 ml min-1). 3 In both groups blood pressure reductions were most marked in the standing position and the maximum effect did not occur until 5-6 h, even after intravenous administration. The blood pressure reduction produced by doxazosin was associated in the young with a significant increase in heart rate to 108 beats min-1 (placebo, 82 beats min-1) but this increase was significantly attenuated in the elderly at 91 beats min-1 (placebo, 77 beats min-1). 4 Pressor response studies in the young subjects confirmed the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist activity of doxazosin with significant rightward shifts of the dose-response curves for the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. 5 Using the technique of concentration-effect analysis, both the degree of α1-adrenoceptor antagonism and the hypotensive effect can be correlated with the concentration of doxazosin in the `effect compartment'. 6 The gradual onset of action, the prolonged duration of hypotensive effect and the relatively long elimination half-life suggest that doxazosin may be a useful antihypertensive agent suitable for once-daily dosing. PMID:2871854

  5. Pharmacologic differences between beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A J

    1984-10-01

    All of the beta blockers act by antagonizing the actions of the endogenous adrenergic agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine at the beta-adrenergic receptors. However, a number of pharmacologic differences exist between the various agents. Some drugs, such as atenolol and metoprolol, are relatively selective for the beta-1-adrenergic receptors, requiring higher concentrations to block beta-2-adrenergic receptors than are required to block beta-1 receptors. It should be noted, however, that these selective beta blockers all block beta-2 receptors when their concentrations are high enough. When patients with asthma must receive a beta blocker, low doses of a selective drug should be used. Recent studies, however, have suggested that the use of a nonselective beta blocker may be desirable to antagonize some beta-2-mediated metabolic effects, such as hypokalemia, induced by epinephrine. Pindolol is the only beta-receptor antagonist available in the United States with intrinsic sympathomimetic, or partial agonist, activity. Such drugs, because of their partial agonist activity, cause some sympathetic stimulation under conditions of low endogenous sympathetic tone, such as while subjects are at rest in the supine position. Under conditions of higher sympathetic tone, pindolol blocks the effects of the endogenous agonists, producing the characteristic effects of a beta blocker. Membrane-stabilizing activity was first recognized with propranolol, and the value of this property has been a source of controversy ever since, but recent studies suggest that propranolol may induce electrophysiologic effects by mechanisms other than beta blockade. Pharmacokinetic differences between the drugs are also of importance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  7. Logic Modeling in Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynard, Pauline; Tobalina, Luis; Eduati, Federica; Calzone, Laurence; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2017-08-01

    Here we present logic modeling as an approach to understand deregulation of signal transduction in disease and to characterize a drug's mode of action. We discuss how to build a logic model from the literature and experimental data and how to analyze the resulting model to obtain insights of relevance for systems pharmacology. Our workflow uses the free tools OmniPath (network reconstruction from the literature), CellNOpt (model fit to experimental data), MaBoSS (model analysis), and Cytoscape (visualization). © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Pharmacological effects of lavandulifolioside from Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Leyck, Katarzyna; Filipek, Barbara; Strzelecka, Halina

    2002-04-01

    Lavandulifolioside was detected for the first time in Leonurus cardiaca var. vulgaris [Moench] Briquet (Lamiaceae). The isolation was performed from the butanolic extract of the aerial parts and the identification by NMR and MS. The pharmacological properties of lavandulifolioside consist of significant negative chronotropism, prolongation of the P-Q, Q-T intervals and QRS complex, and decrease of blood pressure. Contrary to the butanolic extract lavandulifolioside did not reduce the spontaneous locomotor activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological pattern of lavandulifolioside did not explain the pharmacological effects of L. cardiaca L. alone.

  9. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other brain changes are likely also involved in cognitive decline in PD. Scientists are looking at changes in ... Breathing & Respiratory Difficulties Loss of Smell Constipation & Nausea Cognitive Changes Depression Fatigue Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin ...

  10. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitte...

  11. Cognitive maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive map is a representative expression of an individual's cognitive map knowledge, where cognitive map knowledge is an individual's knowledge about the spatial and environmental relations of geographic space. For example, a sketch map drawn to show the route between two locations is a cognitive map — a representative expression of the drawer's knowledge of the route between the two locations. This map can be analyzed using classification schemes or quantitatively using spatial statist...

  12. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S.; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  13. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  14. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... simple competitive agonism or antagonism by ligands interacting with the orthosteric binding site of the receptor to incorporate concepts of allosteric agonism, allosteric modulation, signaling bias, constitutive activity, and inverse agonism. Herein, we consider how evolving concepts of GPCR...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  15. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Pharmacological Studies of Bivalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Pharmacological Studies of Bivalent Copper, Zinc and Mercury Complexes of Thiourea. ... All the metal complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectroscopy. Cu(II) complexes were additionally ...

  16. Pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic study of hyperoside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with no significant gender variation in its activities. Other significant details on its pharmacological properties and information for future investigations on its components are provided. Keywords: Hyperoside; Anti-inflammatory, Antidepressant, Neuroprotective, Antidiabetic, Anticancer, Antioxidant, Cytochrome P450 ...

  17. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intestinal worms, venereal diseases, edema, hemoorrhoids, purgative, emmenogogue and vermifuge.The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids and phytosterols. This review was aimed at describing the medicinal uses, pharmacological and phytochemical components ...

  18. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and ethnomedicinal uses of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blume moraceae): A review. ... Ficus thonningii contains various bioactive compounds which include alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and active proteins, all of which contribute to its curative properties. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological ...

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. The review does not ... inflammation, airway inflammation, obesity, and diabetes [1]. ... content, chemical, and physical properties. Many ..... A strong luciferase signal detected in the abdominal ...

  20. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  1. Jatropha Tanjorensis - Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha Tanjorensis - Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacotherapy. Abiodun Falodun, Anthony Adeyanju Udu-Cosi, Osayemwenre Erharuyi, Vincent Imieje, Joyce Ehizogie Falodun, Okhuarobo Agbonlahor, Mark T Hamann ...

  2. Non-pharmacological management of COPD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharmacological treatments include smoking cessation strategies, pulmonary .... Transcutaneous, neuromuscular electrical stimulation involves passive stimulation of contraction of peripheral muscles to elicit a training effect. It can be used as an adjunct.

  3. Anti-aging pharmacology: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insomnia: psychological and neurobiological aspects and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Fleury Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia involves difficulty in falling asleep, maintaining sleep or having refreshing sleep. This review gathers the existing informations seeking to explain insomnia, including those that focus on psychological aspects and those considered neurobiological. Insomnia has been defined in psychological (cognitive components, such as worries and rumination, and behavioral aspects, such as classic conditioning and physiological terms (increased metabolic rate, with increased muscle tone, heart rate and temperature. From the neurobiological point of view, there are two perspectives: one which proposes that insomnia occurs in association with a failure to inhibit wakefulness and another that considers hyperarousal as having an important role in the physiology of sleep. The non-pharmacological interventions developed to face different aspects of insomnia are presented.

  5. Non-pharmacologic therapies for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) continues to present significant therapeutic challenges, especially in severe cases. Navigating the line between risk and benefit can be difficult for more powerful medications such as immunosuppressants, but non-pharmacologic treatments are often overlooked and underutilized. Creative application of these more physical therapies can serve to minimize the pharmacologic treatments and their side effects, and possibly even create synergy between modalities, to maximize benefit to the patient.

  6. Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years

    OpenAIRE

    Pertwee, Roger G.

    2006-01-01

    Research into the pharmacology of individual cannabinoids that began in the 1940s, several decades after the presence of a cannabinoid was first detected in cannabis, is concisely reviewed. Also described is how this pharmacological research led to the discovery of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and of endogenous ligands for these receptors, to the development of CB1- and CB2-selective agonists and antagonists and to the realization that the endogenous cannabinoid system has significant ro...

  7. New pharmacological options for treating advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, David; Moreau, Caroline; Dujardin, Kathy; Cabantchik, Ioav; Defebvre, Luc; Bordet, Regis

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects about 1% of the over 60 population and is characterized by a combination of motor symptoms (rest tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, stooped posture and freezing of gait [FoG]) and non-motor symptoms (including psychiatric and cognitive disorders). Given that the loss of dopamine in the striatum is the main pathochemical hallmark of PD, pharmacological treatment of the disease has focused on restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission and thus improving motor symptoms. However, the currently licensed medications have several major limitations. Firstly, dopaminergic medications modulate all the key steps in dopamine transmission other than the most powerful determinant of extracellular dopamine levels: the activity of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. Secondly, other monoaminergic neurotransmission systems (ie noradrenergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems are altered in PD and may be involved in a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Thirdly, today's randomized clinical trials are primarily designed to assess the efficacy and safety of treatments for motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Fourthly, there is a need for disease- modifying treatments (DMTs) that slow disease progression and reduce the occurrence of the very disabling disorders seen in late-stage PD. To systematically review a number of putative pharmacological options for treating the main impairments in late-stage PD (ie gait disorders, cognitive disorders and behavioural disorders such as apathy). We searched the PubMed database up until July 2013 with logical combinations of the following search terms: "Parkinson's disease", "gait", "cognition", "apathy", "advanced stage", "modulation", "noradrenergic", "cholinergic", "glutamatergic" and "neurotransmission". In patients undergoing subthalamic nucleus stimulation, the potentiation of noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission by methylphenidate improves gait and FoG and may relieve apathy

  8. Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

    2012-09-01

    Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation

  10. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  11. Senile dementia and pharmacological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzoni, Milton Luiz; Fabbri, Renato Moraes Alves; Pires, Sueli Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Side effects and drug interactions are common in the elderly and highly relevant in the demented, being routinely confused with symptoms of cognitive impairment. Which drugs are most consumed by this patient group? Do prescription patterns differ between the demented and non-demented? To define drug consumption quantitatively and qualitatively in demented (D) and non-demented (ND) elderly. Patients were divided into men and women, by age group (3 drugs. As a criterion comparing groups, the Chi-square (Fisher's exact) test was employed. This study is part of Project No. 405/10 approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. The sample had a mean age of 81.5±8.8 years, 29 D (21 women and 8 men) and 21 ND (16 women and 5 men), 12 consumers of up to three drugs (7 D and 5 ND) and 38 consumers of 3 medications or more (22 D and 16 ND). The most used drugs among dementia patients were aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and vitamins. Drugs most consumed by non-demented included vitamins, aspirin, calcium carbonate, proton pump inhibitors, statins and alendronate sodium. There was no statistical significance on any of the comparisons, although the number of elderly consumers of vitamins in the ND had a p-value of 0.06 (Yates). The elderly in this series, regardless of dementia status, gender or age group, had similar drug consumption patterns and used multiple drugs simultaneously.

  12. Cognitive dysfunction in major depression and bipolar disorder: Assessment and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Glenda M; Memedovich, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized feature of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive impairment is associated with poor overall functional outcome and is therefore an important feature of illness to optimize for patients' occupational and academic outcomes. While generally people with BD appear to have a greater degree of cognitive impairment than those with MDD, direct comparisons of both patient groups within a single study are lacking. There are a number of methods for the assessment of cognitive function, but few are currently used in clinical practice. Current symptoms, past course of illness, clinical features, such as the presence of psychosis and comorbid conditions, may all influence cognitive function in mood disorders. Despite the general lack of assessment of cognitive function in clinical practice, clinicians are increasingly targeting cognitive symptoms as part of comprehensive treatment strategies. Novel pharmacological agents may improve cognitive function, but most studies of standard mood stabilizers, such as lithium and the anticonvulsants, have focused on whether or not the medications impair cognition. Non-pharmacological strategies, such as cognitive remediation and exercise, are increasingly studied in patients with mood disorders. Despite the growing interest in strategies to manage cognitive function, there is a paucity of high-quality trials examining either pharmacological or non-pharmacological modes of intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  14. Senile dementia and pharmacological drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Gorzoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Side effects and drug interactions are common in the elderly and highly relevant in the demented, being routinely confused with symptoms of cognitive impairment. Which drugs are most consumed by this patient group? Do prescription patterns differ between the demented and non-demented? Objective: To define drug consumption quantitatively and qualitatively in demented (D and non-demented (ND elderly. Methods: Patients were divided into men and women, by age group (3 drugs. As a criterion comparing groups, the Chi-square (Fisher's exact test was employed. This study is part of Project No. 405/10 approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Results: The sample had a mean age of 81.5±8.8 years, 29 D (21 women and 8 men and 21 ND (16 women and 5 men, 12 consumers of up to three drugs (7 D and 5 ND and 38 consumers of 3 medications or more (22 D and 16 ND. The most used drugs among dementia patients were aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and vitamins. Drugs most consumed by non-demented included vitamins, aspirin, calcium carbonate, proton pump inhibitors, statins and alendronate sodium. There was no statistical significance on any of the comparisons, although the number of elderly consumers of vitamins in the ND had a p-value of 0.06 (Yates. Conclusion: The elderly in this series, regardless of dementia status, gender or age group, had similar drug consumption patterns and used multiple drugs simultaneously.

  15. Probing the molecular mechanism behind the cognitive impairment induced by THC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Botta, J.; Cordomi, A.; Bondar, Alexey; Lazar, Josef; Pardo, L.; McCormick, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, 2 (SI) (2017), s. 11-2 ISSN 1742-7835 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : THC * molecular mechanism * cognitive impairment Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2016

  16. Cognition enhancers in age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W J; Jolles, J

    1996-04-01

    A review of recently published studies on the effect of cognition enhancers in non-demented human study participants is presented. The heterogeneity of the therapeutic target, age-associated cognitive decline, can be improved by separately treating groups in whom age-extrinsic factors may underlie cognitive pathology. Standardisation of cognitive assessments is necessary, since many different tests are applied to answer the same question. Modelling cognitive dysfunction, either by pharmacological or nonpharmacological means, in humans is highly recommended since it allows hypotheses to be tested in a clearly operationalised way. Predictive validity of the currently applied models for the clinical situation remains a problem, however. The scopolamine (hyoscine) model has, to a reasonable extent, predictive validity for the cholinergic agents. The results of 67 single-dose studies and 30 multiple-dose studies are summarised. All single-dose studies and 14 multiple-dose studies were carried out in young or elderly human volunteers. In 45 of 81 volunteer studies, models of cognitive dysfunction were employed. The scopolamine model was the most used (n = 21); the other studies induced cognitive dysfunction by means of benzodiazepines (8), hypoxia (7), alcohol (5) and sleep-deprivation (4). The remaining 16 multiple-dose studies were clinical trials of a duration varying between 2 weeks and 1 year (average duration was 14 weeks). In these trials, the effects of cognition enhancers were assessed in elderly people in whom impairment of memory, psychomotor performance or cognitive function was determined. These included age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and age-associated cognitive decline (AACD). There were many studies in which the cognition enhancing properties of substances in humans were reliably demonstrated. The cognition enhancing properties of substances that are widely used, such as caffeine, nicotine and vitamins, may already be active against AACD. New

  17. [Pain in the neonatal period II. non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, M

    2013-01-01

    In their postnatal development the newborns are often exposed to the influence of procedural and repetitive painful stimuli that worsen their status. This requires the implementation of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. Aim - to explore the literature data on the possibilities of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment methods which are implemented to reduce and control pain in neonatal period. Some of the non-pharmacological strategies are the priority of the personnel who gives care of newborns (swaddling, nonnutritive sucking, usage of sweet solution, etc.) Ever more is discussed the participation of mother(parents)in the care of her child's comfort and pain reduction. The breastfeeding and "kangaroo" care additionally reduce negative effects of pain. The importance of the music continues to be explored. The principles of pharmacological therapy include: control of procedure pain, its treatment during mechanical ventilation and at the time and after surgical intervention which is based on analgesia. Specificities of the pharmacotherapy of newborns and premature infants require careful application of the medications and additional studies on these children. The elimination of neonatal pain and its negative effects on the newborn is achieved by applying different strategies. Non-pharmacological methods reduce pain stimuli and ensure the child's comfort and the pharmacological methods block and eliminate the pain. Most often a combination of them is used in practice.

  18. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  19. Cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Drobak

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive science is the study of intelligence and intelligent systems. Several disciplines including psychology, philosophy, linguistics and the neurosciences have well-established interests in these topics. Cognitive science is an attempt to organise and unify views of thought developed within these distinct disciplines. Cognitive Science is concerned with the construction of abstract theory of intelligent processes, the investigation of human and animal intelligence with the goal of develo...

  20. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...

  1. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Screening Of Marine Bacteria For Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vijayalakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The symbiotic and associated four marine bacteria BR1 Flavobacterium sp. isolated from Barnacle Balanus amphitriteEM13 Micrococus sp. from Seaweed Enteromorpha compressaPC4 Alcaligenes sp. from Ascidian Polyclinum constellatum and SW12 Bacillus sp. from seawater were cultured and extracted for pharmacological activities. The ethyl acetate extracts of these marine bacterial culture supernatants were screened for pharmacological activities such as Anti inflammatory Analgesic and CNS depressant activities using experimental animal model. In this studySW12 exhibited high activity for both Anti inflammatory and Analgesic. Especially which exhibited highest analgesic activity than standard drug pethidine. Another one PC4 showed highest analgesic activity similar to standard drug. Other two extracts EM13 and BR1 showed high activity in CNS depressant. Based on the result SW12 is a highly potent strain it may produce novel compound for pharmacological drug.

  3. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard

    2012-01-01

    current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest...... that the binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...

  4. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Avinash K; Chimes, Gary P; Malanga, Gerard A

    2010-09-06

    Review and reinterpretation of existing literature. This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development. While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.

  6. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ginsenoside Re: pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Sun, Shi; Xie, Lai-Hua; Wicks, Sheila M; Xie, Jing-Tian

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides are the bioactive constituents of ginseng, a key herb in traditional Chinese medicine. As a single component of ginseng, ginsenoside Re (G-Re) belongs to the panaxatriol group. Many reports demonstrated that G-Re possesses the multifaceted beneficial pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. G-Re has negative effect on cardiac contractility and autorhythmicity. It causes alternations in cardiac electrophysiological properties, which may account for its antiarrhythmic effect. In addition, G-Re also exerts antiischemic effect and induces angiogenic regeneration. In this review, we first outline the chemistry and the pharmacological effects of G-Re on the cardiovascular system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Pharmacological approaches to coronary microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Giacinta; Huqi, Alda; Morrone, Doralisa; Capozza, Paola; Todiere, Giancarlo; Marzilli, Mario

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades coronary microvascular dysfunction has been increasingly identified as a relevant contributor to several cardiovascular conditions. Indeed, coronary microvascular abnormalities have been recognized in patients suffering acute myocardial infarction, chronic stable angina and cardiomyopathies, and also in patients with hypertension, obesity and diabetes. In this review, we will examine pathophysiological information needed to understand pharmacological approaches to coronary microvascular dysfunction in these different clinical contexts. Well-established drugs and new pharmacological agents, including those for which only preclinical data are available, will be covered in detail. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return...... for early release from prison? This paper examines three different reasons for being skeptical with regard to this sort of practice. The first reason concerns the acceptability of the treatment itself. The second reason concerns the ethical legitimacy of making offers under coercive conditions. The third...

  10. Rhein: A Review of Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xi Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhein (4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid is a lipophilic anthraquinone extensively found in medicinal herbs, such as Rheum palmatum L., Cassia tora L., Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., and Aloe barbadensis Miller, which have been used medicinally in China for more than 1,000 years. Its biological activities related to human health are being explored actively. Emerging evidence suggests that rhein has many pharmacological effects, including hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. The present review provides a comprehensive summary and analysis of the pharmacological properties of rhein, supporting the potential uses of rhein as a medicinal agent.

  11. Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2006-01-01

    Research into the pharmacology of individual cannabinoids that began in the 1940s, several decades after the presence of a cannabinoid was first detected in cannabis, is concisely reviewed. Also described is how this pharmacological research led to the discovery of cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and of endogenous ligands for these receptors, to the development of CB(1)- and CB(2)-selective agonists and antagonists and to the realization that the endogenous cannabinoid system has significant roles in both health and disease, and that drugs which mimic, augment or block the actions of endogenously released cannabinoids must have important therapeutic applications. Some goals for future research are identified.

  12. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Fred; Williams, David A; Collinge, William

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described. PMID:23166446

  13. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  14. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need......, cognitive psychology, and semantics. However, machine learning for signal processing plays a key role at all the levels of the cognitive processes, and we expect this to be a new emerging trend in our community in the coming years. Current examples of the use of machine learning for signal processing......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...

  15. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  16. Cognitive engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kyle M; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human-machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regarding the design of human-machine systems, cognitive engineering is a core, or fundamental, discipline within academic psychology. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:17-31. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1204 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  18. A pharmacological primer of biased agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Bradley T

    2011-06-01

    Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction in order to clearly explain biased agonism for the non-scientist clinician and pharmacist. Special emphasis is placed on biased agonists of the beta-adrenergic receptors, as these drugs are highly prescribed, and a hypothetical scenario based on current clinical practices and proposed mechanisms for treating disease is discussed in order to demonstrate the need for a more thorough understanding of biased agonism in clinical settings. Since biased agonism provides a novel mechanism for treating disease, greater emphasis is being placed to develop biased agonists; therefore, it is important for biased agonism to be understood in equal measure of traditional pharmacological concepts. This review, along with many others, can be used to teach the basic concepts of biased agonism, and this review also serves to introduce the subsequent reviews that examine, in more depth, the relevance of biased agonism towards the angiotensin type 1 receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor, and natural biased ligands towards chemokine receptors.

  19. Clinical pharmacology of old age syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhurst, C; Wilson, K C M; Kinirons, M T; Wagg, A; Dhesi, J K

    2003-01-01

    Several syndromes occur in old age. They are often associated with increased mortality and in all there is a paucity of basic and clinical research. The recent developments in the clinical pharmacology of three common syndromes of old age (delirium, urinary incontinence, and falls) are discussed along with directions for future research.

  20. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  1. The neurobiology and pharmacology of depression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depression. A comparative overview of serotonin selective antidepressants. Bria" H Harvey. Background. Over the past decade, targeted drug design has led to significant advances in the pharmacological ... various critical receptors in the CNS of a depressed ...... genetic polymorphism, especially 2C (3% whitesl18%.

  2. Non-pharmacological management of chronic obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    non-pharmacological intervention for improving health status and quality of life in COPD patients ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, contributing to a substantial .... subsets of patients with COPD and coexisting obstructive sleep apnoea or obesity ...

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of studies show that alterations in intestinal microbiota are linked with metabolic diseases. Here, we propose that intestinal microbiota regulation by polyphenols may be an important mechanism underlying their therapeutic benefits for metabolic diseases. This helps elucidate the intriguing pharmacology of polyphenols and optimize the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daphne mucronata is a shrub well known as a medicinal plant in different regions of Asia. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have revealed strong anti-cancer potential of the plant. Literature reports the evaluation of the initial bioactivity profile and extraction of the plant followed by different ...

  5. Kinship and interaction in neuromuscular pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, Sjouke

    2006-01-01

    The background of this thesis is presented in the introductory chapters and stafts with a brief history of neuromuscular relaxants. It is followed by a short description of the neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology in chapters 2 and 3, respectively. In chapter 4 the aim of the thesis is

  6. The role of pharmacology in pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplack, D.G.; Massimo, L.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the Titles are: Genetic reasons for pharmacologic treatment failure: gene amplification; New approaches to overcome drug resistance; An overview of adverse late effects of cancer chemotherapy in children; the development of 9-substituted purines as immunomodulators; and High dose cisplatinum: a phase II study.

  7. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, 1-5, Oba Akinjobi Way, Ikeja, PMB. 21266, Ikeja, GRA Lagos Nigeria. Summary: In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in research- intensive academic medical centers. Their conception of ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Thompson and Mensher1 described the topical use of cocaine to confirm the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome and hydroxyamphetamine to distinguish between pre- and postganglionic causative lesions. For almost 40 years, these drugs have been the mainstay of pharmacological testing in Horner's ...

  9. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Lian, Yan-hong; Xie, Kang-jie; Cai, Shu-nü

    2013-02-01

    To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain. Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982 - 2011), Pubmed (1982 - 2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982 - 2011). Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected. Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review. By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain, including anticonvulsants, antidepressants, local anaesthetics, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, opioids, calcitonin, capsaicin, beta-adrenergic blockers, clonidine, muscle relaxants, and emerging drugs, we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications, outlined the limitations and future directions. Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain, we recommend tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, tramadol, opioids, local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

  10. The pharmacological management of erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (neural nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), and vasoactive agents produced by the vascular .... pharmacological management (PDE-5 inhibitors, testosterone replacement therapy and invasive prostaglandin ... facilitate the tailoring of sexual therapy according to patients' needs.15 These agents do not cause ...

  11. Pharmacological Investigation of Selected Medicinal Plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To pharmacologically investigate the methanol and petroleum ether extracts of the plant leaves of ... medicinal properties in local floristic resources. ..... 2nd edition ed. 2003: Asiatic. Society of Bangladesh; p 138. 2. Mohiddin YBH, Chin W, Worth DH. Traditional Medicinal. Plants of Brunei Darussalam Part III.

  12. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  13. Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and pharmacological studies. It is used in traditional medicine, especially for wound healing, jaundice, blood purification, and as an antispasmodic. Chemical studies have underlined the presence of various classes of compounds, the main being triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, quinones, volatile oil, carotenoids and ...

  14. Emerging pharmacological therapy for functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Mariko; Nagahara, Akihito; Asaoka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sumio

    2013-10-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a multifactorial disease with complex underlying pathophysiology. To date, there is no established treatment for FD. This review summarizes recent progress in pharmacological therapy for the disease. A newly developed drug, acotiamide, is expected to improve symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome. Herbal medicines are also expected to become options for FD treatment.

  15. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  16. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  17. Pharmacological Activities of Hypnea musciformis | Najam | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study methanol extracts of H musciformis were tested for their pharmacological activity on rabbit and mice. H musciformis significantly decreased the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of rabbits. This is an important finding since decreased levels of cholesterol ...

  18. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  19. Pharmacological interventions for alcohol relapse prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used in treatment of ...

  20. Phytochemical, pharmacological and biological profiles of Tragia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India. Results: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

  1. Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera Lam in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and related complications. ... DM is a metabolic disorder resulting from abnormal insulin secretion. This leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. Hyperglycemic-induced ...

  2. Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To provide an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton megalobotrys as to understand its potential value and importance in primary health care systems of local communities throughout its distributional range. Methods: The literature search for information on ethnomedicinal ...

  3. Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have revealed strong anti-cancer potential of the plant. Literature .... BHA ± 44.0. *SEM = standard error mean taken from triplicate experiments. Literature reveals that the bioactive components from genus Daphne reside in roots, stem or leaves of the plant [21 ...

  4. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level. PMID:26901192

  5. Pharmacological interventions for alcohol relapse prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three. NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used ...

  6. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  7. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research. IJHPR ... Inappropriate prescribing will have an important economic and medical impact on health care as it makes treatment ... making previous research works on rational drug prescribing to be restricted to using methods, expressions and.

  8. Phytochemistry and pharmacologic properties of Myristica fragrans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myristica fragrans is known as “nutmeg”, its extracts and essential oil are important in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in South Africa, India and other tropical countries. For a long time, M. fragrans has been used in traditional medicines as a carminative, stimulant, narcotic, emmenagogue and ...

  9. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum bulbispermum so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, phytochemistry ...

  10. Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of C. songaricum have promising pharmacological activities, due to the presence of various flavonoids, triterpenes and polysaccharides. In addition to promising effects against inflammation, aging, fatigue, viruses and cancer,/ihas a protective effect on the nervous system and ...

  11. Pharmacological properties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic acid; 15-20% cardol and 10% of cardanol) and (2) liquid from the technical cashew nut shell ... Keywords: Cashew liquid, cosmetics, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, preparation ...

  12. The pharmacological management of erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria. Corresponding author: Andre Marais, e-mail: ... beneficial in reducing the mortality as a result of other medical conditions, and in particular, ..... narrative review and meta-analysis. J Sex Med. 2014;11(6):1376-1391. 11.

  13. The parallel evolution of immunology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is the systematic evaluation of the means through which human beings protect themselves and respond to the attack of internal and external agents, and Edward Jenner (1749-1823) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) are considered pioneers of this field. Jenner observed the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox and inoculated the cowpox in human beings to protect them from the often lethal smallpox. Pasteur developed in his laboratory a vaccine against rabies and elaborated methods for attenuating the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms while maintaining their immunogenicity. Pharmacology is the area of medical science dealing with drugs and their uses, and it was during the nineteenth century that it assumed its status of scientific specialty, mainly in German-speaking Europe, through the establishment of pharmacological institutes and dedicated laboratories. The discovery and the synthesis of drugs and the systematic evaluation of their activity have constituted through time a scientific field in which immunology and pharmacology have met and given origin to notable progress in the history of science. The development of chemotherapy, as well as of organ and tissue transplantation, in the twentieth century has been decisively promoted by both immunology and pharmacology. In the last three decades the relationship between these two scientific branches has become increasingly closer in basic research, clinical science, medical education and also editorial scientific activity, as documented by the Journal hosting this paper.

  14. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Biology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Rossetto, Ornella; Eleopra, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The study of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is rapidly progressing in many aspects. Novel BoNTs are being discovered owing to next generation sequencing, but their biologic and pharmacological properties remain largely unknown. The molecular structure of the large protein complexes that the toxin forms with accessory proteins, which are included in some BoNT type A1 and B1 pharmacological preparations, have been determined. By far the largest effort has been dedicated to the testing and validation of BoNTs as therapeutic agents in an ever increasing number of applications, including pain therapy. BoNT type A1 has been also exploited in a variety of cosmetic treatments, alone or in combination with other agents, and this specific market has reached the size of the one dedicated to the treatment of medical syndromes. The pharmacological properties and mode of action of BoNTs have shed light on general principles of neuronal transport and protein-protein interactions and are stimulating basic science studies. Moreover, the wide array of BoNTs discovered and to be discovered and the production of recombinant BoNTs endowed with specific properties suggest novel uses in therapeutics with increasing disease/symptom specifity. These recent developments are reviewed here to provide an updated picture of the biologic mechanism of action of BoNTs, of their increasing use in pharmacology and in cosmetics, and of their toxicology. PMID:28356439

  15. Pharmacological treatments for heroin and cocaine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of the pharmacological options for the treatment of heroin- and cocaine-dependent patients based on known biochemical pathways to addiction and the chronic disease model as a starting point for treatment planning. Results: Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies

  16. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods...

  17. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: I. Cognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on cognitive disorders. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive disorders in AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of cognitive disorders encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including cognitive rehabilitation, physical activity, occupational therapy, and music therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease are included in a separate article of this edition.

  18. The mass action equation in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The mass action equation is the building block from which all models of drug-receptor interaction are built. In the simplest case, the equation predicts a sigmoidal relationship between the amount of drug-receptor complex and the logarithm of the concentration of drug. The form of this function is also the same as most dose-response relationships in pharmacology (such as enzyme inhibition and the protein binding of drugs) but the potency term in dose-response relationships very often differs in meaning from the similar term in the simple mass action relationship. This is because (i) most pharmacological systems are collections of mass action reactions in series and/or in parallel and (ii) the important assumptions in the mass action reaction are violated in complex pharmacological systems. In some systems, the affinity of the receptor R for some ligand A is modified by interaction of the receptor with the allosteric ligand B and concomitantly the affinity of the receptor for ligand B is modified to the same degree. When this occurs, the observed affinity of the ligand A for the receptor will depend on both the concentration of the co-binding allosteric ligand and its nature. The relationships between drug potency in pharmacological models and the equilibrium dissociation constants defined in single mass action reactions are discussed. More detailed knowledge of efficacy has led to new models of drug action that depend on the relative probabilities of different states, and these have taken knowledge of drug-receptor interactions beyond Guldberg and Waage. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crippa José AS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

  1. Use of concept mapping as a facilitative tool to promote learning in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Farida; Zehra, Tabassum; Khan, Imrana

    2011-08-01

    To assess whether students find concept mapping a useful learning methodology to conceptualize and organize topics studied in CNS module of Pharmacology; and to evaluate whether addition of concept mapping assignment could help to improve examination scores. An analytical study. College of Dentistry, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan, from March to May 2009. A class of 50 BDS students was recruited for the study. Two randomly selected groups of 12 students each, prepared concept maps in topics from CNS pharmacology which were displayed and discussed during tutorial sessions. The other two groups (n = 25) following the traditional teaching methodology, served as controls. Scores from best choice questions and short essay questions were compared between the investigational and control groups using the student's t-test with significance at p 0.05). However, feedback about concept mapping showed that the technique helped the students to conceptualize difficult topics in CNS pharmacology (86.36%). Concept mapping was particularly beneficial in preparing for exams as it provided a quick overview of the entire subject (68.68%). Students found concept mapping as a useful pedagogical tool which could potentially be used to acquire meaningful learning in Pharmacology as a supplement to traditional teaching techniques. It was not found beneficial in improving examination grades probably because standard examinations and concept mapping measure different cognitive domains.

  2. Pharmacological Management of Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Chris; McKeith, Ian; Taylor, John-Paul; Lafortune, Louise; Mioshi, Eneida; Mak, Elijah; Cambridge, Victoria; Mason, James; Thomas, Alan; O'Brien, John T

    2015-08-01

    The authors examined research on effects, costs, and patient and caregiver views of pharmacological management strategies for Lewy body dementia. Studies were identified through bibliographic databases, trials registers, gray literature, reference lists, and experts. The authors used the search terms "Lewy or parkinson" and "dementia" through March 2015 and used the following inclusion criteria: participants with diagnoses of Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, or Parkinson's disease dementia (or participants' caregivers); investigation of pharmacological management strategies; outcome measures and test scores reported. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by at least two authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and when studies could not be combined, summaries were provided. Forty-four studies examining 22 strategies were included in the review. Meta-analysis indicated beneficial effects of donepezil and rivastigmine for cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Rivastigmine, but not donepezil, was associated with greater risk of adverse events. Meta-analysis of memantine suggested that it is well tolerated but with few benefits. Descriptive summaries provide some evidence of benefits for galantamine, modafinil, levodopa, rotigotine, clozapine, duloxetine, clonazepam, ramelteon, gabapentin, zonisamide, and yokukansan. Piracetam, amantadine, selegiline, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and citalopram do not appear to be effective. High-level evidence related to pharmacological strategies for managing Lewy body dementia is rare. Strategies for important areas of need in Lewy body dementia, such as autonomic symptoms and caregiver burden, have not been investigated, nor have the views of patients and caregivers about pharmacological strategies.

  3. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Michel, Martin C

    2013-11-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the journal confirmed this trend. An interesting new trend was the emerging presence of papers from a variety of Islamic countries including Egypt. Based on this trend, we shortly review the history and current structure of pharmacology in Egypt. It appears that the presence of Egyptian pharmacology in international journals including pharmacology journals has sharply been increasing over the last two decades. Challenges for a continuation of this encouraging trend are being discussed.

  4. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to influence adipose tissue function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visseren Frank LJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, inflammation and hypercoagulobility which can all be understood as consequences of adipose tissue dysfunction. The potential role for adipose tissue derived cytokines and adipokines in the development of vascular disease and diabetes may produce a clinical need to influence adipose tissue function. Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions affect plasma cytokine and adipokine levels. The effects of these interventions depend on weight loss per se, changes in fat distribution without weight loss and/or direct effects on adipose tissue inflammation. Weight loss, as a result of diet, pharmacology and surgery, positively influences plasma adipokines and systemic inflammation. Several classes of drugs influence systemic inflammation directly through their anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR-γ agonism positively influences adipose tissue inflammation in several classes of intervention such as the thiazolidinediones and perhaps salicylates, CB1-antagonists and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Furthermore, within drug classes there are differential effects of individual pharmacologic agents on adipose tissue function. It can be concluded that several commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have unintended influences on adipose tissue function. Improving adipose tissue function may contribute to reducing the risk of vascular diseases and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Treating comorbid anxiety and depression: Psychosocial and pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Jeremy D; Aaronson, Cindy J; Panthangi, Venkatesh; Kim, Younsuk

    2015-12-22

    Comorbid anxiety with depression predicts poor outcomes with a higher percentage of treatment resistance than either disorder occurring alone. Overlap of anxiety and depression complicates diagnosis and renders treatment challenging. A vital step in treatment of such comorbidity is careful and comprehensive diagnostic assessment. We attempt to explain various psychosocial and pharmacological approaches for treatment of comorbid anxiety and depression. For the psychosocial component, we focus only on generalized anxiety disorder based on the following theoretical models: (1) "the avoidance model"; (2) "the intolerance of uncertainty model"; (3) "the meta-cognitive model"; (4) "the emotion dysregulation model"; and (5) "the acceptance based model". For depression, the following theoretical models are explicated: (1) "the cognitive model"; (2) "the behavioral activation model"; and (3) "the interpersonal model". Integration of these approaches is suggested. The treatment of comorbid anxiety and depression necessitates specific psychopharmacological adjustments as compared to treating either condition alone. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered first-line treatment in uncomplicated depression comorbid with a spectrum of anxiety disorders. Short-acting benzodiazepines (BZDs) are an important "bridging strategy" to address an acute anxiety component. In patients with comorbid substance abuse, avoidance of BZDs is recommended and we advise using an atypical antipsychotic in lieu of BZDs. For mixed anxiety and depression comorbid with bipolar disorder, we recommend augmentation of an antidepressant with either lamotrigine or an atypical agent. Combination and augmentation therapies in the treatment of comorbid conditions vis-à-vis monotherapy may be necessary for positive outcomes. Combination therapy with tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin and selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) are specifically useful for comorbid chronic

  6. The cognitive psychobiology of performance regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobes, J L

    1989-06-01

    Episodes of peak performance reflect modulation by particular psychological factors and are sometimes accompanied by an altered perception syndrome. Major cognitive contributions to peak performance include psychological readiness (optimal arousal level and emotions appropriate for the task), information processing (attending to and interpreting key stimuli as well as selecting appropriate responses), and endurance management (controlling fatigue and pain for sustained performance). Anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral studies suggest the intriguing possibility that the recently discovered endorphins make important psychobiological contributions to performance modulation. Critical cognitive processes underlying peak performance may accordingly be susceptible to self regulation through manipulation of endorphin levels.

  7. Survivorship: Cognitive Function, Version 1.2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  8. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  9. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    vary but most involve machine learning and datamining techniques and specific computational methods willbe highlighted. Digital traces from social media activities arepresented as an example of a cognitive fingerprint.

  10. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  11. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    Research in decision making and cognition has a long tradition in economics and management and represents a substantial stream of research in entrepreneurship. Risk and uncertainty are two characteristics of the decision environment. It has long been believed that entrepreneurs who need to make...... business judgments in such environments are less risk- and uncertainty-averse than non-entrepreneurs. However, this theoretical prediction has not been supported by empirical evidence. Instead, entrepreneurs have been found to be more susceptible to cognitive biases and heuristics. These cognitive...... mechanisms, which represent deviations from rational judgment, help entrepreneurs simplify their decision-making and carry out decisions in a timely manner. As a result, a growing stream of research in entrepreneurship focuses on the cognitive differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs when...

  12. Cognitive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "Cognitive Computing" has initiated a new era in computer science. Cognitive computers are not rigidly programmed computers anymore, but they learn from their interactions with humans, from the environment and from information. They are thus able to perform amazing tasks on their own, such as driving a car in dense traffic, piloting an aircraft in difficult conditions, taking complex financial investment decisions, analysing medical-imaging data, and assist medical doctors in diagnosis and th...

  13. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  14. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Alexander, Stephen PH; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O Peter; Catterall, William A; Cidlowski, John A; Davenport, Anthony P; Fabbro, Doriano; Fan, Grace; McGrath, John C; Spedding, Michael; Davies, Jamie A; Aldrich, R; Attali, B; Bäck, Ml; Barnes, NM; Bathgate, R; Beart, PM; Becirovic, E; Biel, M; Birdsall, NJ; Boison, D; Bräuner‐Osborne, H; Bröer, S; Bryant, C; Burnstock, G; Burris, T; Cain, D; Calo, G; Chan, SL; Chandy, KG; Chiang, N; Christakos, S; Christopoulos, A; Chun, JJ; Chung, J‐J; Clapham, DE; Connor, MA; Coons, L; Cox, HM; Dautzenberg, FM; Dent, G; Douglas, SD; Dubocovich, ML; Edwards, DP; Farndale, R; Fong, TM; Forrest, D; Fowler, CJ; Fuller, P; Gainetdinov, RR; Gershengorn, MA; Goldin, A; Goldstein, SAN; Grimm, SL; Grissmer, S; Gundlach, AL; Hagenbuch, B; Hammond, JR; Hancox, JC; Hartig, S; Hauger, RL; Hay, DL; Hébert, T; Hollenberg, AN; Holliday, ND; Hoyer, D; Ijzerman, AP; Inui, KI; Ishii, S; Jacobson, KA; Jan, LY; Jarvis, GE; Jensen, R; Jetten, A; Jockers, R; Kaczmarek, LK; Kanai, Y; Kang, HS; Karnik, S; Kerr, ID; Korach, KS; Lange, CA; Larhammar, D; Leeb‐Lundberg, F; Leurs, R; Lolait, SJ; Macewan, D; Maguire, JJ; May, JM; Mazella, J; Mcardle, CA; Mcdonnell, DP; Michel, MC

    2015-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug...

  15. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intranasal Insulin for Improving Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0693 TITLE: Intranasal Insulin for Improving Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intranasal Insulin for Improving Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...dysfunction is common and devastating to people with multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, multiple pharmacologic interventions have been tried for MS

  17. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ren, Tian-hua; Wang, Diane D

    2012-01-01

    Biologics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones, have unique characteristics compared to small molecules. This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective, the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) studies, and dosing regimen optimisation for phase II/III clinical trials. Subsequently, typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised, including drug-drug interactions, QTc prolongation, immunogenicity, and studies in specific populations. The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram. PMID:23001474

  18. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  19. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Le; Tian, Ke; Tang, Zheng-Hai; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. is a multifunctional cash crop. Its flowers and seeds are extensively used in traditional herbal medicine in China, Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries, for treating various ailments such as gynecological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases as well as blood stasis and osteoporosis. More than 100 compounds have been isolated and identified from C. tinctorius. Flavonoids and alkaloids, especially the quinochalcone c-glycoside hydroxysafflor yellow A, N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin, and N-feruloylserotonin, are responsible for most of the pharmacological activities of C. tinctorius. In this paper, comprehensive and up-to-date information on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of C. tinctorius is presented. This information will be helpful for further explorations of the therapeutic potential of C. tinctorius and may provide future research opportunities.

  20. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Argemone mexicana: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Brahmachari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Papaveraceae, informally known as the poppy family, are an ethnopharmacologically important family of 44 genera and approximately 760 species of flowering plants. The present work offers a review addressing the detailed chemistry and pharmacology of Argemone mexicana L. regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine. The plant is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several ailments including tumors, warts, skin diseases, inflammations, rheumatism, jaundice, leprosy, microbial infections, and malaria. Interestingly, the plant is the source of a diverse kind of chemical constituents although alkaloids are mostly abundant. Beyond pharmaceutical efficacies, certain plant parts also show toxic effects as well. Hence, an up-to-date information on the chemical and pharmacological knowledge on this plant may be helpful to guide researchers anticipating to undertake further investigations in these directions. The present review covers literature up to 2012 and enlists 111 references.

  2. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J.; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  3. Calcium dobesilate: pharmacology and future approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, T; Ruiz, E

    1998-09-01

    1. Calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate) is a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and chronic venous insufficiency. 2. The pharmacology of calcium dobesilate reveals its ability to decrease capillary permeability, as well as platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. 3. Furthermore, recent data show that calcium dobesilate increases endothelium-dependent relaxation owing to an increase in nitric oxide synthesis.

  4. An Overview of Clinical Pharmacology of Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen was the first member of Propionic acid derivatives introduced in 1969. It is a popular domestic and over the counter analgesic and antipyretic for adults and children. Ibuprofen has been rated as the safest conventional NSAID by spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting systems in the UK. This article summarizes the main pharmacological effects, therapeutical applications and adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions and food drug interactions of ibuprofen that have been reported especially during the last 10 years.

  5. Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-12-18

    This article reviews the pharmacology, clinical utility, adverse effects, and abuse potential of kratom. The leaves of M. speciosa contain the biologically active alkaloids of kratom. Kratom exerts opioid and α-2 receptor agonistic effects as well as antiinflammatory and parasympathetic-impeding effects. There are no published human pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, or drug interaction studies on kratom or mitragynine, making it virtually impossible to fully understand kratom's therapeutic potential and risks and the populations most likely to benefit or experience harm from its use. Kratom has been used to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms but also induces withdrawal. Human pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic and clinical data are of low quality precluding any firm conclusions regarding safety and efficacy. Respiratory depression has not been commonly reported but kratom does cause a host of adverse effects without clear guidance for how they should be treated. There are numerous assessments where people have been unable to stop using kratom therapy and withdrawal signs and symptoms are problematic. Kratom does not appear in normal drug screens and, when taken with other substances of abuse, may not be recognized. Thirty-six deaths have been attributed to kratom, and the Food and Drug Administration issued a public health warning about the substance in November 2017. Kratom exerts opioid and α-2 receptor agonistic effects as well as antiinflammatory and parasympathetic-impeding effects. Human pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical data are of low quality precluding any firm conclusions regarding safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Meshram; Nidhi Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatm...

  7. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  8. Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Moufid A; Farid O; Eddouks, M

    2015-01-01

    Capparis spinosa Linn. (Capparaceae) was traditionally used for pharmacological purposes and has potential for use in modern cosmetics. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of Capparis spinosa and its constituents for management of several diseases. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, Google Scholar...

  9. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no pot...

  10. Understanding adaptogenic activity: specificity of the pharmacological action of adaptogens and other phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical. Molecular targets, signaling pathways, and networks common to adaptogens have been identified. They are associated with stress hormones and key mediators of the regulation of homeostasis. In this context, the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are specifically related to stress-protective activity and increased adaptability of the organism. Consequently, adaptogens exhibit polyvalent beneficial effects against chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, cancer, and other aging-related diseases. Current and potential uses of adaptogens are mainly related to stress-induced fatigue and cognitive function, mental illness, and behavioral disorders. Their prophylactic use by healthy subjects to ameliorate stress and prevent age-related diseases appears to be justified. It is very unlikely that the pharmacological activity of any phytochemical is specific and associated only with one type of receptor, particularly adaptogenic compounds, which affect key mediators of the adaptive stress response at intracellular and extracellular levels of communication. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of

  11. Editorial. Themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2014-03-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the 7th in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (MPGPCR) held at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Melbourne Australia from the 6th-8th December 2012. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Atypical pharmacologies at β-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2008-01-01

    β-Adrenoceptors are one of the most widely studied groups of G-protein-coupled receptors but continue to provide surprises and insights that have general relevance to pharmacology. Atypical pharmacologies have been described for ligands formerly (and still) described as antagonists acting at β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors that involve ligand-directed signalling and possibly allosteric interactions at the receptors. In the article by Ngala et al., in this issue of the Br J Pharmacol, another example of atypical interactions with β-adrenoceptors is described, this time for agonists. Some of the responses to BRL37344 and clenbuterol can be explained in terms of actions at β2-adrenoceptors, whereas others such as the increased glucose uptake and palmitate oxidation observed with pM concentrations of BRL37344 may involve interactions with other (possibly allosteric) sites. Atypical pharmacologies of ligands acting at β-adrenoceptors have already indicated new ways in which ligands can interact with G-protein-coupled receptors and these mechanisms are likely to have important consequences for future drug development. PMID:18641673

  13. Pharmacological Management of Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mohammed Khayyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Soft esophageal bolus impaction is an emergency that requires skilled endoscopic removal if persistent obstructive symptoms do not resolve spontaneously after careful observation. Expedited care of these patients is crucial to avoid respiratory and mechanical complications. Other possible options for management include medical agents used to manage it prior to performing endoscopy if access to endoscopy was not available or declined by the patient. Aim. To review the available pharmacological and other nonmedicinal options and their mechanism of relief for soft esophageal impaction. Method. Pubmed, Medline and Ovid were used for search of MESH terms pertinent including “foreign body, esophageal, esophageal bolus and medical” for pharmacological and non medicinial agents used for management of esophageal soft bolus impaction as well as manual review of the cross-references. Results. Several agents were identified including Buscopan, Glucagon, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and papaveretum. Non medicinal agents are water, effervescent agents, and papain. No evidence was found to suggest preference or effectiveness of use of a certain pharmacological agent compared to others. Buscopan, Glucagon, benzodiazepines, and nitrates were studied extensively and may be used in selected patients with caution. Use of papain is obsolete in management of soft bolus impaction.

  14. Improving pharmacological targeting of AKT in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Omer F; Gowda, Raghavendra; Sharma, Arati; Noory, Mohammad A; Dinavahi, Saketh S; Kardos, Gregory; Drabick, Joseph J; Robertson, Gavin P

    2017-09-28

    Targeting AKT with pharmacological agents inhibiting this protein in the melanoma clinic is ineffective. This is a major contradiction considering the substantial preclinical data suggesting AKT as an effective target. Various approaches have been undertaken to unravel this contradiction and drug combinations sought that could resolve this concern. We have shown that genetic targeting AKT3 or WEE1 can be effective for inhibiting tumor growth in preclinical animal models. However, no one has examined whether combining pharmacological agents targeting each of these enzymes could be more effective than inhibiting each alone and enhance the efficacy of targeting AKT in melanoma. This report shows that combining the AKT inhibitors (AZD5363 or MK1775) with the WEE1 inhibitor, AZD5363, can synergistically kill cultured melanoma cells and decrease melanoma tumor growth by greater than 90%. Co-targeting AKT and WEE1 led to enhanced deregulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways by modulating the transcription factors p53 and FOXM1, as well as the proteins whose expression is regulated by these two proteins. Thus, this study identifies a unique combination of pharmacological agents and the ratio needed for efficacy that could be used to potentially improve the therapeutic effectiveness of targeting AKT in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, W M; Florez, H

    2014-12-01

    The pharmacological management of diabetes in older people is complex and challenging. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the individual beyond the diabetes itself. Through the ageing years, the older individual presents with diabetes-related and non-related comorbidities and complications, develops functional limitations and psychological issues, and may lack social support and access to care. A disturbance in these categories, known as the four geriatric domains, will negatively affect diabetes self-management and self-efficacy, leading to poor outcomes and complications. Furthermore, older people with diabetes may be more interested in the management of other chronic conditions such as pain or impaired mobility, and diabetes may be lower in their list of priorities. Proper education must be provided to the older individual and caregivers, with continuous monitoring and counselling, especially when pharmacological interventions offer risks of side effects, adverse reactions and interactions with other medications. Informed shared medical decisions will help to improve adherence to the regimen; however, such discussions ought to be based on the best evidence available, which is unfortunately limited in this age group. We performed a review focused on pharmacological agents and summarize current evidence on their use for the treatment of diabetes in older people. We encourage clinicians to investigate and incorporate the four geriatrics domains in the selection and monitoring of these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pharmacological Effects of Biotin in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron-Negrete, Leticia; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, it was found that vitamins affect biological functions in ways other than their long-known functions; niacin is the best example of a water-soluble vitamin known to possess multiple actions. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that serves as a covalently-bound coenzyme of carboxylases. It is now well documented that biotin has actions other than participating in classical enzyme catalysis reactions. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, reproduction, development, and immunity. The effect of biotin on these functions is related to its actions at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. The bestsupported mechanism involved in the genetic effects of biotin is the soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. Although there are commercially-available products containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin, the toxic effects of biotin have been poorly studied. This review summarizes the known actions and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological doses of biotin in animals and current information regarding biotin toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedberg F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fred Friedberg,1 David A Williams,2 William Collinge31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 3Collinge and Associates, Kittery, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described.Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy, exercise, education, mobile technology

  18. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add

  19. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    A novel functional-genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in "big data" providing comprehensive information about the drugs' targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In "process pharmacology", drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high-dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: the role of plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy D Chiaravalloti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in MS, documented at many stages of the disease. Both structural and functional neuroimaging have demonstrated a relationship with cognitive abilities in MS. Significant neuroplasticity of cognitive functions in individuals with MS is evident. Homologous region adaptation, local activation expansion, and extra-region recruitment all occur in an effort to maintain cognitive functioning. While much of this neuroplasticity is adaptive, it may also be maladaptive, particularly in individuals that are demonstrating significant cognitive impairment and/or with disease progression. This maladaptive neuroplasticity may come at the cost of other cognitive functions.Studies of cognitive rehabilitation efficacy have also recently applied neuroimaging techniques to establish outcome. Researchers have successfully applied various neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in MS including task-based fMRI and resting state functional connectivity across multiple realms of cognition including episodic memory, executive functioning, attention and processing speed. These studies have demonstrated neuroplasticity in the brains of persons with MS through the documentation of changes at the level of the cerebral substrate from before to after non-invasive, non-pharmacological, behavioral treatment for deficits in cognition. Future research should seek to identify adaptive versus maladaptive neuroplasticity associated with specific cognitive rehabilitation programs within all MS phenotypes to foster the validation of the most effective cognitive rehabilitation interventions for persons with MS.

  1. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  3. Explaining Embodied Cognition Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science...

  4. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-pharmacological treatment for depressed older patients in primary care: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor Holvast

    Full Text Available Late-life depression is most often treated in primary care, and it usually coincides with chronic somatic diseases. Given that antidepressants contribute to polypharmacy in these patients, and potentially to interactions with other drugs, non-pharmacological treatments are essential. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to present an overview of the non-pharmacological treatments available in primary care for late-life depression.The databases of PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched in January 2017 with combinations of MeSH-terms and free text words for "general practice," "older adults," "depression," and "non-pharmacological treatment". All studies with empirical data concerning adults aged 60 years or older were included, and the results were stratified by primary care, and community setting. We narratively reviewed the results and performed a meta-analysis on cognitive behavioral therapy in the primary care setting.We included 11 studies conducted in primary care, which covered the following five treatment modalities: cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, problem-solving therapy, behavioral activation, and bright-light therapy. Overall, the meta-analysis showed a small effect for cognitive behavioral therapy, with one study also showing that bright-light therapy was effective. Another 18 studies, which evaluated potential non-pharmacological interventions in the community suitable for implementation, indicated that bibliotherapy, life-review, problem-solving therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy were effective at short-term follow-up.We conclude that the effects of several treatments are promising, but need to be replicated before they can be implemented more widely in primary care. Although more treatment modalities were effective in a community setting, more research is needed to investigate whether these treatments are also applicable in primary care

  6. Non-pharmacological treatment for depressed older patients in primary care: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Btissame; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Late-life depression is most often treated in primary care, and it usually coincides with chronic somatic diseases. Given that antidepressants contribute to polypharmacy in these patients, and potentially to interactions with other drugs, non-pharmacological treatments are essential. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to present an overview of the non-pharmacological treatments available in primary care for late-life depression. Method The databases of PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched in January 2017 with combinations of MeSH-terms and free text words for “general practice,” “older adults,” “depression,” and “non-pharmacological treatment”. All studies with empirical data concerning adults aged 60 years or older were included, and the results were stratified by primary care, and community setting. We narratively reviewed the results and performed a meta-analysis on cognitive behavioral therapy in the primary care setting. Results We included 11 studies conducted in primary care, which covered the following five treatment modalities: cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, problem-solving therapy, behavioral activation, and bright-light therapy. Overall, the meta-analysis showed a small effect for cognitive behavioral therapy, with one study also showing that bright-light therapy was effective. Another 18 studies, which evaluated potential non-pharmacological interventions in the community suitable for implementation, indicated that bibliotherapy, life-review, problem-solving therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy were effective at short-term follow-up. Discussion We conclude that the effects of several treatments are promising, but need to be replicated before they can be implemented more widely in primary care. Although more treatment modalities were effective in a community setting, more research is needed to investigate whether these treatments

  7. Cognitive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  8. Visual cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving...

  9. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  10. Cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, T D; Kandel, E R; Posner, M I

    2000-10-01

    The last decade of the 20th century has seen the development of cognitive neuroscience as an effort to understand how the brain represents mental events. We review the areas of emotional and motor memory, vision, and higher mental processes as examples of this new understanding. Progress in all of these areas has been swift and impressive, but much needs to be done to reveal the mechanisms of cognition at the local circuit and molecular levels. This work will require new methods for controlling gene expression in higher animals and in studying the interactions between neurons at multiple levels.

  11. [Pharmacological properties of vortioxetine and its pre-clinical consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D J; Tritschler, L; Guilloux, J-P; Gardier, A M; Sanchez, C; Gaillard, R

    2016-02-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are extensively used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). SSRIs are defined as indirect receptor agonists since the activation of postsynaptic receptors is a consequence of an increase in extracellular concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) mediated by the blockade of serotonin transporter. The activation of some serotoninergic receptors (5-HT1A, post-synaptic, 5-HT1B post-synaptic, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT4), but not all (5-HT1A, pre-synaptic, 5-HT1B pre-synaptic, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, and probably 5-HT6), induces anxiolytic/antidepressive - like effects. Targetting specifically some of them could potentially improve the onset of action and/or efficacy and/or prevent MD relapse. Vortioxetine (Brintellix, 1- [2-(2,4-dimethylphenyl-sulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazine) is a novel multi-target antidepressant drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by European Medicines Agency. Its properties are markedly different from the extensively prescribed SSRIs. Compared to the SSRIs, vortioxetine is defined as a multimodal antidepressant drug since it is not only a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but also a 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist and 5-HT1A receptor agonist. This specific pharmacological profile enables vortioxetine to affect not only the serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems, but also the histaminergic, cholinergic, gamma-butyric acid (GABA) ergic and glutamatergic ones. Thus, vortioxetine not only induces antidepressant-like or anxiolytic-like activity but also improves cognitive parameters in several animal models. Indeed, vortioxetine was shown to improve working memory, episodic memory, cognitive flexibility and spatial memory in young adult rodents and also in old animal models. These specific effects of the vortioxetine are of interest considering that cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity to MDD. Altogether, even though this molecule still

  12. Non-pharmacological interventions for people with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Marson, Anthony G; Kerr, Michael

    2015-09-10

    Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to drug treatment and continue to experience seizures whilst taking one or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Several non-pharmacological interventions that may be used in conjunction with or as an alternative to AEDs are available for refractory patients. In view of the fact that seizures in people with intellectual disabilities are often complex and refractory to pharmacological interventions, it is evident that good quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to assess the efficacy of alternatives or adjuncts to pharmacological interventions.This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review (Beavis 2007) published in The Cochrane Library (2007, Issue 4). To assess data derived from randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions for people with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.Non-pharmacological interventions include, but are not limited to, the following.• Surgical procedures.• Specialised diets, for example, the ketogenic diet, or vitamin and folic acid supplementation.• Psychological interventions for patients or for patients and carers/parents, for example, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback and educational intervention.• Yoga.• Acupuncture.• Relaxation therapy (e.g. music therapy). For the latest update of this review, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialised Register (19 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via CRSO (19 August 2014), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 19 August 2014) and PsycINFO (EBSCOhost, 1887 to 19 August 2014). Randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions for people with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and extracted study data. One study is included in this review. When two surgical procedures were compared, results indicated that corpus callosotomy

  13. Non-pharmacological management of primary and secondary insomnia among older people: review of assessment tools and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lyndal; Azad, Nahid; Byszewski, Anna; Sarazan, Francine F-A; Power, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    primary and secondary insomnia, especially among older adults, is frequently encountered by family physicians. Pharmacological interventions, although effective in some circumstances, can be detrimental in others. Non-pharmacological management of insomnia may allow the patients to self-administer the treatment. review of published literature of assessment tools and treatments for primary and secondary insomnia. two frequently used self-reporting methods for obtaining sleep data are sleep diaries and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. A large amount of research supports the use of non-pharmacological treatments such as stimulus control, sleep restriction, sleep hygiene education, cognitive therapy, multi-component therapy and paradoxical intention. assessing the nature of insomnia by using an effective assessment tool and providing patients with a non-pharmacological treatment should be the first intervention for insomnia. It is shown that non-pharmacological treatments for primary and secondary insomnia are feasible and effective alternatives to the use of benzodiazepines, and that family physicians should consider these when managing older patients with insomnia.

  14. Biochemical Pharmacology of the Sigma-1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2016-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223 amino acid two transmembrane (TM) pass protein. It is a non-ATP-binding nonglycosylated ligand-regulated molecular chaperone of unknown three-dimensional structure. The S1R is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes with broad functions that regulate cellular calcium homeostasis and reduce oxidative stress. Several multitasking functions of the S1R are underwritten by chaperone-mediated direct (and indirect) interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell growth. The S1R is a promising drug target for the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases related to cellular stress. In vitro and in vivo functional and molecular characteristics of the S1R and its interactions with endogenous and synthetic small molecules have been discovered by the use of pharmacologic, biochemical, biophysical, and molecular biology approaches. The S1R exists in monomer, dimer, tetramer, hexamer/octamer, and higher oligomeric forms that may be important determinants in defining the pharmacology and mechanism(s) of action of the S1R. A canonical GXXXG in putative TM2 is important for S1R oligomerization. The ligand-binding regions of S1R have been identified and include portions of TM2 and the TM proximal regions of the C terminus. Some client protein chaperone functions and interactions with the cochaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (binding immunoglobulin protein) involve the C terminus. Based on its biochemical features and mechanisms of chaperone action the possibility that the S1R is a member of the small heat shock protein family is discussed. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  17. The Importance of Cognitive Phenotypes in Experimental Modeling of Animal Anxiety and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are commonly seen in many stress-related disorders, including anxiety and depression—the world's most common neuropsychiatric illnesses. Various genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral animal models have long been used to establish animal anxiety-like and depression-like phenotypes, as well as to assess their memory, learning, and other cognitive functions. Mounting clinical and animal evidences strongly supports the notion that disturbed cognitions repr...

  18. Music therapy and cognitive capacity in people with Alzheimer’s disease: A call for action

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Mas, Alberto; Moliner Urdiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to encourage researchers to investigate the impact of music therapy on cognitive function in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Despite the use of music as non-pharmacological treatment in people with dementia is well established, we identified a lack of research about the cognitive effects of music therapy in AD patients. Due to the actual high prevalence of AD, cognitive intervention programmes based on music therapy could constitute a fascinating line of researc...

  19. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Ahmed K.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, alo...

  20. [Benefits of music therapy as therapy no pharmacology and rehabilitation moderate dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Palomares, María; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-López-Arza, María Victoria; Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Trinidad; Prieto-Tato, Marta

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth review is presented the possible benefits of music therapy in relation to the cognitive and/or behavioural level of elderly patients with dementia. We have carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, case-control and pilot studies published from January 2000 to January 2012 using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Dialnet and CSIC. We focused on comparison of music therapy as non-pharmacological therapy, in patients over 65 years of age with moderate dementia, with regular therapeutic and occupational treatment. Ten articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the results suggest that music Therapy influences the elderly people with dementia in a positive way by improving levels of behavioural and cognitive functioning and social participation. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a filmed clinical scenario as a teaching resource for an introductory pharmacology unit for undergraduate health students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Hutchinson, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Simulation is frequently being used as a learning and teaching resource for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, however reporting of the effectiveness of simulation particularly within the pharmacology context is scant. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a filmed simulated pharmacological clinical scenario as a teaching resource in an undergraduate pharmacological unit. Pilot cross-sectional quantitative survey. An Australian university. 32 undergraduate students completing a healthcare degree including nursing, midwifery, clinical science, health science, naturopathy, and osteopathy. As a part of an undergraduate online pharmacology unit, students were required to watch a filmed simulated pharmacological clinical scenario. To evaluate student learning, a measurement instrument developed from Bloom's cognitive domains (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation) was employed to assess pharmacological knowledge conceptualisation and knowledge application within the following fields: medication errors; medication adverse effects; medication interactions; and, general pharmacology. The majority of participants were enrolled in an undergraduate nursing or midwifery programme (72%). Results demonstrated that the majority of nursing and midwifery students (56.52%) found the teaching resource complementary or more useful compared to a lecture although less so compared to a tutorial. Students' self-assessment of learning according to Bloom's cognitive domains indicated that the filmed scenario was a valuable learning tool. Analysis of variance indicated that health science students reported higher levels of learning compared to midwifery and nursing. Students' self-report of the learning benefits of a filmed simulated clinical scenario as a teaching resource suggest enhanced critical thinking skills and knowledge conceptualisation regarding pharmacology, in addition to being useful and complementary to other teaching and

  2. Stress-related cognitive and non-cognitive impairments in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Tabeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a physiological process that may develop long without manifestations of comorbidities. In the meantime a high proportion of elderly people very often experience limitations in daily life due to impairments in memory and other cognitive functions. Non-cognitive neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly stress-related anxiety disorders, are a major contribution to maladaptation in these patients. The present studies of the neurobiology of aging enable one to decipher not only the mechanisms that underlie the physiology of brain aging, but also the factors that influence cognitive aging and aggravate the manifestations of cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative disease. The process of brain aging is known to presume the long-term preservation of functional neuroplasticity that is greatly influenced by different lifestyle factors, such as daily social and physical activities, the pattern and amount of food taken, cognitive activity, and stressful life events. These lifestyle factors are supposedly a potent tool to maintain physiological brain aging and a delayed cognitive diminution in elderly people. At the same time, studies of the possibility of pharmacologically correcting age-related (both cognitive and non-cognitive impairments are promising to improve everyday function in elderly people. 

  3. Cognitive enhancers: focus on modulatory signaling influencing memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja

    2011-08-01

    Biological research has unraveled many of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the formation of long-lasting memory, providing new opportunities for the development of cognitive-enhancing drugs. Studies of drug enhancement of cognition have benefited from the use of pharmacological treatments given after learning, allowing the investigation of mechanisms regulating the consolidation phase of memory. Modulatory systems influencing consolidation processes include stress hormones and several neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. Here, we review some of the findings on memory enhancement by drug administration in animal models, and discuss their implications for the development of cognitive enhancers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does physical and mental activity prevent cognitive impairment? Evidence from animal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Begega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitive and brain reserve. This paper reviews several studies on aged rodents showing the positive effects of environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise on brain and cognitive function of these animals. The implications of this research for human aging is discussed.

  5. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  6. Pharmacologic targets on the female urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, A Erdem; Cinar, Mehtap G; Turna, Burak; Sahin, M Oguz

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanisms affecting contraction and relaxation of the urethra in order to establish a basis for current and future treatments for urinary incontinence in women. A review of the English literature using MEDLINE was performed between 1970 and 2008 on female urethra pharmacology, urinary incontinence, and mechanisms involved in contraction and relaxation of the female human urethra. alpha-Adrenoceptors (ARs) cause contraction and beta-ARs cause relaxation. Use of selective alpha-agonist and beta-AR blocker agents might have potential for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Tolerable doses of cholinergic agonists did not have significant effects on intraurethral pressure. Nitric oxide seems to be the major nonadrenergic-noncholinergic inhibitory transmitter causing relaxation. c-kit-positive interstitial cells seem to regulate urethral tone. The roles of adenosine triphosphate and carbon monoxide have not been fully investigated in humans. Neuropeptides function similarly to the urinary bladder. Prostanoids cause urethral contraction and relaxation depending on their subtypes. Serotonin enhances the strength of urethral sphincteric contractions. The Rho-kinase pathway also appears to be modulating smooth muscle contraction in the urethra. Understanding of the urethral function and pharmacology may lead to the development of promising new agents which might be useful in the management of urinary incontinence in women. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Pharmacological Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Riki; Hadar, Eran; Toledano, Yoel; Hod, Moshe

    2016-11-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy. We performed an extensive literature review of different available studies, published during the last 50 years, concerning pharmacological therapy for GDM, dealing with safety and efficacy, for both fetal and maternal morbidity consequences; as well as failure and success in establishing appropriate metabolic and glucose control. Oral medication therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for GDM and in some circumstances may serve as first-line therapy when nutritional modifications fail. When oral agents fail to establish glucose control then insulin injections should be added. Determining the best oral therapy in inconclusive, although it seems that metformin is slightly superior to glyburide, in some aspects. As for parenteral therapy, all insulins listed in this article are considered both safe and effective for treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Importantly, a better safety profile, with similar efficacy is documented for most analogues. As GDM prevalence rises, there is a need for successful monitoring and treatment for patients. Caregivers should know the possible and available therapeutic options.

  8. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  9. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  10. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Paikra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. or munga is one of the most important plant widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. This plant is widely used as nutritional herb and contains valuable pharmacological action like anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti- fertility, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, CNS activity, anti-allergic, wound healing, analgesic, and antipyretic activity, Moringa oleifera Lam. The plant is also known as Horse - radish tree, Drumstick tree. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contain rich source of the vitamin A, vitamin C and milk protein. Different types of active phytoconstituents like alkaloids, protein, quinine, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, steroids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats are present. This plant is also found in the tropical regions. Some other constituents are niazinin A, niazinin B and niazimicin A, niaziminin B. The present review discusses the phytochemical composition, medicinal uses & pharmacological activity of this plant.

  11. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatment of tumorigenesis, asthama, gastric, erectile dysfunction, apoptosis, melanoma and congestive heart failure. Ability to produce nitric oxide offers various applications as in the prevention of age and hair loss. It serves as a precursor of creatine with ergogenic potential. The ability to increase endogenous growth hormone makes arginine a preferred supplement for the improvement of physical performance. In the present study details about the pharmacological applications of arginine based on modern scientific investigations have been discussed. There are immense properties hidden in arginine that need to be explored using the scientific investigations to make it beneficial for the medicine and human health. More research is needed to evaluate the role of arginine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations in healthy and diseased populations before taking any conclusions.

  12. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  13. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the etiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have however emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progresses towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  15. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  16. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the

  17. Sexual Behavior Among Persons With Cognitive Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn P; Grudzinskas, Albert J; Saleh, Fabian M

    2017-05-01

    Although the cognitively impaired are frequently included in heterogeneous studies of problematic sexual behavior, the epidemiology, etiology, and approach to assessment and treatment of persons with dementia and intellectual disability are distinct from those of the general population. The incidence of inappropriate sexual behavior among the intellectually disabled is 15-33%; however, the nature tends to be more socially inappropriate than with violative intent. Limited sociosexual education is a large contributor, and better addressing this area offers a target for prevention and treatment. A thorough clinical assessment of problematic sexual behaviors in the cognitively impaired requires understanding the patient's internal experience, which can be challenging. Assessment tools validated for the general population have not been validated for this population. Very few studies have assessed treatment approaches specifically among the cognitively impaired; however, research does suggest utility in habilitative, psychotherapeutic, and pharmacologic approaches which have been validated among the general population.

  18. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  19. [Cognitive remediation and cognitive assistive technologies in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablier, J; Stip, E; Franck, N

    2009-04-01

    motivate the patient to participate. Finally, long-term effects must be assessed in order to verify whether reinforcement is needed. Following these steps, most of the studies show an improvement in the well-being of patients with schizophrenia. These recommendations are also suitable for the cognitive remediation programs, as for treatments with cognitive assistive devices. An important hurdle facing the advance of cognitive assistive technology programs is that different research groups work individually without a coordinated effort to improve and validate the existing programs. Schizophrenia treatments must take into account not only patients' symptoms, but also the associated cognitive deficits which constitute an important factor in their social problems. It has been shown that several cognitive remediation programs are efficient in schizophrenia. New technologies complement the benefits of such programs, and support pharmacological treatments and psychotherapies.

  20. Cognitive Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Barry F.

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive Astrophysics works at the cusp between Cognitive Science and Astrophysics, drawing upon lessons learned in the Philosophy of Science, Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence. We will introduce and illustrate the concept of ``Downward Causation,'' common in philosophical discussions, but either unknown to or disdained by most physicists. A clear example operating on cosmological scales involving the origin of large-scale structure will be given. We will also make the case that on scales exceeding most laboratory experiments, self-gravitating matter can be considered to be in a ``fifth state'', characterized primarily by its negative specific heat, as first recognized by Lynden-Bell and Lynden-Bell (1977, MNRAS, 181, 405). Such systems increase their temperature as they lose energy. Numerous examples will be given and discussed.

  1. Constellation pharmacology: a new paradigm for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Schmidt, Eric W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-01-01

    Constellation pharmacology is a cell-based high-content phenotypic-screening platform that utilizes subtype-selective pharmacological agents to elucidate the cell-specific combinations (constellations) of key signaling proteins that define specific cell types. Heterogeneous populations of native cells, in which the different individual cell types have been identified and characterized, are the foundation for this screening platform. Constellation pharmacology is useful for screening small molecules or for deconvoluting complex mixtures of biologically active natural products. This platform has been used to purify natural products and discover their molecular mechanisms. In the ongoing development of constellation pharmacology, there is a positive feedback loop between the pharmacological characterization of cell types and screening for new drug candidates. As constellation pharmacology is used to discover compounds with novel targeting-selectivity profiles, those new compounds then further help to elucidate the constellations of specific cell types, thereby increasing the content of this high-content platform.

  2. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD.

  3. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.

  4. Cognitive epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide...

  5. Cognitive Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    notation), algorithmic complexity (Kolmogorov) and thermodynamic com- plexity ( entropy ). Some generalized quantitative aspects of complexity have been...three-tier model of cognition motivates our selection of design decisions. This model was first suggested by David Marr [102] in his work on computer...performance objectives,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, pp. 51–57, December 2006. [102] D. Marr , Vision: a computational investigation into the

  6. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaykaran,; Preeti Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. Materials and Methods: All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals’ (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of...

  7. Litchi chinensis: medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2015-11-04

    Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) has been widely used in many cultures for the treatment of cough, flatulence, stomach ulcers, diabetes, obesity, testicular swelling, hernia-like conditions, and epigastric and neuralgic pains. The ethnopharmacologial history of L. chinensis indicated that it possesses hypoglycemic, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-platelet, anti-tussive, analgesic, antipyretic, hemostatic, diuretic, and antiviral activities. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, and chemical constituents, as well as the pharmacological activities and toxicity of L. chinensis. Moreover, the focus of this review is the possible exploitation of this plant to treat different diseases and to suggest future investigations. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of litchi, and to reveal their therapeutic potentials and being an evidence base for further research works, information on litchi was gathered from scientific journals, books, and worldwide accepted scientific databases via a library and electronic search (PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Springer, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley online library, and pubs.acs.org/journal/jacsat). All abstracts and full-text articles were examined. The most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. A comprehensive analysis of the literature obtained through the above-mentioned sources confirmed that ethno-medical uses of L. chinensis have been recorded in China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Philippines. Phytochemical investigation revealed that the major chemical constituents of litchi are flavonoids, sterols, triterpenens, phenolics, and other bioactive compounds. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from L. chinensis exhibited significant antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti

  8. Review of systematic reviews about the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to improve sleep quality in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niet, Gerrit J; Tiemens, Bea G; Kloos, Margot W; Hutschemaekers, Giel Jm

    2009-12-01

    Background  Insomnia is a very common condition in various populations. Non-pharmacological interventions might offer (safe) alternatives for hypnotics. Aim  To evaluate the evidence for efficacy from systematic reviews about non-pharmacological interventions to improve sleep quality in insomnia by a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Search strategy  Search strategies were conducted in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (2002-July 2008), The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2000-July 2008) and PubMed (1950-July 2008). Sleep quality was the outcome measure of interest. Selection criteria  Systematic reviews about the efficacy of one or more non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia, concerning both adult and elderly populations, were included. Reviews that included studies performed among populations suffering with severe neurological or cognitive impairments or with addictive disorders were excluded. Data analysis  Relevant data were extracted. The quality of the reviews found was appraised by using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire. The evidence was appraised and divided into six classes. Results and conclusions  Sixteen reviews about 17 interventions were included. Six reviews were of adequate methodological quality. Of these, only one provided an effect size: a moderate effect was found for music-assisted relaxation. Weak evidence indicating a large effect was found for multicomponent cognitive behavioural therapy, progressive muscle relaxation, stimulus control and 'behavioural only'. Weak evidence indicating a moderate effect was found for paradoxical intention. Finally, weak evidence indicating a moderate to large effect was found for relaxation training. Because of the lack of sufficient methodological quality and the lack of calculated effect sizes, most of the included reviews were not suitable for drawing rigorous conclusions about the effect of non-pharmacological interventions on

  9. Altered GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression and Pharmacology in Human Angelman Syndrome Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, William H.; Peugh, Lindsey D.; Jansen, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is most frequently caused by deletion of the maternally-derived chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which includes not only the causative UBE3A gene, but also the β3-α5-γ3 GABAA receptor subunit gene cluster. GABAergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to contribute to the occurrence of epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral impairments in this condition. In the present study, analysis of GABAA receptor subunit expression and pharmacology was performed in cerebral cortex from four subjects with Angelman syndrome and compared to that from control tissue. The membrane fraction of frozen postmortem neocortical tissue was isolated and subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. The ratios of β3/β2 and α5/α1 subunit protein expression in Angelman syndrome cortex were significantly decreased when compared with controls. An additional membrane fraction was injected into Xenopus oocytes, resulting in incorporation of the brain membrane vesicles with their associated receptors into the oocyte cellular membrane. Two-electrode voltage clamp analysis of GABAA receptor currents was then performed. Studies of GABAA receptor pharmacology in Angelman syndrome cortex revealed increased current enhancement by the α1-selective benzodiazepine site agonist zolpidem and by the barbiturate phenobarbital, while sensitivity to current inhibition by zinc was decreased. GABAA receptor affinity and modulation by neurosteroids were unchanged. This shift in GABAA receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in Angelman syndrome is consistent with impaired extrasynaptic but intact to augmented synaptic cortical GABAergic inhibition, which could contribute to the epileptic, behavioral, and cognitive phenotypes of the disorder. PMID:20692323

  10. Pharmacological perception of peptides from marine sponge: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, Baby; Nair, Vrundha M; Sujatha, S

    2012-01-01

    .... This review focuses on sponge symbiotic association with other organisms, significance of peptides as secondary metabolites and its pharmacological effects by highlighting its role as antbacterial...

  11. Research on treating neuropsychiatric symptoms of advanced dementia with non-pharmacological strategies, 1998-2008: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverno, Karan S; Black, Betty S; Nolan, Marie T; Rabins, Peter V

    2009-10-01

    Advanced dementia is characterized by severe cognitive and functional impairments that lead to almost total dependency in self-care. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in advanced dementia, diminishing quality of life and increasing the care burden. The challenge for health care providers is to find safe and effective treatments. Non-pharmacological interventions offer the potential for safer alternatives to pharmacotherapy, but little is known about their efficacy. This review evaluates the published literature on non-pharmacological interventions for treating NPS in advanced dementia. A literature search was undertaken to find non-pharmacological intervention studies published between 1998 and 2008 that measured NPS outcomes in individuals diagnosed with advanced dementia. Strict inclusion criteria initially required that all study participants have severe or very severe dementia, but this range was later broadened to include moderately severe to very severe stages. Out of 215 intervention studies, 21 (9.8%) specifically focused on treatments for individuals with moderately severe to very severe dementia. The studies provide limited moderate to high quality evidence for the use of sensory-focused strategies, including aroma, preferred or live music, and multi-sensory stimulation. Emotion-oriented approaches, such as simulated presence may be more effective for individuals with preserved verbal interactive capacity. Most studies of interventions for dementia-related NPS have focused on individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Individuals with severe cognitive impairment do not necessarily respond to NPS treatments in the same manner. Future studies should be specifically designed to further explore the stage-specific efficacy of non-pharmacological therapies for patients with advanced dementia. Areas of particular need for further research include movement-based therapies, hands-on (touch) therapies, and interventions that can be provided

  12. [Pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with methylphenidate and atomoxetine within a context of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Fernando; Roca, Patricia; Ros-Cervera, Gonzalo; Gandía-Benetó, Rubén; Ortiz-Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-02-24

    The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with epilepsy stands at around 30-40%, especially the inattentive subtype, while other studies on children diagnosed with ADHD show figures that vary from 6.1% to 30% which present alterations in the electroencephalogram and epilepsy problems. Although clinical practice guidelines advise against treatment with psychostimulants in ADHD that is comorbid with epilepsy, especially when the latter is not considered active, some researchers and practitioners recommend caution as regards beginning this pharmacological therapy, while less research has been conducted on the use of non-psychostimulants. To review the patient records of children with epilepsy and ADHD who received pharmacological treatment with psychostimulants and non-psychostimulants for an attention disorder. The study involved a sample of 23 patients aged 5-16 years. The type of epilepsy and the clinical course and electroencephalogram were analysed at both one and two years after beginning pharmacological treatment of ADHD. At two years, one patient presented a crisis and two patients continued to display paroxysmal activity in the electroencephalogram. The data presented show that pharmacological treatment of ADHD does not exacerbate the epilepsy in well-controlled patients, although it is advisable to take into account factors such as the type of antiepileptic drug, the type of drug for ADHD and the cognitive profile, in order to favour a satisfactory development. In epileptic children with learning difficulties, it is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms involved in attentional processes, since they may well be compromised and in need of a more specific treatment.

  13. E-Learning in Pharmacology and Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning facilitates a shift from externally controlled to self-directed learning. Universities and other educational institutions are challenged by these developments and must react appropriately to meet the requirements of education. The term e-learning has been coined to describe a wide range of diverse learning and teaching strategies based on the use of electronic devices. Recently developed concepts in the science of education and learning provide appropriate frameworks for novel e-learning scenarios. The present review introduces strategies and concepts for the implementation of e-learning in academic and non-academic programs and gives an overview of current e-learning activities in pharmacology.

  14. Pharmacologic advances in canine and feline reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Valerie J; Howard, James P

    2009-05-01

    Substantial improvements in therapeutic options for companion animal reproduction and gynecologic emergencies have been made over the last decade. New, alternative drug treatments, with fewer side effects and improved efficacy, are available. This has widened the spectrum of therapeutic possibilities for diseases that were previously treated only by surgical intervention. New drugs are available for estrus induction and pregnancy termination, as well as for the treatment of pyometra. This review summarizes the pharmacology and toxicology of reproductive agents currently in use for contraception, pyometra, dystocia, eclampsia, premature labor, agalactia, mastitis, metritis, and prostatic disorders, and compares their efficacy and safety with newer agents. Drug use and exposure during pregnancy and lactation, and subsequent risks to the fetuses, are also explored, with emphasis on antimicrobials, antifungals, anthelminthics, anesthetics, and vaccinations.

  15. Ferrite Nanoparticles in Pharmacological Modulation of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Aparna; Radha, S.; Khan, Y.; Tilak, Priya

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored in the targeted drug delivery of pharmacological agents : angiogenesis being one such novel application which involves formation of new blood vessels or branching of existing ones. The present study involves the use of ferrite nanoparticles for precise therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. The ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts by a suitable base, were found to be 10-20 nm from X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. The magnetization measurements showed superparamagnetic behavior of the uncoated nanoparticles. These ferrite nanoparticles were found to be bio-compatible with lymphocytes and neural cell lines from the biochemical assays. The chick chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) from the shell of fertile white Leghorn eggs was chosen as a model to study angiogenic activity. An enhancement in the angiogenic activity in the CAM due to addition of uncoated ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

  16. The GPCR heterotetramer: challenging classical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi

    2015-03-01

    Two concepts are gaining increasing acceptance in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pharmacology: (i) pre-coupling of GPCRs with their preferred signaling molecules, and (ii) GPCR oligomerization. This is begging for the introduction of new models such as GPCR oligomer-containing signaling complexes with GPCR homodimers as functional building blocks. This model favors the formation of GPCR heterotetramers - heteromers of homodimers coupled to their cognate G protein. The GPCR heterotetramer offers an optimal framework for a canonical antagonistic interaction between activated Gs and Gi proteins, which can simultaneously bind to their respective preferred receptors and to adenylyl cyclase (AC) catalytic units. This review addresses the current evidence for pre-coupling of the various specific components that provide the very elaborate signaling machinery exemplified by the Gs-Gi-AC-coupled GPCR heterotetramer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Benzodiazepine withdrawal: behavioural pharmacology and neurochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Andrews, N

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes pharmacological treatments that can reverse the anxiogenic response detected in animal tests when rats are withdrawn from chronic treatment with diazepam. Concurrent treatment with the calcium channel antagonist verapamil prevented this withdrawal response and the benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist flumazenil reversed the anxiogenic response and restored the system to a drug-naive state. Other treatments that reversed the anxiogenic response were the GABAB agonist baclofen, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (R,S)-zacopride (GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid; 5-HT = 5-hydroxytryptamine). Both the enantiomers of zacopride contributed to this reversal. These behavioural reversals are interpreted in the light of biochemical studies showing increased 45Ca2+ flux and [3H]5-HT release from the hippocampus, during benzodiazepine withdrawal (Fig. 1).

  18. Translational paradigms in pharmacology and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Kevin; Winquist, Raymond J; Williams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The translational sciences represent the core element in enabling and utilizing the output from the biomedical sciences and to improving drug discovery metrics by reducing the attrition rate as compounds move from preclinical research to clinical proof of concept. Key to understanding the basis of disease causality and to developing therapeutics is an ability to accurately diagnose the disease and to identify and develop safe and effective therapeutics for its treatment. The former requires validated biomarkers and the latter, qualified targets. Progress has been hampered by semantic issues, specifically those that define the end product, and by scientific issues that include data reliability, an overt reductionistic cultural focus and a lack of hierarchically integrated data gathering and systematic analysis. A necessary framework for these activities is represented by the discipline of pharmacology, efforts and training in which require recognition and revitalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-pharmacologic labour pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada

    2004-10-01

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of alternative and complementary therapies for pain management in labour. To examine the effectiveness of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour on maternal and perinatal morbidity. The trials included three trials of hypnosis (n = 189), one involving audio-analgesia (n = 25), one involving (n = 22), and one trial of music (n = 30). Women receiving hypnosis were more satisfied with their pain management in labour compared with controls (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.55 to 4.71). No differences were seen for women recieving, music or audio analgesia. Hypnosis may be beneficial for the management of pain during labour. However, few complementary therapies have been subjected to proper scientific study.

  20. General pharmacology of the new antitussive levodropropizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, G; Malandrino, S; Rossoni, G; Caselli, G; Bestetti, A; Borsa, M; Tonon, G C; Berti, F

    1988-08-01

    The general pharmacological profile of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), a new antitussive drug, was compared with that of dropropizine racemate. Levodropropizine had weaker central sedative effects than the racemate and it did not induce physical dependence in rats. When given intravenously or intraperitoneally, levodropropizine did not exert any significant effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Receptor binding data excluded interaction with beta-adrenergic, muscarinic and opiate receptors. On the contrary, levodropropizine has affinity for H1-histaminic and alpha-adrenergic receptors. The affinity was also confirmed with isolated organ preparations. On the basis of this study, levodropropizine appears to have a better tolerability index than the racemate.

  1. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Red propolis: Chemical composition and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Corbellini Rufatto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been used worldwide for years in folk medicine and currently marketed by the pharmaceutical industry. In Brazil, propolis was classified into 13 groups based on their organoleptics and physicochemical characteristics. The 13th type named red propolis has been an important source of investigation since late 90s. Their property comes from the countless compounds, including terpenes, pterocarpans, prenylated benzophenones and especially the flavonoids. This last compound class has been indicated as the responsible for its potent pharmacological actions, highlighting the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, healing and antiproliferative activities. The red propolis can also be found in other countries, especially Cuba, which has similar features as the Brazilian. Therefore, with the compilation of 80 papers, this review aims to provide a key reference for researchers interested in natural products and discovery of new active compounds, such as from propolis.

  3. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A

    2008-07-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  4. Antimicrobial Pharmacology for the Neonatal Foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdesian, K Gary

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available. Renal function should be monitored carefully in foals being treated with aminoglycosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reappraisal of GIP Pharmacology for Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are considered the best current medicines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity due to their actions in lowering blood glucose and body weight. Despite similarities to GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has not been extensively pursued...... as a medical treatment for T2D. This is largely based on observations of diminished responses of GIP to lower blood glucose in select patients, as well as evidence from rodent knockout models implying that GIP promotes obesity. These findings have prompted the belief in some, that inhibiting GIP action might...... be beneficial for metabolic diseases. However, a growing body of new evidence - including data based on refined genetically modified models and improved pharmacological agents - suggests a paradigm shift on how the GIP system should be manipulated for metabolic benefits....

  6. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  8. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  9. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016. Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs, psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity. The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation. Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability, as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants, stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination

  10. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Hutton, Brian; Núñez-Beltrán, Amparo; Page, Matthew J; Ridao, Manuel; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; Catalá, Miguel A; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up) were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016). Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs), psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback) and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity). The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response) and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability), as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes) that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants), stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination showed the

  11. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethnobotany, biochemistry and pharmacology of Minthostachys (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N

    2008-08-13

    The South American mint genus Minthostachys is of great importance in the Andes as a medicinal, aromatic, culinary and commercial essential oil plant. After decades of taxonomic confusion and virtual indeterminability of specimens, new systematic and taxonomic work has been conducted in recent years. The present paper attempts to summarize the state of knowledge about Minthostachys with a focus on ethnobotany, analyses of essential oil content and pharmacology, to identify the currently accepted species names for the plants examined in these previous studies, and to assess where additional research is needed. All available studies on Minthostachys were obtained and evaluated. Herbaria were contacted to identify voucher specimens cited in the respective publications. The great majority of published studies was conducted on a single species, Argentinean Minthostachys verticillata. In contrast, the most widely distributed and well-known species (Minthostachys mollis) as well as several locally important and intensively used species (e.g., Minthostachys acutifolia) have received disproportionately little attention, and virtually nothing is known about the local endemics among the 17 species currently recognized. In many cases, however, it is difficult to relate the results to taxonomic entities due to the lack of voucher specimens. Future research efforts should especially be directed at studying the chemistry and potential for use of several common but so far neglected species of the central and northern Andes, at disentangling environmental and genetic influences on essential oil composition, at prerequisites for cultivation, and at the pharmacological basis of the most important traditional uses. Because of the morphological complexity of the genus, future researchers are urged to deposit voucher specimens of the plants used in their studies to facilitate species identification and to make the results more comparable and reproducible.

  14. Preclinical Pharmacological Approaches in Drug Discovery for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Garth T; Pomonis, James D; Kennedy, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, animal behavioral models, particularly those used in pain research, have been increasingly scrutinized and criticized for their role in the poor translation of novel pharmacotherapies for chronic pain. This chapter addresses the use of animal models of pain used in drug discovery research. It highlights how, when, and why animal models of pain are used as one of the many experimental tools used to gain better understanding of target mechanisms and rank-order compounds in the iterative process of establishing structure-activity relationship. Together, these models help create an "analgesic signature" for a compound and inform the indications most likely to yield success in clinical trials. In addition, the authors discuss some often underappreciated aspects of currently used (traditional) animal models of pain, including simply applying basic pharmacological principles to study design and data interpretation as well as consideration of efficacy alongside side effect measures as part of the overall conclusion of efficacy. This is provided to add perspective regarding current efforts to develop new models and endpoints both in rodents and in larger animal species as well as assess cognitive and/or affective aspects of pain. Finally, the authors suggest ways in which efficacy evaluation in animal models of pain, whether traditional or new, might better align with clinical standards of analysis, citing examples where applying effect size and number needed to treat estimations to animal model data suggest that the efficacy bar often may be set too low preclinically to allow successful translation to the clinical setting. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for paruresis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, J P

    1998-08-01

    This article reviews directive interventions for paruresis, the inability to urinate in the proximity of others. As in treatments for other anxiety disorders, historical interventions have included the use of paradoxical intention and several different forms of exposure. The results of pharmacological treatment have not proven promising. Although a multidimensional treatment model has been recommended, little attention has been paid to treating cognitive components of the problem. In this paper, a single case is described in which cognitive components of the problem of paruresis were evident. A cognitive approach and exposure in vivo were applied. Measures of successful trials were obtained over 18 weeks. The combination of cognitive interventions and gradual exposure was effective in reducing paruresis. At follow-up 6 mo. later results had been maintained. The results of this case suggest more attention to the cognitive components is appropriate in the treatment of paruresis, as was stated previously for other specific social phobias.

  16. Pharmacologic treatment of noncognitive symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, I

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive deterioration in dementia includes many changes besides memory disturbances, including agitation, delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, irritability, and aggressiveness. Antipsychotic drugs are often used to control behavioral symptoms, but their benefits are limited. Depression, which is common in dementia, is often associated with anxiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) improve mood and reduce anxiety while causing few side effects; they are also useful in managing irritability. Thus, the SSRIs should be considered the agents of choice for treating noncognitive symptoms associated with dementia. Neuroleptics should be used exclusively in patients with severe behavioral or psychotic symptoms, and only those agents without anticholinergic effects should be administered. Neuroleptics can be coadministered with SSRIs in patients who are extremely aggressive. Anxiolytics may also be effective for shortterm use. Future studies of drugs to treat the noncognitive symptoms of dementia should be placebo controlled and should evaluate the effects of those drugs on cognitive function.

  17. Non-pharmacological, multicomponent group therapy in patients with degenerative dementia: a 12-month randomzied, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graessel Elmar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have shown only modest effects in slowing the progression of dementia. Our objective was to assess the impact of a long-term non-pharmacological group intervention on cognitive function in dementia patients and on their ability to carry out activities of daily living compared to a control group receiving the usual care. Methods A randomized, controlled, single-blind longitudinal trial was conducted with 98 patients (follow-up: n = 61 with primary degenerative dementia in five nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. The highly standardized intervention consisted of motor stimulation, practice in activities of daily living, and cognitive stimulation (acronym MAKS. It was conducted in groups of ten patients led by two therapists for 2 hours, 6 days a week for 12 months. Control patients received treatment as usual. Cognitive function was assessed using the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, and the ability to carry out activities of daily living using the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL test at baseline and after 12 months. Results Of the 553 individuals screened, 119 (21.5% were eligible and 98 (17.7% were ultimately included in the study. At 12 months, the results of the per protocol analysis (n = 61 showed that cognitive function and the ability to carry out activities of daily living had remained stable in the intervention group but had decreased in the control patients (ADAS-Cog: adjusted mean difference: -7.7, 95% CI -14.0 to -1.4, P = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.45; E-ADL test: adjusted mean difference: 3.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 6.4, P = 0.015, Cohen's d = 0.50. The effect sizes for the intervention were greater in the subgroup of patients (n = 50 with mild to moderate disease (ADAS-Cog: Cohen's d = 0.67; E-ADL test: Cohen's d = 0.69. Conclusions A highly standardized, non-pharmacological, multicomponent group

  18. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  19. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, L. D.; Hutton, Brian; Guenette, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however......, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our......-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible...

  20. Social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Chris D

    2008-06-12

    Social cognition concerns the various psychological processes that enable individuals to take advantage of being part of a social group. Of major importance to social cognition are the various social signals that enable us to learn about the world. Such signals include facial expressions, such as fear and disgust, which warn us of danger, and eye gaze direction, which indicate where interesting things can be found. Such signals are particularly important in infant development. Social referencing, for example, refers to the phenomenon in which infants refer to their mothers' facial expressions to determine whether or not to approach a novel object. We can learn a great deal simply by observing others. Much of this signalling seems to happen automatically and unconsciously on the part of both the sender and the receiver. We can learn to fear a stimulus by observing the response of another, in the absence of awareness of that stimulus. By contrast, learning by instruction, rather than observation, does seem to depend upon awareness of the stimulus, since such learning does not generalize to situations where the stimulus is presented subliminally. Learning by instruction depends upon a meta-cognitive process through which both the sender and the receiver recognize that signals are intended to be signals. An example would be the 'ostensive' signals that indicate that what follows are intentional communications. Infants learn more from signals that they recognize to be instructive. I speculate that it is this ability to recognize and learn from instructions rather than mere observation which permitted that advanced ability to benefit from cultural learning that seems to be unique to the human race.

  1. Visual cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    ... is unified in our mind even if not in the image. The construction of these entities is the task of visual cognition and, in almost all cases, each construct is a choice among an infinity of possibilities, chosen based on likelihood, bias, or a whim, but chosen by rejecting other valid competitors. The entities are not limited to static surfaces or structures but also include dynamic structures that only emerge over time – from dots that appear to be walking like a human or a moon orbiting a planet, to the...

  2. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  3. [The non-pharmacological management of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlemont, Christine

    2017-05-01

    Pain management is not limited to the putting in place of pharmacological, surgical, physiotherapy or psychological strategies. Non-pharmacological therapies can also be proposed, notably in relation to chronic pain. Appreciated by patients and developed by caregivers, they require appropriate regulatory guidelines and specific training in order for them to be implemented safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPORTANCE OF ERIGERON CANADENSIS (SYN: CONYZA CANADENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemical studies revealed that Erigeron canadensis (syn. Conyza canadensis) contained saponins, diterpenoids, terpenoids, glycosides, tannin, anthraquinone, steroids and flavonoids. Pharmacological studies showed that Erigeron canadensis exerted antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, mutagenic gastric protective effect and skin depigmentation activity. The current review discussed the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Erigeron c...

  5. The concise guide to pharmacology 2017/18: Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil V.; Peters, John A.; Faccenda, Elena; Harding, Simon D.; Pawson, Adam J.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O. Peter; Cidlowski, John A.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Davenport, Anthony P.; Fabbro, Doriano; Spedding, Michael; Striessnig, Jörg; Davies, Jamie A.; Abbracchio, M.-P.; Aldrich, R.; Al-Hosaini, K.; Arumugam, T. V.; Attali, B.; Bäck, M.; Barnes, N. M.; Bathgate, R.; Beart, P. M.; Becirovic, E.; Bettler, B.; Biel, M.; Birdsall, N. J.; Blaho, V.; Boison, D.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Bröer, S.; Bryant, C.; Burnstock, G.; Calo, G.; Catterall, W. A.; Ceruti, S.; Chan, S. L.; Chandy, K. G.; Chazot, P.; Chiang, N.; Chun, J. J.; Chung, J.-J.; Clapham, D. E.; Clapp, L.; Connor, M. A.; Cox, H. M.; Davies, P.; Dawson, P. A.; Decaen, P.; Dent, G.; Doherty, P.; Douglas, S. D.; Dubocovich, M. L.; Fong, T. M.; Fowler, C. J.; Frantz, A.; Fuller, P.; Fumagalli, M.; Futerman, A. H.; Gainetdinov, R. R.; Gershengorn, M. A.; Goldin, A.; Goldstein, San; Goudet, C.; Gregory, K.; Grissmer, S.; Gundlach, A. L.; Hagenbuch, B.; Hamann, Jörg; Hammond, J. R.; Hancox, J. C.; Hanson, J.; Hanukoglu, I.; Hay, D. L.; Hobbs, A. J.; Hollenberg, A. N.; Holliday, N. D.; Hoyer, D.; IJzerman, A. P.; Inui, K. I.; Irving, A. J.; Ishii, S.; Jacobson, K. A.; Jan, L. Y.; Jarvis, M. F.; Jensen, R.; Jockers, R.; Kaczmarek, L. K.; Kanai, Y.; Karnik, S.; Kellenberger, S.; Kemp, Stephan; Kennedy, C.; Kerr, I. D.; Kihara, Y.; Kukkonen, J.; Larhammar, D.; Leach, K.; Lecca, D.; Leeman, S.; Leprince, J.; Lolait, S. J.; MacEwan, D.; Maguire, J. J.; Marshall, F.; Mazella, J.; McArdle, C. A.; Michel, M. C.; Miller, L. J.; Mitolo, V.; Mizuno, H.; Monk, P. N.; Mouillac, B.; Murphy, P. M.; Nahon, J.-L.; Nerbonne, J.; Nichols, C. G.; Norel, X.; Offermanns, S.; Palmer, L. G.; Panaro, M. A.; Papapetropoulos, A.; Perez-Reyes, E.; Pertwee, R. G.; Pintor, S.; Pisegna, J. R.; Plant, L. D.; Poyner, D. R.; Prossnitz, E. R.; Pyne, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Ren, D.; Rondard, P.; Ruzza, C.; Sackin, H.; Sanger, G.; Sanguinetti, M. C.; Schild, L.; Schiöth, H.; Schulte, G.; Schulz, S.; Segaloff, D. L.; Serhan, C. N.; Singh, K. D.; Slesinger, P. A.; Snutch, T. P.; Sobey, C. G.; Stewart, G.; Stoddart, L. A.; Summers, R. J.; Szabo, C.; Thwaites, D.; Toll, L.; Trimmer, J. S.; Tucker, S.; Vaudry, H.; Verri, T.; Vilargada, J.-P.; Waldman, S. A.; Ward, D. T.; Waxman, S. G.; Wei, A. D.; Willars, G. B.; Wong, S. S.; Woodruff, T. M.; Wulff, H.; Ye, R. D.; Yung, Y.; Zajac, J.-M.

    2017-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2017/18 is the third in this series of biennial publications. This version provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to an open access knowledgebase of

  6. [The pedagogical approach to pharmacology in nurse training institutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyer, Lucette

    2016-05-01

    Seen as daunting and stressful, pharmacology is often rejected by student nurses. This discipline requires and draws on multiple skills. When future nurses realise that their prescribing role goes beyond simple execution, they are able to appreciate the full scope of pharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  8. Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This review was aimed at providing available chemically and pharmacological data on 7-MJ. Methods: The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-knowledge and Scifinder.

  9. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  10. Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R N; Chambers, W A; Pertwee, R G

    2001-11-01

    This review highlights the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses and adverse effects of cannabinoids. The effect of cannabinoids on anaesthesia is mentioned briefly. Important advances have taken place in cannabinoid research over the last few years and have led to the discovery of novel ligands. The possible clinical applications of these ligands and the direction of future research are discussed.

  11. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  12. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009), ASSIA (1987 to September 2009), BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Selection criteria Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the

  13. The potential of translational bioinformatics approaches for pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang

    2015-10-01

    The field of bioinformatics has allowed the interpretation of massive amounts of biological data, ushering in the era of 'omics' to biomedical research. Its potential impact on pharmacology research is enormous and it has shown some emerging successes. A full realization of this potential, however, requires standardized data annotation for large health record databases and molecular data resources. Improved standardization will further stimulate the development of system pharmacology models, using translational bioinformatics methods. This new translational bioinformatics paradigm is highly complementary to current pharmacological research fields, such as personalized medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and drug discovery. In this review, I illustrate the application of transformational bioinformatics to research in numerous pharmacology subdisciplines. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Changes Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassé-Perrot, Catherine; Lanteaume, Laura; Deguil, Julie; Bordet, Régis; Auffret, Alexandra; Otten, Lisa; Blin, Olivier; Bartrés-Faz, David; Micallef, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    To this day, the pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains limited to the temporary stabilisation of cognitive decline and the reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is moreover with great difficulty to predict and select promising drug candidates in the early stages of the discovery and developmental process. In this context, scientists have developed new experimental paradigms to artificially induce transient cognitive impairments in healthy volunteers akin to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, i.e. the Cognitive Challenge Models. In the last decade, a great amount of literature on Sleep Deprivation was published which mainly focused on the consequences of sleep loss for public health. However, sleep deprivation paradigm may also be regarded as a cognitive challenge model. It is commonly accepted that sleep deprivation induces cognitive impairments related to a global decrease in vigilance, while in fact, there is a controversial approach related to the selective effects on cognitive functions. The identification and validation of cognitive challenge models in healthy volunteers are suitable in early clinical development of drugs to determine the 'hint of efficacy' of drug candidates. The present review aims at exploring in detail the methods, designs and cognitive paradigms used in non pharmacological sleep deprivation studies. Sleep deprivation can be induced by different methods. Probing the four main cognitive functions will allow identifying the extent to which different sleep deprivation designs selectively compromise executive function, working memory, episodic memory and attention. Findings will be discussed in line with cognitive processing levels that are required according to the tasks.

  16. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  17. Music and Cognitive Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luke Kersten

    2015-01-01

    Extended cognition holds that cognitive processes sometimes leak into the world (Dawson, 2013). A recent trend among proponents of extended cognition has been to put pressure on phenomena thought to be safe havens for internalists...

  18. Music and Cognitive Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kersten, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Extended cognition holds that cognitive processes sometimes leak into the world (Dawson, 2013). A recent trend among proponents of extended cognition has been to put pressure on phenomena thought to be safe havens for internalists...

  19. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...

  20. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  1. Trends in Tramadol: Pharmacology, Metabolism, and Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Karen; Cho, Arthur K; Khalil, Mohamed A; Blanco, Kirsten; Sasaki, Jun D; Rawson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects. The importance of the CYP metabolism has led to the adoption of computer clinical decision support with pharmacogenomics tools guiding tramadol treatment in major medical centers. Tramadol's simultaneous opioid agonist action and serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitory effects result in a unique side effect profile and important drug interactions that must be considered. Abrupt cessation of tramadol increases the risk for both opioid and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor withdrawal syndromes. This review provides updated important information on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, CYP genetic polymorphisms, drug interactions, toxicity, withdrawal, and illicit use of tramadol.

  2. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  4. Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviar, Maria Jenelyn M; Hale, Tom; Dungca, Monalisa

    2016-10-14

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, and Embase for relevant studies. We ran the searches for the original review in September 2011 and subsequent searches for this update up to April 2016. We sought additional studies from clinical trials databases and reference lists of retrieved papers. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials studying the effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions compared with placebo, another active treatment, or no treatment, in established PLP. We considered the following outcomes: change in pain intensity, function, sleep, depression or mood, quality of life, adverse events, treatment satisfaction, and withdrawals from the study. We independently assessed issues of study quality and extracted efficacy and adverse event data. Due to the wide variability in the studies, we did not perform a meta-analysis for all the interventions and outcomes, but attempted to pool the results of some studies where possible. We prepared a qualitative description and narrative summary of results. We assessed clinical heterogeneity by making qualitative comparisons of the populations, interventions, outcomes/outcome measures, and methods. We added only one new study with 14 participants to this updated review. We included a 14 studies (10 with low risk of bias and 4 with unclear risk of bias overall) with a total of 269 participants. We added another drug class, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), in

  5. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  6. Pharmacology and Perioperative Considerations of Pain Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Ryan M; Aniskevich, Stephen; Egan, Brian J

    2017-10-27

    Pain continues to be the most common medical concern, and perioperative health care providers are encountering increasing numbers of patients with chronic pain conditions. It is important to have a clear understanding of how long-term use of pain medications impacts anesthesia during the intraoperative and postoperative periods. To review common medications used to treat chronic pain and summarize current recommendations regarding perioperative care. We reviewed the literature by searching PubMed and Google Scholar for articles from 2000-2016. The search strategy included searching for the various classes of pain medications and including the terms perioperative, anesthesiology, and recommendations. We also reviewed the reference lists of each article to identify other relevant sources regarding the perioperative management of pain medications. After the literature review, we were able to establish the pharmacology, anesthetic interactions, and recommendations for management of each of the common classes of pain medication. Management of postoperative pain is an important concern for all perioperative health care providers. Although most pain medications should be continued in the perioperative period, it is important to preoperatively discontinue those that antagonize pain receptors to avoid significant postoperative morbidities associated with poorly managed pain. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. New pharmacological approaches for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Padwal, Raj S; Sharma, Arya M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, which results from an imbalance between calorie intake and expenditure, now affects over 500 million individuals worldwide. Lifestyle and behavioural interventions aimed at reducing calorie intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have limited long-term effectiveness due to complex and persistent hormonal, metabolic and neurochemical adaptations that defend against weight loss and promote weight regain. Surgical treatments for obesity, although highly effective, are unavailable or unsuitable for the majority of individuals with excess adiposity. Accordingly, few effective treatment options are available to most individuals with obesity. In the past, the use of antiobesity drugs, seemingly the logical choice to fill this therapeutic gap, has been limited because of a lack of efficacy, poor long-term adherence rates and serious adverse effects. In 2012, the FDA approved two new medications-lorcaserin and phentermine-topiramate controlled release-and is currently reviewing the resubmission of naltrexone sustained release-bupropion sustained release. This Review presents the available data on the efficacy and safety of these three medications and discusses future perspectives and challenges related to pharmacological weight management.

  8. Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, utilization and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Felmayer, G; Golderer, G; Werner, E R

    2002-04-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (H4-biopterin) is an essential cofactor of a set of enzymes that are of central metabolic importance, i.e. the hydroxylases of the three aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, of ether lipid oxidase, and of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes. As a consequence, H4-biopterin plays a key role in a vast number of biological processes and pathological states associated with neurotransmitter formation, vasorelaxation, and immune response. In mammals, its biosynthesis is controlled by hormones, cytokines and certain immune stimuli. This review aims to summarize recent developments concerning regulation of H4-biopterin biosynthetic and regulatory enzymes and pharmacological effects of H4-biopterin in various conditions, e.g. endothelial dysfunction or apoptosis of neuronal cells. Also, approaches towards gene therapy of diseases like the different forms of phenylketonuria or of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. Additional emphasis is given to H4-biopterin biosynthesis and function in non-mammalian species such as fruit fly, zebra fish, fungi, slime molds, the bacterium Nocardia as well as to the parasitic protozoan genus of Leishmania that is not capable of pteridine biosynthesis but has evolved a sophisticated salvage network for scavenging various pteridine compounds, notably folate and biopterin.

  9. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacological potentials of Syzygium cumini: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Chandra, Deepak

    2013-07-01

    In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine, and these drugs are gaining popularity in both developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and lesser side effects. Syzygium cumini (syn. Eugenia jambolana, Syzygium jambolana, Eugenia cumini, Syzygium jambos), commonly known as jamun in India, is an evergreen tree distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and East Africa. It is mainly utilised as a fruit producer and for its timber. Medicinally, the fruit is reported to have antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic, antioxidant, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, antipyretic, antiplaque, radioprotective, neuropsychopharmacological, nephroprotective and antidiarrhoeal activities. Among these beneficial physiological effects, the antidiabetic property of S. cumini has the most promising nutraceutical value. The health-beneficial effects of S. cumini are mainly attributed to various phytoconstituents such as tannins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids, phenols, minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins present in the fruit. This review paper presents an overview of experimental evidence for the pharmacological potential of S. cumini. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists’ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods. PMID:26009695

  12. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  13. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  14. Principles of pharmacology in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Sahar; Mohamed Ahmed, Abeer H A; Sharma, Garima; Heng, Jacob S; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Lockwood, Alastair

    2017-09-02

    The eye is a highly specialized organ that is subject to a huge range of pathology. Both local and systemic disease may affect different anatomical regions of the eye. The least invasive routes for ocular drug administration are topical (e.g. eye drops) and systemic (e.g. tablets) formulations. Barriers that subserve as protection against pathogen entry also restrict drug permeation. Topically administered drugs often display limited bioavailability due to many physical and biochemical barriers including the pre-corneal tear film, the structure and biophysiological properties of the cornea, the limited volume that can be accommodated by the cul-de-sac, the lacrimal drainage system and reflex tearing. The tissue layers of the cornea and conjunctiva are further key factors that act to restrict drug delivery. Using carriers that enhance viscosity or bind to the ocular surface increases bioavailability. Matching the pH and polarity of drug molecules to the tissue layers allows greater penetration. Drug delivery to the posterior segment is a greater challenge and, currently, the standard route is via intravitreal injection, notwithstanding the risks of endophthalmitis and retinal detachment with frequent injections. Intraocular implants that allow sustained drug release are at different stages of development. Novel exciting therapeutic approaches include methods for promoting transscleral delivery, sustained release devices, nanotechnology and gene therapy. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Pharmacologic management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Amarnath; Katz, Philip O

    2002-06-01

    The burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) results from its widespread prevalence and the unfavorable impact of its symptoms on well-being and quality of life. Whereas abnormalities of the antireflux barrier (lower esophageal sphincter) are important in the pathophysiology of GERD, pharmacologic therapy for GERD is based on suppression of acid, which is responsible for the majority of the symptoms and for epithelial damage. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the agents of choice for achieving the goals of medical therapy in GERD, which include symptom relief, improvement in quality of life, and healing and prevention of mucosal injury. As a class, these drugs are extremely safe. The newest PPI, esomeprazole, brings a statistically significant increase in healing of mucosal injury and symptom relief in patients with erosive esophagitis, compared with omeprazole and lansoprazole. This article reviews the role of medical therapy in the short- and long-term management of symptomatic patients with or without erosive esophagitis, including extraesophageal presentations, GERD during pregnancy, and Barrett's esophagus. Management of refractory patients is addressed.

  16. Central sensitization in humans: assessment and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that chronic pain can modify the excitability of central nervous system which imposes a specific challenge for the management and for the development of new analgesics. The central manifestations can be difficult to quantify using standard clinical examination procedures, but quantitative sensory testing (QST) may help to quantify the degree and extend of the central reorganization and effect of pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, QST may help in optimizing the development programs for new drugs.Specific translational mechanistic QST tools have been developed to quantify different aspects of central sensitization in pain patients such as threshold ratios, provoked hyperalgesia/allodynia, temporal summation (wind-up like pain), after sensation, spatial summation, reflex receptive fields, descending pain modulation, offset analgesia, and referred pain areas. As most of the drug development programs in the area of pain management have not been very successful, the pharmaceutical industry has started to utilize the complementary knowledge obtained from QST profiling. Linking patients QST profile with drug efficacy profile may provide the fundamentals for developing individualized, targeted pain management programs in the future. Linking QST-assessed pain mechanisms with treatment outcome provides new valuable information in drug development and for optimizing the management regimes for chronic pain.

  17. Students' perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J; Malhotra, Supriya D; Rana, Devang A

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students' perceptions. We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6-7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann-Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students' agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests.

  18. Pharmacologic treatment of chronic pediatric hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Renee F; Nahata, Milap C; Batisky, Donald L; Mahan, John D

    2005-01-01

    Improved recognition of the relationship between childhood and adult blood pressures and identification of end-organ damage in children, adolescents, and young adults with hypertension has led to increased focus by pediatricians and general practitioners on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of hypertension. Notably, detection, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric hypertension has increased significantly since the first Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents in 1977 with advances in both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (e.g. captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril) and calcium channel antagonists (e.g. nifedipine, amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine) are the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications in children due to their low adverse-effect profiles. Diuretics (e.g. thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and potassium-sparing diuretics) are usually reserved as adjunct therapy. Newer agents, such as angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. irbesartan), are currently being studied in children and adolescents. These agents may be an option in children with chronic cough secondary to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. beta-Adrenoreceptor antagonists (e.g. propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and labetalol), alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists, alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists, direct vasodilators, peripheral adrenoreceptor neuron agonists, and combination products are less commonly used in pediatric patients because of adverse events but may be an option in children unresponsive to calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers.

  19. How cognitive enhancement can change our duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eSantoni de Sio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper draws the scientific community’s attention to how pharmacological cognitive enhancement may impact on society and law. Namely, if safe, reliable, and effective techniques to enhance mental performance are eventually developed, then this may under some circumstances impose new duties onto people in high-responsibility professions – e.g. surgeons or pilots – to use such substances to minimize risks of adverse outcomes or to increase the likelihood of good outcomes. By discussing this topic, we also hope to encourage scientists to bring their expertise to bear on this current public debate.

  20. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  1. Bee cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars

    2017-10-09

    Maeterlinck did not mean to suggest that honeybees rival humans in intelligence - rather he saw in the bee a qualitatively different form of intelligence, tailored to the challenges of a profoundly different kind of society and lifestyle. Insects are strange "aliens from inner space", with sensory and cognitive worlds wholly different from our own. The 19(th) century discovery that ants can detect ultraviolet light triggered a golden age in the exploration of the diversity of sensory systems of insects (and indeed other animals), identifying such abilities as magnetic compasses, electrosensitivity, polarization vision, and peculiar locations for sense organs such as the infrared sensors on the abdomens of some beetles or photoreceptors on the genitalia of some butterflies. Could insect minds be equally strange and diverse? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cognitive ethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Carolyn A

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive Ethology, the field initiated by Donald R Griffin, was defined by him as the study of the mental experiences of animals as they behave in their natural environment in the course of their normal lives. It encompasses both the problems defined by Chalmers as the 'hard' problem of consciousness, phenomenological experience, and the 'easy' problems, the phenomena that appear to be explicable (someday) in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. Sources for evidence of consciousness and other mental experiences that Griffin suggested and are updated here include (1) possible neural correlates of consciousness, (2) versatility in meeting novel challenges, and (3) animal communication which he saw as a potential 'window' into their mental experiences. Also included is a very brief discussion of pertinent philosophical and conceptual issues; cross-species neural substrates underlying selected cognitive abilities; memory capacities especially as related to remembering the past and planning for the future; problem solving, tool use and strategic behavioral sequences such as those needed in anti-predator behaviors. The capacity for mirror self-recognition is examined as a means to investigate higher levels of consciousness. The evolutionary basis for morality is discussed. Throughout are noted the admonitions of von Uexküll to the scientist to attempt to understand the Umwelt of each animal. The evolutionary and ecological impacts and constraints on animal capacity and behavior are examined as possible. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:493-509. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented...... as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...

  4. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J Suzanne; Hope, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview of and evidence for the cognitive-behavioral formulation of social anxiety. In addition, the paper presents the theory supporting an empirical basis for the use of exposure and cognitive restructuring in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Finally, the paper concludes with a review of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatments for social anxiety disorder, including a comparison with psychopharmacological treatments. Both cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological interventions appear to be effective for social anxiety disorder, with relative advantages and disadvantages for each.

  5. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Pharmacological Rescue of Hippocampal Fear Learning Deficits in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Tejada-Simon, Maria Victoria

    2017-11-11

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability and results from loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of synaptic plasticity proteins that are implicated in learning and memory. FMRP also regulates development- and experience-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling within dendritic spines through the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Modulation of Rac1 activity is critical during synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory. We have previously shown that FXS mouse models exhibit learning and memory deficits as well as hyperactive Rac1 in the hippocampus. To determine whether pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 in FXS improves cognitive impairment, FXS mice were treated with the specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, followed by fear conditioning. Whereas non-cognitive functions were unaffected, hippocampus-related memory improved in FXS mice treated with the Rac1 inhibitor. Furthermore, long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from FXS mice was increased after incubation with the Rac1 inhibitor. Together, these observations indicate that modulation of Rac1 may provide a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of cognitive impairment in FXS.

  8. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  9. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: I. Cognitive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Francisco de Assis Carvalho; Corrêa Neto, Ylmar; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Machado, João Carlos Barbosa; da Silva, Delson José; Allam, Nasser; Balthazar, Márcio Luiz Figueredo

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Brazil, with special focus on cognitive disorders. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians) in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive disorders in AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of cognitive disorders encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and other drugs and substances) and non-pharmacological (including cognitive rehabilitation, physical activity, occupational therapy, and music therapy) approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease are included in a separate article of this edition. PMID:29213742

  10. Identification, pharmacologic considerations, and management of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Daryl S; Parikh, Ashish

    2011-02-01

    Prostatitis is a collection of signs and symptoms that occur as a result of inflammation or swelling of the prostate gland. There are many different causes for prostatitis, including infection; occasionally no clear etiology for the inflammation is found. Effective treatment often depends on identification of the cause, but a microbiologic organism is not always detectable, especially in cases of chronic prostatitis. The aim of this article was to review identification and treatment options for prostatitis, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Relevant information was identified through a search of MEDLINE (1966-June 2010), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-June 2010), and EMBASE (1947-June 2010). Randomized, controlled trials that examined prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or procedures related to the prostate (ie, biopsies) were excluded. A working classification system for prostatitis was developed in 1999, but there are few randomized controlled trials that distinguish between the various treatment options. Bacterial prostatitis can be acute or chronic but always requires some degree of antimicrobial therapy. Pharmacologic features of fluoroquinolones make them the preferred agents for most patients. These antibiotics can become trapped in a chronically inflamed prostate due to pH differences between prostatic tissue and serum. Many fluoroquinolones have penetration ratios (prostate level:serum level) of up to 4:1. A study in European men (N = 117) who received levofloxacin 500 mg/d with a diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis demonstrated clinical success rates of 92% (95% CI 84.8%-96.5%), 77.4% (95% CI, 68.2-84.9%), 66.0% (95% CI, 56.2%-75.0%), and 61.9% (95% CI, 51.9%-71.2%) at 5-12 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. Additionally, there have been numerous randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with chronic prostatitis that have studied α-blockers, steroid inhibitors, anti

  11. The Prevalence, Measurement, and Treatment of the Cognitive Dimension/Domain in Major Depressive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Xiao, Holly X; Syeda, Kahlood

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient outcomes amongst adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provide the impetus to identify and refine therapeutic targets that are most critical to outcome from patient, provider, and societal perspectives. Towards this aim, a pivotal shift towards the transnosological domain...... depressive disorder, depression, unipolar depression, cognition, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive deficit, and cognitive function. The search was supplemented with a manual review of relevant references. The selection of articles for inclusion in this review was based on overall methodological quality...... are currently under investigation for possible benefit in mitigating cognitive deficits and improving cognitive performance (e.g., intranasal insulin, erythropoietin, anti-inflammatory agents). Non-pharmacological approaches including, but not limited to, cognitive remediation (CR), aerobic exercise...

  12. [Pharmacological basis for withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, J A; Adín, J

    To review the pharmacological basis for withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs: the mechanisms by which seizures reappear, aspects of treatment which affect relapses and procedures for withdrawal of medication. Antiepileptic drugs are not curative, so when they are withdrawn the natural course of the condition becomes evident. Reappearance of seizures may be due to lack of protection and/or an abstinence syndrome. Seizures due to lack of protection occur following withdrawal of any antiepileptic drug when the epilepsy is not cured; they may not reappear for years (although over 80% occur within a year) and treatment then has to be restarted. They seem to be less frequent after withdrawal of carbamazepine or phenytoin than after withdrawing valproate, although the reason for this is not understood. Seizures due to an abstinence syndrome only occur after withdrawing benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone and primidone; they are seen in patients with both active and inactive epilepsy whilst the drug is being withdrawn and tend to be self-limiting. It is not necessary to reintroduce the drug when epilepsy is cured. Felbamate and vigabatrin cause seizures related to their withdrawal, but the mechanism of this is not clear. There is no scientifically established guideline for withdrawing antiepileptic drugs, but it is considered important to stop one at a time, starting with those which may cause abstinence syndromes, followed by the more toxic, less effective antiepileptic drugs, which cause more drug interactions and are more awkward to take. Further specific studies are necessary to establish the mechanisms of relapses and the scientific basis for withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs.

  13. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  14. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Squadrito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects.

  15. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrito, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called "salvage pathway." The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects.

  16. Nicotine behavioral pharmacology: clues from planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tanvi; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Baron, Steven; Kim, Myongji; Song, Kevin; Ward, Sara; Raffa, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nicotine is one of the world’s most addictive substances and the primary reason that humans inhale tobacco smoke. The pharmacological effects of nicotine can be investigated in planarians, aquatic flatworms that possess an integrated neural network including cephalic ganglia that some consider the earliest “brain” and spinal cord. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure elicits mammalian-like behaviors in planarians. Methods Planarian motility and stereotypy (C-shape hyperkinesias) were quantified following acute nicotine exposure. During repeated nicotine exposure, we investigated the presence of withdrawal, tolerance, behavioral sensitization, and environmental place conditioning. Results Acute nicotine exposure increased stereotypical activity and elicited biphasic effects on motility. A low concentration (0.01 mM) increased motility whereas higher concentrations (0.3 – 10 mM) elicited the opposite effect. Planarians exposed to nicotine (0.03 mM) for 60 min and then tested in water displayed reduced motility that was not observed during exposure to water, acute nicotine, or continuous nicotine. Nicotine-treated planarians withdrawn from the drug for 3 days before being challenged with nicotine displayed behavioral sensitization at low concentrations (0.1, 0.3 mM) but tolerance at higher concentrations (1, 3 mM). Planarians conditioned with nicotine in the ambient light (non-preferred environment) displayed a reduction in their natural preference for a dark environment. Conclusions The present results suggest nicotine elicits mammalian-like effects in planarians, including decreased motility and increased stereotypy following acute administration and abstinence-induced withdrawal, behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and place conditioning during repeated exposure. PMID:21530106

  17. Clinical pharmacology of multiple action compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, B N; Tomlinson, B

    1989-01-01

    There are two principal divisions of the beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs in widespread clinical use, non-selective and selective agents, with or without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. These properties confer differing pharmacological properties. A beta blocking drug with significant intrinsic sympathomimetic activity can be regarded as a multiple action drug. A third division of beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs is a newer development; these, which beside blocking the beta receptor, have an important peripheral vasodilator activity. Labetalol was the first drug of this group, prizidilol followed, but has been withdrawn because of toxicity. Several other agents are now under evaluation including bucindolol, carvedilol, dilevalol (one of the isomers of labetalol) and medroxalol. Celiprolol is an agent which is beta 1 selective and in addition has peripheral vasodilator activity. There are three mechanisms which have been described as responsible for peripheral vasodilation, alpha receptor blockade, beta 2 agonism, and a dilator action independent of either the alpha or beta receptors. Evidence for these various mechanisms is more readily obtainable from animal experiments, but some confirmatory evidence has been obtained in man. Inhibition of alpha stimulation has been found with labetalol, to a small degree with medroxalol and carvedilol, and has been suggested with celiprolol. Beta 2 mediated vasodilatation has been shown by celiprolol, dilevalol and medroxalol, and evidence of a vasodilatation independent of alpha or beta receptors has been obtained with celiprolol and carvedilol. More evidence is required to be sure of the exact contribution of each of these mechanisms. Combined action results in important haemodynamic differences from beta blockade, notably, peripheral resistance is reduced and less effect is seen on cardiac output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Trials of Pharmacological Interventions for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waldon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is a childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic and often complicated by co-morbid behavioural problems. The pharmacological treatment of GTS focuses on the modulation of monoaminergic pathways within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of tics in patients with GTS, in order to provide clinicians with an evidence-based rationale for the pharmacological treatment in GTS.

  19. Pharmacology of sleep disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhangani, Bantu; Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R; Feucht, Cynthia

    2011-02-01

    There is a high prevalence of sleep disorders in children and an apparent increasing need for pharmacologic management. However, because of the paucity of data available with regards to dosing, efficacy, tolerability, and safety profiles of medications as well as a lack of adequate well-designed clinical trials, medications are currently not approved for the pediatric population by the US Food and Drug Administration. There are no pharmacologic guidelines for the specific sleep disorders or the different pediatric age ranges. Additional research is needed for evidence-based pediatric sleep pharmacotherapy. This article reviews pediatric sleep disorders and the pharmacologic therapeutic options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polypharmacy Cutoff for Gait and Cognitive Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Langeard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a well-established risk factor for falls, and these are one of the major health problems that affect the quality of life as people age. However, the risk of mobility and cognitive impairments consecutive to polypharmacy has been little addressed, despite the association between these adverse outcomes and falls. Moreover, the rare polypharmacy cut-offs were all but one arbitrarily determined. OBJECTIVE: Studying relationships between polypharmacy and both mobility and cognitive impairments, and statistically determining a cut-off point in the number of drugs beyond which polypharmacy has deleterious consequences with respect to mobility and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 113 community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older with a fall history, with or without injury, in the previous year. We carefully collected information about daily medications taken. We assessed basic mobility and global cognition with the Time-Up-and-Go and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02292316RESULTS: TUG and MoCA scores were both significantly correlated with the number of medications used. ROC curves indicate, with high prediction (p<0.002, that daily consumption of five or more medications is associated with risk for both impaired mobility and global cognition. These relationships were independent of the number of comorbidities and of the pharmacological class. CONCLUSION: Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who take five or more daily drugs are at high risk for both mobility and cognitive impairments. Physicians and patients should be aware of these new findings, especially when there are multiple prescribers involved in the care of the patient.

  1. Sleep-wake changes and cognition in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G; Rogers, Naomi L

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing aging population, neurodegenerative disorders will become more common in clinical practice. These disorders involve multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that differentially affect cognition, mood, and physical functions. Possibly due to the involvement of common underlying neurobiological circuits, sleep and/or circadian (sleep-wake) changes are also common in this disease group. Of significance, sleep-wake changes are often a prodromal feature and are predictive of cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, need for institutional care, and caregiver burden. Unfortunately, in neurodegenerative disease, few studies have included detailed polysomnography or neuropsychological assessments although some data indicate that sleep and neurocognitive features are related. Further studies are also required to address the effects of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments on cognitive functioning. Such research will hopefully lead to targeted early intervention approaches for cognitive decline in older people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954

  3. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Music therapy is a potential intervention for cognition of Alzheimer's Disease: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rong; Ye, Shengxuan; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Calimag, David P

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a global health issue given the increasing prevalence rate and the limitations of drug effects. As a consequent, non-pharmacological interventions are of importance. Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological way with a long history of use and a fine usability for dementia patients. In this review, we will summarize different techniques, diverse clinical trials, and the mechanisms of MT as it is helpful to the cognition in AD, providing reference for future research. Many articles have demonstrated that MT can reduce cognitive decline especially in autobiographical and episodic memories, psychomotor speed, executive function domains, and global cognition. MT is a promising intervention for strategy of dementia especially of AD and it must be started as early as possible. However, more evidences with prospective, randomized, blinded, uniform and rigorous methodological investigations are needed. And we should consider to combine MT with other cognitive stimulations such as dance, physical exercise, video game, art and so on.

  5. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The researc...

  6. Comparison of Functional Capacity using Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Pharmacological Therapy on ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Nurkusuma Wardhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is a shift manifestations pattern of ischemic myocardium. Revascularization either with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or pharmacological therapy is an optional treatment for ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (STEACS patients. The aim of the study was to compare the functional capacity using six-minute walking test on STEACS patients who underwent Primary PCI or pharmacological therapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from September to October 2012 to 35 STEACS patients who were treated after two years. The samples were obtained from the list of patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients diagnosed as STEACS, cooperative and not experiencing cognitive disturbance. The exclusion criteria were STEACS patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarct in the last month, stable exertional angina, and pregnant women. The patients underwent 6 minutes walking test,VO2max was measured using theCalahin and Cooper formula, then Metabolic Equation Task (METs was calculated. Data were analyzed by unpaired T-test. Results: There were 19 Primary PCI and 16 pharmacological therapy patients. The average of age between the two groups was distributed evenly. Most of the STEACS patients were male, had a college/academic degree and were retired. Patients treated with pharmacological therapy had higher average of VO2 max and METs than patients with Primary PCI. There was no significantly differences of METs between those groups (p>0.05 Conclusions: There were no significantly differences of functional capacity in STEACS patients treated with Primary PCI or Pharmacological therapy.

  7. Mindfulness in the Maintenance of Cognitive Capacities in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hernández, Domingo J; Miró-Barrachina, María T; Ibáñez-Fernández, Ignacio J; Pino, Angelo Santana-Del; Quintana-Montesdeoca, María P; Rodríguez-de Vera, Bienvenida; Morales-Casanova, David; Pérez-Vieitez, María Del Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Javier; Bravo-Caraduje, Noelia

    2016-01-01

    The Canary Islands longitudinal study on non-pharmacological treatments showed the overall effectiveness of mindfulness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no specific data on the maintenance of cognitive capacities were presented. To determine whether the practice of mindfulness modifies the course of cognitive impairment in AD. Longitudinal, non-inferiority and equivalence, randomized clinical trial, repeated-measures design, with three experimental groups and one control group. Patients with AD who voluntarily attended the Lidia García Foundation (n = 502). Only those who were treated with donepezil and MMSE ≥18 were included (n = 120). Over a two-year period, each group carried out three weekly sessions of stimulation based on mindfulness, cognitive stimulation therapy, and progressive muscle relaxation. Cognitive assessment CAMDEX-R (MMSE and CAMCOG). Repeated-measures ANOVA (p mindfulness group showed significant scores compared with the control and muscle relaxation groups (p mindfulness and cognitive stimulation therapy were equivalent (p≥0.05). Group cognitive stimulation evolved better than the control (p mindfulness group (p≥0.80), moderate for the relaxation group (p≥0.50), and low for the cognitive stimulation group (p≥0.20). The practice of mindfulness maintained cognitive function over a period of two years. This longitudinal study suggests that mindfulness can be used as a non-pharmacological treatment to slow cognitive impairment in AD.

  8. Balanced placebo design with marijuana: pharmacological and expectancy effects on impulsivity and risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; Reynolds, Brady; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Haney, Margaret; de Wit, Harriet; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2012-10-01

    Marijuana is believed to increase impulsivity and risk taking, but the processes whereby it affects such behaviors are not understood. Indeed, either the pharmacologic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or the expectancy of receiving it may lead to deficits in cognitive processing and increases in risk taking. We examined the relative effects of expecting to receive active marijuana and the pharmacological drug effects using a balanced placebo design. Young adult regular marijuana users (N = 136) were randomly assigned into one of four groups in a two × two instructional set (Told THC vs. Told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8 % THC vs. placebo) design. Dependent measures included subjective intoxication, behavioral impulsivity, and decision-making related to risky behaviors. Active THC, regardless of expectancy, impaired inhibition on the Stop Signal and Stroop Color-Word tasks. Expectancy of having smoked THC, regardless of active drug, decreased impulsive decision-making on a delay discounting task among participants reporting no deception and increased perception of sexual risk among women, consistent with a compensatory effect. Expectancy of smoking THC in combination with active THC increased negative perceptions from risky alcohol use. Active drug and expectancy independently increased subjective intoxication. Results highlight the importance of marijuana expectancy effects as users believing they are smoking marijuana may compensate for expected intoxication effects when engaged in deliberate decision-making by making less impulsive and risky decisions. Effects of marijuana on impulsive disinhibition, by contrast, reflect direct pharmacologic effects for which participants did not compensate.

  9. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    ...s; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features...

  10. About the gut microbiome as a pharmacological target in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, Julia J.; van Raalte, Daniel H.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of intestinal bacterial strains (gut microbiota) in the development of cardiometabolic disease is increasingly recognized as potential diagnostic and pharmacological target. Changes in the intestinal bacterial composition and subsequent altered diversity has been associated with

  11. Three dimensional QSAR: applications in pharmacology and toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Panaye, Annick

    2010-01-01

    ... networks and support vector machines. Three-Dimensional QSAR addresses the scope and limitations of different modeling techniques using case studies from pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology to demonstrate the utility of each...

  12. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dworkin, Robert H.; O'Connor, Alec B.; Backonja, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Patients with neuropathic pain (NP) are challenging to manage and evidence-based clinical recommendations for pharmacologic management are needed. Systematic literature reviews, randomized clinical trials, and existing guidelines were evaluated at a consensus meeting. Medications were considered...

  13. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti...

  14. Breastfeeding information in pharmacology textbooks: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2013-07-01

    Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.

  15. Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Evaluation of Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Evaluation of Pharmacological Activities of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall) Parker Fruit Extracts. AS Apu, FA Chowdhury, F Khatun, ATM Jamaluddin, AH Pathan, A Pal ...

  16. Progress of pharmacological studies on alkaloids from Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloid was a kind of biological active ingredient. There were various types of alkaloids in Apocynaceae. This paper reviewed the progress on alkaloids from Apocynaceae, which contained origin, structure, and pharmacological activity.

  17. The potential of translational bioinformatics approaches for pharmacology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang

    2015-01-01

    The field of bioinformatics has allowed the interpretation of massive amounts of biological data, ushering in the era of ‘omics’ to biomedical research. Its potential impact on pharmacology research is enormous and it has shown some emerging successes. A full realization of this potential, however, requires standardized data annotation for large health record databases and molecular data resources. Improved standardization will further stimulate the development of system pharmacology models, using translational bioinformatics methods. This new translational bioinformatics paradigm is highly complementary to current pharmacological research fields, such as personalized medicine, pharmacoepidemiology and drug discovery. In this review, I illustrate the application of transformational bioinformatics to research in numerous pharmacology subdisciplines. PMID:25753093

  18. Can antipsychotics improve social cognition in patients with schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Mortimer, Ann

    2013-05-01

    Social cognition is described as the higher mental processes that are engaged while people store, process, and use social information to make sense of themselves and others. Aspects of social cognition include emotion perception, social cue interpretation, attribution style, and theory of mind, all of which appear disordered in schizophrenia. Such social cognitive deficits are believed to be important predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia, therefore they may represent a crucial treatment target. Few studies have evaluated the influence of antipsychotic treatment on these deficits. The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and social cognition, whether antipsychotics improve social cognitive function, and if so to explore differential medication effects. Comprehensive searches of PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED were conducted to identify relevant published manuscripts. Fifteen relevant papers published in English were found, describing original studies. On the basis of this review, we have drawn the following conclusions: first, the results do not engender optimism for the possibility that antipsychotic drugs can specifically facilitate social recovery. Second, the actions of antipsychotics on social cognition are inconclusive, due to lack of standardization across research groups, leading to inconsistencies between study designs, methods used, and medication dosages. Third, large-scale longitudinal investigations are needed to explore the unclear relationships between social cognition, symptoms, and functional outcome. Other non-pharmacological treatments focusing on training patients in the social cognitive areas may hold more promise.

  19. A practical approach to the pharmacological management of hypertension in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Nikesh; Page, Amy; Ali, Khalid; Davies, Kevin; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults over the age of 65. The first part of this paper is an overview, summarizing the current guidelines on the pharmacological management of hypertension in older adults in Europe and the USA, and evidence from key trials that contributed to the guidelines. In the second part of the paper, we will discuss the major challenges of managing hypertension in the context of multimorbidity, including frailty, orthostatic hypotension (OH), falls and cognitive impairment that are associated with ageing. A novel 'BEGIN' algorithm is proposed for use by prescribers prior to initiating antihypertensive therapy to guide safe medication use in older adults. Practical suggestions are highlighted to aid practitioners in making rational decisions to treat and monitor hypertension, and for considering withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs in the complex older person.

  20. A selective review of glutamate pharmacological therapy in obsessive–compulsive and related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A; Atkins, Elizabeth B; Kovacikova, Gabriela I; McVicar, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory central nervous system neurotransmitter, is emerging as a potential alternative pharmacological treatment when compared to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-, dopamine-, and serotonin-modulating treatments for neuropsychiatric conditions. The pathophysiology, animal models, and clinical trials of glutamate modulation are explored in disorders with underlying inhibitory deficits (cognitive, motor, behavioral) including obsessive–compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, excoriation disorder, and nail biting. Obsessive–compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and grooming disorders (trichotillomania and excoriation disorder) have emerging positive data, although only scarce controlled trials are available. The evidence is less supportive for the use of glutamate modulators in Tourette syndrome. Glutamate-modulating agents show promise in the treatment of disorders of inhibition. PMID:25995654

  1. A Brief Review of the Pharmacology of Amitriptyline and Clinical Outcomes in Treating Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Lawson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a complex chronic condition characterized by pain, physical fatigue, sleep disorder and cognitive impairment. Evidence-based guidelines recommend antidepressants as treatments of fibromyalgia where tricyclics are often considered to have the greatest efficacy, with amitriptyline often being a first-line treatment. Amitriptyline evokes a preferential reduction in pain and fatigue of fibromyalgia, and in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ score, which is a quality of life assessment. The multimodal profile of the mechanisms of action of amitriptyline include monoamine reuptake inhibition, receptor modulation and ion channel modulation. Several of the actions of amitriptyline on multiple nociceptive and sensory processes at central and peripheral locations have the potential to act cumulatively to suppress the characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia. Greater understanding of the role of these mechanisms of action of amitriptyline could provide further clues to the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and to a preferable pharmacological profile for future drug development.

  2. Using YouTube in Teaching Pharmacology to Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Zelne; Sarpy, Nancy; Kittipha, Panicha

    Nursing pharmacology can pose a challenge to nursing students as they learn about different disease processes and interventions. Having students engage in their own learning process aids in the retention of information and gives positive reinforcement for exams. Using YouTube as a part of student group presentations helps students engage in the learning process and learn difficult pharmacological concepts in an alternative classroom setting.

  3. Pharmacological characterization of social isolation-induced hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....

  4. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia Muñoz, Javier; Cutando Soriano, Antonio; Calvo Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 ?COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 ?COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for modera...

  5. Pharmacological Potential of Matricaria recutita-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Gupta; Payal Mittal; Parveen Bansal; SUKHBIR L. KHOKRA; Dhirender Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Matricaria recutita, once it has been called as Marticaria chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita, and Chamomilum nobile family Asteraceae. The main constituents of this plant include the terpenoids α-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Matricaria recutita shows different pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti- cancer, treatment of stress and depression, anti-allergic etc. This review focuses on the detailed chemical constituents, pharmacological activities...

  6. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of Ficus racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Rajnish Kumar Yadav; Bankim Chandra Nandy; Siddhartha Maity; Srimanta Sarkar; Sudipta Saha

    2015-01-01

    Ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant, found in India, Australia, and Southeast Asia. It is popularly known as ?gular.? It reduces blood glucose concentration due to the presence of ?-sitosterol. Many active constituents that have been isolated from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. The literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions that include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, ant...

  7. Sacred tulsi (ocimum sanctum L.) in traditional medicine and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, M K

    1995-07-01

    Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations.

  8. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  9. Perspectives for treating Alzheimer's disease: a review on promising pharmacological substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazarim, Maurílio de Souza; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is a syndrome characterized by functional and cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia and has high prevalence among the elderly. It is known that there is no drug capable of interfering with the course of the disease. Research on treatments for AD has been marked by the appearance of new drugs and their abandonment. This study aimed to describe drugs that have been studied with regard to treating AD and which are capable of influencing the course of the disease. Narrative review on original articles published worldwide. A systematized search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library/Cochrane and SciELO/Bireme databases. The descriptors "Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action" and "Drug Therapy" were each combined with the descriptor "Alzheimer disease". All of these can be found in MeSH and DeCS. These descriptors were used alone or in combination, and a filter specifying publication between January 2009 and October 2015 in English, Spanish or Portuguese was set. 6,888 articles were found, of which 37 were included in this review; 70.3% of the articles selected were of good quality with low or unclear risk of bias. 86 drugs were considered promising for AD treatment and these were classified into 20 pharmacological categories. There are no drugs capable of influencing the course of AD such that treatments are safe and effective. However, immunomodulators stood out as promising, given their effectiveness and quality in the articles analyzed.

  10. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E

    2016-06-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Sarris, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review article was to summarize accumulated information related to chemical composition, pharmacological activity, traditional and official use of Rhodiola rosea L. in medicine. In total approximately 140 compounds were isolated from roots and rhizome - monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides, flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives. Studies on isolated organs, tissues, cells and enzymes have revealed that Rhodiola preparations exhibit adaptogenic effect including, neuroprotective, cardioprotectiv e, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, life-span increasing effects and CNS stimulating activity. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that repeated administration of R. rosea extract SHR-5 exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance (particularly the ability to concentrate in healthy subjects), and reduces burnout in patients with fatigue syndrome. Encouraging results exist for the use of Rhodiola in mild to moderate depression, and generalized anxiety. Several mechanisms of action possibly contributing to the clinical effect have been identified for Rhodiola extracts. They include interactions with HPA-system (cortisol-reducing), protein kinases p-JNK, nitric oxide, and defense mechanism proteins (e.g. heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and FoxO/DAF-16). Lack of interaction with other drugs and adverse effects in the course of clinical trials make it potentially attractive for use as a safe medication. In conclusion, Rhodiola rosea has robust traditional and pharmacological evidence of use in fatigue, and emerging evidence supporting cognition and mood.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Practical strategies for pharmacological and somatic treatment in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Naomi A; Reghunandanan, Samar; Simpson, Helen B; Phillips, Katharine A; Richter, Margaret A; Matthews, Keith; Stein, Dan J; Sareen, Jitender; Brown, Angus; Sookman, Debbie

    2015-05-30

    This narrative review gathers together a range of international experts to critically appraise the existing trial-based evidence relating to the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults. We discuss the diagnostic evaluation and clinical characteristics followed by treatment options suitable for the clinician working from primary through to specialist psychiatric care. Robust data supports the effectiveness of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine in the short-term and the longer-term treatment and for relapse prevention. Owing to better tolerability, SSRIs are acknowledged as the first-line pharmacological treatment of choice. For those patients for whom first line treatments have been ineffective, evidence supports the use of adjunctive antipsychotic medication, and some evidence supports the use of high-dose SSRIs. Novel compounds are also the subject of active investigation. Neurosurgical treatments, including ablative lesion neurosurgery and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severely symptomatic individuals who have not experienced sustained response to both pharmacological and cognitive behavior therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Searching for new pharmacological targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraci, Filippo; Iulita, M Florencia; Pentz, Rowan; Flores Aguilar, Lisi; Orciani, Chiara; Barone, Concetta; Romano, Corrado; Drago, Filippo; Cuello, A Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease due to increase gene dosage resulting from chromosome 21 triplication. Although virtually all adults with Down syndrome will exhibit the major neuropathological hallmarks that define Alzheimer's disease, not all of them will develop the clinical symptoms associated with this disorder (i.e. dementia). Therefore, a good understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome will be crucial for the identification of novel pharmacological targets to develop disease-modifying therapies for the benefit of Down syndrome individuals and for Alzheimer's sufferers alike. The study of biomarkers will also be essential for the development of better screening tools to identify dementia at its incipient stages. This review discusses the best-validated pharmacological targets for the treatment of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome. We further examine the relevance of newly discovered biological markers for earlier dementia diagnosis in this population. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous amiodarone: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M S

    1996-06-01

    To review the clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous amiodarone. Articles were identified through a computer search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE (KR Information OnDisc) and the search term amiodarone. Additional articles were identified through examination of the bibliographies of the articles initially retrieved. Relevant or representative animal studies, clinical trials, and case reports were selected for evaluation. Particular emphasis was placed on studies pertaining to the use of intravenous amiodarone in treatment-refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF) and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). The literature was assessed for adequate description of patients, study methodologies (e.g., study design, number of patients), and outcomes. Amiodarone is an unusual class III antiarrhythmic that produces each of the four main types of antiarrhythmic action in addition to other effects, such as vasodilatory, selective antithyroid, and other activities that may be therapeutically relevant. Amiodarone pharmacokinetics demonstrate extensive interpatient variability and are characterized by wide tissue distribution (steady-state volume of distribution 40-84 L/kg), slow total body clearance (90-158 mL/h/kg), long terminal elimination half-life (20-47 d), and extensive hepatic metabolism. The onset of maximal antiarrhythmic effect is a function of both amiodarone dosage and time. The high plasma concentrations achieved with intravenous dosing do not fully replicate the electrophysiologic effects observed following long-term oral administration, particularly with respect to class III activity. Available data suggest that intravenous amiodarone is associated with an efficacy rate of 50% or more in treatment-refractory VT/VF, and has a relatively rapid (2-24 h) onset of action. The drug is relatively well tolerated, but close hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and hepatic function

  15. Hydnocarpus: an ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; Dhanabal, S P; Jadhav, Atul N; Reddy, Vishali; Muguli, Ganesh; Babu, U V; Rangesh, Paramesh

    2014-05-28

    The genus Hydnocarpus (Flacourtiaceae) includes forty species that are spread across the globe. In the Indian System of Medicine, Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken. is primarily used for treating leprosy and other skin disorders. It is known as "Chaulmoogra" and is also used to treat other indications including constipation, inflammation, blood disorders, and worm infestations. Various species of Hydnocarpus are also used in traditional medicine in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar for several skin disorders. To assess the therapeutic potential of species from the Hydnocarpus genus and to determine future avenues for research. All relevant scientific literature published up to the end of December 2013 was retrieved via a library and electronic search (SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). Manual searches of traditional books like to ancient classics, including Vaidya Yoga Ratnavali, Siddha Materia Medica, and contemporary references including The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and The Ayurveda Formulary, were also performed. Seed oil from species of the Hydnocarpus genus is used for medicinal purposes, predominantly for various skin disorders. This oil is reported to contain a characteristic class of compounds known as cyclopentenyl fatty acids. Furthermore, seeds of this genus are reported to contain triglycerides of fatty acids, sterols, flavonoids, and flavonolignans. Hydnocarpin, a flavonolignan, is reported to potentiate antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The extracts and compounds isolated from this plant show a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antileprotic, antitubercular, antipsoriatic, antirheumatic, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. The antileprotic activity is postulated to be due to the cyclopentenyl fatty acids present in the seed oil. Flavonolignans have an interesting chemical motif, and hydnocarpin and its congeners should be

  16. Neuroenergetic Response to Prolonged Cerebral Glucose Depletion after Severe Brain Injury and the Role of Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patet, Camille; Quintard, Hervé; Suys, Tamarah; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-10-15

    Lactate may represent a supplemental fuel for the brain. We examined cerebral lactate metabolism during prolonged brain glucose depletion (GD) in acute brain injury (ABI) patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Sixty episodes of GD (defined as spontaneous decreases of CMD glucose from normal to low [25. The correlation between blood and brain glucose also decreased from r = 0.62 to r = 0.45. These findings in ABI patients suggest increased cerebral lactate delivery in the absence of brain hypoxia when glucose availability is limited and support the concept that lactate acts as alternative fuel.

  17. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some quinoline derivatives as potential cognition enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piplani, Poonam; Rani, Anita; Saihgal, Ruchika; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of a series of substituted 6-amino (1a-c) and 8-aminoquinoline derivatives (2b-c) and the evaluation of their ability to prevent the memory decline using a behavioural model, i.e. the elevated plus maze test. The effect of the candidate drugs on the activity of acetylcholinesterase was studied using the enzyme source from the mouse brain. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The 6-aminoquinoline derivative [6-(4-pyridyl)methylaminoquinoline] (1c) oxalate showed maximum % retention (50% at 5 mg/kg and 75% at 10 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze test and maximum % inhibition (71% at 25 microM) of AChE on biochemical evaluation.

  18. On the pleasurable, motivational and cognitive aspects of social play behavior: pharmacological studies in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, E.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341477524

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to naturally rewarding behaviors such as feeding and sex, relatively little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of the positive emotional properties of social behavior. In the period between weaning and sexual maturity (i.e. childhood and adolescence in humans, roughly

  19. Network pharmacology: a Rosetta Stone for traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2014-08-01

    Network pharmacology, based on the theory of systems biology, is a new discipline that analyzes the biological network and screens out the nodes of particular interest, with the aim of designing poly-target drug molecule. It emphasizes maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing adverse effect via the multiple regulation of the signaling pathway. Coincidentally, almost all traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and worldwide ethnomedicine exert therapeutic effect by targeting multiple molecules of the human body. In this overview, we offer a critique on the present perception of TCM and network pharmacology; illustrate the utility of network pharmacology in the study of single herb, medicine pair, and TCM formula; and summarize the recent progress of TCM-based drug discovery inspired by network pharmacology. Network pharmacology could be of great help in decreasing drug attrition rate and thus is essential in rational and cost-effective drug development. We also pinpoint the current TCM issues that could be tackled by the flexible combined use of network pharmacology and relevant disciplines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How do the top 12 pharmaceutical companies operate safety pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Lorna; Gallacher, David J; Gintant, Gary; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Leishman, Derek; Levesque, Paul; McMahon, Nick; Mylecraine, Lou; Sanders, Martin; Suter, Willi; Wallis, Rob; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    How does safety pharmacology operate in large pharmaceutical companies today? By understanding our current position, can we prepare safety pharmacology to successfully navigate the complex process of drug discovery and development? A short anonymous survey was conducted, by invitation, to safety pharmacology representatives of the top 12 pharmaceutical companies, as defined by 2009 revenue figures. A series of multiple choice questions was designed to explore group size, accountabilities, roles and responsibilities of group members, outsourcing policy and publication record. A 92% response rate was obtained. Six out of 11 companies have 10 to 30 full time equivalents in safety pharmacology, who hold similar roles and responsibilities; although the majority of members are not qualified at PhD level or equivalent. Accountabilities were similar across companies and all groups have accountability for core battery in vivo studies and problem solving activities but differences do exist for example with in vitro safety screening and pharmacodynamic/pharmokinetic modeling (PK/PD). The majority of companies outsource less than 25% of studies, with in vitro profiling being the most commonly outsourced activity. Finally, safety pharmacology groups are publishing 1 to 4 articles each year. This short survey has highlighted areas of similarity and differences in the way large pharmaceutical companies operate safety pharmacology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.