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Sample records for neuroendocrine stress systems

  1. The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. “left brain”) terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it “hears” are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, “Danger mines!!” However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of “love” being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, “spiritual” positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points. PMID:21694965

  2. The neuroendocrine system and stress, emotions, thoughts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. "left brain") terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it "hears" are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, "Danger mines!!" However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of "love" being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, "spiritual" positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points.

  3. Structural and functional evolution of vertebrate neuroendocrine stress systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Robert John

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA; or interrenal) axis plays pivotal roles in animal development and in physiological and behavioral adaptation to environmental change. The HPA, or stress axis, is organized in a hierarchical manner, with feedback operating at several points along the axis. Recent findings suggest that the proteins, gene structures, and signaling pathways of the HPA axis were present in the earliest vertebrates and have been maintained by natural selection owing to their critical adaptive roles. In all vertebrates studied, the HPA axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled centrally by peptides of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of which four paralogous members have been identified. Signaling by CRF-like peptides is mediated by at least two distinct G protein-coupled receptors and modulated by a secreted binding protein. These neuropeptides function as hypophysiotropins and as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, influencing stress-related behaviors, such as anxiety and fear. In addition to modulating HPA activity and behavioral stress responses, CRF-like peptides are implicated in timing key life history transitions, such as metamorphosis in amphibians and birth in mammals. CRF-like peptides and signaling components are also expressed outside of the central nervous system where they have diverse physiological functions. Glucocorticoids are the downstream effectors of the HPA axis, playing essential roles in development, energy balance and behavior, and feedback actions on the activity of the HPA axis.

  4. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  5. Risk-averse personalities have a systemically potentiated neuroendocrine stress axis: A multilevel experiment in Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Alexander T; Senft, Rebecca A; Firke, Marian; Lauder, Abigail; Schroeder, Julia; Meddle, Simone L; van Oers, Kees; Hau, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback. We show high among-individual variation and covariation (i.e. personality) in risk-taking behaviors and demonstrate that four aspects of glucocorticoid physiology (baseline, stress response, negative feedback strength and adrenal sensitivity) are also repeatable and covary. Further, we establish that high expression of mineralocorticoid and low expression of glucocorticoid receptor in the brain are linked with systemically elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels and more risk-averse personalities. Our findings support the hypothesis that steroid hormones can exert pleiotropic effects that organize behavioral phenotypes and provide novel evidence that neuroendocrine factors robustly explain a large fraction of endocrine and personality variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers.

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    Faraut, Brice; Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Shift work is commonly associated with disturbed life rhythms, resulting in chronic exposure to circadian desynchronization and sleep restriction. Epidemiological data have shown that shift workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. In this review, we will explore how observed increases in neuroendocrine stress, non-specific immune responses and pro-oxidative status could act as biological mediators for these damaging health risks in shift workers. To explain these risks, compelling evidence from laboratory studies links circadian misalignment but also sleep restriction to disruptions in the neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress systems. Assessment of neuroendocrine, oxidative and immune stress in the shift worker population is still a limited and novel field, which may have considerable clinical relevance. Finally, we will consider the potential benefits of a countermeasure, such as napping, in minimizing the neuroendocrine and immune stress and cardiovascular risk imposed by shift work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of the nitrergic system to activation of the neuroendocrine stress axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Jou Cortina eChen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful stimuli causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which rapidly releases high concentrations of glucocorticoid stress hormones, resulting in increased cellular metabolism and spontaneous oxygen and nitrogen radical formation. High concentrations of nitrogen radicals, including nitric oxide, cause damage to cellular proteins in addition to inhibiting components of the mitochondrial transport chain, leading to cellular energy deficiency. During stress exposure, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide production reduces indicators of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present an overview of the current literature on stress-evoked changes in the nitrergic system, particularly within neural tissue.

  8. Visible burrow system as a model of chronic social stress: behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates.

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    Blanchard, D C; Spencer, R L; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J; McEwen, B; Sakai, R R

    1995-01-01

    In mixed-sex rat groups maintained in visible burrow systems (VBS), consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males are characterized by particular wound patterns, severe weight loss, and a variety of behavioral changes, many of them isomorphic to target symptoms of clinical depression. In two VBS studies, subordinate males showed increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT), and increased adjusted adrenal and spleen weights compared to controls, and often, to dominants as well. Thymus weights and testosterone levels of subordinates were not reliably different in one study using highly aggressive males, but were reduced, along with testes weights, in a second study using unselected males. Glucocorticoid receptor binding levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus, and pituitary were not different, nor were aldosterone levels. When tested in a restraint stress procedure, subordinates had higher basal CORT levels, but about 40% of these animals showed a reduced, or absent, CORT response to restraint. These findings indicate that subordination may be reflected in high magnitude changes consistent with physiological indices of prolonged stress. Dominant rats of such groups may also show physiological changes suggesting stress, particularly when the groups are comprised of highly aggressive males only. The VBS colony model thus appears to enable rat groups to produce natural, stress-engendering, social interactions that constitute a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural, and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  9. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

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    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    programming strongly, notably when hormonal surges occur during sensitive periods of development, so-called developmental windows of vulnerability. Stressful events occurring during the perinatal period may impinge on various aspects of the neuroendocrine programming, subsequently amending the offspring's growth, metabolism, sexual maturation, stress responses, and immune system. Such prenatal stress-induced modifications of the phenotypic plasticity of the progeny might ultimately result in the development of long-term diseases, from metabolic syndromes to psychiatric disorders. Yet, we would like to consider the outcome of this neuroendocrine programming from an evolutionary perspective. Early stressful events during gestation might indeed shape internal parameters of the developing organisms in order to adapt the progeny to its everyday environment and thus contribute to an increased reproductive success, or fitness, of the species. Moreover, parental care, adoption, or enriched environments after birth have been shown to reverse negative long-term consequences of a disturbed gestational environment. In this view, considering the higher potential for neonatal plasticity within the brain in human beings as compared to other species, long-term consequences of prenatal stress might not be as inexorable as suggested in animal-based studies published to date.

  10. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress.

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    Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2002-06-01

    Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Here we discuss the key elements of the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species-specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops. Over- or underproduction of cortisol can result in the devastating diseases of Cushing's and Addison's, respectively, but less severe dysregulation of the HPA axis can still have adverse health consequences. These include the deposition of visceral fat as well as cardiovascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis). Thus, chronic stress with its physical and psychological ramifications remains a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. To date, treatments have been based on the existing knowledge concerning the brain areas and neurobiological substrates that subserve the stress response. Thus, the CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its

  11. Blunted neuroendocrine stress reactivity in young women with eating disorders.

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    Het, Serkan; Vocks, Silja; Wolf, Jutta M; Hammelstein, Philipp; Herpertz, Stephan; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-03-01

    Stress is known to influence risk and progression of eating disorders (EDs). However, studies investigating physiological and psychological stress responses under laboratory conditions in patients with Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa are scarce and often produce conflicting findings. We therefore aimed to compare the neuroendocrine and affective stress response in ED inpatients and healthy controls. Twenty-eight female inpatients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa and 26 healthy women were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were assessed before as well as repeatedly after stress exposure, while heart rate and heart rate variability were determined before and during the TSST. Negative affective state was assessed at baseline and post-TSST. Compared to healthy controls, ED patients showed blunted cortisol stress responses combined with overall attenuated sAA levels. The latter was reflected in generally enhanced parasympathetic activity indicated by lower heart rate and stronger high-frequency heart rate variability throughout the TSST. Although patients reported more negative affect overall, they did not differ in their affective stress response. In summary, patients suffering from eating disorders show a blunted HPA axis reactivity to stress exposure and a generally reduced sympathetic/exaggerated parasympathetic nervous system activity. This combination may contribute to elevated health risks seen in eating disorder patients, such as enhanced inflammatory activity, and thus provide insight into the underlying stress-related mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Stress-induced changes in functional activity of the neuro-endocrine system: modulatory action of derinat].

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    Fomicheva, E E; Filatenkova, T A; Shanin, S N; Rybakina, E G

    2009-03-01

    Changes in functional activity of HPA and HPG axes under stress influences of different intensity, and possible ways for their correction by native DNA preparation: derinat, possessing immune modulator effects, were studied. It was shown that the vector of changes in hormone's reactions of both axes did not depend on the intensity of stress influences: different models of stress increased corticosterone level and decreased testosterone level in rats' blood. Intraperitoneal injection of 10 and 50 mg/kg BW doses of Derinat to rats enhanced HPA and HPG axes activity, reversed stress-induced decrease of testosterone concentration in blood, that may indicate a stress-protective effect of derinat. Injection of derinat caused normalizing of stress-induced changes in immunomodulatory cytokines production within Lymphocyte Activating Factors, which regulate not only the immune system functions but also the functions of HPA and HPG axes.

  13. Epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress response by adult life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, B.C.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.; Henckens, M.J.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder,

  14. Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation. The mechanisms underlying this process may involve a pathological series of events from the brain to the lungs, which is attracting attention as a conceptually advanced phenotype in asthma pathogenesis. This review presents insights into the critical role of psychological stress in the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, with a special focus on our own data that emphasizes on the continuity from the central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  15. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  16. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  17. Altered gene expression of the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) systems is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in military personnel.

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    Guardado, Pedro; Olivera, Anlys; Rusch, Heather L; Roy, Michael; Martin, Christiana; Lejbman, Natasha; Lee, Hwyunhwa; Gill, Jessica M

    2016-03-01

    Whole transcriptome analysis provides an unbiased examination of biological activity, and likely, unique insight into the mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid depression and traumatic brain injury. This study compared gene-expression profiles in military personnel with PTSD (n=28) and matched controls without PTSD (n=27) using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix), which contain 54,675 probe sets representing more than 38,500 genes. Analysis of expression profiles revealed 203 differentially expressed genes in PTSD, of which 72% were upregulated. Using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6, differentially expressed transcription clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥1.5 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) of the differentially expressed genes indicated a dysregulation of genes associated with the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and NF-κB systems. These findings provide novel insights that may lead to new pharmaceutical agents for PTSD treatments and help mitigate mental and physical comorbidity risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Vasopressin in Resting and Mild Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1993-01-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of subcutaneously administered AVP (6 mug/kg b.wt.) were determined in resting conditions and after the mild stress of transportation to and placement in a novel environment. In resting conditions, systemic administration of AVP caused a rapid increase in blood

  19. Neuroendocrine circuits governing energy balance and stress regulation: functional overlap and therapeutic implications.

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    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Ryan, Karen K

    2014-06-03

    Significant comorbidities between obesity-related metabolic disease and stress-related psychological disorders suggest important functional interactions between energy balance and brain stress integration. Largely overlapping neural circuits control these systems, and this anatomical arrangement optimizes opportunities for mutual influence. Here we first review the current literature identifying effects of metabolic neuroendocrine signals on stress regulation, and vice versa. Next, the contributions of reward-driven food intake to these metabolic and stress interactions are discussed. Lastly, we consider the interrelationships between metabolism, stress, and reward in light of their important implications in the development of therapies for metabolism- or stress-related disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subordination stress: behavioral, brain, and neuroendocrine correlates.

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    Blanchard, D C; Sakai, R R; McEwen, B; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J

    1993-12-20

    In mixed-sex rat groups consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males can be differentiated from dominants on the basis of both agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors, wound patterns, weight changes. Their behavior changes suggest chronic defensiveness and are also broadly isomorphic to many of the symptoms of depression; their voluntary alcohol consumption increases, and their life-spans are shortened. Both subordinate and dominant males tend to show organ change compared to non-grouped controls, with adrenal and spleen enlargement and thymus reduction. However, these changes appear to be more marked in subordinates, and only subordinates show reduced testes weights. Basal corticosterone (CORT) levels were sharply higher, and plasma testosterone (T) sharply lower, in subordinates compared to both dominants and controls, and reduced corticosterone binding globulin further enhanced free CORT for subordinates particularly. Many subordinates failed to show a normal CORT response to restraint stress. Subordinates also appear to show widespread changes in serotonin systems, with increased 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in a number of brain areas, and alterations of 5-HT1A receptor binding at some sites. These changes suggest that subordination, a common and consistent feature of life for many animals living in social groups, may be a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  1. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

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    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

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    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  3. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

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    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  4. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

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    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  5. Multiple neuroendocrine responses to chronic social stress: interaction between individual characteristics and situational factors.

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    Mormède, P; Lemaire, V; Castanon, N; Dulluc, J; Laval, M; Le Moal, M

    1990-06-01

    After four weeks of individual housing, male Wistar rats (selected for high or low spontaneous aggressiveness by multiple round-robin encounters) were housed three per cage and submitted to four weeks of chronic social stress consisting of changing membership in the social groups by daily rotation of the animals among cages every day according to a random permutation procedure. In addition, half the males in each condition were housed with three females. Each environmental condition triggered different neuroendocrine changes. Cohabitation with females increased the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, including enlargement of adrenals and increased circulating corticosterone levels. On the other hand, daily rotation of the rats between different social groups activated part of the sympathetic nervous system, such as increased phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity in the adrenals. The level of aggressiveness, however, had no direct influence but interacted with environmental factors on such neuroendocrine measures as circulating testosterone or plasma renin activity. These results indicate that during chronic stress, there is no single, unique response by the animal, but a highly complex set of neuroendocrine changes, dependent on the interaction between individual characteristics (the level of aggressiveness is an example) and situational factors.

  6. Developmental stress and social phenotypes: integrating neuroendocrine, behavioural and evolutionary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Karen A

    2017-08-19

    The social world is filled with different types of interactions, and social experience interacts with stress on several different levels. Activation of the neuroendocrine axis that regulates the response to stress can have consequences for innumerable behavioural responses, including social decision-making and aspects of sociality, such as gregariousness and aggression. This is especially true for stress experienced during early life, when physiological systems are developing and highly sensitive to perturbation. Stress at this time can have persistent effects on social behaviours into adulthood. One important question remaining is to what extent these effects are adaptive. This paper initially reviews the current literature investigating the complex relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other neuroendocrine systems and several aspects of social behaviour in vertebrates. In addition, the review explores the evidence surrounding the potential for 'social programming' via differential development and activation of the HPA axis, providing an insight into the potential for positive effects on fitness following early life stress. Finally, the paper provides a framework from which novel investigations could work to fully understand the adaptive significance of early life effects on social behaviours.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Dobashi-Okuyama, Kaori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a "neuropsychiatry phenotype" in asthma. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  9. Central Mechanisms Underlying Variability in the Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria Møller

    . The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) also plays an important role in the neuroendocrine stress response by controlling CRF release in hypothalamus. The transmission of 5-HT and CRF are under feedback control of glucocorticoids and interact with the stress response by affecting processes...... in the limbic system. In fish, the telencephalon contains regions that are functional homologues to the mammalian limbic system including amygdala and hippocampus. However, the involvement of this brain region in the regulation of the hypothalamicpituitary- interrenal (HPI) axis, the homologue of the mammalian...... glucocorticoid in fish, and if these effects were related to changes in neurochemistry and gene expression in the telencephalon of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results showed that chronic stress affected HPI axis reactivity and serotonergic neurochemistry in the telencephalon. Moreover, effects...

  10. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. From the brain-skin connection: the neuroendocrine-immune misalliance of stress and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Perceived stress has long been allied with disturbances of the dynamic equilibrium established between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, thus triggering or aggravating disease manifestation. Several common skin diseases are now acknowledged to be worsened by psychological stress, particularly immunodermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic eczema, prurigo nodularis, lichen planus, chronic urticaria, alopecia areata and pruritus sine materia. Itch (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with a majority of these inflammatory skin diseases, and acute as well as chronic stress perceptions are recognized to trigger or enhance pruritus. A wealth of mediators released systemically or locally in the skin in response to stress increase sensory innervation, upregulate the production of other pruritogenic agents, perpetuate (neurogenic) inflammation and lower the itch threshold. In the present review, we explore recent frontiers in both stress and pruritus research and portray the perpetuation of chronic skin inflammation and itch as a neuroendocrine-immune 'misalliance'. We argue that key candidate molecules of the stress response with strong pruritogenic potential, such as nerve growth factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone and substance P, and mast cells, which may be considered as 'central cellular switchboards of pruritogenic inflammation', need to be further explored systematically in order to develop more effective therapeutic combination strategies for itch management in chronic, stress-vulnerable inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Unique "Angiotensin-Sensitive" Neuronal Population Coordinates Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular, and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2017-03-29

    Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately

  13. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  14. Dynamics of neuroendocrine stress response: bistability, timing, and control of hypocortisolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria; Chou, Tom; Kim, Lae

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates numerous physiological processes. Disruptions in its activity are correlated with stress-related diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. We characterize ``normal'' and ``diseased'' states of the HPA axis as basins of attraction of a dynamical system describing the inhibition of peptide hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), by circulating glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). Our model includes ultradian oscillations, CRH self-upregulation of CRH release, and distinguishes two components of negative feedback by cortisol on circulating CRH levels: a slow direct suppression of CRH synthesis and a fast indirect effect on CRH release. The slow regulation mechanism mediates external stress-driven transitions between the stable states in novel, intensity, duration, and timing-dependent ways. We find that the timing of traumatic events may be an important factor in determining if and how the hallmarks of depressive disorders will manifest. Our model also suggests a mechanism whereby exposure therapy of stress disorders may act to normalize downstream dysregulation of the HPA axis.

  15. Neuroendocrine stress responses predict catecholamine-dependent working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2018-01-01

    It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress

  17. Neuroendocrine coupling across adolescence and the longitudinal influence of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-09-01

    Drawing on conceptual models illustrating the advantages of a multisystemic, interactive, developmental approach to understanding development, the present study examines the covariation of stress and sex hormones across the adolescent transition and the effect of early life stress (ELS) on neuroendocrine coupling to gain insight into atypical development. Morning levels of cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assessed at ages 11, 13, and 15; ELS was assessed during the infancy and preschool periods. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that cortisol-DHEA coupling patterns progressed to tight, positive coupling across adolescence. Cortisol-testosterone coupling was positive at age 11 but became more negative at ages 13 and 15. Exposure to ELS resulted in more adultlike neuroendocrine coupling patterns earlier in life than non-exposed youth; however the effect of ELS on cortisol-testosterone coupling was unique to girls. Results illustrate trajectories of neuroendocrine coupling that may be unique to adolescence. Moderation by ELS suggests that early stress exposure may prompt earlier adultlike neuroendocrine coupling, particularly within girls, which may contribute to early pubertal development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yam, K.Y.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Schmidt, M.V.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the

  19. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  20. Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Carlo; Manteca, Xavier; Cuenca, Rafaela; del Mar Alcalá, Maria; Alba, Aurora; Lavín, Santiago; Pastor, Josep

    2010-09-15

    To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.

  1. Impact of the gut microbiota on the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabot Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex microbial ecosystem, the gut microbiota, whose collective genome coding capacity exceeds that of the host genome. The gut microbiota is nowadays regarded as a full organ, likely to contribute to the development of pathologies when its dynamic balance is disrupted (dysbiosis. In the last decade, evidence emerged that the gut microbiota influences brain development and function. In particular, comparisons between germ-free and conventional laboratory rodents showed that the absence of the gut microbiota exacerbates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA system reactivity to stress and alters the anxiety-like behaviour. Furthermore, the dysfunctions observed in germ-free animals can be corrected if the gut microbiota is restored in early life but not in adulthood, suggesting a critical period for microbiota imprinting on the responsiveness to stress. The modes of action are still to be deciphered. They may involve transport of neuroactive bacterial metabolites to the brain through the bloodstream, stimulation of the vagus nerve or of entero-endocrine cells, or modulation of the immune system and, consequently, of the inflammatory status. The discovery that the gut microbiota regulates the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress paves the way for the hypothesis that gut microbiota dysbioses could contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety-related disorders. In this regard, treatments of anxiety-prone rodent strains with probiotics or antibiotics aimed at modifying their gut microbiota have shown an anxiolytic-like activity. Clinical trials are now needed to know if results obtained in preclinical studies can translate to humans.

  2. Psychological and Neuroendocrine Determinants of Stress Regulation in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPsychosocial stress is a reaction to a real or interpreted threat to the integrity of an individual that manifests itself by biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes. We assessed cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological responses during a standardized

  3. Effect of maternal restraint stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during days 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necr...

  4. The medial amygdala modulates body weight but not neuroendocrine responses to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; Jones, K; Packard, B A; Herman, J P

    2010-01-01

    Stress pathologies such as depression and eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa) are associated with amygdalar dysfunction, which are linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis hyperactivity. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), a key output nucleus of the amygdaloid complex, promotes HPA axis activation to acute psychogenic stress and is in a prime position to mediate the deleterious effects of chronic stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study tests the hypothesis that the MeA is necessary for the development of maladaptive physiological changes caused by prolonged stress exposure. Male rats received bilateral ibotenate or sham lesions targeting the MeA and one half underwent 2 weeks of chronic variable stress (CVS) or served as home cage controls. Sixteen hours post CVS, all animals were exposed to an acute restraint challenge. CVS induced thymic involution, adrenal hypertrophy, and attenuated body weight gain and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. Consistent with previous literature, lesions of the MeA dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone after 30 min of exposure to acute restraint stress. However, this effect was independent of CVS exposure, suggesting that the MeA may not be critical for modulating neuroendocrine responses after chronic HPA axis drive. Interestingly, lesion of the MeA modestly exaggerated the stress-induced attenuation of weight gain. Overall, the data obtained suggest that the MeA modulates the neuroendocrine responses to acute but not chronic stress. In addition, the data suggest that the MeA may be an important neural component for the control of body weight in the face of chronic stress.

  5. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  6. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  7. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  8. Effects in dogs with behavioural disorders of a commercial nutraceutical diet on stress and neuroendocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, S; Di Cerbo, A; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Chiavolelli, F; Fiore, F; Cocco, R

    2017-01-07

    The well-being of dogs can be affected by changes in human lifestyle, eating habits and increased stressors that lead to behavioural disorders including fear, hyperactivity and anxiety, followed by negative affective moods and poor welfare. This randomised, controlled clinical evaluation involved 69 dogs, 38 males and 31 females, of different breeds, with behavioural disorders related to anxiety and chronic stress. They were fed a control diet or a nutraceutical diet (ND group) for 45 days. Neuroendocrine (serotonin, dopamine, β-endorphins, noradrenaline and cortisol) and stress (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP)) parameters related to behavioural disorders were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study period. Results showed a significant increase in serotonin, dopamine and β-endorphins plasma concentrations (*P<0.05, *P<0.05 and **P<0.01, respectively) and a significant decrease in noradrenaline and cortisol plasma concentrations in the ND group (*P<0.05). dROMs significantly decreased in the ND group (*P<0.05) while BAP was not affected. This study demonstrated for the first time that a specific diet significantly and positively affected neuroendocrine parameters and dROMs. These results open significant perspectives concerning the use of diet and nutraceuticals in the treatment of behavioural disorders. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Mechanisms underlying hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress reactivity at different phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer L; Girdler, Susan S

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association of menstrual cycle phase with stress reactivity as well as the hormonal and neuroendocrine mechanisms contributing to cycle effects. Fifty-seven women underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test during the early follicular, late follicular, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Greater increases in cardiac index (CI) and greater decreases in vascular resistance index (VRI) during speech were observed in the luteal phase relative to other phases, while greater increases in epinephrine (EPI) was observed during the late follicular and luteal phases compared to the early follicular phase. Luteal phase estradiol predicted luteal EPI reactivity but not CI or VRI reactivity, while luteal phase EPI reactivity predicted luteal phase CI and VRI reactivity. Thus, cycle-related changes in EPI reactivity may be a stronger determinant of cycle effects on hemodynamic reactivity than sex hormones per se. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  11. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  12. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Anna M; Nässel, Dick R; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    in the adult and larval Drosophila central nervous system. PICK1 was found in cell bodies in the subesophageal ganglion, the antennal lobe, the protocerebrum, and the neuroendocrine center pars intercerebralis. The cell types that express PICK1 were identified using GAL4 enhancer trap lines. The PICK1...... (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is strongly implicated in GluR2 trafficking and synaptic plasticity. In mammals, PICK1 has been characterized extensively in cell culture studies. To study PICK1 in an intact system, we characterized PICK1 expression immunohistochemically...... neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The PICK1-positive cells include neurosecretory cells that produce the insulin-like peptide dILP2. PICK1 expression in insulin-producing cells...

  14. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  15. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  16. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivero Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the role of endoscopic techniques in the diagnosis and in the potential treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NET localized in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, on the basis of their experience and of the international literature. NET are rare tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. It is a possibility that both the digestive endoscopy and EUS play an important role in the diagnosis, staging and surveillance of this disease. In some cases, especially in the early stages, surgical endoscopy allows the treatment of such tumors.

  17. Perioperative stress in dogs undergoing elective surgery: evaluation of the Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) for the control of behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Siracusa, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 7 de gener de 2011 This clinical study is composed of two different trials. In the first we investigated and described the perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy and ovariohysterectomy. In the second trial we evaluated the efficacy of a commercial dog synthetic appeasing pheromone for the control of the perioperative stress response. The aim of this trial is to describe the behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress r...

  18. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  19. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2016-10-10

    Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation. Indeed, repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic stress situations may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation and lead to psychological difficulties. It was also shown that basal cortisol levels are lower in adolescents with externalizing behaviors. This study aims to assess the links between constructive thinking and neuroendocrine regulation in adolescent offenders and their association with externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, delinquency, psychopathic traits, substance use). Identifying particular biopsychological patterns can help to better understand stress management in youth with externalizing behaviors and to improve clinical treatments. Sixteen adolescent males aged from 12 to 18 years were recruited in an institution for juvenile offenders. Exclusion criteria were insufficient reasoning abilities assessed using the Raven Matrices Test. Regarding psychological dimensions, constructive thinking was assessed through the Constructive thinking inventory (CTI), psychopathic traits through the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI), externalizing behaviors through 30 items (out of 113) and 2 subscales (aggressive behavior and delinquency problems) from the Child behavior checklist-youth self-report (CBCL), and substance use through the Dep-ado. Regarding biological dimensions, cortisol daily secretion and regulation were assessed through saliva samples

  1. Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses and brain pattern of c-fos induction associated with audiogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, S; Watson, S J

    1997-08-01

    The present study determined simultaneously the behavioural, neuroendocrine and regional brain activity, using semi-quantitative analysis of c-fos mRNA induction, produced by 30 min of auditory stimulation at different white noise intensities (background 60 dB, 70, 80, 90 and 105 dBA), in rats. Only the highest noise intensities (90 and 105 dB) significantly increased corticosterone release after 30 min stimulation. Behaviourally, the 105 dB noise condition reliably reduced overall activity, and moderate noise intensities (70 and 80 dB) increased sleeping time. Three distinct patterns of c-fos mRNA induction were observed. First, following exposure to the experimental cages, a wide pattern of brain activation was obtained in experimental animals irrespective of noise intensity presentation, compared to the naive rats. Second, a number of auditory structures (cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus and the medial division of the medial geniculate body) displayed a clear intensity-dependent increase in c-fos induction. Third, compared to all other conditions, the stressed rats (90 and 105 dB conditions) displayed significantly higher c-fos induction in relatively few areas. Particularly intense c-fos induction was observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, especially its anterior medial and ventral aspects, the septohypothalamic nucleus, the ventral lateral septum, the ventral portion of the dentate gyrus, a number of hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral preoptic area, the medial preoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus, the median raphe and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The involvement of a number of these structures in a specific audiogenic stress responsive circuit is discussed.

  2. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  3. PACAP: A master regulator of neuroendocrine stress circuits and the cellular stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Stroth, Nikolas; Holighaus, Yvonne; Ait-Ali, Djida; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP is an informational molecule released from stress-transducing neurons. It exerts post-synaptic effects required to complete hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) and hypothalamo-splanchnico-adrenomedullary (HSA) circuits activated by psychogenic and metabolic stressors. PACAP-responsive (in cell culture models) and PACAP-dependent (in vivo) transcriptomic responses in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary upon activation of these circuits have been identif...

  4. Perinatal exposure to organohalogen pollutants decreases vasopressin content and its mRNA expression in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells activated by osmotic stress in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that produce neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine disruption. They affect the vasopressinergic system but their disruptive mechanisms are not well understood. Our group reported t...

  5. "Seasonal changes in the neuroendocrine system": some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    This perspective considers first the general issue of seasonality and how it is shaped ecologically. It asks what is the relative importance of "strategic" (photoperiod-dependent) versus "tactical" (supplemental) cues in seasonality and what neural circuits are involved? It then considers recent developments as reflected in the Special Issue. What don't we understand about the photoperiodic clock and also the long-term timing mechanisms underlying refractoriness? Are these latter related to the endogenous annual rhythms? Can we finally identify the opsins involved in photodetection? What is the present position with regard to melatonin as "the" annual calendar? An exciting development has been the recognition of the involvement of thyroid hormones in seasonality but how does the Dio/TSH/thyroid hormone pathway integrate with downstream components of the photoperiodic response system? Finally, there are the seasonal changes within the central nervous system itself--perhaps the most exciting aspect of all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  7. The Neuroendocrine Control of the Circadian System: Adolescent Chronotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, public health and school officials are paying growing attention to the mechanism underlying the delayed sleep patterns common in human adolescents. Data suggest that a propensity towards evening chronotype develops during puberty, and may be caused by developmental alterations in internal daily timekeeping. New support for this theory has emerged from recent studies which show that pubertal changes in chronotype occur in many laboratory species similar to human adolescents. Using these species as models, we find that pubertal changes in chronotype differ by sex, are internally generated, and driven by reproductive hormones. These chronotype changes are accompanied by alterations in the fundamental properties of the circadian timekeeping system, including endogenous rhythm period and sensitivity to environmental time cues. After comparing the developmental progression of chronotype in different species, we propose a theory regarding the ecological relevance of adolescent chronotype, and provide suggestions for improving the sleep of human adolescents. PMID:22634481

  8. Effects of TNF antagonists on immune and neuroendocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the literature on the effects of TNFa-antagonists (etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab on the immune system is reviewed. These biologic agents are employed in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthritides, as well as psoriasis and Crohn’s disease. The differences of these drugs, testified by the different effects on the immune response, are discussed. These molecules exert their effect through cytokine inhibition, but they present striking differences since they can modulate macrophage activity, T cells apoptosis, leukocyte migration, and angiogenesis to a different degree. Some studies showed that these agents also affect the hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal axis. The potential immunogenicity of these biologic agents is also discussed.

  9. Oxytocin-secreting system: A major part of the neuroendocrine center regulating immunologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Hai-Peng; Tian, Shujun; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Stephani C; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2015-12-15

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural regulation of immune activity, particularly the neuroendocrine regulation of immunologic functions, remain elusive. In this review, we provide a comprehensive examination of current evidence on interactions between the immune system and hypothalamic oxytocin-secreting system. We highlight the fact that oxytocin may have significant effects in the body, beyond its classical functions in lactation and parturition. Similar to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the oxytocin-secreting system closely interacts with classical immune system, integrating both neurochemical and immunologic signals in the central nervous system and in turn affects immunologic defense, homeostasis, and surveillance. Lastly, this review explores therapeutic potentials of oxytocin in treating immunologic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFICACY OF PREGABALIN AS A PREMEDICANT IN ATTENUATING NEUROENDOCRINE STRESS RESPONSE DURING GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN ELECTIVE SURGERIES: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Muthukrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The stress response to surgery is characterised by increased secretion of pituitary hormones and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The changes triggered by the stress response are short-lived and well tolerated by normal healthy patients belonging to ASA 1 and 2. In patients with other comorbidities like myocardial ischaemia, renal insufficiency, uncontrolled diabetes, liver disease and cerebrovascular diseases, these changes can be life threatening. The recognition of the factors which initiate the stress response can be considered for modification in the preoperative period itself. Various anaesthetic techniques and pain management strategies have been put into use to control the stress response. AIM To study the rise in serum cortisol levels during surgery after administering oral pregabalin as a premedicant. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A Prospective Randomised Placebo Controlled Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS All consented patients were aged between 18 and 50 years belonging to ASA 1 & 2 undergoing elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia of duration between 30 minutes and 180 minutes. Group A received oral placebo, Group B oral pregabalin 150 mg 60-90 minutes before surgery with sips of water. They were randomly allocated to a particular group using computer generated numbers. The ward staff nurse administered the drug kept in sealed envelopes. Both the patients and the person administering anaesthesia were unaware of the group. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The results were analysed using SPSS Version 17 software with the help of the statistician. The students’ paired t-test was used to compare the mean change in the cortisol levels in the two groups. RESULTS There was a significant [p < 0.01] reduction in the intraoperative cortisol levels after premedication with pregabalin. There was an increase in serum cortisol levels after extubation in both the groups which was statistically significant (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION

  11. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  12. Neuroendocrine and immune responses to a cognitive stress challenge in veterans with and without PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien S. de Kloet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: PTSD has been associated with altered hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal-axis (HPA-axis, immune and sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive stress on these systems in PTSD patients and controls. Methods: The subjective units of distress score (SUDS, NK-cell response, plasma levels of noradrenalin and ACTH in response to cognitive stress were assessed in male veterans with PTSD (n=15 and age, region and year of deployment matched veterans without psychopathology (n=15. Results: The challenge induced an increase in SUDS, noradrenalin, ACTH and NK-cell response in both groups. Baseline levels of ACTH were lower in PTSD patients. The test was experienced as more stressful by PTSD patients and resulted in an augmented ACTH response in patients. The noradrenalin and NK-cell responses showed no group differences. The ACTH response correlated with the severity of symptoms in patients, and the noradrenalin response correlated with the ACTH and NK-cell response in controls, but not in patients. Discussion: PTSD patients experience more distress and present with an exaggerated pituitary response to this stressor. In addition, our results suggest an altered interaction between the HPA-axis, SNS and immune system in PTSD.

  13. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multicenter retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Machida, Nozomu; Morizane, Chigusa; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sudo, Kentaro; Nishina, Tomohiro; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Furuse, Junji; Boku, Narikazu; Okusaka, Takuji

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed outcomes of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the digestive system. Clinical data from 258 patients with unresectable or recurrent NEC of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) or hepato-biliary-pancreatic system (HBP), who received chemotherapy, were collected from 23 Japanese institutions and analyzed retrospectively. Patients had primary sites in the esophagus (n = 85), stomach (n = 70), small bowel (n = 6), colorectum (n = 31), hepato-biliary system (n = 31) and pancreas (n = 31). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months the esophagus, 13.3 months for the stomach, 29.7 months for the small bowel, 7.6 months for the colorectum, 7.9 months for the hepato-biliary system and 8.5 months for the pancreas. Irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) were most commonly selected for GI-NEC and HBP-NEC. For patients treated with IP/EP (n = 160/46), the response rate was 50/28% and median OS was 13.0/7.3 months. Multivariate analysis among patients treated with IP or EP showed that the primary site (GI vs HBP; hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.97) and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (not elevated vs elevated; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.94) were independent prognostic factors for OS, while the efficacy of IP was slightly better than for EP (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.33; P = 0.389). IP and EP are the most common treatment regimens for NEC of the digestive system. HBP primary sites and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels are unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced NEC of the digestive system. This study was registered at UMIN as trial number 000005176. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings**

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillant George

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. "left brain") terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally...

  16. Low stress reactivity and neuroendocrine factors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Yang, M; Turner, S M; Katz, A M; Bell, D B; Koenig, J I; Crawley, J N

    2010-12-29

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including low social interactions, reduced vocalizations in social settings, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. Autism-relevant phenotypes in BTBR offer translational tools to discover neurochemical mechanisms underlying unusual mouse behaviors relevant to symptoms of autism. Because repetitive self-grooming in mice may be a displacement behavior elevated by stressors, we investigated neuroendocrine markers of stress and behavioral reactivity to stressors in BTBR mice, as compared to C57BL/6J (B6), a standard inbred strain with high sociability. Radioimmunoassays replicated previous findings that circulating corticosterone is higher in BTBR than in B6. Higher basal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and higher oxytocin peptide levels were detected in the brains of BTBR as compared to B6. No significant differences were detected in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) peptide or CRF mRNA. In response to behavioral stressors, BTBR and B6 were generally similar on behavioral tasks including stress-induced hyperthermia, elevated plus-maze, light ↔ dark exploration, tail flick, acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. BTBR displayed less reactivity than B6 to a noxious thermal stimulus in the hot plate, and less immobility than B6 in both the forced swim and tail suspension depression-related tasks. BTBR, therefore, exhibited lower depression-like scores than B6 on two standard tests sensitive to antidepressants, did not differ from B6 on two well-validated anxiety-like behaviors, and did not exhibit unusual stress reactivity to sensory stimuli. Our findings support the interpretation that autism-relevant social deficits, vocalizations, and

  17. The Effects of Cognitive Hardiness on Stress, Health, Performance, and Cardiovascular/Neuroendocrine Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Johathan

    1997-01-01

    .... Hardiness has also been thought to exert main effects on health and performance outcomes. In Study 1, relationships between hardiness, perceived stress, depression, and academic performance were investigated...

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  19. Effects of appraisal and coping on the neuroendocrine response to extreme stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to extreme stress, only some of them develop psychobiological disturbances that can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other posttrauma psychopathology. This paper examines the effects of different types of appraisal and coping to find clues to how

  20. Oxidative stress, neuroendocrine function and behavior in an animal model of extended longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Stress and oxidative stress (OS) might act synergistically to exacerbate the neuronal decay associated with aging. Recent evidence has shown a redox regulation of the function of the glucocorticoid receptors as nuclear transcription factors. The lack of the p66Shc gene reduces OS and increases

  1. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  2. Agatoxin-like peptides in the neuroendocrine system of the honey bee and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Ramesh, Divya; Brockmann, Axel; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2016-01-30

    We investigated the peptide inventory of the corpora cardiaca (CC) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, by direct tissue profiling using MALDI-TOF MS combined with proteomic approaches focusing on cysteine-containing peptides. An agatoxin-like peptide (ALP) was identified as a component of the glandular part of the CC and was associated with the presence of the adipokinetic hormone in mass spectra. Although abundant in the CC, ALP does not belong to the toxins observed in the venom gland of A. mellifera. Homologs of ALP are highly conserved in major groups of arthropods and in line with this we detected ALP in the CC of non-venomous insects such as cockroaches and silverfish. In the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, ALP was also identified in the CNS and stomatogastric nervous system. This is the first report that establishes the presence of ALPs in the neuroendocrine tissues of insects and further studies are necessary to reveal common functions of these peptides, e.g. as antimicrobial agents, ion channel modulators or classical neuropeptides. Among the messenger molecules of the nervous system, neuropeptides represent the structurally most diverse class and basically participate in the regulation of all physiological processes. The set of neuropeptides, their functions and spatial distribution are particularly well-studied in insects. Until now, however, several potential neuropeptide receptors remained orphan, which indicates the existence of so far unknown ligands. In our study, we used proteomic methods such as cysteine modification, enzymatic digestion and peptide derivatization, combined with direct tissue profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, for the discovery of novel putative messenger molecules in the neuroendocrine system. The described presence of agatoxin-like peptides in the nervous system of the honey bee and other insects was overseen so far and is thus a remarkable addition to the very well studied neuropeptidome of insects. It is not

  3. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Cardinal, Pierre; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies carried out so far have established a role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the regulation of energy balance. Here we critically discuss the role of the endocannabinoid signalling in brain structures, such as the hypothalamus and reward-related areas, and its interaction with neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. The ECS has been found to interact with peripheral signals, like leptin, insulin, ghrelin and satiety hormones and the resulting effects on both central and peripheral mechanisms affecting energy balance and adiposity will be described. Furthermore, ECS dysregulation has been associated with the development of dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and obesity; phenomena that are often accompanied by a plethora of neuroendocrine alterations which might play a causal role in determining ECS dysregulation. Despite the withdrawal of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) antagonists from the pharmaceutical market due to the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events, new evidence suggests that peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists might be efficacious for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Thus, a perspective on new promising strategies to selectively target the ECS in the context of energy balance regulation is given.

  4. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  5. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  6. Neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) circuitry from neuron-glial interactions to function: Focus on gender and HPA-HPG interactions on early programming of the NEI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morale, M C; Gallo, F; Tirolo, C; Testa, N; Caniglia, S; Marletta, N; Spina-Purrello, V; Avola, R; Caucci, F; Tomasi, P; Delitala, G; Barden, N; Marchetti, B

    2001-08-01

    Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems during ontogeny plays a pivotal role in programming the development of neuroendocrine and immune responses in adult life. Signals generated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (i.e. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH, and sex steroids), and by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (glucocorticoids (GC)), are major players coordinating the development of immune system function. Conversely, products generated by immune system activation exert a powerful and long-lasting regulation on neuroendocrine axes activity. The neuroendocrine-immune system is very sensitive to preperinatal experiences, including hormonal manipulations and immune challenges, which may influence the future predisposition to several disease entities. We review our work on the ongoing mutual regulation of neuroendocrine and immune cell activities, both at a cellular and molecular level. In the central nervous system, one chief compartment is represented by the astroglial cell and its mediators. Hence, neuron-glial signalling cascades dictate major changes in response to hormonal manipulations and pro-inflammatory triggers. The interplay between LHRH, sex steroids, GC and pro-inflammatory mediators in some physiological and pathological states, together with the potential clinical implications of these findings, are summarized. The overall study highlights the plasticity of this intersystem cross-talk for pharmacological targeting with drugs acting at the neuroendocrine-immune interface.

  7. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  8. Interaction and developmental activation of two neuroendocrine systems that regulate light-mediated skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Song, Yi N; Atkinson-Leadbeater, Karen; Yang, Jung-Lynn J; McFarlane, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion. As embryogenesis proceeds, the pineal complex/melatonin circuit becomes the dominant regulator in the dark and induces lightening of the skin of larvae. The eye/α-MSH circuit continues to mediate darkening of embryos on a black background, but we propose the circuit is shut down in complete darkness in part by melatonin acting on receptors expressed by pituitary cells to inhibit the expression of pomc, the precursor of α-MSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  10. Clinical and functional implication of the components of somatostatin system in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Gahete, Manuel D; Pedraza-Arevalo, Sergio; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Serrano-Blanch, Raquel; Luque, Raúl M; Gálvez-Moreno, María A; Castaño, Justo P

    2018-02-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies often presenting with metastasis at diagnosis and whose clinical outcome is difficult to predict. Somatostatin (SST) analogs (SSAs) provide a valuable pharmacological tool to palliate hormonal symptoms, and control progression in some NETs. However, many patients do not respond to SSAs or develop resistance, and there are many uncertainties regarding pathophysiology of SST and its receptors (sst1-sst5) in GEP-NETs. The expression of SST system components in GEP-NETs was determined, compared with that of non-tumor adjacent and normal tissues and correlated with clinical and histological characteristics. Specifically, 58 patients with GEP-NETs and 14 normal samples were included. Cell viability in NET cell lines was determined in response to specific SSAs. Normal samples and non-tumor adjacent tissues presented a similar expression profile, with appreciable expression of sst2 and sst3, and a lower expression of the other receptors. In contrast, cortistatin, sst1, sst4, and sst5 were overexpressed in tumors, while sst3 and sst4 seemed overexpressed in less differentiated tumors. Some SST system components were related to vascular/nerve invasion and metastasis. In vitro, sst1 and sst3 agonists reduced viability in BON-1 cells, while they, similar to octreotide and pasireotide, increased viability in QGP-1 cells. These results provide novel information on SST system pathophysiology in GEP-NETs, including relevant associations with clinical-histological parameters, which might help to better understand the intrinsic heterogeneity of NETs and to identify novel biomarkers and/or targets with potential prognostic and/or therapeutic value for GEP-NETs patients.

  11. [Structural plasticity of the adult central nervous system: insights from the neuroendocrine hypothalamus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Clémence; Bosler, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence renders the dogma obsolete according to which the structural organization of the brain would remain essentially stable in adulthood, changing only in response to a need for compensatory processes during increasing age and degeneration. It has indeed become clear from investigations on various models that the adult nervous system can adapt to physiological demands by altering reversibly its synaptic circuits. This potential for structural and functional modifications results not only from the plastic properties of neurons but also from the inherent capacity of the glial cellular components to undergo remodeling as well. This is currently known for astrocytes, the major glial cells in brain which are well-recognized as dynamic partners in the mechanisms of synaptic transmission, and for the tanycytes and pituicytes which contribute to the regulation of neurosecretory processes in neurohemal regions of the hypothalamus. Studies on the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, whose role is central in homeostatic regulations, have gained good insights into the spectacular neuronal-glial rearrangements that may subserve functional plasticity in the adult brain. Following pioneering works on the morphological reorganizations taking place in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system under certain physiological conditions such as dehydration and lactation, studies on the gonadotropic system that orchestrates reproductive functions have re-emphasized the dynamic interplay between neurons and glia in brain structural plasticity processes. This review summarizes the major contributions provided by these researches in the field and also addresses the question of the morphological rearrangements that occur on a 24-h basis in the central component of the circadian clock responsible for the temporal aspects of endocrine regulations. Taken together, the reviewed data highlight the close cooperation between neurons and glia in developing strategies for functional adaptation

  12. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    The essential amino acid l-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment...... for aquaculture. Fish were given feed containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 times the Trp content in normal feed for one week. Subsequently, the fish were reintroduced to feed containing the lowest Trp level, corresponding to standard commercial feed for a number of days prior to exposure to an acute confinement stressor....... Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...

  13. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  14. Neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune functions during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in monosodium L-glutamate-damaged, hyperadipose male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...

  16. Neuroendocrine activation during combined mental and physical stress in women depends on trait anxiety and the phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacova, Natasa; Wawruch, Martin; Tisonova, Jana; Jezova, Daniela

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase on neuroendocrine activation during combined mental and physical stress procedure in 40 healthy female subjects. Women at the upper (anxious) and lower (nonanxious) limits of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale were exposed to the stress procedure consisting of a mental component (Stroop test) and handgrip exercise. Salivary cortisol levels, cardiovascular parameters, and cognitive performance in the Stroop test were evaluated. Stress-induced cortisol levels and the rise in systolic blood pressure were affected by both trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase. The stress model used induced a significant cortisol elevation only in anxious women in the follicular phase. This group of women also exhibited greater increases in systolic blood pressure in response to handgrip exercise as compared to anxious ones in the luteal phase and to nonanxious women in either phase. In nonanxious women, stress-induced cortisol levels positively correlated with cognitive performance. In contrast, a negative correlation trend was observed in anxious subjects. Thus, in subjects with low but not high trait anxiety, enhanced cortisol concentrations seem to be associated with better cognitive performance. The results suggest that women with high trait anxiety exhibit greater cardiovascular and hormonal sensitivity to stress stimuli during the follicular phase.

  17. Towards a unified model of neuroendocrine-immune interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, N

    2001-08-01

    Although the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulating potential, studies examining the relationship between stress, immunity and infection have, until recently, largely been the preserve of behavioural psychologists. Over the last decade, however, immunologists have begun to increasingly appreciate that neuroendocrine-immune interactions hold the key to understanding the complex behaviour of the immune system in vivo. The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities we would propose that they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity. This paper reviews current knowledge of neuroendocrine-immune interaction and uses the example of T-cell subset differentiation to show the previously under-appreciated importance of neuroendocrine influences in the regulation of immune function and, in particular, Th1/Th2 balance and diurnal variation there of.

  18. Improvement in Stress, General Self-Efficacy, and Health Related Quality of Life following Patient Education for Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Haugland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, health related quality of life (HRQoL, and stress among patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET following a multidisciplinary educational intervention. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this exploratory pilot study. A total of 37 patients completed the full 26-week intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. General self-efficacy was measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale, HRQoL was measured with the SF-36, and stress was measured with the Impact of Event Scale. Mixed effect models were used to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, mental and physical components of HRQoL, and stress adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Results showed significant improvements in patients’ general self-efficacy (β = 0.71; P<0.05, physical component scores of HRQoL (β = 3.09; P<0.01, and stress (β=-2.10, P=0.008. Findings suggest that patients with NET have the capacity to improve their ability to cope with their disease, problem-solve, improve their physical status, and reduce their stress following an educational intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. These preliminary data provide a basis for future randomized controlled trials to test interventions to improve HRQoL for patients with NET.

  19. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  20. Neuroendocrine transcriptome in genetic hypertension: multiple changes in diverse adrenal physiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Ryan S; Mahboubi, Payam; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Mahata, Sushil K; Schork, Nicholas J; Schmid-Schoenbein, Geert W; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2004-06-01

    The genetic basis of hypertension in the genetically/hereditary hypertensive (BPH/2) mouse strain is incompletely understood, although a recent genome scan uncovered evidence for several susceptibility loci. To probe the neuroendocrine transcriptome in this disease model, 12 488 probe set microarray experiments were performed on mRNA transcripts from adrenal glands of juvenile (prehypertensive) and adult BPH/2 (hypertensive), as well as the genetically/hereditary low-blood pressure (BPL/1), strains at both time points. To determine the impact of strain (BPH/2 versus BPL/1), age (juvenile versus adult), and the interaction of strain and age on gene expression levels, we performed standard 2-factor ANOVA and computed a concordance coefficient to assess the reproducibility of gene expression measurements among replicates. Of genes with significant (Pdisposition enzymes. These analyses highlight widespread derangements in diverse physiological pathways, providing multiple avenues for further investigation into the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension.

  1. Unraveling molecular pathways of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gastroenteropancreatic system: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Daniel M; Silva, Andrea C B; Rêgo, Juliana Florinda M; Coudry, Renata A; Riechelmann, Rachel P

    2017-05-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare and aggressive tumors. Their molecular pathogenesis is still largely unknown, and consequently, the best therapeutic management also remains to be determined. We conducted a systematic review on molecular alterations found in gastroenteropancreatic NECs (GEP-NECs) and discuss potential applications of targeted therapies in setting. Systematic review of studies about molecular features in tumor tissues of patients with GEP-NECs. The Medline, Lilacs, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Opengrey databases were sought, without time, study design or language restrictions. Of the 1.564 studies retrieved, 41 were eligible: 33 were retrospective studies and eight were case reports. The studies spanned the years 1997-2017 and involved mostly colorectal, stomach and pancreas primary tumors. Molecular alterations in the TP53 gene and the p53 protein expression were the most commonly observed, regardless of the primary site. Other consistently found molecular alterations were microsatellite instability (MSI) in approximately 10% of gastric and colorectal NEC, and altered signaling cascades of p16/Rb/cyclin D1, Hedgehog and Notch pathways, and somatic mutations in KRAS, BRAF, RB1 and Bcl2. In studies of mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) the molecular features of GEP-NEC largely resemble their carcinoma/adenocarcinomas tumor counterparts. Despite the paucity of data about the molecular drivers associated with GEP-NEC, some alterations may be potentially targeted with new cancer-directed therapies. Collaborative clinical trials for patients with advanced GEP-NEC are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. environmental stress indicators system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and ... environmental load. INTRODUCTION. Over a long period of time, human beings have over exploited the natural environment, exceeding the natural system's load .... architecture mineral substances, industrial mineral.

  3. Single Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Session Dampens Acute Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Mental Stress in Healthy Male Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, Pcontrol participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, Pcontrol counterparts after the stress episode (control: t=2.7, Psession to healthy participants induced a faster recovery of heart rate and sympathovagal balance after an acute mental stressor by substantially dampening parasympathetic withdrawal and

  4. Estimation of optical properties of neuroendocrine pancreas tumor with double-integrating-sphere system and inverse Monte Carlo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Larocca, Enza Stefania; Rendina, Veneranda; Schena, Emiliano; D'Ambrosio, Roberto; Crescenzi, Anna; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Silvestri, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of laser-tissue interaction is crucial for diagnostics and therapeutics. In particular, the estimation of tissue optical properties allows developing predictive models for defining organ-specific treatment planning tool. With regard to laser ablation (LA), optical properties are among the main responsible for the therapy efficacy, as they globally affect the heating process of the tissue, due to its capability to absorb and scatter laser energy. The recent introduction of LA for pancreatic tumor treatment in clinical studies has fostered the need to assess the laser-pancreas interaction and hence to find its optical properties in the wavelength of interest. This work aims at estimating optical properties (i.e., absorption, μ a , scattering, μ s , anisotropy, g, coefficients) of neuroendocrine pancreas tumor at 1064 nm. Experiments were performed using two popular sample storage methods; the optical properties of frozen and paraffin-embedded neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas are estimated by employing a double-integrating-sphere system and inverse Monte Carlo algorithm. Results show that paraffin-embedded tissue is characterized by absorption and scattering coefficients significantly higher than frozen samples (μ a of 56 cm(-1) vs 0.9 cm(-1), μ s of 539 cm(-1) vs 130 cm(-1), respectively). Simulations show that such different optical features strongly influence the pancreas temperature distribution during LA. This result may affect the prediction of therapeutic outcome. Therefore, the choice of the appropriate preparation technique of samples for optical property estimation is crucial for the performances of the mathematical models which predict LA thermal outcome on the tissue and lead the selection of optimal LA settings.

  5. Androgen deprivation of the PC-310 [correction of prohormone convertase-310] human prostate cancer model system induces neuroendocrine differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jongsma (Johan); M.H. Oomen; M.A. Noordzij (Marinus); W.M. van Weerden (Wytske); G.J. Martens; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNeuroendocrine (NE) cells are androgen-independent cells and secrete growth-modulating neuropeptides via a regulated secretory pathway (RSP). We studied NE differentiation after androgen withdrawal in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer xenograft PC-310.

  6. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the exposure to chronic restraint or variable stress in early adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo T; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2012-02-01

    Stress events during adolescence may contribute to the expression or exacerbation of physical and behavioral disorders. However, little attention has been given to the physiological and behavioral changes promoted by stress during this period of ontogeny. In the present study we investigated, in adolescent male rats, the effects of repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress on: (a) locomotor activity and corticosterone levels after exposure to a novel environment; (b) corticosterone levels in response to the exposure to restraint stress; and (c) changes in body, thymus and adrenal weights. The results demonstrated that repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress reduced the locomotor response, but did not affect corticosterone secretion, in response to a novel environment. Moreover, both chronic stress procedures did not change corticosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Furthermore, our results showed that repeated restraint, but not variable stress, produced a decrease in body weight along the stress exposure. Finally, we observed that the exposure to variable stress reduced the thymus relative weight. Taken together our results suggest that behavioral and physiological changes induced by exposure to chronic stress during adolescence depend on the stress regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  8. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  9. Effects of physical exercise on depression, neuroendocrine stress hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nabkasorn, Chanudda; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Sootmongkol, Anek; Junprasert, Suwanna; Yamamoto, Hiroichi; Arita, Mikio; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    .... We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of physical exercise on depressive state, the excretions of stress hormones and physiological fitness variables in adolescent...

  10. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, James L; Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Healthy participants (n=54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to "control" (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing

  11. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  12. Central nitrergic system regulation of neuroendocrine secretion, fluid intake and blood pressure induced by angiotensin-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Lucila LK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO synthesis has been described in several circumventricular and hypothalamic structures in the central nervous system that are implicated in mediating central angiotensin-II (ANG-II actions during water deprivation and hypovolemia. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, drinking behavior, and urinary excretions were examined following central angiotensinergic stimulation in awake freely-moving rats pretreated with intracerebroventricular injections of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 40 μg, an inhibitor of NO synthase, and L-arginine (20 ug, a precursor of NO. Results Injections of L-NAME or ANG-II produced an increase in plasma vasopressin (VP, oxytocin (OT and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP levels, an increase in water and sodium intake, mean arterial blood pressure and sodium excretion, and a reduction of urinary volume. L-NAME pretreatment enhanced the ANG-II response, while L-arginine attenuated VP and OT release, thirst, appetite for sodium, antidiuresis, and natriuresis, as well as pressor responses induced by ANG-II. Discussion and conclusion Thus, the central nitrergic system participates in the angiotensinergic responses evoked by water deprivation and hypovolemia to refrain neurohypophysial secretion, hydromineral balance, and blood pressure homeostasis.

  13. Modeling cortisol dynamics in the neuro-endocrine axis distinguishes normal, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sriram

    Full Text Available Cortisol, secreted in the adrenal cortex in response to stress, is an informative biomarker that distinguishes anxiety disorders such as major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from normal subjects. Yehuda et al. proposed a hypothesis that, in humans, the hypersensitive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is responsible for the occurrence of differing levels of cortisol in anxiety disorders. Specifically, PTSD subjects have lower cortisol levels during the late subjective night in comparison to normal subjects, and this was assumed to occur due to strong negative feedback loops in the HPA axis. In the present work, to address this hypothesis, we modeled the cortisol dynamics using nonlinear ordinary differential equations and estimated the kinetic parameters of the model to fit the experimental data of three categories, namely, normal, depressed, and PTSD human subjects. We concatenated the subjects (n = 3 in each category and created a model subject (n = 1 without considering the patient-to-patient variability in each case. The parameters of the model for the three categories were simultaneously obtained through global optimization. Bifurcation analysis carried out with the optimized parameters exhibited two supercritical Hopf points and, for the choice of parameters, the oscillations were found to be circadian in nature. The fitted kinetic parameters indicate that PTSD subjects have a strong negative feedback loop and, as a result, the predicted oscillating cortisol levels are extremely low at the nadir in contrast to normal subjects, albeit within the endocrinologic range. We also simulated the phenotypes for each of the categories and, as observed in the clinical data of PTSD patients, the simulated cortisol levels are consistently low at the nadir, and correspondingly the negative feedback was found to be extremely strong. These results from the model support the hypothesis that high stress intensity and

  14. The etiology of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome part four: the systemic perspective--the role of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and the challenge of integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay; McNeill, John H

    2006-10-01

    Insulin resistance can be regarded to be a cause, a consequence, a sustainer or a marker of the wider neuroendocrine dysfunction within which it occurs. In the final part of our series of reviews, we examine the systemic influences which operate within the metabolic syndrome: the endocrine system, the central nervous system and the immune system. We discuss strategies for integrating the array of information that is being gathered, in particular the need for computer simulation. We also advocate the need to move beyond the linear paradigm of 'cause and effect' and use causal networks to think about this system. We also discuss the need to understand the temperospatial organisation of the factors being studied. Finally, we draw together the data, concepts and hypotheses we have reviewed over the course of these four articles.

  15. A lymph node ratio-based staging model is superior to the current staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanidis, Apostolos; Patel, Dhaval; Nilubol, Naris; Tirosh, Amit; Kebebew, Electron

    2017-10-20

    The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is increasing. Current staging systems include nodal positivity, but the association of lymph node status and worse survival is controversial. The study aim was to determine the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR) and compare it to nodal positivity for PNET. A retrospective analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) database between 2004 and 2011 was performed in patients who underwent a pancreatectomy with lymphadenectomy. The primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS). Staging models were compared using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), corrected AIC (AICc) and Harrell's c-statistic. Of the 896 patients analyzed, T stage, N stage, distant metastasis, grade, extent of resection, sex, age ≥57 years were significantly associated with worse DSS on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age ≥57 (HR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.74, p=0.015), male sex (HR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01-2.48, p=0.046), grade (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated: HR 7.59, 95% CI: 4.71-12.23, p<0.001), distant metastases (HR 2.45, 95% CI: 1.58-3.79, p<0.001), partial pancreatectomy (HR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.2-5.4, p=0.015) were associated with worse DSS. Stepwise analysis identified several LNR cut-offs to be independently associated with worse DSS. Comparison between staging models constructed based on these LNR cut-offs and the AJCC 8th edition staging system revealed that a model based on LNR ≥0.5 was superior. LNR ≥0.5 is independently associated with worse DSS. A staging system with LNR ≥0.5 was superior to the current AJCC 8th edition staging system.

  16. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditioned Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Stress Responsiveness Accompanying Behavioral Passivity and Activity in Aged and in Young Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Buwalda, B.; Bouws, G.A.H.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Maes, F.W.; Bohus, B.

    1992-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma epinephrine (E), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured in 3-month- and 24-month-old male Wistar rats exposed to a conditioned emotional stress response (CER) paradigm and a conditioned defensive burying (CDB)

  18. Evaluation of the WHO 2010 grading and AJCC/UICC staging systems in prognostic behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. METHODS: We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were performed. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4-213 months. WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1, 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001. Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p = 0.003 and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p = 0.017. AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p = 0.004 and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p = 0.005 measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease.

  19. Neuroendocrine and neurochemical impact of aggressive social interactions in submissive and dominant mice: implications for stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Marie-Claude; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-04-01

    Social conflicts may engender stress-related behavioural and physiological disturbances in the victims of aggression. In addition, stress-like neurochemical changes and ensuing depressive and anxiety symptoms might also be evident in the perpetrators of aggressive acts. The present investigation assessed basal levels of circulating corticosterone and of brain serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in pre-identified submissive and dominant mice. In addition, brain neurochemical changes were determined following a single or three 15-min aggressive episodes both in submissive mice and in those that dominated the aggressive interplay. Three minutes after single and repeated confrontations, plasma corticosterone levels and 5-HT utilization within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus were increased to a comparable extent in submissive and dominant animals. Interestingly, however, NE utilization within the PFC and hippocampus was augmented to a greater level in submissive mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neuronal functioning was generally responsive to aggressive events, irrespective of social rank, whereas NE neuronal activity within the PFC and hippocampus was more sensitive to the submissive/dominance attributes of the social situation. It is possible that NE and 5-HT variations associated with an aggressive experience contribute to depressive- and anxiety-like manifestations typically observed after such psychosocial stressors, particularly in submissive mice. However, given that 5-HT changes occur irrespective of social rank, these data suggest that a toll is taken on both submissive and dominant mice, leaving them vulnerable to stress-related pathology.

  20. The components of somatostatin and ghrelin systems are altered in neuroendocrine lung carcinoids and associated to clinical-histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Gahete, Manuel D; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael; Salas, Rosa Ortega; Serrano-Blanch, Raquel; Salvatierra, Ángel; Hofland, Leo J; Luque, Raúl M; Gálvez-Moreno, María A; Castaño, Justo P

    2017-07-01

    Lung carcinoids (LCs) are rare tumors that comprise 1-5% of lung malignancies but represent 20-30% of neuroendocrine tumors. Their incidence is progressively increasing and a better characterization of these tumors is required. Alterations in somatostatin (SST)/cortistatin (CORT) and ghrelin systems have been associated to development/progression of various endocrine-related cancers, wherein they may become useful diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the expression levels of ghrelin and SST/CORT system components in LCs, as well as to explore their putative relationship with histological/clinical characteristics. An observational retrospective study was performed; 75 LC patients with clinical/histological characteristics were included. Samples from 46 patients were processed to isolate mRNA from tumor and adjacent non-tumor region, and the expression levels of SST/CORT and ghrelin systems components, determined by quantitative-PCR, were compared to those of 7 normal lung tissues. Patient cohort was characterized by mean age 53±15 years, 48% males, 34% with tobacco exposure; 71.4/28.6% typical/atypical carcinoids, 21.7% incidental tumors, 4.3% functioning tumors, 17.7% with metastasis. SST/CORT and ghrelin system components were expressed at variable levels in a high proportion of tumors, as well as in adjacent non-tumor tissues, while a lower proportion of normal lung samples also expressed these molecules. A gradation was observed from normal non-neoplastic lung tissues, non-tumor adjacent tissue and LCs, being SST, sst4, sst5, GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b overexpressed in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Importantly, several SST/CORT and ghrelin system components displayed significant correlations with relevant clinical parameters, such as necrosis, peritumoral and vascular invasion, or metastasis. Altogether, these data reveal a prominent, widespread expression of key SST/CORT/ghrelin system components in LCs, where they display

  1. Onset, Timing, and Exposure Therapy of Stress Disorders: Mechanistic Insight from a Mathematical Model of Oscillating Neuroendocrine Dynamics (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link...drome (CFS) [4–7]. Since PTSD develops in the aftermath of extreme levels of stress experienced during traumatic incidents like combat, sexual abuse, or...o)− cs), (20) dx dt = F(cs, x), (21) where x = (c, a, o, r) is the vector of fast dynamical vari- ables, and F(cs, x) denotes the right -hand-sides

  2. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  3. Circadian Tick-Talking Across the Neuroendocrine System and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei Circuits: The Enigmatic Communication Between the Molecular and Electrical Membrane Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, M D C

    2015-07-01

    As with many processes in nature, appropriate timing in biological systems is of paramount importance. In the neuroendocrine system, the efficacy of hormonal influence on major bodily functions, such as reproduction, metabolism and growth, relies on timely communication within and across many of the brain's homeostatic systems. The activity of these circuits is tightly orchestrated with the animal's internal physiological demands and external solar cycle by a master circadian clock. In mammals, this master clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), where the ensemble activity of thousands of clock neurones generates and communicates circadian time cues to the rest of the brain and body. Many regions of the brain, including areas with neuroendocrine function, also contain local daily clocks that can provide feedback signals to the SCN. Although much is known about the molecular processes underpinning endogenous circadian rhythm generation in SCN neurones and, to a lesser extent, extra-SCN cells, the electrical membrane clock that acts in partnership with the molecular clockwork to communicate circadian timing across the brain is poorly understood. The present review focuses on some circadian aspects of reproductive neuroendocrinology and processes involved in circadian rhythm communication in the SCN, aiming to identify key gaps in our knowledge of cross-talk between our daily master clock and neuroendocrine function. The intention is to highlight our surprisingly limited understanding of their interaction in the hope that this will stimulate future work in these areas. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. The NPY system and its neural and neuroendocrine regulation of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Ee Cheng; Baldock, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The past decade has seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the interaction between the neural system and bone. While innervation of bone was long appreciated, the discovery of central relays from the hypothalamus to the cells of bone has seen the identification of a number of efferent neural pathways to bone. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system has proven to represent a major central pathway, regulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through signaling of central and peripheral ligands, through specific receptors within the hypothalamus and the osteoblast. Moreover, this pathway is now recognized as acting to coordinate both skeletal and energy homeostasis. This review examines the mechanism and actions of the NPY pathway to regulate bone mass and bone cell activity.

  5. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine and Immunologic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cruz Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta, Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1 were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  6. Assessing effects of environmental chemicals on neuroendocrine systems: potential mechanisms and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Carro, Tiffany; Bohannon, Meredith; Baltos, Leah; Marcell, Allegra M; McKernan, Moira; Dean, Karen M; Lavoie, Emma; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Environmental pollutants encompass a vast array of compounds. Most studies in birds have focused on toxicological effects, with little attention to non-lethal effects. Consequently, it has proven difficult to assess potential risk associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Assessing potential adverse effects due to exposure is further complicated by the great variation that occurs across avian species. These include variations in reproductive strategies, life span, sexual differentiation, and migration. Differences in reproductive strategies, particularly in the developmental patterns and mechanisms for precocial and altricial chicks, predispose birds to wide variations in response to steroids and steroid-like EDCs. We have investigated the effects of EDCs in precocial birds including Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as well as in wild altricial songbirds. Studies in Japanese quail characterized endogenous steroid hormone changes during development and have demonstrated that the developing embryo uses the yolk as a 'steroid hormone depot'. It appears that actual embryonic exposure is quantitatively lower than indicated by the treatment in egg injections and that the true amount of compound necessary for bioactivity may be quite low relative to the actual dosage delivered. Additionally, embryonic exposure to specific EDCs adversely affected sexual differentiation in quail, especially impacting male sexual behavior as well as neural systems, immune response, and thyroid hormones. Many of these studies considered single compounds; however, wild birds are exposed to complex mixtures and multiple compounds. We tested complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at concentrations that bracketed those found in eggs in contaminated regions. Results indicated that the predictive value of the toxic equivalency (TEQ), based on comparative activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) relative to

  7. Neuroendocrine tumour in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumour was found. Neuroendocrine tumours. (NETs) are very rare neoplasms originating from a wide variety of endocrine and nervous system tissue with the ability to produce different hormones. A somatostatin- and gastrin- secreting NET in a patient with HIV ...

  8. Relation among HPA and HPG neuroendocrine systems, transmissible risk and neighborhood quality on development of substance use disorder: results of a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina; Reynolds, Maureen; Gavaler, Judy; Ridenour, Ty; Horner, Michelle; Clark, Duncan; Vanyukov, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown involvement of hormones of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis in the regulation of behaviors that contribute to SUD risk and its intergenerational transmission. Neighborhood environment has also been shown to relate to hormones of these two neuroendocrine systems and behaviors associated with SUD liability. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that (1) parental SUD severity and neighborhood quality correlate with activity of the HPG axis (testosterone level) and HPA axis (cortisol stability), and (2) transmissible risk during childhood mediates these hormone variables on development of SUD measured in adulthood. Transmissible risk for SUD measured by the transmissible liability index (TLI; Vanyukov et al., 2009) along with saliva cortisol and plasma testosterone were prospectively measured in boys at ages 10-12 and 16. Neighborhood quality was measured using a composite score encompassing indicators of residential instability and economic disadvantage. SUD was assessed at age 22. Neither hormone variable cross-sectionally correlated with transmissible risk measured at ages 10-12 and 16. However, the TLI at age 10-12 predicted testosterone level and cortisol stability at age 16. Moreover, testosterone level, correlated with cortisol stability at age 16, predicted SUD at age 22. HPA and HPG axes activity do not underlie variation in TLI, however, high transmissible risk in childhood predicts neuroendocrine system activity presaging development of SUD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation Among HPA and HPG Neuroendocrine Systems, Transmissible Risk and Neighborhood Quality on Development of Substance Use Disorder: Results of a 10-year Prospective Study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina; Reynolds, Maureen; Gavaler, Judy; Ridenour, Ty; Horner, Michelle; Clark, Duncan; Vanyukov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown involvement of hormones of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis in the regulation of behaviors that also contribute to SUD risk and its intergenerational transmission. Neighborhood environment has also been shown to relate to hormones of these two neuroendocrine systems and behaviors associated with SUD liability. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that 1) parental SUD severity and neighborhood quality correlate with activity of the HPG axis (testosterone level) and HPA axis (cortisol stability), and 2) transmissible risk during childhood mediates these hormone variables on development of SUD measured in adulthood. Method Transmissible risk for SUD measured by the Transmissible Liability Index (TLI; Vanyukov et al., 2009) along with saliva cortisol and plasma testosterone were prospectively measured in boys at ages 10-12 and 16. Neighborhood quality was measured using a composite score encompassing indicators of residential instability and economic disadvantage. SUD was assessed at age 22. Results Neither hormone variable cross-sectionally correlated with transmissible risk measured at ages 10-12 and 16. However, the TLI at age 10-12 predicted testosterone level and cortisol stability at age 16. Moreover, testosterone level, correlated with cortisol stability at age 16, predicted SUD at age 22. Conclusion HPA and HPG axes activity do not underlie variation in TLI, however, high transmissible risk in childhood predicts neuroendocrine system activity presaging development of SUD. PMID:22867990

  10. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K eSasse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on HPA axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid and cardiovascular (tachycardia response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across multiple response

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  12. Early social stress in female guinea pigs induces a masculinization of adult behavior and corresponding changes in brain and neuroendocrine function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Sylvia; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Swaab, Dick F.; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate, in guinea pigs, the effects of pre- and early postnatal social stress on the functioning of hormonal-, autonomic-, behavioral-, and limbic-brain systems. Dams had either lived in groups with a constant composition (i.e. stable social environment) or in

  13. NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS OF THE PERIPHERAL AND THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM SHARE NEUROENDOCRINE N-CAM-RELATED ANTIGENS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, WM; DELEIJ, L; TROJANOWSKI, JQ

    1991-01-01

    The current study describes the presence of neuroendocrine antigens of peripheral and central neural tumors using eight monoclonal antibodies raised to small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which recognize "neural/neuroendocrine" or "neural" antigens, as defined by their reaction pattern in normal

  14. Neuroendocrine tumor presenting like lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare but diverse group of malignancies that arise in a wide range of organ systems, including the mediastinum. Differential diagnosis includes other masses arising in the middle mediastinum such as lymphoma, pericardial, bronchogenic and enteric cysts, metastatic tumors, xanthogranuloma, systemic granuloma, diaphragmatic hernia, meningocele and paravertebral abscess. Case presentation We present a case of 42-year-old Caucasian man with a neuroendocrine tumor of the middle-posterior mediastinum and liver metastases, which resembled a lymphoma on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion The differential diagnosis in patients with mediastinal masses and liver lesions should include neuroendocrine tumor.

  15. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system: a potential target for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Das, Satya; Berlin, Jordan; Shi, Chanjuan

    2017-10-13

    Poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system has a dismal prognosis with limited treatment options. This study aimed to investigate expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in these tumors. Thirty-seven patients with a poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system were identified. Their electronic medical records, pathology reports and pathology slides were reviewed for demographics, clinical history and pathologic features. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1 and PD-L1 and expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was analyzed and compared between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. The mean age of patients was 61years old with 18 males and 19 females. The colorectum (n=20) was the most common primary site, other primary sites included the pancreaticobiliary system, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and ampulla. Expression of PD-1 was detected on tumor cells (n=6, 16%) as well as on tumor-associated immune cells (n=23, 63%). The 6 cases with PD-1 expression on tumor cells also had the expression on immune cells. Expression of PD-L1 was visualized on tumor cells in 5 cases (14%), and on tumor-associated immune cells in 10 cases (27%). There was no difference in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In conclusion, PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. Checkpoint blockade targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may have a potential role in treating patients with this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  17. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Edward Lewis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The vgf gene (non-acronymic is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68kDa precursor polypeptide which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific pro-hormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles and in this mini-review we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction and cognition.

  18. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  19. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  20. Relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling and neuroendocrine function – A perspective on extrinsic hypothalamic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E Ganella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex neural circuits within the hypothalamus that govern essential autonomic processes and associated behaviors signal using amino acid and monoamine transmitters and a variety of neuropeptide (hormone modulators, often via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and associated cellular pathways. Relaxin-3 is a recently identified neuropeptide that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Neurons expressing relaxin-3 are located in the brainstem, but broadly innervate the entire limbic system including the hypothalamus. Extensive anatomical data in rodents and non-human primate, and recent regulatory and functional data, suggest relaxin-3 signaling via its cognate GPCR, RXFP3, has a broad range of effects on neuroendocrine function associated with stress responses, feeding and metabolism, motivation and reward, and possibly sexual behavior and reproduction. Therefore, this article aims to highlight the growing appreciation of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system as an important ‘extrinsic’ regulator of the neuroendocrine axis by reviewing its neuroanatomy and its putative roles in arousal-, stress- and feeding-related behaviors and links to associated neural substrates and signaling networks. Current evidence identifies RXFP3 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuroendocrine disorders and related behavioral dysfunction.

  1. Changes in Galanin Systems in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, Karen; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Huiying; Kirouac, Gilbert; Vrontakis, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic syndrome triggered by exposure to trauma and a failure to recover from a normal negative emotional reaction to traumatic stress. The neurobiology of PTSD and the participation of neuropeptides in the neural systems and circuits that control fear and anxiety are not fully understood. The long-term dysregulation of neuropeptide systems contributes to the development of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) and its receptors participate in anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors via the modulation of neuroendocrine and monoaminergic systems. The objective of this research was to investigate how Gal expression changes in the brain of rats 2 weeks after exposure to footshock. Rats exposed to footshocks were subdivided into high responders (HR; immobility>60%) and low responders (LR; immobilityPTSD development.

  2. Development of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Sarah; Stewart, Iain; Placzek, Marysia

    2016-03-15

    The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual. Here, we summarize studies that begin to reveal how different territories and cell types within the neuroendocrine hypothalamus are assembled in an integrated manner to enable function, thus supporting the organism's ability to survive and thrive. We discuss how signaling pathways and transcription factors dictate the appearance and regionalization of the hypothalamic primordium, the maintenance of progenitor cells, and their specification and differentiation into neurons. We comment on recent studies that harness such programmes for the directed differentiation of human ES/iPS cells. We summarize how developmental plasticity is maintained even into adulthood and how integration between the hypothalamus and peripheral body is established in the median eminence and neurohypophysis. Analysis of model organisms, including mouse, chick and zebrafish, provides a picture of how complex, yet elegantly coordinated, developmental programmes build glial and neuronal cells around the third ventricle of the brain. Such conserved processes enable the hypothalamus to mediate its function as a central integrating and response-control mediator for the homeostatic processes that are critical to life. Early indications suggest that deregulation of these events may underlie multifaceted pathological conditions and dysfunctional physiology in humans, such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. The protective role of exercise on stress system dysregulation and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Fountoulakis, Stelios

    2006-11-01

    The human body, when under threat, elicits a set of neuroendocrine responses, including an increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines from the adrenal gland and the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These hormonal secretions allow a "fight or flight" response by mobilizing endogenous substrate and inducing a state of insulin resistance in the liver and skeletal muscles. Although the stress response was essential in ancient times to survive physical aggression, this threat has disappeared in our industrialized societies. However, in today's environment, the same stress responses can be elicited by emotional stimuli or professional and social stress. Such psychological stress may be protracted and unrelated to an increased metabolic demand. Thus, the energy mobilized is not used but is stored in visceral fat depots by the combined action of hypercortisolism and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, chronic activation of the stress system causes suppression of the gonadal, growth hormone (GH), and thyroid axes. These metabolic disturbances, in concert, lead to the clinical expression of a number of comorbidities including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction, all components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors. Moreover, chronic stress has deleterious effects on the brain and, in particular, affects hippocampal structure and function leading to cognitive and mood disturbances. Importantly, this stress-induced clinical phenotype is likely to be exaggerated in the presence of physical inactivity, resulting in a "stress-induced/exercise deficient" phenotype. Assuming that the stress response is a neuroendocrine mechanism that occurs in anticipation of physical action, then physical activity should be the natural means to prevent the consequences of stress. Indeed, accumulating evidence documents the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing or ameliorating the metabolic and

  4. Association between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and physical health-related quality of life: a path model study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Trude; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Hofoss, Dag; DeVon, Holli A

    2016-01-19

    A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) provides challenges to patients and clinicians due to physical side effects of and mental response to treatment resulting in increased perceived stress. General self-efficacy, social support and cancer-related stress are key factors in coping. Thus, knowledge of these factors may be of value in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and HRQoL in patients with NET using a path model. 196 Norwegian patients living with NET were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were: patients with tumors restricted to the GI tract; ability to speak and write Norwegian; over 18 years of age; undergoing medical treatment for NET. Measures used in the study were background characteristics, Health-related Quality of Life (SF-36), the Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Self-efficacy and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Relationships between sociodemographic variables, general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and mental and physical components scores were tested by path analysis with AMOS 22 using maximum standard likelihood estimation. The sample consisted of 50.5 % women and the average age was 65 years and the median disease duration was 4 years. Sociodemographic variables of gender, education and whether the patient lived alone or with someone were unrelated (directly or indirectly) to HRQoL. Age was directly and negatively correlated with physical HRQoL, general self-efficacy and social support in a well-fitting path model. General self-efficacy modified the negative effects of age on physical HRQoL. Physical and mental HRQoL were not associated with cancer-related stress. Higher social support was related to less stress. Intervening to improve general self-efficacy and social support for patients with NET may improve their HRQoL.

  5. [Some peculiarities in the manifestation of oxidative stress and current status of antioxidant system in adolescents of different age groups with obesity, complicated by insulin resistance and without it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, D K; Davydov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The study has shown that neuroendocrine obesity in adolescents is associated with the formation of oxidative stress which is more pronounced in early than in late puberty. Obesity with concomitant insulin resistance increases manifestations of oxidative stress accompanied by a compensatory increase in the activity of catabolic enzymes and reduced capacity of the defense antioxidant system in late puberty. These alterations may be caused by age-related changes in hormonal secretion under conditions of insulin resistance in late puberty.

  6. Differences in FKBP51 Regulation Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress Correlate with Individual Stress Sensitivity: Influence of Paroxetine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Klaus V; Marinescu, Daria; Hartmann, Jakob; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Labermaier, Christiana; Scharf, Sebastian H; Liebl, Claudia; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2012-01-01

    Various clinical studies have identified FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) as a target gene involved in the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. Furthermore, FKBP51 has been shown to affect glucocorticoid receptor signaling by sensitivity modulation and it is implicated in stress reactivity as well as in molecular mechanisms of stress vulnerability and resilience. We investigated the physiological, behavioral, and neuroendocrine parameters in an established chronic stress model both directly after stress and after a recovery period of 3 weeks and also studied the efficacy of paroxetine in this model. We then examined FKBP51 mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral part of the hippocampus and correlated the expression to behavioral and endocrine parameters. We show robust chronic stress effects in physiological, behavioral, and neuroendocrine parameters, which were only slightly affected by paroxetine treatment. On the contrary, paroxetine led to a disruption of the neuroendocrine system. FKBP51 expression was significantly increased directly after the stress period and correlated with behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters. Taken together, we were able to further elucidate the role of FKBP51 in the mechanisms of stress resilience and vulnerability, especially with respect to behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters. These findings strongly support the concept of FKBP51 as a marker for glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and its involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:22871917

  7. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  8. Supervising System Stress in Multiple Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Oet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an extended financial stress measure that considers the supervisory objective of identifying risks to the stability of the financial system. The measure provides a continuous and bounded signal of financial stress using daily public market data. Broad coverage of material financial system markets over time is achieved by leveraging dynamic credit weights. We consider how this measure can be used to monitor, analyze, and alert financial system stress.

  9. Clinical benefit of systemic treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic and gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours according to ESMO-MCBS and ASCO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, L D; Veenendaal, L M van; Schuller, Y; Zandee, W T; de Herder, W W; Tesselaar, M E T; Klümpen, H J; Walenkamp, A M E

    2017-09-26

    BackgroundAssessment of clinical benefit of systemic treatments of rare diseases including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is challenging. Recently several tools have been developed to grade clinical benefit of cancer drugs. European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) developed and revised the ASCO framework consisting of the Net Health Benefit (NHB) score juxtaposed against the costs of the treatment. In this review we graded systemic treatments for GEP-NET patients with both frameworks.MethodsThe electronic databases (PubMed, Embase) were searched for papers reporting comparative trials, conducted in adult GEP-NET patients in the English language. Papers were assessed according to the ESMO-MCBS and the NHB part of the ASCO revised Framework (NHB-ASCO-F) by 4 independent assessors, discrepancies were discussed.ResultsThe search yielded 32 trials of which 6 trials were eligible for grading with the ESMO-MCBS resulting in scores of 2 or 3. Eight trials were eligible for grading with the NHB-ASCO-F; resulting in scores between 37.6 and 57.4. Trials that were not primary assessable by the tools were analysed separately. Consensus between assessors was reached in 68% of trials with the ESMO-MCBS and in 23% of trials with the NHB-ASCO-F.ConclusionThe currently used systemic treatments for GEP-NET patients had low scores according to the NHB-ASCO-F and none could be graded as meaningful clinical beneficial according to the ESMO-MCBS. Despite the low incidence, the heterogeneous patient population and relatively long natural course of NET, future studies on new treatment modalities should aim for high clinical benefit outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  11. [The relationship between neuroendocrine dysfunction and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, D B; Mingazov, A Kh; Izarovskaya, I V; Babin, K A; Sinitsky, A I

    2015-01-01

    to study the relationship between dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism. Authors examined 46 men and women, aged 60-80 years, with alcoholism. Contents of cortisol, lipid peroxidation products and the level of an oxidatively modified protein were measured. A decrease in blood cortisol content and correlations between its level and activity of free-radical oxidation were identified. The severity of neuroendocrine dysfunction in old patients was sex-related. It has been suggested that the impairment of HPA system activity may be a cause of oxidative stress and development of alcoholism.

  12. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-01-01

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of “neuroendocrine self-peptides” has been proposed, together with the definition of “neuroendocrine self.” Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic

  13. Stress and Female Reproductive System: Disruption of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/Opiate Balance by Sympathetic Nerve Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays stress is an integral part of everyday living and the physiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to stressful situations have been extensively studied for decades. The stress response is a necessary mechanism but disrupts homeostatic process and it is sub served by a complex system located in both the central nervous system (CNS and the periphery. Stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Normal activation of the HPA axis is essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and responses to stress and they are critical for adapting to changes in the external environment. The regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classical feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The present overview focuses on the neuroendocrine infrastructure of the adaptive response to stress and its effects on the female reproductive system

  14. Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Immunohistochemistry Department Of Cancer Institute 1996 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani F

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed neuroendocrine system (D.N.S consists of a wide variety of cells that are present in the central and peripheral nervous system and in many classic endocrine organs and different tissues such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, skin, prostate, breast and also their neoplasm show neuroendocrine differentiation by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry or biochemical techniques:"nMaterials and Methods: The present study has been carried out by case-series method in order to evaluating the characteristics of all types of neuroendocrine carcinoma: different anatomical locations during 5 years period in immunohistochemistry department of cancer institute."nResults: The diagnosis of 109 cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma consisting of neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, carcinoid tumor and merkel cell carcinoma are confirmed that among them the most common diagnosis was related to neuroendocrine carcinoma (50.5 percent. The most prevalent age group was 40-49 years and male to female distribution were 56 percent and 44 percent respectively. Anatomical distribution of tumor show that about 30 percent of cases were metastatic carcinoma, 30 percent in thyroid, respiratory tract and head and neck region and remainder in a variety of tissues. In over 50 percent of cases one of endocrinoid patterns as trabecular, organoid or mixed of them were seen."nConclusion: Immunohistochemically N.S.E (Neuron Specific Enolase show high sensitivity with 96 percent positive reaction and more specific endocrine markers as chromogranin A in 80 percent and synaptophysin only in 24 percent because of lesser application of the latter. Also epithelial markers such as cytokeratin and E.M.A."n(Epithelial Membrane Antigen were positive in 69 percent and 74 percent respectively. Mean survival rate of all neuroendocrine carcinoma reached to 4.8 years with lowest survival of 4.3 years among small cell carcinoma and

  15. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    ) expansion of work on interactions of the neuroendocrine system and fathering behavior to a wider array of paternal behaviors and taxa (e.g., currently, studies of the interactions of testosterone and paternal care largely focus on songbirds, whereas studies of the interactions of corticosterone, prolactin, and paternal care in times of stress focus primarily on seabirds); and (5) more deliberate study of exceptions to commonly held assumptions about hormone-paternal behavior interactions (such as the prevailing assumptions that elevations in androgens and glucocorticoids are universally disruptive to paternal care). Ultimately, investigations that take an intentionally integrative approach to understanding the social, evolutionary, and physiological influences on fathering behavior will make great strides toward refining our understanding of the complex nature by which paternal behavior in birds is regulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Individualized Stress Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  17. Individualized Stress Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  18. Increased percentages of regulatory T cells are associated with inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychological stress and poorer health status in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia

    2016-05-01

    The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.

  19. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  20. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  1. Psychoneuroendocrine research in depression. I. Hormone levels of different neuroendocrine axes and the dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, R; Lesch, K P

    1989-01-01

    Psychoneuroendocrinology is of major importance in the biological research of depression. Most studies have focussed on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but other endocrine systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have also been shown to be involved in the psychobiology of depression. There are close interrelations between various endocrine axes which possibly are affected during depressive illness. A variety of neuroendocrine abnormalities has been detected in depressive disorder but the pathophysiology of these derangements remains still unclear. Although the currently used neuroendocrine tests are not of diagnostic validity they may help to clarify the pathophysiological significance of the complex regulatory mechanisms of different neuroendocrine axes in affective disorders. Neuroendocrine regulation is determined both by peripheral and central mechanisms which both have to be adequately considered as well as potent interactions between various endocrine systems in further neuroendocrine depression research.

  2. Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation; Proceedings of the International Symposium, Snowmass-at-Aspen, Colo., July 17-19, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, E. (Editor); Gispen, W. H.; Marks, B. H.; De Wied, D.

    1973-01-01

    Subjects related to the characterization of neuroendocrine systems are discussed, taking into account the need for the precise identification and rigorous description of their operations. Steroid effects on neuroendocrine system performance are considered along with biogenic amine effects on neuroendocrine systems and the influence of drugs of abuse on neuroendocrine behavior. Other topics explored include pituitary-adrenal influences on avoidance and approach behavior of the rat, the adrenocortical mediation of the effects of early life experiences, and the implication of noradrenaline in avoidance learning in the rat. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  3. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  5. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-10-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  6. Neuroendocrine effects of cytokines in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, C

    1993-01-01

    The necessity ot maintain and/or restore homeostasis is an essential feature of mammals. This requires complex interactions between body cells, such as those from the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and in particular implies that the occurrence of immune activation be conveyed to the brain. It is now widely recognized that following infection, injury or inflammation, some immune cells (particularly macrophages) produce polypeptides called cytokines, interleukins or lymphokines /48/. These proteins provide the basis for intercellular communication between leukocytes (hence the name "interleukins") and mediate the immunoinflammatory responses (in particular T and B lymphocyte proliferation) /4,177/. In addition, interleukins (IL) can enter the general circulation and reach cells of the neuroendocrine axes, a phenomenon which represents one arm of the bidirectional communication links between the immune and the endocrine systems /25/. The early events which take place after presentation of an antigen (the so-called "acute-phase response" /89/) include metabolic and endocrine changes, such as changes in the circulating levels of insulin, TSH, GH, LH and ACTH, as well as adrenal and gonadal steroids /7,14/. This article reviews our present state of knowledge with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes of the rodent in response to interleukins.

  7. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  8. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  9. Stress system dysregulation in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder associated with comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, R; Eichler, A; Distler, J; Golub, Y; Kratz, O; Moll, G H

    2017-12-01

    Because chronic stress is an important risk factor for anxiety states and depressive disorders, we studied hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic system activity via changes in cortisol and alpha amylase activity levels in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (n = 26) with comorbid depression and a healthy comparison group (n = 26). Morning plasma cortisol and diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity were assessed, also reactivity of HPA-axis, sAA activity, and heart rate following a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test for children). GAD patients with comorbid depression showed increased morning plasma and salivary cortisol levels, ameliorating throughout in-patient treatment, and higher sAA activity in their diurnal profile. Both HPA and sympathetic activity positively correlated with the severity of anxiety and depression. We also demonstrated a blunted HPA and sympathetic response to acute stress in patients. This pattern of neuroendocrine and sympathetic changes seems to be distinct from the one previously reported in pediatric patients with only social anxiety or depressive disorders. We propose morning plasma and saliva cortisol levels as potential physiological indicators for supporting the evaluation of symptoms' severity and treatment progress in children with GAD and comorbid depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Characterizing the neurotranscriptomic states in alternative stress coping styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Ryan Y; Lamm, Melissa S; Godwin, John

    2015-01-01

    Animals experience stress in many contexts and often successfully cope. Individuals exhibiting the proactive versus reactive stress coping styles display qualitatively different behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors...

  11. Stress, glucocorticoids and ageing of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Moisés Evandro

    2005-03-01

    Ageing has been associated with immunological changes (immunosenescence) that resemble those observed following chronic stress or glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. These changes include thymic involution, lower number of naïve T cells, reduced cell-mediated immunity, and poor vaccination response to new antigens. It follows that immunosenescence could be associated with changes of peripheral GC levels. Indeed, when compared with young subjects, healthy elders are more stressed and show activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, both beneficial and undesirable effects of GCs ultimately depend on the target tissue sensitivity to these steroids. Recent data indicate that peripheral lymphocytes from elders respond poorly to GC treatment in vitro. The present review summarizes recent findings which suggest that immunosenescence may be closely related to both psychological distress and stress hormones. Furthermore, chronically stressed elderly subjects may be particularly at risk of stress-related pathology because of further alterations in GC-immune signalling. Finally, the neuroendocrine hypothesis of immunosenescence is finally reconsidered in which the age-related increase in the cortisol/DHEA ratio is major determinant of immunological changes observed during ageing.

  12. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Functional techniques are playing a pivotal role in the imaging of cancer today. Our aim was to compare, on a head-to-head basis, 3 functional imaging techniques in patients with histologically verified neuroendocrine tumors: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In......-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide, scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and (18)F-FDG PET. METHODS: Ninety-six prospectively enrolled patients with neuroendocrine tumors underwent SRS, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET on average within 40 d. The functional images were fused with low......-positive, of which 3 were also (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy-positive, giving a combined overall sensitivity of 96%. SRS also exceeded (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET based on the number of lesions detected (393, 185, and 225, respectively) and tumor subtypes. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was superior to (18)F...

  13. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  15. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  16. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  17. [Neuroendocrine factors in hypertension during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Minodora; Ghiciuc, Cristina-Mihaela; Tarţău, Liliana; Lupuşoru, Cătălina-Elena

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension is a condition of high blood pressure during early and mid-pregnancy. This type of hypertension is much like the chronic type, but it occurs only when the woman is pregnant and resolves completely after delivery. to evaluate some stress hormones in both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. The study investigated the correlation between pregnancy induced hypertension and different immune/inflammatory and other markers. This exploratory investigation was performed on pregnant women diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension, admitted to the lasi Cuza Voda Hospital. The psychometric assessment was performed by using the daily stress test, daily hassle scale, blood pressure measurements, and determination of anthropometrical parameters. Some parameters, such as the neuroendocrine and immune/inflammatory ones, and specific parameters for pregnancy hypertension were determined. Our study revealed that blood pressure values presented significant differences between systolic, but not diastolic blood pressure values (p < 0.05). In 75% of subjects blood cortisol levels were not changed. Daily stress level assessment proved that low potential factors and an annoying environment had a high influence on both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertensive women also presented leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The research results showed that plasma cortisol level was higher in hypertensive pregnant women, compared with normotensives.

  18. Update on neuroendocrine regulation and medical intervention of reproduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Taylor, W Michael

    2008-01-01

    In avian species, reproductive disorders and undesirable behaviors commonly reflect abnormalities in the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive system. Current treatment options are often disappointing, show no long-lasting effect, or have significant side effects. A possible reason for our lack of success is a dearth of knowledge of the underlying neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomous physiology of the reproductive processes. Tremendous progress has been made in the last few years in our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in birds. Advantage should be taken of these experimentally derived data to develop appropriate and safe treatment protocols for avian patients suffering from reproductive disorders.

  19. THE COCHLEA AS AN INDEPENDENT NEUROENDOCRINE ORGAN: EXPRESSION AND POSSIBLE ROLES OF A LOCAL HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS-EQUIVALENT SIGNALING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basappa, Johnvesly; Graham, Christine E.; Turcan, Sevin; Vetter, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    A key property possessed by the mammalian cochlea is its ability to dynamically alter its own sensitivity. Because hair cells and ganglion cells are prone to damage following exposure to loud sound, extant mechanisms limiting cochlear damage include modulation involving both the mechanical (via outer hair cell motility) and neural signaling (via inner hair cell-ganglion cell synapses) steps of peripheral auditory processing. Feedback systems such as that embodied by the olivocochlear system can alter sensitivity, but respond only after stimulus encoding, allowing potentially damaging sounds to impact the inner ear before sensitivity is adjusted. Less well characterized are potential cellular signaling systems involved in protection against metabolic stress and resultant damage. Although pharmacological manipulation of the olivocochlear system may hold some promise for attenuating cochlear damage, targeting this system may still allow damage to occur that does not depend on a fully functional feedback loop for its mitigation. Thus, understanding endogenous cell signaling systems involved in cochlear protection may lead to new strategies and therapies for prevention of cochlear damage and consequent hearing loss. We have recently discovered a novel cochlear signaling system that is molecularly equivalent to the classic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This cochlear HPA-equivalent system functions to balance auditory sensitivity and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss, and also protects against cellular metabolic insults resulting from exposures to ototoxic drugs. This system may represent a local cellular response system designed to mitigate damage arising from various types of insult. PMID:22484018

  20. Altered Neuroendocrine Immune Responses, a Two-Sword Weapon against Traumatic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan; Yang, Xuetao; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The immune system is not only modulated by the neuroendocrine system, but also can modulate the biological functions of the neuroendocrine system. The interactive linkage of these three systems precipitates the complicated space-time patterns for the courses of traumatic inflammation. Recently, compelling evidence indicates that the network linkage pattern that initiating agents of neuroendocrine responses, regulatory elements of immune cells and effecter targets for immune regulatory molecules arouse the resistance mechanism disorders, which supplies the beneficial enlightenment for the diagnosis and therapy of traumatic complications from the view of translational medicine. Here we review the alternative protective and detrimental roles as well as possible mechanisms of the neuroendocrine immune responses in traumatic inflammation.

  1. The frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Selim M H; Goodwill, Joseph; Lim, Eric; Yap, Yoong K; Wells, Athol U; Hansell, David M; Davis, Peter; Selim, Abdel-Ghani; Abdel-Ghani, Syed; Goldstraw, Peter; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NEH) in resected neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas and to study its relationship to selected clinical parameters. Random blocks without tumour from resected typical carcinoids (TCs, n = 46), atypical carcinoids (ACs, n = 14), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs, n = 18), small cell carcinomas (SCLCs, n = 22), adenocarcinomas (ADENOs, n = 26) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, n = 18) were stained for CD56 and evaluated for linear proliferations, cell aggregates (>4 CD56+ cells), and tumourlets (<5 mm with basement membrane invasion). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of NEH in all neuroendocrine tumours (TC/AC/LCNEC/SCLC, 35/100, 35%) (P = 0.009) when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas (ADENO/SCC, 6/44, 14%) and in the frequency of NEH in TC (21/46, 46%) versus all other tumours (AC/LCNEC/SCLC/SCC/ADENO, 20/98, 20%) (P = 0.001). There was increased frequency of NEH in peripheral TCs (8/13, 62%) compared with central TCs (14/33, 43%) (P = 0.33). There was no association between smoking history and NEH. Clinical and imaging data showed no evidence of an increased frequency of obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with NEH. NEH is significantly increased in the background lung of neuroendocrine tumours when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, supportive data for NEH having neoplastic potential.

  2. Fetal alcohol programming of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin system by epigenetic mechanisms and later life vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdash, Rola; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2014-09-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, one of the major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, immune functions, and energy homeostasis, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). These effects are manifested in POMC neurons by a decrease in Pomc gene expression, a decrement in the levels of its derived peptide β-endorphin and a dysregulation of the stress response in the adult offspring. The HPA axis is a major neuroendocrine system with pivotal physiological functions and mode of regulation. This system has been shown to be perturbed by prenatal alcohol exposure. It has been demonstrated that the perturbation of the HPA axis by FAE is long-lasting and is linked to molecular, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes in exposed individuals. Recently, we showed that the dysregulation of the POMC system function by FAE is induced by epigenetic mechanisms such as hypermethylation of Pomc gene promoter and an alteration in histone marks in POMC neurons. This developmental programming of the POMC system by FAE altered the transcriptome in POMC neurons and induced a hyperresponse to stress in adulthood. These long-lasting epigenetic changes influenced subsequent generations via the male germline. We also demonstrated that the epigenetic programming of the POMC system by FAE was reversed in adulthood with the application of the inhibitors of DNA methylation or histone modifications. Thus, prenatal environmental influences, such as alcohol exposure, could epigenetically modulate POMC neuronal circuits and function to shape adult behavioral patterns. Identifying specific epigenetic factors in hypothalamic POMC neurons that are modulated by fetal alcohol and target Pomc gene could be potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat stress-related diseases in patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. The Brain on Stress: Toward an Integrative Approach to Brain, Body and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stress hormone receptors in the hippocampal formation has fostered research showing that the brain, including its higher cognitive centers, is the key organ of the response to stressors, both in terms of perception of what is stressful and for its ability to determine the consequences of stress for both brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems. These systems are, in turn, responsible for either successful adaptation or pathophysiology due...

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos-Kudła, Beata; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Foltyn, Wanda; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Krzakowski, Maciej; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Lipiński, Michał; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nawrocki, Sergiusz; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw. Drawing from the extensive experience of centres dealing with this type of neoplasms, we hope that we have managed to develop the optimal management system, applying the most recent achievements in the field of medicine, for these patients, and that it can be implemented effectively in Poland. These management guidelines have been arranged in the following order: gastric and duodenal NENs (including gastrinoma); pancreatic NENs; NENs of the small intestine and appendix, and colorectal NENs.

  5. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese quail. The Japanese quail provides an excellent avian model for testing EDCs because this species has well-characterized reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. Considerable research has been conducted in quail in which the effects of embryonic steroid exposure have been studied relative to reproductive behavior. Moreover, developmental processes have been studied extensively and include investigations of the reproductive axis, thyroid system, and stress and immune responses. We have conducted a number of studies, which have considered long-term neuroendocrine consequences as well as behavioral responses to steroids. Some of these studies have specifically tested the effects of embryonic steroid exposure on later reproductive function in a multigenerational context. A multigenerational exposure provides a basis for understanding potential exposure scenarios in the field. In addition, potential routes of exposure to EDCs for avian species are being considered, as well as differential effects due to stage of the life cycle at exposure to an EDC. The studies in our laboratory have used both diet and egg injection as modes of exposure for Japanese quail. In this way, birds were exposed to a specific dose of an EDC at a selected stage in development by injection. Alternatively, dietary exposure appears to be a primary route of exposure; therefore experimental exposure through the diet mimics potential field situations. Thus, experiments should consider a number of aspects of exposure when attempting to replicate field exposures to EDCs.

  6. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    basal Crf mRNA in the central nucleus of the amygdala, but no additional effects of stress or caffeine consumption were observed in other brain regions. Together these findings suggest that adolescent caffeine consumption may increase vulnerability to psychiatric disorders including anxiety-related disorders, and this vulnerability may result from dysregulation of the neuroendocrine stress response system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress Response, Brain Noradrenergic System and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Radkowski, Marek; Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response. In particular, we present the mechanisms responsible for thinking inflexibility often observed under highly stressful conditions. Finally, the main directions for future research are highlighted.

  8. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  9. Systemic Cold Stress Adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Hanak, Anne-Mette; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most important model organisms nowadays phylogenetically situated between higher plants and animals (Merchant et al. 2007). Stress adaptation of this unicellular model algae is in the focus because of its relevance to biomass and biofuel production. Here, we have studied cold stress adaptation of C. reinhardtii hitherto not described for this algae whereas intensively studied in higher plants. Toward this goal, high throughput mass spectrometry was employed to integrate proteome, metabolome, physiological and cell-morphological changes during a time-course from 0 to 120 h. These data were complemented with RT-qPCR for target genes involved in central metabolism, signaling, and lipid biosynthesis. Using this approach dynamics in central metabolism were linked to cold-stress dependent sugar and autophagy pathways as well as novel genes in C. reinhardtii such as CKIN1, CKIN2 and a hitherto functionally not annotated protein named CKIN3. Cold stress affected extensively the physiology and the organization of the cell. Gluconeogenesis and starch biosynthesis pathways are activated leading to a pronounced starch and sugar accumulation. Quantitative lipid profiles indicate a sharp decrease in the lipophilic fraction and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting this as a mechanism of maintaining membrane fluidity. The proteome is completely remodeled during cold stress: specific candidates of the ribosome and the spliceosome indicate altered biosynthesis and degradation of proteins important for adaptation to low temperatures. Specific proteasome degradation may be mediated by the observed cold-specific changes in the ubiquitinylation system. Sparse partial least squares regression analysis was applied for protein correlation network analysis using proteins as predictors and Fv/Fm, FW, total lipids, and starch as responses. We applied also Granger causality analysis and revealed correlations between proteins and

  10. Systemic cold stress adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Hanak, Anne-Mette; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most important model organisms nowadays phylogenetically situated between higher plants and animals (Merchant et al. 2007). Stress adaptation of this unicellular model algae is in the focus because of its relevance to biomass and biofuel production. Here, we have studied cold stress adaptation of C. reinhardtii hitherto not described for this algae whereas intensively studied in higher plants. Toward this goal, high throughput mass spectrometry was employed to integrate proteome, metabolome, physiological and cell-morphological changes during a time-course from 0 to 120 h. These data were complemented with RT-qPCR for target genes involved in central metabolism, signaling, and lipid biosynthesis. Using this approach dynamics in central metabolism were linked to cold-stress dependent sugar and autophagy pathways as well as novel genes in C. reinhardtii such as CKIN1, CKIN2 and a hitherto functionally not annotated protein named CKIN3. Cold stress affected extensively the physiology and the organization of the cell. Gluconeogenesis and starch biosynthesis pathways are activated leading to a pronounced starch and sugar accumulation. Quantitative lipid profiles indicate a sharp decrease in the lipophilic fraction and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting this as a mechanism of maintaining membrane fluidity. The proteome is completely remodeled during cold stress: specific candidates of the ribosome and the spliceosome indicate altered biosynthesis and degradation of proteins important for adaptation to low temperatures. Specific proteasome degradation may be mediated by the observed cold-specific changes in the ubiquitinylation system. Sparse partial least squares regression analysis was applied for protein correlation network analysis using proteins as predictors and Fv/Fm, FW, total lipids, and starch as responses. We applied also Granger causality analysis and revealed correlations between proteins and

  11. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. Neuroendocrine tumors mainly occur in the broncopolmonary system and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. We are going to describe two cases and to discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and slow-growing neoplasias derived from neuroendocrine cells. We describe two cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast and discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Case report: Our patients are two Italian females (38 and 36 year-old with no family history of breast disease. In both cases the diagnosis was confirmed after surgery, when immunohistochemistry revealed a neuroendocrine differentiation of the tumor. The patients are alive and disease free after more than ten years of follow-up. Conclusion: Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. After surgery, a strict follow-up including octreotide scan should be performed and this doesn’t differ from the one of the usual breast carcinoma.

  12. The microbiome: A key regulator of stress and neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Rea

    2016-10-01

    In this review, the involvement of the gastrointestinal microbiota in stress-mediated and immune-mediated modulation of neuroendocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems and the consequential behaviour is considered. We also focus on the mechanisms by which commensal gut microbiota can regulate neuroinflammation and further aim to exploit our understanding of their role in stress-related disorders as a consequence of neuroinflammatory processes.

  13. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating ...

  14. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Svendstrup; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  15. Stress factors for the deformation systems of zirconium under multiaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1976-11-12

    Calculation of the resolved shear stresses (rss) that act on various deformation systems in metals and, in particular, the determination of those systems subjected to the highest rss by a given set of multiaxial stresses is of importance in the study of texture development, yielding and plastic flow. This study examines the geometrical influences of any stress state on the deformation modes of zirconium. One slip mode and three twinning modes, comprising twenty-one deformation systems, are considered. Stress factors computed for these systems are shown on a coordinate system that allows specimen orientation, most highly stressed deformation system, and stress factor to be shown without ambiguity. The information in this report allows the determination of the rss that results from any multiaxial stress state; this information also allows the prediction of the deformation modes that might operate for any specimen orientation in that strss state.

  16. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and bio......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...

  17. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila; Artiko Vera; Pavlović Smiljana; Šobić-Šaranović Dragana; Obradović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT) methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1) somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide) or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC); 2) noradrenaline a...

  18. [EGFR-expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, C; Winter, B U

    2006-03-01

    15 cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (carcinoid-tumorlets, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia/DIPNECH) and 20 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (10 carcinoid tumors, 5 large cell neuroendocrine, and 5 small cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, = HER-1). All cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia exhibited a maximum EGFR expression (score 3 in 100% of cells) showing predominantly membranous, partly cytoplasmic staining. 4 ot the 10 carcinoid tumors were strongly positive for EGFR, whereas the other 6 were EGFR-negative. A total of 90% of large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were negative for EGFR. Overexpression of EGFR in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might be significant for the pathogenesis of these lesions. As DIPNECH is characterized by clinical signs and symptoms including mild cough and obstructive functional impairment, a specific antagonistic therapeutic trial could aim at blocking EGFR/HER-1 or its subsequent signal transduction pathway.

  19. Compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin

    2015-03-24

    The present application provides a compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine. The compressive stress system may include a first bucket attached to a rotor, a second bucket attached to the rotor, the first and the second buckets defining a shank pocket therebetween, and a compressive stress spring positioned within the shank pocket.

  20. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  1. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, M.; Korf, J.; Kema, I. P.; Hartman, C.; van der Pompe, G.; Minderaa, R. B.; Ormel, J.; den Boer, J. A.

    Highly prevalent stress-related disorders such as major depression ( MD) are characterised by a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. Although heritability for these disorders is high, the role of genes in the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we show that polymorphic

  2. Studying prepulse inhibition in a stressed system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    Onset and course of psychotic disorders are thought to be influenced by stress, although there is no consistent evidence that experience of elevated levels of stress triggers disease onset in healthy individuals. In order to better understand the relation between stress and psychosis, these complex

  3. Human-System Dis -Integration: Management of Stress, Strain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human-System Dis -Integration: Management of Stress, Strain and Fatigue in the Workplace. ... Abstract. Stress, strain and fatigue are words that have a variety of meanings and are used in different ways. For present purposes, they are used in relation to an exposure-outcome model that regards stress as the total demand ...

  4. Effect of antidepressants on neuroendocrine axis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H Y; Fang, V S; Tricou, B J; Robertson, A

    1982-01-01

    Unlike neuroleptic drugs, the effect of antidepressant drugs on the neuroendocrine axis in man is highly variable and may or may not be intimately related to their antidepressant action. However, the limited neuroendocrine data available does shed some light on the mechanism of action of these agents and raises some important questions, particularly about the regulation of PRL secretion and the interaction between various neurotransmitter systems. At one end of the spectrum, the ability of nomifensine and buproprion to lower serum PRL levels, presumably due to their ability to block the reuptake of DA by tuberoinfundibular DA neurons, suggests that it may be necessary to reconsider the conclusion that these neurons lack a DA reuptake mechanism or that these two agents are antidepressant by virtue of their ability to block DA uptake. Similarly, the inability of amphetamine or methylphenidate to decrease serum PRL levels in man suggests important differences between the tuberoinfundibular DA neurons in man and the rat. These findings also call into question the ability of these agents to block DA uptake or increase DA release in the tuberoinfundibular DA neurons. The finding that fluoxetine raises serum PRL levels, even in one subject, whereas zimelidine has not yet been shown to do so, and that fluoxetine does not potentiate the ability of 5-HTP to stimulate PRL secretion, has raised important questions about the role of 5-HT in PRL and GH regulation in man and the relationship between 5-HT and DA neurons in man. The occasional increase in serum PRL levels found in patients treated with lithium or the MAO inhibitor phenelzine are suggestive of important interindividual differences which may be revealed by neuroendocrine studies, differences which could be valuable in understanding the mechanism of action of these agents - e.g., does lithium decrease DA receptor sensitivity? - and fundamental aspects of neuroendocrine regulation - e.g., do the MAO inhibitors

  5. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  6. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline L. Pfau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress.

  7. DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Trigolosova

    2014-01-01

    early disability and death of patients with neuroendocrine diseases.

  8. Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wagner, Ludwig; Brandt Sørensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    , synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids. Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas...

  9. Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less than20 mm in diameter: is appendectomy enough? Landolsi Sana, Mannai Saber. Abstract. The appendixis the second primary site for neuroendocrine tumors. The management of incidentelly discovered neuroendocrine tumor of the appendiceal base less ...

  10. Developing psychophysiological profiles for monitoring stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldow, Roberta L.; Bergen, Michael T.; Belin, Kari; Bululu, Luba; Couso, Olivita; McLaughlin, Joselyn; Short, Kenneth R.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Training prepares first responders for disasters including terrorist attacks. To train effectively it should be as realistic as possible and elicit the stress response. We are developing a profile that will be a marker for intensity of stress as well as differentiate stress from exertion. We have monitored stress during several training scenarios for different groups including civilian SWAT teams and the military. In addition, we can monitor stress to exposure to nonlethal weapons. We have monitored stress during exposure to blunt impact using a paintball paradigm. We have measured salivary substances (such as cortisol and DHEA [markers for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis]) and amylase [marker for the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system], physiological parameters (such as activity and heart rate), and neuropsychological assessment tools (such as Borg's perceived exertion scale, Spielberger's STAI and Thayer's ADC). With these neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioral indices in hand, we are poised to examine stress induction in preparedness in trainees.

  11. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  12. PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Giancarlo

    2008-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms that originate from pluripotent stem cells or differentiated neuroendocrine cells, mostly localized in the bronchus, lungs, or gastroenteropancreatic tract. This issue reviews the results achieved with PET. The potential applications of the most commonly used receptor or metabolic positron-emitter radiopharmaceuticals in the field of NET to stage or restage disease, to detect unknown primary tumor, and to assess and monitor therapy response to different kind of treatments are analyzed. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transformation of Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Cells into Insulin Producing Cells after Treatment with Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of severe hypoglycemia after sunitinib treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. We describe the initial clinical presentation, laboratory results, pathologic findings, and managment in a patient with a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastases who developed life threatening hypoglycemia after 2 months of sunitinib therapy. A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with loss of consciousness from hypoglycemia. Serum C-peptide and insulin levels at fasting state revealed that the hypoglycemia resulted from endogenous hyperinsulinemia. She had been diagnosed with nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma based on a biopsy of metastatic cervical lymph node and was being treated with sunitinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical stain of the metastatic liver mass demonstrated that the initially nonfunctioning neuroendocrine carcinoma cells had changed into insulin-producing cells after sunitinib therapy. Transarterial chemoembolization of the liver masses and systemic chemotherapy with streptozotocin/adriamycin relieved the hypoglycemia. A nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma was transformed into an insulin-producing tumor after treatment with sunitinib, causing endogenous hyperinsulinemia and severe hypoglycemia.

  14. The Financial Stress Index: Identification of Systemic Risk Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Oet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a financial stress measure for the United States, the Cleveland Financial Stress Index (CFSI. The index is based on publicly available data describing a six-market partition of the financial system comprising credit, funding, real estate, securitization, foreign exchange, and equity markets. This paper improves upon existing stress measures by objectively selecting between several index weighting methodologies across a variety of monitoring frequencies through comparison against a volatility-based benchmark series. The resulting measure facilitates the decomposition of stress to identify disruptions in specific markets and provides insight into historical stress regimes.

  15. Update on the management of neuroendocrine hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, David C; Gupta, Sanjay; Ahrar, Kamran; Murthy, Ravi; Yao, James C

    2006-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare and represent a diverse collection of malignancies that occur in many organ systems throughout the body, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with NETs have hepatic metastases at the time of diagnosis. Although some patients may be asymptomatic, others have unusual clinical presentations and variable tumor growth patterns. Although many patients have long indolent courses, without treatment, most patients die within 5 years of diagnosis. This article reviews the care of patients with NETs and hepatic metastases, with emphasis on the increasingly important role of oncologic image-guided interventions.

  16. Treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET is a rare type of pancreatic tumors. The incidence of pNET shows a gradually increasing trend in recent years. The most common organ of distant metastases is the liver. Surgical resection is still the optimal treatment for resectable, well-differentiated liver metastases with no evidence of extrahepatic spread. For unresectable patients, a combination of multiple modalities, such as transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, systemic chemotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, can prolong the survival time of patients. Liver transplantation should be strictly evaluated on an individual basis.

  17. Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Michał; Rydzewska, Grażyna; Foltyn, Wanda; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Falconi, Massimo; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Poczkaj, Karolina; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Starzyńska, Teresa; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

  18. Midgut neuroendocrine tumor presenting with acute intestinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzoros, Ioannis; Savvala, Natalia Antigoni; Ioannidis, Orestis; Parpoudi, Styliani; Loutzidou, Lydia; Kyriakidou, Despoina; Cheva, Angeliki; Intzos, Vasileios; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-07

    Neuroendocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells and secrete various peptides and bioamines. While gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, commonly called carcinoids, account for about 2/3 of all neuroendocrine tumors, they are relatively rare. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors originate from intestinal enterochromaffin cells and represent about 1/4 of small intestine neoplasms. They can be asymptomatic or cause nonspecific symptoms, which usually leads to a delayed diagnosis. Imaging modalities can aid diagnosis and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. We present a case of a jejunal neuroendocrine tumor that caused nonspecific symptoms for about 1 year before manifesting with acute mesenteric ischemia. Abdominal X-rays revealed pneumatosis intestinalis and an abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was submitted to segmental enterectomy. Histopathological study demonstrated a neuroendocrine tumor with perineural and arterial infiltration and lymph node metastasis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient denied any adjuvant treatment.

  19. FDA Approves Lutathera for Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved Lutathera® for some people with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that affect the digestive tract. On January 29, FDA approved Lutathera® for adult patients with advanced NETs that affect the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract, known as GEP-NETs.

  20. A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor diagnosed during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are increasingly being discovered. A case of PNET diagnosed and treated during the management of acute appendicitis is presented and discussed. The importance of imaging modalities in patients with acute abdominal pain is emphasized. To the best our knowledge, this is the ...

  1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  2. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Woods, Stephen C

    2010-10-01

    Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical-weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging.

  3. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  4. Molecular neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although energy balance is tightly regulated in order to maintain a specific level of adiposity, the incidence of obesity continues to increase. Consequently, it is essential that effective therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of obesity be developed. This review provides a brief update on some recent advances in the characterization of neuroendocrine targets for obesity therapy. Recent findings During the review period, considerable progress occurred in the understanding of previously-described neuroendocrine regulators of energy balance, and several novel targets have been identified. Moreover, the understanding of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis has been expanded. Summary Energy balance is maintained by neuroendocrine signals arising from many tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. These signals are integral to the cessation of meals and to the ability of the brain to monitor energy status and respond accordingly. Many current targets for obesity therapy are based on manipulating the activity of these signals and their receptors; however, to date, clinical weight loss based on this strategy has been minimal and alternative approaches such as combinatorial therapies are emerging. PMID:20585249

  5. Stress and multiple memory systems: from 'thinking' to 'doing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-02-01

    Although it has been known for decades that stress influences memory performance, it was only recently shown that stress may alter the contribution of multiple, anatomically and functionally distinct memory systems to behavior. Here, we review recent animal and human studies demonstrating that stress promotes a shift from flexible 'cognitive' to rather rigid 'habit' memory systems and discuss, based on recent neuroimaging data in humans, the underlying brain mechanisms. We argue that, despite being generally adaptive, this stress-induced shift towards 'habit' memory may, in vulnerable individuals, be a risk factor for psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energetic Stress: The Reciprocal Relationship between Energy Availability and the Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, C.S.; Gillespie, C.F.; Neigh, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndromes and the recognized burden of mental health disorders have driven increased research into the relationship between the two. A maladaptive stress response is implicated in both mental health disorders and metabolic disorders, implicating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a key mediator of this relationship. This review explores how an altered energetic state, such as hyper- or hypoglycemia, as may be manifested in obesity or diabetes, affects the stress response and the HPA axis in particular. We propose that changes in energetic state or energetic demands can result in “energetic stress” that can, if prolonged, lead to a dysfunctional stress response. In this review, we summarize the role of the hypothalamus in modulating energy homeostasis and then briefly discuss the relationship between metabolism and stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Next, we examine seven mechanisms whereby energetic stress interacts with neuroendocrine stress response systems, including by glucocorticoid signaling both within and beyond the HPA axis; by nutrient-induced changes in glucocorticoid signaling; by impacting the sympathetic nervous system; through changes in other neuroendocrine factors; by inducing inflammatory changes; and by altering the gut-brain axis. Recognizing these effects of energetic stress can drive novel therapies and prevention strategies for mental health disorders, including dietary intervention, probiotics, and even fecal transplant. PMID:26454211

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Patterns of expression of neuroendocrine markers, and all classes of intermediate filament proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gould, V E; Jansson, D S; Molenaar, W M; Rorke, L B; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M; Packer, R J; Franke, W W

    1990-01-01

    Snap-frozen samples from 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) primary in the central nervous system were studied with antibodies to synaptophysin, bombesin, somatostatin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, all classes of intermediate filaments, and desmoplakins I and II. Frozen

  8. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Achim; Kilian, Joachim; Mohrholz, Anne; Ladwig, Friederike; Peschke, Florian; Dautel, Rebecca; Harter, Klaus; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt) can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR), e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner. PMID:23567274

  9. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  10. Evaluation of the Stress Resilience Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    control signals associated with autonomic arousal by continuously observing their own signals, while engaging in mental exercises or imagery intended...to reduce arousal . Biofeedback has been shown to reduce subjective stress, lower depression scores, decrease anxiety in athletes, and reduce...T. (1984). Biofeedback and control of anxiety preceding athletic competition. International Journal of Sport Psychology. de Jong, K., Nugter, M. A

  11. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas : clinical manifestations and prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferlito, Alfio; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Bishop, Justin A.; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Williams, Michelle D.; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Gnepp, Douglas R.; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Halmos, Gyorgy B.; Westra, William H.; Takes, Robert P.; Thompson, Lester D. R.

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and non-metastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the

  12. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas: clinical manifestations and prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferlito, A.; Rinaldo, A.; Bishop, J.A.; Hunt, J.L.; Poorten, V. Van der; Williams, M.D.; Triantafyllou, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Gnepp, D.R.; Kusafuka, K.; Halmos, G.B.; Westra, W.H.; Takes, R.P.; Thompson, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and non-metastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the

  13. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction: regulation of inflammation via G-protein coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Aa, van der L.M.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine- and immune systems interact in a bi-directional fashion to communicate the status of pathogen recognition to the brain and the immune response is influenced by physiological changes. The network of ligands and their receptors involved includes cytokines and chemokines,

  14. Stress-oriented driver assistance system for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Georgia; Tsotoulidis, Savvas; Mitronikas, Epaminondas; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Stress is physiological and physical reaction that appears in highly demanding situations and affects human's perception and reaction capability. Occurrence of stress events within highly dynamic road environment could lead to life-threatening situation. With the perspective of safety and comfort driving provision to anxious drivers, in this paper a stress-oriented Driver Assistance System (DAS) is proposed. The DAS deployed on Electric Vehicle. This novel DAS customizes driving command signal in respect to road context, when stress is detected. The effectiveness of this novel DAS is verified by simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  15. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1 somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC; 2 noradrenaline analogue labeled with iodine-131 or -123 (131I/123I-MIBG; or 3 99mTc(V-DMSA. Contemporary methods use PET/CT equipment for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of pharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters [fluorine-18 (18F, galium-68 (68Ga, or carbon-11 (11C]: 1 glucose analogue (18FDG; 2 somatostatin analogue (68Ga-DOTATOC/68Ga-DOTATATE/68Ga-DOTANOC; 3 aminoacid precursors of bioamines: [a dopamine precursor 18F-DOPA (6-18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine, b serotonin precursor 11C-5HTP (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan]; or 4 dopamine analogue 18F-DA (6-18F-fluorodopamine. Conventional and contemporary (PET/ CT somatostatin receptor detection showed identical high specificity (92%, but conventional had very low sensitivity (52% compared to PET/CT (97%. It means that almost every second neuroendocrine tumor detected by contemporary method cannot be discovered using conventional (classic method. In metastatic pheochromocytoma detection contemporary (PET/ CT methods (18F-DOPA and 18F-DA have higher sensitivity than conventional (131I/123I-MIBG. In medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics contemporary method (18F-DOPA is more sensitive than conventional 99mTc(V-DMSA method, and is similar to 18FDG, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. In carcinoid detection contemporary method (18F-DOPA shows similar results with contemporary somatostatin receptor detection, while for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors it is worse. To conclude, contemporary (PET/CT methods for

  17. [Radioisotopic imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. Which radiopharmaceutical and which diagnostic procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardieri, E; Maccauro, M; Castellani, M R; Chiti, A; Procopio, G; Bajetta, E; Seregni, E

    2001-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours can be visualized by several nuclear medicine modalities based on different mechanisms of cellular uptake. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical are the metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I/131I MIBG) and pentetreotide (111In pentetreotide). The first tracer follows the metabolic pathway of norephinephrine while the second one binds to somatostatin receptors which are expressed with high intensity on the neuroendocrine tissue. Some radiopharmaceuticals (Anti-CEA, Anti-CgA, Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies) have today only an experimental value, others such as 99mTc(V)DMSA had in the past very limited indications (medullary thyroid cancer) but at present their production is going to be stopped. An interesting series of new peptides showing a great affinity for the receptors/structures expressed by the neuroendocrine tissue is under evaluation in order to obtain a better tumour specificity. Among the positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), in spite it is considered the most widely used tracer for clinical PET in oncology, did not show a satisfactory uptake in the well differentiated neuroendocrine tissues. On the contrary 18F-FDG is the best radiopharmaceutical to visualize those rare poorly differentiated neurondocrine tumours with a high proliferative index. For this reason also in this area, new radiopharmaceuticals have been studies and developed. A serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) labelled with 11C has shown an increased uptake in carcinoids. Another radiopharmaceutical in development for PET is 11C L-DOPA which seems to be useful in visualizing endocrine pancreatic tumours. 18F-DOPA whole body PET may be a more promising imaging approach. Aim of this review is to summarize the potential of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours and to stresses the renewed role of nuclear medicine in the management of this disease.

  18. Stress, cognition and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, A

    1984-01-01

    Stress, as defined by Selye, is the non-specific response of an organism to any demand made upon it. The response varies in intensity, depending on age, experience and genetic makeup. These demands, or stressors, can be physical, social or psychological. This concept has been challenged by others and the importance of perception and cognition in the stress response is argued strongly here. The role or cognition in reacting to external stressors is reviewed in the light of the three brain model and the differing functions of the right and left hemisphere. Techniques such as drugs and cognitive restructuring for altering perception and cognition are discussed. Cognitive restructuring is an important technique used in psychotherapy to enable patients to achieve more appropriate emotional responses and consequent behaviours.

  19. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1–7 Cells for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1–7 cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen. Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils.

  20. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, 3rd, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    ...% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals...

  1. Colonic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasi, Omai Al; Rifai, Ayman; Hugosson, Claes [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology, MBC 28, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sathiapalan, Rajeev; Kofide, Amani [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Tulbah, Asthma Mahmoud Mohamed [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Pathology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mehaidib, Ali [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-03-01

    A 10-year-old boy with congenital immunodeficiency (X-linked agammaglobulinaemia) presented with loss of appetite and weight, right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhoea and low-grade fever. Radiological investigations with barium follow-through, CT, PET and octreotide scans revealed a primary caecal/ascending proximal colonic mass with liver and bony metastases. Urine screen for 5HIAA was positive. Percutaneous liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. The radiological work-up and the usefulness of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of this rare paediatric tumour are discussed. The PET scan demonstrated the primary tumour and the metastatic locations more vividly than the octreotide scan, which is currently considered to be the most specific imaging modality for neuroendocrine masses. (orig.)

  2. Interventional treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Hansen, C.P.; Stadil, F.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases s....... The symptomatic response rate is 90% with a mean duration of two years. Liver transplantation should be restricted to very few and highly selected patients without extrahepatic disease. Recurrence is inevitable in nearly all patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8......Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases...

  3. Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Fani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs. Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr, other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  6. Taurine, energy drinks, and neuroendocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan J; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in brain, retina, heart, and reproductive organ cells, as well as in meat and seafood. But it is also a major ingredient in popular "energy drinks," which thus constitute a major source of taurine supplementation. Unfortunately, little is known about taurine's neuroendocrine effects. The authors review the sparse data and provide a basic background on the structure, synthesis, distribution, metabolism, mechanisms, effects, safety, and currently proposed therapeutic targets of taurine. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  7. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Wen Teh; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes...

  8. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas; Mora, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease.

  9. Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days restraint stress (RS and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS on neuroendocrine (corticosterone and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF . Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

  10. PERCEIVED STRESS AND BIOLOGICAL RISK: IS THE LINK STRONGER IN RUSSIANS THAN IN TAIWANESE AND AMERICANS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples in Russia (Moscow), Taiwan, and the United States (US)—which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers—to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation is based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that exposure to stressors or perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it is stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress is particularly high. For Russia only, we also have information about heart function based on a 24h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women. PMID:23534869

  11. [Surgical approach of gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Bartsch, D K

    2016-04-01

    Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare but an increase in incidence has been recognized worldwide over the past 35 years. At the same time the prognosis of patients has substantially improved because the majority of these tumors can now be detected at an early stage. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach are the most frequent neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin in the gastrointestinal tract. The therapeutic management of these tumors is complicated by the fact that they must be classified not only by staging and grading but also according to their pathophysiological background (types). These types differ in biological behavior and therefore have an influence on the therapeutic concept. Because more than 90 % of duodenal NENs are often asymptomatic and are as a rule identified at a curable stage, resection of the tumor should always be the first line of therapy. The therapeutic strategies vary from local endoscopic resection (duodenotomy with excision) up to pancreas retaining duodenectomy and pylorus retaining or classical Whipple procedures. This article presents the various surgical approaches to gastric and duodenal NENs.

  12. Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Aristides; Tolis, George

    2009-12-01

    In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs. Precocious puberty and/or male feminization is a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney complex (CNC), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), while sperm maturation and ovulation defects have been described in MAS and CNC. Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population. Awareness leading to their recognition is important especially when other endocrine abnormalities coexist, as occasionally they may even be the first manifestation of a syndrome. Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues. In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.

  13. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  14. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E S; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E; Chisholm, Townley W; Kim, Seung K

    2016-10-13

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. Copyright © 2016 Kockel et al.

  15. A Drosophila LexA Enhancer-Trap Resource for Developmental Biology and Neuroendocrine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockel, Lutz; Huq, Lutfi M.; Ayyar, Anika; Herold, Emma; MacAlpine, Elle; Logan, Madeline; Savvides, Christina; Kim, Grace E. S.; Chen, Jiapei; Clark, Theresa; Duong, Trang; Fazel-Rezai, Vahid; Havey, Deanna; Han, Samuel; Jagadeesan, Ravi; Kim, Eun Soo Jackie; Lee, Diane; Lombardo, Kaelina; Piyale, Ida; Shi, Hansen; Stahr, Lydia; Tung, Dana; Tayvah, Uriel; Wang, Flora; Wang, Ja-Hon; Xiao, Sarah; Topper, Sydni M.; Park, Sangbin; Rotondo, Cheryl; Rankin, Anne E.; Chisholm, Townley W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel binary gene expression tools like the LexA-LexAop system could powerfully enhance studies of metabolism, development, and neurobiology in Drosophila. However, specific LexA drivers for neuroendocrine cells and many other developmentally relevant systems remain limited. In a unique high school biology course, we generated a LexA-based enhancer trap collection by transposon mobilization. The initial collection provides a source of novel LexA-based elements that permit targeted gene expression in the corpora cardiaca, cells central for metabolic homeostasis, and other neuroendocrine cell types. The collection further contains specific LexA drivers for stem cells and other enteric cells in the gut, and other developmentally relevant tissue types. We provide detailed analysis of nearly 100 new LexA lines, including molecular mapping of insertions, description of enhancer-driven reporter expression in larval tissues, and adult neuroendocrine cells, comparison with established enhancer trap collections and tissue specific RNAseq. Generation of this open-resource LexA collection facilitates neuroendocrine and developmental biology investigations, and shows how empowering secondary school science can achieve research and educational goals. PMID:27527793

  16. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  17. Mixed Neuroendocrine-Nonneuroendocrine Neoplasms (MiNENs): Unifying the Concept of a Heterogeneous Group of Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Uccella, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The wide application of immunohistochemistry to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that epithelial neoplasms composed of both a neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine component are not as rare as traditionally believed. It has been recommended that mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms are classified as only those in which either component represents at least 30 % of the lesion but this cutoff has not been universally accepted. Moreover, since their pathogenetic and clinical features are still unclear, mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms are not included as a separate clinicopathological entity in most WHO classifications, although they have been observed in virtually all organs. In the WHO classification of digestive tumors, mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm is considered a specific type and is defined as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, a definition that has not been accepted for other organs. In fact, this term does not adequately convey the morphological and biological heterogeneity of digestive mixed neoplasms and has created some misunderstanding among both pathologists and clinicians. In the present study, we have reviewed the literature on mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine epithelial neoplasms reported in the pituitary, thyroid, nasal cavity, larynx, lung, digestive system, urinary system, male and female genital organs, and skin to give the reader an overview of the most important clinicopathological features and morphological criteria for diagnosing each entity. We also propose to use the term "mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN)" to define and to unify the concept of this heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which show different characteristics mainly depending on the type of neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine components.

  18. Impact of scorpion venom as an acute stressor on the neuroendocrine-immunological network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K N; Pavana, D; Thippeswamy, N B

    2016-11-01

    Although immunomodulatory property and many other pharmaceutical applications of scorpion venom have been addressed before, no studies were reported about its application as a neuroimmunomodulator at therapeutic dose. In this study, we conceptualized the property of scorpion venom, capable of inducing the acute pain and neurotoxicity can cause acute stress resulting in the modulation of immune cells through HPA axis. The whole venom from Hottentotta rugiscutis, a widely seen scorpion in the region of eastern Karnataka, was extracted and injected a single dose of 1 mg/kg b.w. to Swiss albino mice and then erythrocytes and leukogram were measured. Whole brain AChE activity, corticosterone, cytokines and NO levels in plasma were also evaluated at various time points. Hrv didn't show any histopathological changes in the lymphoid organs and at the site of injection. However, lymphocytes and neutrophils did get altered at 2 h post-injection. Plasma corticosterone, cytokine levels such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 and the AChE activity were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. Based on these results, it may be predicted, Hrv's ability to cause acute stress resulted in the activation of HPA axis, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid hormones which in turn elicits the immunomodulation of leukocytes by altering the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, we can conclude, the impact of acute stress induced by Hrv can intercommunicate the signals between neuroendocrine-immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline I. E. Renner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Urano, Kaoru; Delrot, Serge; Pezzotti, Mario; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2011-11-17

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future.

  1. LOFT primary coolant addition and Control Piping System stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, S.M.

    1978-10-31

    A stress analysis was performed on the Primary Coolant Addition and Control Piping System to determine if it met the conditions of the ASME Code, Section III, for Class 2 components. Results indicate that the Addition and Control System does not meet Section III criteria as the system is now installed. Only hanger (support) modifications are required to bring the stresses within the limits set forth in the Code. A design temperature of 459/sup 0/F was assumed for the analysis. The specified design temperature of 650/sup 0/F has been revised by ECRA's L-5713 and L-5714.

  2. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  4. Open canalicular system of platelets in porcine stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrur, P K; Bouvet, A; McDonell, W N

    1988-07-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether a previously reported alteration in platelet morphology could be of predictive value for the detection of stress-susceptibility in pigs. Platelets from 20 normal pigs, nine pigs classified as stress-susceptible on the basis of their response to halothane challenge, and 11 siblings of halothane reactors belonging to two different breeds were subjected to electron microscopic examination. A quantitative analysis of electron micrographs, based on the extent of dilatation of the open canalicular system in platelets and the percentage of affected platelets, revealed that halothane reactor pigs could be distinguished from normal animals on the basis of their open canalicular system score. The discrete nature of the score categories in siblings indicates that platelet alteration may be an inherent component of the porcine stress syndrome and suggests that some of the false negatives in the halothane test may be identified as stress-susceptible on this criterion. Further studies involving a larger number of halothane reactors and siblings are needed to ascertain the consistency of the open canalicular system features and eventually, to develop a simple test system based on platelet alterations for the detection of stress-susceptibility in pigs.

  5. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevriye Cansız Ersöz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors.

  6. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  7. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) is developing and building a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements, with funding from the Swedish Research Council and Luleå University of Technology. In this project, LTU is collaborating with University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The stress state influences drilling and drillability, as well as rock mass stability and permeability. Therefore, knowledge about the state of in-situ stress (stress magnitudes, and orientations) and its spatial variation with depth is essential for many underground rock engineering projects, for example for underground storage of hazardous material (e.g. nuclear waste, carbon dioxide), deep geothermal exploration, and underground infrastructure (e.g. tunneling, hydropower dams). The system is designed to conduct hydraulic stress testing in slim boreholes. There are three types of test methods: (1) hydraulic fracturing, (2) sleeve fracturing and (3) hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. These are robust methods for determining in situ stresses from boreholes. Integration of the three methods allows determination of the three-dimensional stress tensor and its spatial variation with depth in a scientific unambiguously way. The stress system is composed of a downhole and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions (N=76 mm, H=96 mm, and P=122 mm), (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture; (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. At EGU General Assembly 2017, we would like to

  8. Recognition memory tasks in neuroendocrine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria

    2015-05-15

    The recognition memory tasks, novel object and novel object location, have been beneficial to neuroendocrine research concerning the effects of gonadal and adrenal hormones on cognitive function. This review discusses the advantages of these tasks in comparison with other learning and memory tasks. Experiments conducted across a number of laboratories show that gonadal hormones, both estradiol and testosterone, promote memory while the adrenal hormone, corticosterone, impairs memory. The effects of these steroid hormones on spine density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus are also briefly presented. Overall, results show that these steroid hormones are potent modulators of memory consolidation in rodent models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  10. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  11. The integrated stress response system in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ribeiro, Diana; Godinas, Laurent; Pilette, Charles; Perros, Frédéric

    2018-02-27

    The integrated stress response system represents an ancillary, extremely conserved signalling pathway present in virtually all eukaryotic cells, which plays an important part in the pathophysiology of several disorders such as cancer and neurodegeneration. However, its role in the cardiovascular system remains largely elusive. Hence, this review aims to acknowledge recent findings regarding the action of the eIF2α kinases in the cardiovascular system and their role in the pathophysiology of related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  13. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  14. The Stress Management in the Enterprise Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes the classification of the type of management by a number of attributes: horizon of ambition, priority style of interaction between management and managed systems, level of centralization, orientation, consideration of environmental impact, contents, type of activity, and response to deviation. Within terms of the attribute of response to deviations, place of the stress management is allocated near to the harmonic and the risk management. It has been substantiated that the stress management is the enterprise management system aimed at overcoming unwanted deviations that are significant, extreme, and have a significant negative impact on the operation of enterprise. In the structure of the stress management, the following integral components have been allocated and characterized: crisis, adaptive, reactive, fears, and anticipative.

  15. Neuroendocrine axis of stress, metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders in cushing's sindrome Ejes neuroendocrinos del estrés, síndrome metabólico y alteraciones psiquiátricas del síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Alexandra Lezcano Tobón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of abnormalities of the hypophysishypothalamus- adrenal gland axis (HHA in the ongoing stress and depression is analyzed. Besides, it is evidenced that some problems, until recently considered merely endocrine-metabolic such as Cushing's syndrome (either clinical or subclinical and obesity (mainly when it is part of the metabolic syndrome may have a common etiological basis, be it a primary event, a comorbidity or a trigger in individuals with genetic susceptibility to states of maladaptative chronic stress. Some harmful effects of severe and/or ongoing hypercortisolism on some brain areas and the possibility of permanent alterations in some neuronal circuits are described. Finally, and according to some clinical evidences, the potential therapeutic role of antiglucocorticoids in the management of refractory depression is explored, as well as the role that early psychiatric intervention and antidepressant pharmacological treatment may play in some patients with the metabolic syndrome or increased cardiovascular risk. Se analiza el papel de las anormalidades del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenales (HHA en el estrés sostenido y la depresión. Además se pone en evidencia que algunos problemas hasta hace poco considerados puramente endocrino-metabólicos como el síndrome de Cushing (SC (clínico o subclínico y la obesidad, principalmente cuando hace parte del síndrome metabólico (SM, pueden tener una base etiológica común, como evento primario, comorbilidad o disparador en individuos con susceptibilidad genética a los estados de estrés crónico maladaptativo. Se describen algunas acciones lesivas del hipercortisolismo severo y/o sostenido en algunas áreas cerebrales y la posibilidad de producir alteraciones permanentes en algunos circuitos neuronales. Por último se explora, de acuerdo con algunas evidencias clínicas, el papel terapéutico potencial de fármacos antiglucocorticoides en el manejo de la depresión refractaria y

  16. The stress systems in depression: a postmortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Bao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After trauma, depressive disorders are among the most frequent emerging diagnoses. However, although the symptoms of depression are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown. Factors involved in the heterogeneous pathogenesis of depression include polymorphisms in stress-related genes, gender, age, developmental history, and environmental (traumatic stressors such as epigenetic factors. These factors may make different parts of the stress-related brain systems more vulnerable to different stressful or traumatic life events or psychological stresses, causing alterations in a network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators including amines, amino acids, nitric oxide (NO, and neuropeptides, and finally make individuals at risk for depression. The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis has a prominent position in this network. With the postmortem brain material obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank, we have carried on a series of studies with the aim to elucidate the specific changes in these systems in relation to special subtypes of depression. Our final destination is to set up tailor-made treatment for depressive patients on the basis of his/her developmental history, genetic and epigenetic background, and the vulnerability in particular neurobiological systems. This presentation is a review of our findings of changes in systems of sex steroids, receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, orexin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and NO in the etiology of depression, in relation to HPA activity, sex differences, and suicide.

  17. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, D.; Verhoeven, J.; Milaneschi, Y.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune

  18. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced

  19. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  20. Systems biology meets stress ecology: linking molecular and organismal stress responses in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Connon, Richard; Hooper, Helen L; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Maund, Steve J; Hill, Christopher J; Bouetard, Anthony; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen. Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and invertebrates, and they suggest that ibuprofen has a targeted impact on reproduction at the molecular, organismal, and population level in daphnids. Microarray expression and temporal real-time quantitative PCR profiles of key genes suggest early ibuprofen interruption of crustacean eicosanoid metabolism, which appears to disrupt signal transduction affecting juvenile hormone metabolism and oogenesis. Combining molecular and organismal stress responses provides a guide to possible chronic consequences of environmental stress for population health. This could improve current environmental risk assessment by providing an early indication of the need for higher tier testing. Our study demonstrates the advantages of a systems approach to stress ecology, in which Daphnia will probably play a major role.

  1. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  2. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/- mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/- mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/- mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  3. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nervous System Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M.; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Keller, Peter J.; Brooks, Susan V.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1−/− mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1−/− mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging. PMID:23844146

  4. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  5. Understanding water-stress responses in Soybean using Hydroponics system - A Systems Biology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek eTripathi; Rabara, Roel C.; Vladimir eShulaev; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler g...

  6. Child Maltreatment and Gender Interactions as Predictors of Differential Neuroendocrine Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Child maltreatment is a potent stressor associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation and increased risk for mental and physical disorders throughout the lifespan. Gender differences in stress reactivity and adult psychopathology prevalence may be related to sex-specific responsivity to stress. The purpose of this study is to examine whether gender interacts with the stress of maltreatment to produce differential neuroendocrine profiles in children. Participants included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income, racially and ethnically diverse children (range: 7.9–10.9 years; M= 9.42 years; 52% male) who attended a summer research day camp. Saliva was collected 3 times across the day for 5 days for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) analysis. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the type, severity, chronicity, onset, and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Significant interactions between gender and maltreatment pervasiveness predicted diurnal cortisol, DHEA, and cortisol/DHEA ratio levels. Elevated daily cortisol levels were reported for boys compared to girls in the group with more pervasive maltreatment. Boys with less pervasive maltreatment had lower DHEA and higher cortisol/DHEA ratio levels than girls with similar experiences, nonmaltreated boys, and boys with more pervasive maltreatment. Further results are consistent with down-regulation of cortisol production in girls with more pervasive maltreatment and girls who experienced maltreatment that was early onset and not recent. The effectiveness of interventions for maltreated children may be improved with greater knowledge of how maltreatment differentially affects neuroendocrine regulation by gender. PMID:23333253

  7. Effect of yoga on sleep quality and neuroendocrine immune response in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that distress and accompanying neuroendocrine stress responses as important predictor of survival in advanced breast cancer patients. Some psychotherapeutic intervention studies have shown have modulation of neuroendocrine-immune responses in advanced breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yoga on perceived stress, sleep, diurnal cortisol, and natural killer (NK cell counts in patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: In this study, 91 patients with metastatic breast cancer who satisfied selection criteria and consented to participate were recruited and randomized to receive “integrated yoga based stress reduction program” (n = 45 or standard “education and supportive therapy sessions” (n = 46 over a 3 month period. Psychometric assessments for sleep quality were done before and after intervention. Blood draws for NK cell counts were collected before and after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected for three consecutive days before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance on postmeasures using respective baseline measure as a covariate. Results: There was a significant decrease in scales of symptom distress (P < 0.001, sleep parameters (P = 0.02, and improvement in quality of sleep (P = 0.001 and Insomnia Rating Scale sleep score (P = 0.001 following intervention. There was a decrease in morning waking cortisol in yoga group (P = 0.003 alone following intervention. There was a significant improvement in NK cell percent (P = 0.03 following intervention in yoga group compared to control group. Conclusion: The results suggest modulation of neuroendocrine responses and improvement in sleep in patients with advanced breast cancer following yoga intervention.

  8. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pArm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  9. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  10. Mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittu Hingorani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is rare but lethal. It is one of the most common extra pulmonary manifestations of small cell cancer. Case presentation: Here we present a case report of a 53-year-old male who presents with a mixed adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate tumor on a background of previously normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA. His initial symptoms prior to diagnosis included decreased urine output and acute kidney injury (AKI. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumor does not elevate the PSA level and hence is often a late finding with a poor prognosis. Special staining on histopathogy is required to reveal this diagnosis.

  11. Neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node: A very rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are a broad family of tumors arising most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchus pulmonary tree. The other common sounds are the parathyroid, pituitary and adrenal gland. Inguinal node as a primary presentation of a neuroendocrine tumor is an extremely rare presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old-male who presented with the complaints of an inguinal node swelling without any other symptoms and on further evaluation was diagnosed to have a non-metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the inguinal node. He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery and is presently awaiting completion chemotherapy.

  12. Systems biology meets stress ecology: linking molecular and organismal stress responses in Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, L. H.; Sibly, R. M.; Connon, R.; Hooper, H. L.; Hutchinson, T. H.; Maund, S. J.; Hill, C. J.; Bouetard, A.; Callaghan, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen. RESULTS: Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and inv...

  13. Classification of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; Klassifikation gastroenteropankreatischer neuroendokriner Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perren, A. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische UniversitaetMuenchen, Institut fuer Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie, Muenchen (Germany); Schmitt, A. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Klinische Pathologie, Departement Pathologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Komminoth, P. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Institut fuer Pathologie; Pavel, M. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepatologie and Gastroenterologie

    2009-03-15

    Tumors of the disseminated/diffuse neuroendocrine system (NET) are characterized by a common phenotype. However, the biology varies according to histomorphology, endocrine symptoms and organ of origin. The WHO classification takes these differences into account and uses a common framework, where the parameters size and extent of invasion vary according to the organ of origin. In order to achieve a further standardization of reporting the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) recently proposed a tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging and grading system for gastro-entero-pancreatic NET. (orig.) [German] Tumoren des disseminierten/diffusen neuroendokrinen Systems sind durch einen gemeinsamen Phaenotyp gekennzeichnet. In ihrer Biologie unterscheiden sich neuroendokrine Tumoren (NET) jedoch bzgl. Morphologie, endokrinologischer Symptomatik und Ursprungsorgan. Die WHO-Klassifikation traegt diesen Unterschieden Rechnung und klassifiziert NET nach einem einheitlichen Vorgehen, wobei die Parameter Groesse und Invasionstiefe je nach Ursprungsorgan variieren. Um die Nomenklatur weiter zu vereinheitlichen, wurde vor kurzem von der ''European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society'' (ENETS) der Vorschlag einer TNM-Stadien-Einteilung und Graduierung gastroenteropankreatischer NET vorgelegt. (orig.)

  14. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  15. Neuroendocrine regulation of long-term pair maintenance in the monogamous zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Understanding affiliative behavior is critical to understanding social organisms. While affiliative behaviors are present across a wide range of taxa and contexts, much of what is known about the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliation comes from studies of pair-bond formation in prairie voles. This leaves at least three gaps in our current knowledge. First, little is known about long-term pair-bond maintenance. Second, few studies have examined non-mammalian systems, even though monogamy is much more common in birds than in mammals. Third, the influence of breeding condition on affiliation is largely unknown. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is an excellent model system for examining the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliative behaviors, including the formation and maintenance of a long-term pair bond. Zebra finches form genetically monogamous pair bonds, which they actively maintain throughout the year. The genomic and neuroanatomical resources, combined with the wealth of knowledge on the ecology and ethology of wild zebra finches, give this model system unique advantages to study the neuroendocrine regulation of pair bonding. Here, we review the endocrinology of opportunistic breeding in zebra finches, the sex steroid profiles of breeding and non-breeding zebra finches (domesticated and wild), and the roles of sex steroids and other signaling molecules in pair-maintenance behaviors in the zebra finch and other monogamous species. Studies of zebra finches and other songbirds will be useful for broadly understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of affiliative behaviors, including pair bonding and monogamy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  17. [Psychoneuroimmunology--regulation of immunity at the systemic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boranić, Milivoj; Sabioncello, Ante; Gabrilovac, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Innate and acquired immune reactions are controlled by their intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, ie. by an array of cytokines that mediate communication among cells of the immune system itself and with other cells and tissues, e. g. in areas of inflammation. In addition, the immune system is also subjected to systemic regulation by the vegetative and endocrine systems since immune cells express receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones. Neuroendocrine signals may enhance or suppress the immune reaction, accelerate or slow it, but do not affect specificity. Various stressful factors, including the psychosocial ones, affect immunity. In turn, cytokines generated by the immune system influence hormonal secretion and central nervous system, producing specific behavioral changes (the "sickness behavior") accompanying infectious and inflammatory diseases. That includes somnolence, loss of apetite, depression or anxiety and decrease of cognitive abilities, attention and memory. Local immune systems in skin and mucosa are also subjected to systemic neuroendocrine regulation and possess intrinsic neuroregulatory networks as well. These mechanisms render skin and respiratory and digestive tracts responsive to various forms of stress. Examples are neurodermitis, asthma and ulcerative colitis. In children, the immune and the neuroendocrine systems are still developing, particularly in fetal, neonatal and early infant periods, and exposure to stressful experiences at that time may result in late consequences in the form of deficient immunity or greater risks for allergic or autoimmune reactions. Recognition of the participation of neuroendocrine mechanisms in regulation of immunity helps us understand alterations and disturbances of immune reactions under the influence of stressful factors but so far has not produced reliable therapeutic implications. Psychosocial interventions involving the child and its family may be useful.

  18. Altered stress system reactivity after pediatric injury: Relation with post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Cox, Charles S; Granger, Douglas A; Duque, Gerardo; Swank, Paul R

    2017-10-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Injured children are at high risk for developing alterations in stress response systems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that may compromise long-term physical and psychological health. In a prospective, observational cohort study, we examined individual differences in, and correlates of, stress-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; salivary cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (ANS; salivary alpha amylase, sAA) following pediatric injury. Participants were 8-15 years of age and hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI; n=55; M age=13.9 yrs; 40 males) or extracranial injury (EI; n=29; M age 12.3 yrs, 20 males) following vehicular accidents. Six months post-injury, saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test and later assayed for cortisol and sAA. Relative to a healthy non-injured comparison group (n=33; M age=12.5 yrs, 16 males), injured children (ages 8-12 years), but not adolescents (ages 13-15 yrs), had higher cortisol levels; regardless of age, injured participants showed dampened cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat. Compared to participants with EI, children with TBI had elevated cortisol and adolescents had elevated sAA. With respect to PTSS, individual differences in sAA were negatively correlated with avoidance in the TBI group and positively correlated with emotional numbing within the EI group. Importantly, psychological and neurobiological sequelae were weakly related to injury severity. Given the high prevalence of pediatric injury, these sequelae affect many children and represent a significant public health concern. Consequently, surveillance of post-traumatic sequelae should include the full spectrum of injury severity. Monitoring the activity, reactivity, and regulation of biological systems sensitive to environmental insults may advance our understanding of individual differences in sequelae and adaptation

  19. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development...... and validation of a novel non-invasive sampling of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) are presented. Both genes and environment affect the state of stress in farmed mink, and an overview of the major experimental findings in mink are given. This includes results from (1) selection for and against fearfulness...... with effects on the HPA-axis and the serotonin system, (2) studies of parturition/early kit mortality, and (3) cage enrichment studies affecting stress responses. Finally, recent results exploring the link between stress and abnormal behaviour are presented, investigating the HPA-axis response of stereotypic...

  20. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part I-general overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic system seems to have increased during the past decade. New diagnostic and therapeutic procedures have aroused the interest of physicians, though most see very few cases of such diseases. A group of members of the Nordic Neuroen...

  1. Sister Mary Joseph Nodules on 99mTc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Yingqiang; Li, Fang

    2015-02-01

    A Sister Mary Joseph nodule represents an umbilical metastasis, which is more commonly caused by a primary malignancy in gastrointestinal tract or from reproductive system. We report Sister Mary Joseph nodules caused by neuroendocrine tumor and revealed on Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

  2. Web-based information and support for patients with a newly diagnosed neuroendocrine tumor : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Grietje; de Hosson, Lotte D; van Woerkom, Claudia E; van Essen, Hennie; de Bock, Geertruida H; Admiraal, Jolien M; Reyners, Anna K L; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    Purpose: Patients with a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) frequently experience physical and psychosocial complaints. Novel strategies to provide information to optimize supportive care in these patients are of interest. The aim of this study was to examine whether the use of a web-based system consisting

  3. Disruption of PC1/3 expression in mice causes dwarfism and multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhou, An; Dey, Arunangsu

    2002-01-01

    The subtilisin-like proprotein convertases PC1/3 (SPC3) and PC2 (SPC2) are believed to be the major endoproteolytic processing enzymes of the regulated secretory pathway. They are expressed together or separately in neuroendocrine cells throughout the brain and dispersed endocrine system in both ...

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural disaster. This type of stress can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Different people may feel stress in different ways. Some people experience digestive symptoms. Others may have headaches, sleeplessness, depressed mood, anger, ...

  5. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  6. Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

  7. Neuroendocrine Function After Hypothalamic Depletion of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Matia B; Loftspring, Matthew; de Kloet, Annette D; Ghosal, Sriparna; Jankord, Ryan; Flak, Jonathan N; Wulsin, Aynara C; Krause, Eric G; Zhang, Rong; Rice, Taylor; McKlveen, Jessica; Myers, Brent; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Herman, James P

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoids act rapidly at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to inhibit stress-excitatory neurons and limit excessive glucocorticoid secretion. The signaling mechanism underlying rapid feedback inhibition remains to be determined. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the canonical glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) is required for appropriate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Local PVN GR knockdown (KD) was achieved by breeding homozygous floxed GR mice with Sim1-cre recombinase transgenic mice. This genetic approach created mice with a KD of GR primarily confined to hypothalamic cell groups, including the PVN, sparing GR expression in other HPA axis limbic regulatory regions, and the pituitary. There were no differences in circadian nadir and peak corticosterone concentrations between male PVN GR KD mice and male littermate controls. However, reduction of PVN GR increased ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute, but not chronic stress, indicating that PVN GR is critical for limiting neuroendocrine responses to acute stress in males. Loss of PVN GR induced an opposite neuroendocrine phenotype in females, characterized by increased circadian nadir corticosterone levels and suppressed ACTH responses to acute restraint stress, without a concomitant change in corticosterone responses under acute or chronic stress conditions. PVN GR deletion had no effect on depression-like behavior in either sex in the forced swim test. Overall, these findings reveal pronounced sex differences in the PVN GR dependence of acute stress feedback regulation of HPA axis function. In addition, these data further indicate that glucocorticoid control of HPA axis responses after chronic stress operates via a PVN-independent mechanism.

  8. Targeted Therapies Improve Survival for Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, based on initial findings from two clinical trials, the Food and Drug Administration approved sunitinib and everolimus for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Updated results from the everolimus trial were published in September 2016.

  9. Neuroendocrine tumors in the urinary bladder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs can be found in most organs, as well as in the urinary bladder. Some of the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors may be characteristic of the organ of origin, but most of the properties are shared by neuroendocrine neoplasms regardless of their anatomic site. In the bladder, NETs comprise less than 1% of all bladder tumors and can be found in a pure form or intermixed with urothelial carcinoma and its variants. Bladder NETs are classified into 2 subtypes: carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is further subdivided into small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Characteristics of bladder NETs and its differential diagnosis are discussed herein.

  10. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  11. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Breast: A Rare Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pathology, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, India. Abstract. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) of breast was an unknown pathologic entity till recently due ... whole body computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no extra mammary primary tumor.

  12. Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio; Hellquist, Henrik; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Skálová, Alena; Slootweg, Pieter J; Willems, Stefan M; Cardesa, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal

  13. [The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, L; Sivero, L; Napolitano, V; Ruggiero, S; Fontanarosa, G; Massa, S

    2010-01-01

    Versione italiana Riassunto: Il ruolo dell'endoscopia nei tumori neuroendocrini gastroenteropancreatici. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa I tumori neuroendocrini (NET) gastro-entero-pancreatici (GEP) sono neoplasie rare che originano dalle cellule neuroendocrine del tubo digerente e del pancreas. L'endoscopia digestiva e l'ecoendoscopia rivestono un ruolo importante nella diagnosi, stadiazione e sorveglianza dei pazienti con NET. Inoltre, in casi selezionati, le tecniche endoscopiche operative consentono il trattamento di queste neoplasie in fase precoce. English version Summary: The role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. L. Magno, L. Sivero, V. Napolitano, S. Ruggiero, G. Fontanarosa, S. Massa Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare neoplasia arisen from neuroendocrine cells present in the gut mucosa and pancreas. Digestive endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography play a relevant role in NET diagnosis, stadiation and surveillance. Moreover, in selected patients, surgical endoscopy allows the tratment of these cancers at an early stage.

  14. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  15. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  16. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  17. Thermoelastic stress analysis system developed for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldorsen, Lars Magne

    The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part describes an extensive evaluation of the existing thermoelastic theory. The second part describes the development and results af a reliable numerical simulation code of the thermoelastic effect and the associated heat transfer effects. Finall......, theories, methods and additional equipment are developed in order to adopt a commercial IR-imaging system to preform Termoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA)....

  18. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System-A Systems Biology Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    .... However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled...

  19. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  20. Telemetry System Utilization for Stress Monitoring of Pilots During Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.

  1. High grade neuroendocrine neoplasm of the antrum and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Peter W; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stagner, Anna M; Gilani, Sapideh; Fay, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine malignancies-tumors characterized by the production of dense-core secretory granules-are most often encountered in the lungs and can also be found in extrapulmonary sites. Our patient had a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the antrum with an elusive cell of origin that secondarily invaded the inferior orbit. In the sinuses, neuroendocrine tumors may be confused with infectious sinusitis or squamous cell carcinoma. There are no known pathognomonic clinical or radiographic signs to distinguish these tumors from other conditions. Diagnosis depends on a biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to identify biomarkers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 and neuron specific enolase. Our patient's tumor defied precise immunohistochemical characterization because of its primitive character and erratic biomarker expression. The diagnosis oscillated between a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma grade IV-hence the use of the more generic nosologic category of neuroendocrine neoplasm without specifying a neuronal or epithelial origin. Data to guide management are limited, particularly in the ophthalmic literature, and derive from experience with tumors of the sinonasal compartments. In the present case of a sino-orbital high grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, regional lymph node metastases developed shortly after presentation. The tumor has responded well to chemotherapy and radiation, but recurrence is often encountered within 2 years in this class of neoplasms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroendocrinology of stress: implications for growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, C A; Gold, P W; Chrousos, G P

    1995-01-01

    A stressor above a threshold magnitude, or multiple stressors applied simultaneously, cause an organism to alter its behaviour and physiology, with the aim of maintaining homeostasis. The adaptive changes that occur are coordinated and mediated by the stress system in the central nervous system (which includes corticotrophin-releasing hormone and noradrenergic neurons in the hypothalamus and brainstem, respectively), and its peripheral limbs, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic (sympathetic) system. Controlled or self-driven challenges to homeostasis and a normally functioning stress system are crucial for normal development and preservation of self and species. In childhood and adolescence, appropriately functioning neuroendocrine responses to stressors are necessary to allow growth and psychosexual maturation to progress normally. Maladaptive neuroendocrine responses, i.e. dysregulation of the stress system, may lead to disturbances in growth and development and cause psychiatric, endocrine/metabolic and/or autoimmune diseases or vulnerability to such diseases, not only during childhood and adolescence, but also in adulthood.

  3. New model for gastroenteropancreatic large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: establishment of two clinically relevant cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Krieg

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC. Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1 or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2 from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup.

  4. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Williams, Andrew; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease.

  5. Benign Endometrial Polyp and Primary Endometrial Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Confined to the Polyp: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembe Oltulu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a heterogeneous group of tumoral lesions originating from diffuse endo­crine system cells. They occur mostly in the gastrointes­tinal system and the lung. Primary NETs of the female reproductive tract are rare. In a widely used classification, primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNECs and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs of the endometrium were included in a subgroup of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. SCNECs of the endometrium are very rare and they are often com­bined with other epithelial neoplasms. Their myometrial and extrauterine invasions are common during the initial diagnosis due to their aggressive behaviors. In this ar­ticle, we present a rare case of primary endometrial SC­NEC detected within the benign endometrial polyp and without invasion of myometrium and extrauterine tissues in a 70-year-old female patient presenting with post­menopausal bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor cells showed positive staining with Synaptophysin, the Ki-67 labeling index was 80-90%, the mitotic index was 15/10 per HPF and there was no necrosis and lymphovascular invasion. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 107-110

  6. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Milaneschi, Yuri; de Geus, Eco J C N; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve [area under the curve indicators, with respect to the ground and increase], evening levels, 0.5 mg dexamethasone cortisol suppression ratio), and autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period) were determined. Linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Shorter LTL was significantly associated with higher c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, area under the curve with respect to increase, and heart rate. A cumulative index score was calculated based on the number of highest tertiles of these 4 stress markers. LTL demonstrated a significant gradient within subjects ranging from having zero (5528 base pairs) to having 4 elevated stress markers (5371 base pairs, p for trend = 0.002), corresponding to a difference of 10 years of accelerated biological aging. Contrary to the expectations, shorter LTL was also associated with longer pre-ejection period, indicating lower sympathetic tone. This large-scale study showed that inflammation, high awakening cortisol response, and increased heart rate are associated with shorter LTL, especially when they are dysregulated cumulatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  8. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  9. Stress, atopy and allergy: A re-evaluation from a psychoneuroimmunologic persepective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard; Peters, Eva Mj

    2011-01-01

    Since the early days of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. In the 70s and 80s numerous reports stated increased anxiety, depression or ill stresscoping in atopics in correlation with enhanced disease activity. Employed patient groups however were small and diverse and controls rare. Therefore, the question remained, whether psychopathological findings in atopics were of pathogenetic relevance or an epiphenomenon of chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, the discussion has been revived and refocused by psychoneuroimmunological findings. We now know that atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance of the classical stress-axis response along the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic axis (SA). This imbalance can be found shoulder-to-shoulder with enhanced expression of newly emerging neuroendocrine stress mediators such as substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor that form up to a third stress axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Together they can alter the inflammatory as well as the neuroendocrine stress-response on several levels. In skin, the immediate inflammatory response to stress involves neuropeptide release and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic inflammation. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are promoted under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may therefore be at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of therapeutic options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation techniques to balance the stress-response.

  10. Modeling the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes in autoimmune and stress-related rheumatic syndromes in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofford, L J; Jacobson, J; Young, E

    1999-03-01

    Autoimmune and stress-related rheumatic diseases are significantly more common in women than in men. Our group has focused on the role of two principal neuroendocrine axes, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, in this increased susceptibility to rheumatic disease. We review the physiology of the HPA and HPG axes and discuss their reciprocal interactions. Mechanisms by which hormones of the HPA and HPG axes influence the immune system and modulate the course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases in animal models of rheumatic disease are described. In addition, we review the data suggesting the importance of these neurohormonal systems in rheumatic diseases. These data provide insights into why women may be at increased risk and how we might better understand the mechanisms that provoke expression of rheumatic diseases in women. To advance research in this area, it is critical to develop methods to evaluate the function of the neuroendocrine axes. Secretion of both HPA and HPG axis hormones, particularly the hormones of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, is largely by intermittent pulses. In addition, the HPA axis exhibits a profound circadian, or near 24-hour, variation, and HPG axis hormones fluctuate over the monthly cycle. These factors make meaningful analysis of these axes quite complex. We discuss models used in the analyses of neuroendocrine axes and the use of challenge testing to assess the integrity of neuroendocrine axes.

  11. A climate stress-test of the financial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Mandel, Antoine; Monasterolo, Irene; Schütze, Franziska; Visentin, Gabriele

    2017-03-01

    The urgency of estimating the impact of climate risks on the financial system is increasingly recognized among scholars and practitioners. By adopting a network approach to financial dependencies, we look at how climate policy risk might propagate through the financial system. We develop a network-based climate stress-test methodology and apply it to large Euro Area banks in a `green' and a `brown' scenario. We find that direct and indirect exposures to climate-policy-relevant sectors represent a large portion of investors' equity portfolios, especially for investment and pension funds. Additionally, the portion of banks' loan portfolios exposed to these sectors is comparable to banks' capital. Our results suggest that climate policy timing matters. An early and stable policy framework would allow for smooth asset value adjustments and lead to potential net winners and losers. In contrast, a late and abrupt policy framework could have adverse systemic consequences.

  12. Psychological and neuroendocrine reactivity to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study used the ostracism detection theory to investigate how ostracism impacts individuals in two ways: (1) immediate poststressor needs, mood, ruminative thoughts, and desire to affiliate, and (2) short-term affective and cortisol reactivity. A total of 58 college students were randomly assigned to the inclusion or ostracism conditions of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game. Immediately following the experimental manipulation, ostracized participants reported more thwarted psychological need states, more negative mood, and fewer positive ruminative thoughts, relative to their included counterparts. Ostracized participants reported a greater interest in affiliating with others in online or in-person settings. In the short-term, ostracized males reported more hostility than included males, although the scores were within expected norms for most males. There was no relation between Cyberball condition and gender across time for depression, anxiety, or positive affect. Approximately 20 min after the onset of the stressor, women in the luteal phase and women taking oral contraceptives in the ostracized group displayed higher cortisol than their counterparts in the included group. Relative to baseline, however, cortisol did not reliably increase after the onset of the stressor. Ostracized females taking oral contraceptives showed the greatest decline in cortisol, compared to included oral contraceptive users. Overall, results suggest that most of the negative effects of ostracism are immediate and limited to psychological, not neuroendocrine, responses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ocular Adnexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamanouchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our findings in a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC of the lacrimal gland and a case of primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC of the eyelid. An 86-year-old man noticed a swelling of the left upper eyelid three months earlier. We performed excision biopsy and histopathological examination indicated that he had a primary NEC of the left lacrimal gland. He underwent chemotherapy followed by excision including the clinically visible margins and 50 Gy radiotherapy of the surgical margins. He had neither recurrence nor metastasis for 6 months since the last radiotherapy. An 80-year-old man noticed a nodule in the right upper eyelid and was referred to our hospital because the size was increasing rapidly. A complete surgical excision of the margins of the tumor was performed with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. The final diagnosis was a primary MCC of the right upper eyelid. After surgery, he underwent 50 Gy radiotherapy on the neck to prevent metastasis. No recurrence or metastasis was found for two years. Although primary NEC of the ocular adnexa is extremely rare, the tumor has high malignancy and readily metastasizes. Thus, combined therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy is needed for complete management of NEC.

  14. Management of neuroendocrine tumors of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Krystallenia; Angelousi, Anna; Boutzios, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2017-12-04

    Neuroendocrine neoplams (NENs) are mostly relatively indolent malignancies but a significant number have metastatic disease at diagnosis mainly to the liver. Although in the majority of such cases the primary origin of the tumor can be identified, in approximately 11-22% no primary tumor is found and such cases are designated as NENs of unknown primary origin (UPO). This has significant therapeutic implications with respect to potentially resectable hepatic disease and/or application of appropriate medical therapy, either chemotherapeutic agents or targeted treatment, as the response to various treatments varies according to the origin of the primary tumor. This lack of tumor specific orientated treatment may also account for the relatively poorer prognosis of NENs of UPO compared to metastatic NENs with a known primary site. In the majority of cases the primary tumors are located in the small bowel and the lung, but a number may still elude detection. Occasionally the presence of a functional syndrome may direct to the specific tissue of origin but in the majority of cases a number of biochemical, imaging, histopathological and molecular modalities are utilized to help identify the primary origin of the tumor and direct treatment accordingly. Several diagnostic algorithms have recently been developed to help localize an occult primary tumor; however, in a number of cases no lesion is identified even after prolonged follow-up. It is expected that the delineation of the molecular signature of the different NENs may help identify such cases and provide appropriate treatment.

  15. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  16. Pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma mimicking neurocysticercosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, John C; Robinson, Stephen R; Schell, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2016-06-02

    Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Pathological investigations ultimately demonstrated that her brain lesions were secondary to malignancy. Brain metastases are considered to be the most common cause of intracranial cystic lesions. We present the case of a 60-year-old Canadian-born Caucasian woman with a subacute history of ataxia, lower extremity hyper-reflexia, and otalgia who resided near a pig farm for most of her childhood. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that she had multiple heterogeneous intracranial cysts, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Despite a heavy burden of disease, serological tests for cysticercosis were negative. This result and a lack of the central scolices on neuroimaging that are pathognomonic of neurocysticercosis prompted whole-body computed tomography imaging to identify another etiology. The whole-body computed tomography revealed right hilar lymphadenopathy associated with soft tissue nodules in her chest wall and abdomen. A biopsy of an anterior chest wall nodule demonstrated high-grade poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis, which stained strongly positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin on immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage 4 metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was made and our patient was referred for oncological palliative treatment. This case illustrates the importance of the diagnostic approach to intracranial lesions. Our patient

  17. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of the neural development transcription factors (TTF1, ASCL1 and BRN2) in neuroendocrine prostate tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zarco, E; Vallejo-Benítez, A; Umbría-Jiménez, S; Pereira-Gallardo, S; Pabón-Carrasco, S; Azueta, A; González-Cámpora, R; Espinal, P S; García-Escudero, A

    2017-10-01

    Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate. We present 3 cases of this uncommon condition, applying the new World Health Organisation criteria. We conducted studies through haematoxylin and eosin staining and analysed the expression of the neural development transcription factors achaete-scute homolog like 1, thyroid transcription factor 1 and the class III/IV POU transcription factors, as a new research line in the carcinogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine tumours. In case 1, there was no TTF1 immunoexpression. Cases 2 and 3 had positive immunostaining for ASCL1, and Case 1 had negative immunostaining. BRN2 immunostaining was negative in case 1 and positive in cases 2 and 3. The World Health Organisation does not recognise any molecular or genetic marker with prognostic value. ASCL-1 is related to the NOTCH and WNT signalling pathways. ASCL-1, TTF1 and BRN2 could be used for early diagnosis and as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 AEU. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroendocrine and immune characteristics of aging in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A; Lavoie, E

    2007-01-01

    Avian species show a remarkable diversity in lifespan. The differing lifespan patterns are found across a number of birds, in spite of higher body temperature and apparent increased metabolic rate. These characteristics make study of age-related changes of great interest, especially for understanding the biology of aging associated with surprisingly long lifespan in some birds. Our studies have focused on a short-lived avian model, the Japanese quail in order to describe reproductive aging and the neuroendocrine characteristics leading to reproductive senescence. Biomarkers of aging used in mammalian species include telomere length, oxidative damage, and selected metabolic indicators. These markers provide confirming evidence that the long-lived birds appear to age more slowly. A corollary area of interest is that of immune function and aging. Immune responses have been studied in selected wild birds and there has been a range of studies that have considered the effects of stress in wild and domestic species. Our laboratory studies have specifically tested response to immune challenge relative to aging in the quail model and these studies indicate that there is an age-related change in the qualitative aspects of the response. However, there are also intriguing differences in the ability of the aging quail to respond that differ from mammalian data. Finally, another approach to understanding aging is to attempt to develop or test strategies that may extend lifespan and presumably health. One area of great interest has been to consider the effect of calorie restriction, which is a treatment shown to extend lifespan in a variety of species. This approach is routinely used in domestic poultry as a means for extending reproductive function and enhancing health. Our data indicate that moderate calorie restriction has beneficial effects, and that physiological and endocrine responses reflect these benefits. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.

  1. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  2. [Genetic and neuroendocrine aspects in autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Norma; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; de la Chesnaye, Elsa; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described in 1943 and is defined as a developmental disorder that affects social interaction and communication. It is usually identified in early stages of development from 18 months of age. Currently, autism is considered a neurological disorder with a spectrum covering cases of different degrees, which is associated with genetic factors, not genetic and environmental. Among the genetic factors, various syndromes have been described that are associated with this disorder. Also, the neurobiology of autism has been studied at the genetic, neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuropathological levels. Neuroimaging techniques have shown multiple structural abnormalities in these patients. There have also been changes in the serotonergic, GABAergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems related to this disorder. This paper presents an update of the information presented in the genetic and neuroendocrine aspects of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Dysfunctional Neurotransmitter Systems in Fibromyalgia, Their Role in Central Stress Circuitry and Pharmacological Actions on These Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is considered a stress-related disorder, and hypo- as well as hyperactive stress systems (sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been found. Some observations raise doubts on the view that alterations in these stress systems are solely responsible for fibromyalgia symptoms. Cumulative evidence points at dysfunctional transmitter systems that may underlie the major symptoms of the condition. In addition, all transmitter systems found to be altered in fibromyalgia influence the body's stress systems. Since both transmitter and stress systems change during chronic stress, it is conceivable that both systems change in parallel, interact, and contribute to the phenotype of fibromyalgia. As we outline in this paper, subgroups of patients might exhibit varying degrees and types of transmitter dysfunction, explaining differences in symptomatoloy and contributing to the heterogeneity of fibromyalgia. The finding that not all fibromyalgia patients respond to the same medications, targeting dysfunctional transmitter systems, further supports this hypothesis.

  4. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System-A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, it is still challenging to address all levels of the genetic machinery whether a gene, protein, metabolite, and promoter. Thus, using a system of reduced complexity like hydroponics can certainly direct us toward the right candidates, if not completely help us to resolve the issue.

  5. Understanding water-stress responses in Soybean using Hydroponics system - A Systems Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek eTripathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, it is still challenging to address all levels of the genetic machinery whether a gene, protein, metabolite, and promoter. Thus, using a system of reduced complexity like hydroponics can certainly direct us towards the right candidates, if not completely help us to resolve the issue.

  6. Key Role of CRF in the Skin Stress Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J.; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Rivier, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  7. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral probiotics supplementation can stimulate the immune system in a stress process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palomar Martin Manuel; Bru Elena; Maldonado Galdeano Carolina; Perdigón Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    In a bifactorial stress mouse model we studied the effect of probiotic supplementation on biochemical parameter in serum, the intestinal impairment of the villi induced by stress, the systemic immune...

  9. Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) and vulnerability to stress: A preliminary study on electrodermal activity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giromini, Luciano; Ando', Agata; Morese, Rosalba; Salatino, Adriana; Di Girolamo, Marzia; Viglione, Donald J; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2016-12-30

    This study investigated the predictive validity of the ten Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) variables from the Stress and Distress domain, by testing whether they predicted increased sympathetic reactivity to a mild, laboratory-induced stress, occurred one week after Rorschach administration. A relatively small student sample (N=52) contributed to this research: During a first meeting (T1) participants were administered the Rorschach task according to R-PAS guidelines; about one week later (T2) their electrodermal activity (EDA) was recorded during exposure to a mild laboratory stress-inducing task. Based on literature indicating that exposure to stress tends to increase physiological vulnerability/reactivity to stressful situations, we anticipated that Stress and Distress R-PAS variables measured at T1 would positively correlate with increased sympathetic reactivity to stress at T2, as indicated by greater EDA changes from baseline to stress and recovery. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses: (a) the mean of and (b) the majority of the Stress and Distress R-PAS variables were significantly correlated, in the expected direction, with medium and medium to large effect sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung: Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors encompass a broad spectrum of tumors including the large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The case of a 57-year-old white housewife with a history of smoking, diabetes, hypothyroidism and hypertension who sought medical attention because of headache, vomiting, weight loss, neuropsychiatric symptoms and metastatic inguinal lymphadenopathy is presented. The symptoms resulted from the extrapulmonary metastases found. Imaging studies, histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of large-cell carcinoma of the lung with neuroendocrine pattern. This type of highly aggressive tumor is usually diagnosed when there are already multiple metastases, which affects the short-term prognosis. The aim of this paper is to inform the medical community of this case due to the scarce reports in the literature.

  11. [Role of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, V; Cascini, G L; Rambaldi, P F; Mansi, L

    2001-09-01

    Current therapeutic approaches in neuroendocrine tumours include surgery, radiotherapy and polychemotherapy. Different metabolic patterns of neuroendocrine tumours allow the use of a wide range of diagnostic options in nuclear medicine, due to the presence of a wide spectrum of radiotracers electively concentrating in these neoplasms. Nuclear medicine, and in particular 111In Octreotide (OCT) scintigraphy, 123I Methaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and pentavalent 99mTc-DMSA (V-DMSA), together with biohumoral markers, are currently able to locate tumours also not detectable using traditional diagnostic techniques. Somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide have become increasingly important over the years in the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. At present the therapeutic use of somatostatin analogs can be schematised as 1) pharmacological treatment (with cold octreotide); 2) surgical treatment (radioguided surgery); 3) radiometabolic treatment (with marked octreotide). The development of new synthetic molecules and new radiocompounds will probably open up interesting scenarios in the near future.

  12. HER2-Positive Neuroendocrine Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Arpine; Bregni, Giacomo; Galli, Giulia; Zanardi, Elisa; de Braud, Filippo; Di Cosimo, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon histology for breast cancer. Our patient underwent right quadrantectomy for a neuroendocrine carcinoma in 1984 and had a bone relapse 30 years later. After thorough pathological and immunohistochemical analysis the diagnosis was confirmed and HER2 amplification was observed. Here we discuss the management, rationale and results of HER2-targeted therapy in advanced neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.

  13. Sexual Motivation in the Female and Its Opposition by Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Ana Maria; Pfaff, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A well worked-out motivational system in laboratory animals produces estrogen-dependent female sex behavior. Here, we review (a) the logical definition of sexual motivation and (b) the basic neuronal and molecular mechanisms that allow the behavior to occur. Importantly, reproductive mechanisms in the female can be inhibited by stress. This is interesting because, in terms of the specificity of neuroendocrine dynamics in space and time, the two families of phenomena, sex and stress, are the opposite of each other. We cover papers that document stress effects on the underlying processes of reproductive endocrinology in the female. Not all of the mechanisms for such inhibition have been clearly laid out. Finally, as a current topic of investigation, this system offers several avenues for new investigation which we briefly characterize.

  14. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry in stress processing in rat prefrontal cortex and the role of mesocortical dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R M

    2004-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to play an important role not only in the regulation of emotion, but in the integration of affective states with appropriate modulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine stress regulatory systems. The present review highlights findings in the rat which helps to elucidate the complex nature of prefrontal involvement in emotion and stress regulation. The medial PFC is particularly important in this regard and while dorsomedial regions appear to play a suppressive role in such regulation, the ventromedial (particularly infralimbic) region appears to activate behavioral, neuroendocrine and sympathetic autonomic systems in response to stressful situations. This may be especially true of spontaneous stress-related behavior or physiological responses to relatively acute stressors. The role of the medial PFC is somewhat more complex in conditions involving learned adjustments to stressful situations, such as the extinction of conditioned fear responses, but it is clear that the medial PFC is important in incorporating stressful experience for future adaptive behavior. It is also suggested that mesocortical dopamine plays an important adaptive role in this region by preventing excessive behavioral and physiological stress reactivity. The rat brain shows substantial hemispheric specialization in many respects, and while the right PFC is normally dominant in the activation of stress-related systems, the left may play a role in countering this activation through processes of interhemispheric inhibition. This proposed basic template for the lateralization of stress regulatory systems is suggested to be associated with efficient stress and emotional self-regulation, and also to be shaped by both early postnatal experience and gender differences.

  16. Platelet oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Sundar, Indhumathi; Munisamy, Malathi; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Toi, Pampa Ch

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies implicate the role of immune-inflammatory responses in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Although it is well known that platelets release inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species upon activation, their role in CSU is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate platelet oxidative stress [platelet malondialdehyde (MDA), platelet superoxide dismutase (SOD), platelet glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and systemic inflammatory markers [plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] in patients with CSU and their association with disease severity. Forty-five patients with CSU and 45 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Severity grading was completed according to the urticaria severity score (USS). Autologous plasma skin test (APST) was done in all patients with CSU. Platelet MDA, SOD and GPx and inflammatory markers plasma IL-6 and hs-CRP were assayed in all study participants. In patients with CSU, platelet SOD and GPx were significantly lowered, while platelet MDA levels were significantly elevated in comparison to healthy controls. Both IL-6 and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients with CSU and correlated with platelet oxidative stress parameters (pstress in patients with CSU.

  17. Post-traumatic intrahepatic splenosis mimicking a neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee Weng; Menon, Tulsi; Rao, Sudhakar

    2013-03-06

    A 52-year-old man presented with abdominal pain with a background of splenectomy 25 years previously. Initial investigations lead to suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumour. Positron emission tomography octreotide scanning and chromogranin were raised. He subsequently underwent a lateral segmentectomy. The histopathology was consistent with splenosis. 1. Splenosis must be considered as differential in any patient with abdominal symptoms post-traumatic splenectomy. 2. Positron emission tomography (PET) octreotide scanning can detect splenosis giving false positives for a neuroendocrine tumour. This is the first case to describe such an association.

  18. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as a primary hindgut neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okines, Alicia F C; Hawkes, Eliza A; Rao, Sheela; VAN As, Nicholas; Marsh, Henry; Riddell, Angela; Wilson, Philip O G; Osin, Peter; Wotherspoon, Andrew C; Wetherspoon, Andrew C

    2010-07-01

    The examination of limited, potentially non-representative fragments of tumour tissue from a core biopsy can be misleading and misdirect subsequent treatment, especially in cases where a primary tumour has not been identified. This case report is of a 65-year-old woman presenting with a destructive sacral mass, diagnosed on radiological imaging and core biopsy as a hindgut neuroendocrine tumour, which on histopathological review of the subsequently resected tumour was found instead to represent a metastasis from an occult hormone-positive breast cancer with neuroendocrine features.

  19. Chronic stress impacts the cardiovascular system: animal models and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Laher, Ismail

    2015-06-15

    Psychological stresses are associated with cardiovascular diseases to the extent that cardiovascular diseases are among the most important group of psychosomatic diseases. The longstanding association between stress and cardiovascular disease exists despite a large ambiguity about the underlying mechanisms. An array of possibilities have been proposed including overactivity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral changes, which then converge on endothelial dysfunction that initiates unwanted cardiovascular consequences. We review some of the features of the two most important stress-activated systems, i.e., the humoral and nervous systems, and focus on alterations in endothelial function that could ensue as a result of these changes. Cardiac and hematologic consequences of stress are also addressed briefly. It is likely that activation of the inflammatory cascade in association with oxidative imbalance represents key pathophysiological components of stress-induced cardiovascular changes. We also review some of the commonly used animal models of stress and discuss the cardiovascular outcomes reported in these models of stress. The unique ability of animals for adaptation under stressful conditions lessens the extrapolation of laboratory findings to conditions of human stress. An animal model of unpredictable chronic stress, which applies various stress modules in a random fashion, might be a useful solution to this predicament. The use of stress markers as indicators of stress intensity is also discussed in various models of animal stress and in clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Central effects of stress hormones in health and disease: Understanding the protective and damaging effects of stress and stress mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2008-04-07

    Stress begins in the brain and affects the brain, as well as the rest of the body. Acute stress responses promote adaptation and survival via responses of neural, cardiovascular, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems. Chronic stress can promote and exacerbate pathophysiology through the same systems that are dysregulated. The burden of chronic stress and accompanying changes in personal behaviors (smoking, eating too much, drinking, poor quality sleep; otherwise referred to as "lifestyle") is called allostatic overload. Brain regions such as hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala respond to acute and chronic stress and show changes in morphology and chemistry that are largely reversible if the chronic stress lasts for weeks. However, it is not clear whether prolonged stress for many months or years may have irreversible effects on the brain. The adaptive plasticity of chronic stress involves many mediators, including glucocorticoids, excitatory amino acids, endogenous factors such as brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The role of this stress-induced remodeling of neural circuitry is discussed in relation to psychiatric illnesses, as well as chronic stress and the concept of top-down regulation of cognitive, autonomic and neuroendocrine function. This concept leads to a different way of regarding more holistic manipulations, such as physical activity and social support as an important complement to pharmaceutical therapy in treatment of the common phenomenon of being "stressed out". Policies of government and the private sector play an important role in this top-down view of minimizing the burden of chronic stress and related lifestyle (i.e. allostatic overload).

  1. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived stress and biological risk: is the link stronger in Russians than in Taiwanese and Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-07-01

    Allostatic load theory implies a relationship between exposure to psychological stress and multi-system physiological dysregulation. We used data from population-based samples of men and women in Russia (Moscow; n = 1800; age, mean 68.6 years), Taiwan (n = 1036; 65.6 years) and the United States (US; n = 1054; 58.0 years) -- which are likely to vary widely with respect to levels of stress exposure and biological markers -- to determine the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and physiological dysregulation. The measure of overall dysregulation was based on 15 markers including standard cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors as well as markers of inflammation and neuroendocrine activity. Subjective psychological stress was measured by the perceived stress scale. Only the Moscow sample demonstrated a positive association with overall dysregulation in both sexes. In the US, we found an association among women but not men. Among the Taiwanese, who report the lowest perceived stress, there was no association in women but an unexpected inverse relationship in men. The effects also varied across system-level subscores: the association with perceived stress was most consistent for standard cardiovascular/metabolic factors. Perceived stress was associated with inflammation and neuroendocrine activity in some samples. Although the evidence that perceived stress is the primary source of physiological dysregulation is generally modest, it was stronger in Russia where the level of perceived stress was particularly high. For Russia only, we had information about heart function based on a 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram; perceived stress was consistently associated with heart rate dysregulation in Russian men and women.

  3. Neuroendocrine disruption of organizational and activational hormone programming in poikilothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Denslow, Nancy D; Orlando, Edward F; Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain is tightly orchestrated by organizational and activational effects of endogenous hormones. In mammals and birds, the organizational period is typified by a surge of sex hormones during differentiation of specific neural circuits; whereas activational effects are dependent upon later increases in these same hormones at sexual maturation. Depending on the reproductive organ or brain region, initial programming events may be modulated by androgens or require conversion of androgens to estrogens. The prevailing notion based upon findings in mammalian models is that male brain is sculpted to undergo masculinization and defeminization. In absence of these responses, the female brain develops. While timing of organizational and activational events vary across taxa, there are shared features. Further, exposure of different animal models to environmental chemicals such as xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A-BPA and ethinylestradiol-EE2, gestagens, and thyroid hormone disruptors, broadly classified as neuroendocrine disrupting chemicals (NED), during these critical periods may result in similar alterations in brain structure, function, and consequently, behaviors. Organizational effects of neuroendocrine systems in mammals and birds appear to be permanent, whereas teleost fish neuroendocrine systems exhibit plasticity. While there are fewer NED studies in amphibians and reptiles, data suggest that NED disrupt normal organizational-activational effects of endogenous hormones, although it remains to be determined if these disturbances are reversible. The aim of this review is to examine how various environmental chemicals may interrupt normal organizational and activational events in poikilothermic vertebrates. By altering such processes, these chemicals may affect reproductive health of an animal and result in compromised populations and ecosystem-level effects.

  4. Unusual apocrine carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a cutaneous neoplasm may be analogous to neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Li-li; Li, Bin; Tian, Xiao-ying; Li, Zhi

    2015-06-10

    Cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (AC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm that histologically can mimic breast carcinoma metastatic to the skin or apocrine carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue. As extremely rare condition, neuroendocrine differentiation may be observed in AC although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of unusual AC with neuroendocrine differentiation in right labium majus pudenda. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an asymptomatic pea-sized brownish nodule in right labium majus pudenda without enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes and bilateral breast nodules. The mass was totally resected. Microscopically, the tumor was solitary and located in the deep dermis without epidermal connection. Tumor cells were arranged in a micronodular or formed massive solid nests separated by densely fibroblastic stroma. Scattered glandular or rosette-like structures were identified within the tumor nodules. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive to CK7, CEA, GCDFP-15, synaptophysin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Part of tumor cells expressed androgen receptor, but they were negative to CK20, CK5/6, p63 and S-100. Because of its rarity and histogenesis complexity, there exist diagnostic challenges for pathologists to differentiate cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation from other carcinomas with apocrine or neuroendocrine features. Our case demonstrates that the tumor shares some features with mammary carcinoma and might originate from mammary-like sweat gland in anogenital region. The results suggest that, for the first time, primary cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation may be analogous to the mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation in histological feature and biological behavior. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7732276716685708.

  5. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  6. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  7. Neuroendocrine stimulatory tests of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in psoriasis and correlative implications with psychopathological and immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, Evangelos; Harsoulis, Faidon; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Griveas, Ioannis; Chrisomallis, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis constitutes one of the most representative examples of psychosomatic disorders. The published work investigating the psychological parameters and the way they interact during the course of the disease is extensive, whereas only a few studies have focused on the neuroendocrine framework of psoriasis. In the present study, the objective was to investigate the neuroendocrine parameters of psoriasis and the way they interact with psychopathological and immune variables. Patients with psoriasis (n=24) and the same number of matched healthy controls underwent psychiatric evaluation with interviews and psychometric questionnaires. Both of the groups underwent the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test and the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) to investigate functional parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The evaluation of immune variables included the estimation of the distribution of T-cell and natural killer lymphocytes. Levels of depressive and anxiety features were increased within subjects with psoriasis and they were significantly correlated with stressful life events and the extent of the disease. The adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels increased after CRH infusion without significant differences between the two groups and the psoriatic subjects' cortisol suppression after DST was within normal range, though relatively blunted. No significant correlations were identified among neuroendocrine, psychopathological and immune parameters. No particular neuroendocrine profile has been identified among psoriatic patients and the hypothesized interaction with psychopathological and immune parameters was not replicated. Nevertheless, it is still premature to exclude the possibility that a subtle latent alteration of the HPA axis function might exist, in psoriasis, either stemming from the psychopathology or from the disease per se.

  8. The value of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors compared to current FDA approved imaging modalities: a review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Alireza; Thamake, Sanjay; Tworowska, Izabela; Ranganathan, David; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare group of neoplasms arising from nervous and endocrine systems. Somatostatin analogue imaging is a functional imaging modality of choice for evaluating the NETs. Recent availability of positron emitting radioisotope labeled somatostatin analogues to image neuroendocrine cancers, has raised the interests to use this new imaging modality in management of patients with NETs. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT has demonstrated superiority in lesion detection compared to Octreoscan, MIBG scintigraphy and MRI. In this article, we reviewed the published studies evaluating the role of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET in diagnosis and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors and comparing it to current FDA approved imaging modalities including Octreoscan, MIBG scintigraphy, 18F FDG PET/CT, CT and MRI. PMID:25143861

  9. The value of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors compared to current FDA approved imaging modalities: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Alireza; Thamake, Sanjay; Tworowska, Izabela; Ranganathan, David; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare group of neoplasms arising from nervous and endocrine systems. Somatostatin analogue imaging is a functional imaging modality of choice for evaluating the NETs. Recent availability of positron emitting radioisotope labeled somatostatin analogues to image neuroendocrine cancers, has raised the interests to use this new imaging modality in management of patients with NETs. (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT has demonstrated superiority in lesion detection compared to Octreoscan, MIBG scintigraphy and MRI. In this article, we reviewed the published studies evaluating the role of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET in diagnosis and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors and comparing it to current FDA approved imaging modalities including Octreoscan, MIBG scintigraphy, (18)F FDG PET/CT, CT and MRI.

  10. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.

  11. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of 2 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Collado-Mesa, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors of the breast are very rare accounting for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in different histologic types of breast carcinoma including in situ and invasive ductal or invasive lobular. However, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast requires the expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the cell population, the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ, and the absence of clinical evidence of concurrent primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of any other organ. Reports discussing the imaging characteristics of this rare carcinoma in different breast imaging modalities are scarce. We present 2 cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast for which mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging findings and pathology findings are described. A review of the medical literature on this particular topic was performed, and the results are presented.

  12. Genetic analysis of an orbital metastasis from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Ø; von Holstein, Sarah L; Prause, Jan U

    2014-01-01

    hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumours are extremely rare, and the orbit is an extremely rare location for a neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis. This is the first reported case of an orbital metastasis with origin from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.......A 71-year-old female with a known history of primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, presented with a visual defect, proptosis and restricted eye movements of the right eye. Biopsies from the orbit and from the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma showed similar morphological...... and immunohistochemical features, and high-resolution, array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated loss of one copy each of chromosomes 3 and 18, and gain of 1q both in the primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and in the orbital tumour. The orbital mass was diagnosed as a metastasis from the primary...

  13. Neuroendocrine differentiation in a case of cervical cancer | Rashed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an ...

  14. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix- a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The present study describes 5 cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the uterine cervix, evaluating their clinical features and pathological profiles. Methods. Clinical data were obtained from the patients' clinical files at the combined gynaecological-oncology unit of Johannesburg Hospital and ...

  15. Everolimus Effect on Gastrin and Glucagon in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavel, Marianne E.; Chen, David; He, Wei; Cushman, Stephanie; Voi, Maurizio; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Baudin, Eric; Yao, James C.

    Objectives: The pharmacodynamic effects of everolimus on gastrointestinal hormone levels have not been described in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNETin RADIANT-1 (a single-arm

  16. Surgical Treatment of an Isolated Metastatic Myocardial Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Christiano C B; Sayad, Dany; Strosberg, Jonathan; Faber, Cristiano; Saouma, Samer; Michaud, Tabitha

    2016-02-01

    We describe a patient diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor of the small intestine metastatic to the heart who underwent successful cardiac metastasectomy. The tumor was located on the right ventricle free wall, obstructing the right ventricular outflow tract. There was no valvular involvement. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is human papillomavirus involved in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halmos, Gyorgy B; van der Laan, Tom P; van Hemel, Bettien M; Dikkers, Frederik G; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Schuuring, Ed

    The purpose of this study was to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma (LNEC) and to explore the possible relationship between HPV-induced malignant transformation and prognosis in LNEC. Ten cases of LNEC from a tertiary referral hospital were

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumour in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of an HIV-positive female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who was treated for recurrent peptic ulcer disease and later developed diabetes mellitus and chronic diarrhoea. A metastasising somatostatinoma was histologically proven and evidence of a concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine ...

  19. From scientific instrument to industrial machine : Coping with architectural stress in embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.; Loo, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Architectural stress is the inability of a system design to respond to new market demands. It is an important yet often concealed issue in high tech systems. In From scientific instrument to industrial machine, we look at the phenomenon of architectural stress in embedded systems in the context of a

  20. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  1. Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David

    2012-12-01

    Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  3. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus, but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system.

  4. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Brandt, Ylva; Lundeheim, Nils; Madej, Andrzej

    2008-12-10

    The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA) system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus), but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system.

  5. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Brandt, Ylva; Lundeheim, Nils; Madej, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA) system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus), but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system. PMID:19077201

  6. Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia in Hemoglobin Bart-induced Hydrops Fetalis: A model for Chronic Intrauterine Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweevisit, Mana; Theerasantipong, Boochit; Taothong, Kanlaya; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroendocrine system includes pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) and neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) that are distributed throughout respiratory epithelium and regulate lung growth and maturation antenatally. Abnormalities in this system have been linked to many hypoxia-associated pediatric pulmonary disorders. Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease is a severe form of α-thalassemia resulting in marked intrauterine hypoxia with hydrops fetalis (HF) and usually death in utero. Affected fetuses can serve as a naturally occurring human model for the effects of intrauterine hypoxia, and we postulated that these effects should include changes in the pulmonary neuroendocrine system. Bombesin immunostaining was used to assess PNECs and NEBs in stillborn fetuses with Hb Bart HF ( n = 16) and with HF from other causes ( n = 14) in comparison to non-HF controls. Hb Bart HF showed a significant increase in the proportion of PNECs in respiratory epithelium ( P = .002), mean number of NEB nuclei ( P = .03), and mean size of NEBs ( P = .002), compared to normal non-HF controls. Significant differences were not observed between HF due to other causes and non-HF controls with normal lungs. Non-HF controls with pulmonary hypoplasia showed significant increases in PNECs compared to HF cases not due to Hb Bart HF, implying HF alone does not cause such increases. In contrast, no significant differences were noted between non-HF controls with pulmonary hypoplasia and Hb Bart cases. Hb Bart HF may provide a useful model for studying the pulmonary neuroendocrine system under chronic intrauterine hypoxia.

  7. Lu-177 DOTATATE dosimetry for neuroendocrine tumor: single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, MA; Masud, MA; Zaini, MZ; Salleh, RA; Lee, BN; Zainon, R.

    2017-05-01

    Lu-177 labelled with DOTATE is widely acceptable to treat Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) disease and it better improvement of quality of patients’ life since few years ago. However, the radionuclide toxicity becomes the main limitation of the (NET) treatment. Therefore, we performed a pilot study aimed to estimate radiation absorbed doses to dose-limiting organs to develop a systemic therapy with Lu-177 in NET patients. In this study, five set of planar whole body images was acquired every 0.5 hour, 4 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after Lu-177 administrations. The planar image acquisition was done using Philip Brightview X with Medium Energy General Purpose Collimator (MEGP) collimator. All patients’ images in Conjugate View (CV) format were transferred into PMOD 3.7 Software for Region of Interest (ROI) analysis. The ROI were drawn at selected organs such as kidneys, liver, spleen and bladder. This study found that the mean absorbed dose for kidneys 0.62 ± 0.26 Gy/GBq, liver 0.63 ± 0.28 Gy/GBq, spleen 0.83 ± 0.73 Gy/GBq and bladder 0.14 ± 0.07 Gy/GBq. The radionuclide kinetic for the whole body 99.7 ± 0.1 percent at 0.5 hours, 79.5 ± 10.7 percent at 4 hours, 56.6 ± 10.3 percent at 24 hours, 43.2 ± 7.9 percent at 48 hours and 37.1 ± 9.0 percent at 72 hours. This study verifies that this planar quantitative method able to determine organ at risk and the result line with other published data.

  8. Main Sources of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout, Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Exploitation Operators (2011 USAFSAM Survey Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2012-0010 Main Sources of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout , Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among...of Occupational Stress and Symptoms of Burnout , Clinical Distress, and Post-Traumatic Stress Among Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence...occupational burnout , clinical distress, post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as vicarious exposure to combat. The results of the study suggest

  9. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    .... Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown...

  10. Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line Skov; Lova, Lotte; Hansen, Zandra Kulikovsky; Schønemann, Emilie; Larsen, Line Lyngby; Colberg Olsen, Maria Sophia; Juhl, Nadja; Magnussen, Bogi Roin

    2012-01-01

    Stress er en tilstand som er meget omdiskuteret i samfundet, og dette besværliggør i en vis grad konkretiseringen af mulige løsningsforslag i bestræbelsen på at forebygge den såkaldte folkesygdom. Hovedkonklusionen er, at selv om der bliver gjort meget for at forebygge, er der ikke meget der aktivt kan sættes i værk for at reducere antallet af stressramte, før en fælles forståelse af stressårsager og effektiv stresshåndtering er fremlagt. Problemformuleringen er besvaret gennem en undersø...

  11. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    stress was operationalized as the exposure of an animal to a non- painful , aversive environment (Piazza and LeMoal, 1998). Neurochemical and...Psychiatry 35:769-781. Kant GJ, Mougey EH, Meyerhoff JL (1986) Diurnal variation in neuroendocrine response to stress in rats: plasma ACTH, beta- endorphin

  12. Endogenous retroviruses in systemic response to stress signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiho; Lee, Young-Kwan; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-08-01

    Infection of germline cells with retroviruses initiates permanent proviral colonization of the germline genome. The germline-integrated proviruses, called endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), are inherited to offspring in a Mendelian order and belong to the transposable element family. Endogenous retroviruses and other long terminal repeat retroelements constitute ~8% and ~10% of the human and mouse genomes, respectively. It is likely that each individual has a distinct genomic ERV profile. Recent studies have revealed that a substantial fraction of ERVs retains the coding potentials necessary for virion assembly and replication. There are several layers of potential mechanisms controlling ERV expression: intracellular transcription environment (e.g., transcription factor pool, splicing machinery, hormones), epigenetic status of the genome (e.g., proviral methylation, histone acetylation), profile of transcription regulatory elements on each ERV's promoter, and a range of stress signals (e.g., injury, infection, environment). Endogenous retroviruses may exert pathophysiologic effects by infection followed by random reintegration into the genome, by their gene products (e.g., envelope, superantigen), and by altering the expression of neighboring genes. Several studies have provided evidence that ERVs are associated with a range of pathogenic processes involving multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, breast cancer, and the response to burn injury. For instance, the proinflammatory properties of the human ERV-W envelope protein play a central role in demyelination of oligodendrocytes. As reviewed in this article, recent advances in ERV biology and mammalian genomics suggest that ERVs may have a profound influence on various pathogenic processes including the response to injury and infection. Understanding the roles of ERVs in the pathogenesis of injury and infection will broaden insights into the underlying mechanisms of systemic immune disorder and organ

  13. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  14. Neurohormonal changes in medical students during academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2005-01-01

    Academic stress is a good model of psychological stress in humans and is thus useful for studying psychoneurohormonal changes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of academic examination stress on activation of the hypothalamus-autonomic nervous system (HANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, through the measurements of changes in neuro-hormones during final exams as compared to the pre-exam baseline. Forty-eight first- and second-year female medical students participated. Plasma leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitrite, nitrate, andrenomedullin, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured at baseline and during final examinations. Plasma levels of cortisol, ACTH, NPY, adrenomedullin, nitrite and nitrate increased during times of academic stress as compared to baseline levels. However, only plasma leptin level was decreased during the academic stress as compared to baseline, probably through a negative feedback mechanism resulting from sympathetic stimulation. The results indicate that both the HANS and HPA are involved in this type of stress and both are activated at the same time. Academic stress induced significant neurohormonal changes. Leptin, NPY, nitrite, nitrate, adrenomedullin, cortisol and ACTH can be considered part of a complex mosaic model of the neuroendocrine system during academic stress.

  15. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  16. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  17. How stressful is L2 stress? A cross-linguistic study of L2 perception and production of metrical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijak, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the second language (L2) acquisition of word stress in production and perception, from both a phonological-theoretical and psycholinguistic angle. It investigates how cross-linguistic differences in the (types of) metrical systems of native speakers of a variety of first

  18. Building resilience with the Stress Resilience Training System: Design validation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Ewart J; Dorfman, Alix; Chartrand, Donald; Lamon, Jonathan; Freedy, Elan; Weltman, Gershon

    2016-05-24

    Resilience to stress is critical in today's military service. Past work has shown that experts handle stress in more productive ways compared to novices. Training that specifically addresses stress regulation, such as the Graduated Stress Exposure paradigm, can build individual and unit resilience as well as adaptability so that stressors trigger effective stress coping skills rather than stress injury. We developed the Stress Resilience Training System (SRTS), a product of Perceptronics Solutions Inc., to demonstrate that a software training app can provide an effective individualized method for mitigating the negative effects of situational and mission-related stress, at the same time eliciting potentially positive effects on performance. Seven separate evaluations including a usability study, controlled experiments, and field evaluations have been conducted to date. These studies have shown that the SRTS program effectively engages users to manage their stress, effectively reduces stress symptoms, and improves job performance. The SRTS system is a highly effective method for individualized training to inoculate professionals against the negative consequences of stress, while teaching them to harness its positive effects. SRTS is a technology that can be widely applied to many professions that are concerned with well-being. We discuss applications to law enforcement, athletics, personal fitness and healthcare in the Appendix.

  19. Advanced holographic nondestructive testing system for residual stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazkov, Anatoli; Dovgalenko, George; Salamo, Gregory; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; 10.1117/12.347399

    2013-01-01

    The design and operating of a portable holographic interferometer for residual stress analysis by creating a small scratch along with a new mathematical algorithm of calculations are discussed. Preliminary data of the stress investigations on aluminum and steel alloys have been obtained by the automatic processing of the interference pattern using a notebook computer. A phase-shift compensation technique in real-time reflection interferometry is used to measure the out-of-plane stress release surface displacement surrounding a small scratch (25 um depth and 0.5 mm width) in a plate with residual stress of around 50 MPa. Comparison between theoretical models for a rectangular and triangular shaped scratch with the experimental data are presented.

  20. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and sex hormones in chronic stress and obesity: pathophysiological and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, particularly the abdominal phenotype, has been ascribed to an individual maladaptation to chronic environmental stress exposure mediated by a dysregulation of related neuroendocrine axes. Alterations in the control and action of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis play a major role in this context, with the participation of the sympathetic nervous system. The ability to adapt to chronic stress may differ according to sex, with specific pathophysiological events leading to the development of stress-related chronic diseases. This seems to be influenced by the regulatory effects of sex hormones, particularly androgens. Stress may also disrupt the control of feeding, with some differences according to sex. Finally, the amount of experimental data in both animals and humans may help to shed more light on specific phenotypes of obesity, strictly related to the chronic exposure to stress. This challenge may potentially imply a different pathophysiological perspective and, possibly, a specific treatment. PMID:22612409

  1. Open canalicular system of platelets in porcine stress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Basrur, P K; Bouvet, A; McDonell, W N

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether a previously reported alteration in platelet morphology could be of predictive value for the detection of stress-susceptibility in pigs. Platelets from 20 normal pigs, nine pigs classified as stress-susceptible on the basis of their response to halothane challenge, and 11 siblings of halothane reactors belonging to two different breeds were subjected to electron microscopic examination. A quantitative analysis of electron micrographs, based on the extent...

  2. Systemic oxidative stress in children and teenagers with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlet, Thais Regina; Parisotto, Eduardo Benedetti; de Medeiros, Guilherme da Silva; Pereira, Letícia Cristina Radin; Moreira, Emilia Ad Dison Machado; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2013-10-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status and oxidative stress biomarkers in the blood of children and teenagers with Down syndrome. The analysis of enzymatic antioxidant defenses, such as the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione transferase (GST), non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA) and vitamin E, as well as oxidative damage indicators, such as protein carbonyls (PC) levels and lipoperoxidation (TBARS), of DS individuals (n=20) compared to healthy controls (n=18). Except the vitamin E was measured by HPLC, all other markers were measured spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant enzymes analysis showed significant increases in the SOD (47.2%), CAT (24.7%) and GR (49.6%) activities in DS subjects. No significant difference in GPx activity was detected while GST activity (61.2%) was decreased, and both responses may be consequence of the depletion of GSH (24.9%) levels. There were no significant differences in TBARS levels, while PC levels showed decreased (31.7%) levels compared to healthy controls, which may be related to the increase (16.1%) found in serum UA. Levels of vitamin E showed no significant differences between DS individuals compared to controls. The results revealed a systemic pro-oxidant status in DS individuals, evidenced by the increased activity of some important antioxidant enzymes, together with decreased GSH levels in whole blood and elevated UA levels in plasma, probably as an antioxidant compensation related to the redox imbalance in DS individuals. © 2013.

  3. Working conditions and stress in the English education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Walsh, J

    2018-02-17

    The UK education sector has among the highest level of stress sickness absence of all occupations. However, investigations of psychosocial working conditions which contribute to stress, including behaviour of students and parents, has not been conducted. To investigate the psychosocial working conditions and prevalence of negative parental and student behaviour in a large sample of school teachers and college lecturers based in England. In addition, to assess the influence of working conditions, student behaviour and parental behaviour on perceived stress. A cross-sectional survey of teachers in England. Respondents completed the Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), Student Behaviour Scale and a two-item measure of parental behaviour. Differences in these measures across different teaching roles were assessed using analysis of variance. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of MSIT, student and parental behaviour on PSS outcomes. Compared to UK benchmark scoring, psychosocial working conditions were at a poor level, with primary teachers in particular exposed to negative parental behaviours, and secondary teachers to poor student behaviour. Demands were consistently associated with perceived stress outcomes across job roles, although management support and relationships with peers also played a part. Demands faced by teachers in England played an important part in the experience of stress. Interventions to reduce these demands, and the high frequencies of negative pupil and parental behaviours, should be considered.

  4. Both Hsp70 chaperone and Clp protease plastidial systems are required for protection against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Pablo; Llamas, Ernesto; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2017-03-04

    Environmental stress conditions such as high light, extreme temperatures, salinity or drought trigger oxidative stress and eventually protein misfolding in plants. In chloroplasts, chaperone systems refold proteins after stress, while proteases degrade misfolded and aggregated proteins that cannot be refolded. We observed that reduced activity of chloroplast Hsp70 chaperone or Clp protease systems both prevented growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after treatment with the oxidative agent methyl viologen. Besides showing a role for these particular protein quality control components on the protection against oxidative stress, we provide evidence supporting the existence of a yet undiscovered pathway for Clp-mediated degradation of the damaged proteins.

  5. [Surgical treatment of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Ueda, Junji; Ueki, Takashi; Nagai, Eishi; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Shuji; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of choice for gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor(NET)is resection. Because it is difficult to determine the histological grade of NET before operation, the treatment strategy is usually made based on an imaging study including the tumor's size. Some selected gastrointestinal NETs are indicated for endoscopic resection, while others are resected surgically with lymph node dissection. The types of resections for pancreatic NETs vary from enucleation to pancreatectomy with or without regional lymph node dissection, based on the type of excessive hormone, tumor size, distance from the main pancreatic duct, and the presence of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia. Hepatic metastases are also resected, if indicated, and even in patients having unresectable metastatic lesions, multidisciplinary therapy including reduction surgery of over 90% of tumor volume might lead to a favorable prognosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy is recommended for neuroendocrine carcinoma, while there is no evidence to support adjuvant therapy for curatively resected well-differentiated NET.

  6. Insulinoma and gastrinoma syndromes from a single intrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Powell, Anathea C; Abu-Asab, Mones; Cochran, Craig; Lenz, Petra; Libutti, Steven K; Pingpank, James F; Tsokos, Maria; Gorden, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    The insulinoma syndrome is marked by fasting hypoglycemia and inappropriate elevations of insulin. The gastrinoma syndrome is characterized by hypergastrinemia, ulcer disease, and/or diarrhea. Rarely, insulinoma and gastrinoma coexist in the same patient simultaneously. Our objective was to determine the cause of a patient's hypoglycemic episodes and peptic ulcer disease. This is a clinical case report from the Clinical Research Center of the National Institutes of Health. One patient with hypoglycemic episodes and peptic ulcer disease had a surgical resection of neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was found to have a single tumor cosecreting both insulin and gastrin. Resection of this single tumor was curative. A single pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor may lead to the expression of both the hyperinsulinemic and hypergastrinemic syndromes.

  7. Neuropsychology of Neuroendocrine Dysregulation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction is a common effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI. In addition to affecting the regulation of important body functions, the disruption of endocrine physiology can significantly impair mental functions, such as attention, memory, executive function, and mood. This mini-review focuses on alterations in mental functioning that are associated with neuroendocrine disturbances in adults who suffered TBI. It summarizes the contribution of hormones to the regulation of mental functions, the consequences of TBI on mental health and neuroendocrine homeostasis, and the effects of hormone substitution on mental dysfunction caused by TBI. The available empirical evidence suggests that comprehensive assessment of mental functions should be standard in TBI subjects presenting with hormone deficiency and that hormone replacement therapy should be accompanied by pre- and post-assessments.

  8. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  9. Contemporary Incidence and Mortality Rates of Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanee, Shaheen; Moore, Aaron; Nutt, Max; Holland, Bradley; Dynda, Danuta; El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McVary, Kevin T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an update ever the incidence and mortality for neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) in the United States. Using a large national database, we examined changes in age-adjusted incidence (AAIR), mortality rates (MR) and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for 378 patients diagnosed with NEPC between 1992 and 2011. Analysis was performed for all NEPC and for its two major sub-groups [small cell carcinoma (SCC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC)]. AAIR of NEPC continues to rise in recent years (2004-2011:+6.8%/year, p>0.05). AAIR of SCC has been increasing significantly by 6.94%/year since 2001 (from 0.470 to 0.582/1,000,000 person years, pAAIR of SCC is increasing with no change in the MR of NEPC over the past 20 years. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Neuro-endocrine control of reproduction in hermaphroditic freshwater snails: mechanisms and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris M Koene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates are used extensively as model species to investigate neuro-endocrine processes regulating behaviours, and many of these processes may be extrapolated to vertebrates. However, when it comes to reproductive processes, many of these model species differ notably in their mode of reproduction. A point in case are simultaneously hermaphroditic molluscs. In this review I aim to achieve two things. On the one hand, I provide a comprehensive overview of the neuro-endocrine control of male and female reproductive processes in freshwater snails. Even though the focus will necessarily be on Lymnaea stagnalis, since this is the best-studied species in this respect, extensions to other species are made wherever possible. On the other hand, I will place these findings in the actual context of the whole animal, after all these are simultaneous hermaphrodites. By considering the hermaphroditic situation, I uncover a numbers of possible links between the regulation of the two reproductive systems that are present within this animal, and suggest a few possible mechanisms via which this animal can effectively switch between the two sexual roles in the flexible way that it does. Evidently, this opens up a number of new research questions and areas that explicitly integrate knowledge about behavioural decisions (e.g., mating, insemination, egg laying and sexual selection processes (e.g., mate choice, sperm allocation with the actual underlying neuronal and endocrine mechanisms required for these processes to act and function effectively.

  11. Brain IGF-1 receptors control mammalian growth and lifespan through a neuroendocrine mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Kappeler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that decrease insulin-like growth factor (IGF and growth hormone signaling limit body size and prolong lifespan in mice. In vertebrates, these somatotropic hormones are controlled by the neuroendocrine brain. Hormone-like regulations discovered in nematodes and flies suggest that IGF signals in the nervous system can determine lifespan, but it is unknown whether this applies to higher organisms. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we show that brain IGF receptors (IGF-1R efficiently regulate somatotropic development. Partial inactivation of IGF-1R in the embryonic brain selectively inhibited GH and IGF-I pathways after birth. This caused growth retardation, smaller adult size, and metabolic alterations, and led to delayed mortality and longer mean lifespan. Thus, early changes in neuroendocrine development can durably modify the life trajectory in mammals. The underlying mechanism appears to be an adaptive plasticity of somatotropic functions allowing individuals to decelerate growth and preserve resources, and thereby improve fitness in challenging environments. Our results also suggest that tonic somatotropic signaling entails the risk of shortened lifespan.

  12. Case Report of Cirrhosis following Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Loree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management options for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs metastatic to the liver include surgical, ablative, cytotoxic, and radioisotope approaches. One potential local treatment option includes selective internal radiotherapy utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres. 90Y has also been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and tumors metastatic to the liver. It appears to be well tolerated; however, there is no randomized controlled trial reporting long-term toxicities. Previous retrospective reports have described biliary damage as a potential complication of therapy with 90Y and chemoembolization; however, the long-term sequelae of 90Y treatment are poorly understood. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who suffered biliary damage following 90Y administration for metastatic pNETs and subsequently developed cirrhosis. Given the timeline of her various treatments and the lack of any other identifiable etiology for her cirrhosis, we believe this to be a potential long-term complication of 90Y therapy. Conclusion: This case provides pathologic confirmation of cirrhosis as a potential long-term sequela of 90Y treatment. This long-term risk needs to be considered when sequencing therapy for patients with neuroendocrine tumors who have a good prognosis. There are now several other systemic and ablative treatment options available to these patients, and long-term complications must be considered during treatment.

  13. Breast metastasis and lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: first clinical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Verrico, Monica; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Moretti, Valentina; Strudel, Martina; Zoratto, Federica; Minozzi, Marina; Tomao, Silverio

    2017-09-01

    The lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a very rare aggressive neuroendocrine tumor with a high propensity to metastasize and very poor prognosis. We report an atypical presentation of lung LCNEC was diagnosed from a metastatic nodule on the breast. Our patient is a 59-years-old woman that presented in March 2014 nonproductive cough. A CT scan showed multiple brain, lung, adrenal gland and liver secondary lesions; moreover, it revealed a breast right nodule near the chest measuring 1.8 cm. The breast nodule and lung lesions were biopsied and their histology and molecular diagnosis were LCNEC of the lung. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of breast metastasis from LCNEC of the lung. Furthermore, breast metastasis from extramammary malignancy is uncommon and its diagnosis is difficult but important for proper management and prediction of prognosis. Therefore, a careful clinical history with a thorough clinical examination is needed to make the correct diagnosis. Moreover, metastasis to the breast should be considered in any patient with a known primary malignant tumor history who presents with a breast lump. Anyhow, pathological examination should be performed to differentiate the primary breast cancer from metastatic tumor. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis of breast metastases may not only avoid unnecessary breast resection, more importantly it is crucial to determine an appropriate and systemic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Finite element analysis of stress distribution in four different endodontic post systems in a model canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution in a maxillary canine restored with each of four different post systems at different levels of alveolar bone loss. Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed by modeling a severely damaged canine with four different post systems: CAD/CAM zirconia, CAD/CAM glass fiber, cast titanium, and cast gold. A force of 100 N was applied to the crown, and the von Mises stresses were obtained. FEA revealed that the CAD/CAM zirconia post system produced the lowest maximum von Mises stress in the dentin layer at 115.8 MPa, while the CAD/CAM glass fiber post produced the highest stress in the dentin at 518.2 MPa. For a severely damaged anterior tooth, a zirconia post system is the best choice while a cast gold post ranks second. The CAD/CAM glass fiber post is least recommended in terms of stress level in the dentin.

  15. Massive gastrointestinal bleed due to multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (G-NETs are uncommon lesions which are usually diagnosed on histological evaluation of gastric polyps. These may occur sporadically or due to hypergastrinemia in the setting of atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Large lesions may ulcerate and result in gastrointestinal bleeding. However, massive gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in patients with NETs. We report a 60-year-old lady who presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to multiple G-NETs.

  16. Assessment of intracranial metastases from neuroendocrine tumors/carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Ragab Shalaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sites of origin for neuroendocrine carcinoma are gastrointestinal tract and its accessory glands, and lungs. Materials and Methods: One-hundred fifty cases diagnosed with metastatic brain lesions were retrieved from hospital records within 5 years. For these cases, the primary neoplasm, histopathological classification, metastasis, treatment, and fate all were studied. Results: Intracranial deposits were detected in 10%. The primary lesion was in the lungs in 87% of patients, and 1 patient in the breast and 1 in esophagus. Pathological classification of the primary lesion was Grade 2 (MIB-1: 3–20% in 1 patient and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MIB-1: ≥21% in 14 patients. The median period from onset of the primary lesion up to diagnosis of brain metastasis was 12.8 months. About 33% of patients had a single metastasis whereas 67% patients had multiple metastases. Brain metastasis was extirpated in 33% of patients. Stereotactic radiotherapy alone was administered in 20% of patients, and brain metastasis was favorably controlled in most of the patients with coadministration of cranial irradiation as appropriate. The median survival period from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 8.1 months. Conclusion: Most of patients with brain metastasis from neuroendocrine carcinoma showed the primary lesion in the lungs, and they had multiple metastases to the liver, lymph nodes, bones, and so forth at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis. The guidelines for accurate diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine carcinoma should be immediately established based on further analyses of those patients with brain metastasis.

  17. A Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Undetermined Origin in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-l...

  18. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Ofikwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up.

  19. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  20. Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome Accompanies Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bertani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a small percentage of pancreatic neoplasia (10% (1. Diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours is difficult, especially if the tumours are small and nonfunctional. CT scans, MRI, and nuclear scans are sufficiently sensitive assessment tools for tumours with diameters of at least 2 cm; otherwise, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques is less than 50% (2. Myasthenia gravis (MG is a heterogeneous neuromuscular junction disorder that is primarily caused when antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors (Ab-AchR. MG can develop in conjunction with neoplasia, making MG a paraneoplastic disease. In those cases, MG is most commonly associated with thymomas and less frequently associated with extrathymic malignancies. The mechanism underlying this paraneoplastic syndrome has been hypothesized to involve an autoimmune response against the tumour cells (3. No published reports have linked malignant pancreatic diseases with MG. Here, we report the case of a young woman, negative for Ab-AchR, with a neuroendocrine tumour in the pancreatic head, who experienced a complete resolution of her MG-like syndrome after surgical enucleation of the tumour.

  1. A neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2010-09-01

    In this report, we describe a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin in a dog. Necropsy revealed scattered small neoplastic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a small nodule in the parapancreatic lymph node. Histopathologically, both pulmonary and lymph nodal nodules showed a similar histologic pattern, with neoplastic cells being arranged in diffusely proliferating sheet-like cellular nests separated by variable amounts of fibrous septa, sometimes forming rosettes and duct-like structures. Scattered small necrotic foci and invasion to fibrous septa were typically observed. Neoplastic cells showed round to oval-shaped nuclei with prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm that were positive for Grimelius' silver impregnation staining and immunostaining with cytokeratin, synaptophysin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and chromogranin A, indicative of the development of a neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, judging from the distribution of tumors lacking the portion suggestive of the primary site in any organ examined, as well as no further indication of differentiation potential of neoplastic cells, this tumor has so far been diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma of undetermined origin.

  2. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frankie K; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L; Ho, Allen S

    2017-06-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of large extracellular pools of mucin, which contained papillary and acinar aggregates, and small nodules of ductal type epithelium with minimal nuclear enlargement, powdery chromatin and little pleomorphism. The nodules comprised 20 % of the tumor and showed morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Examination revealed histologic features comparable to mammary gland analogues in mucin predominance, ductal type morphology, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and GATA-3 positivity. This is the first case reported of mucin-rich carcinoma of salivary gland origin exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation.

  3. Staging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: how we do it based on an evidence-based approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other common types of malignant tumors, the vast majority of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are well differentiated and slowly growing with only a minority showing aggressive behavior. It is important to accurately stage patients radiologically so the correct treatment can be implemented and to improve prognosis. In this article, we critically appraise the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging in the staging of neuroendocrine tumors. We also discuss our protocol for staging neuroendocrine tumors.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome patients show enhanced modulation of visceral perception by auditory stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhaus, Britta; Mayer, Emeran A; Firooz, Nazanin; Stains, Jean; Conde, Francisco; Olivas, Teresa I; Fass, Ronnie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Minou; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients are sensitive to psychological stressors. These effects may operate through an enhanced responsiveness of the emotional motor system, a network of brain circuits that modulate arousal, viscerosomatic perception, and autonomic responses associated with emotional responses, including anxiety and anger. The aim of this study was to test the primary hypothesis that IBS patients show altered perceptual responses to rectal balloon distention during experimentally induced psychological stress compared with healthy control subjects. A total of 15 IBS patients (nine women and six men) and 14 healthy controls (seven women and seven men) were studied during two laboratory sessions: 1) a mild stress condition (dichotomous listening to two conflicting types of music), and 2) a control condition (relaxing nature sounds). The stress and relaxation auditory stimuli were delivered over a 10-min listening period preceding rectal distentions and during the rectal distentions but not during the distention rating process. Ratings of intensity and unpleasantness of the visceral sensations, subjective emotional responses, heart rate, and neuroendocrine measures (norepinephrine, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and prolactin) were obtained during the study. IBS patients, but not healthy controls, rated the 45-mm Hg visceral stimulus significantly higher in terms of intensity and unpleasantness during the stress condition compared with the relaxation condition. IBS patients also reported higher ratings of stress, anger, and anxiety during the stress compared with the relaxing condition, whereas controls had smaller and nonsignificant subjective responses. Heart rate measurements, but not other neuroendocrine stress measures, were increased under the stress condition in both groups. These findings confirm the hypothesis of altered stress-induced modulation of visceral perception in IBS patients.

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Koushik; Sarla P. Malhotra; Jain, Veena; Singh, Randhir

    2009-01-01

    Two varieties of guava viz., L-49 and Hisar Safeda differing in their shelf lives were analyzed for various components of oxidative stress and of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system at different stages of fruit ripening. Indices of oxidative stress viz., lipoxygenase activity, malondialdehyde value and H2O2 content increased throughout during ripening in both the varieties. The extent of oxidative stress was more pronounced in Hisar Safeda (shelf life 3–4 days) than in L-49 (shel...

  6. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System—A Systems Biology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler gr...

  7. Temozolomide as second or third line treatment of patients with neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Sørensen, Jens B; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the clinical efficacy in recurrent neuroendocrine carcinomas is sparse. Treatment with temozolomide alone or in combination with capecitabine and bevacizumab has recently shown promising results....

  8. Systemic Oxidative Stress markers in animal model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena

    Involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in development of major depressive disorder has recently become evident, though mechanisms behind this remain elusive. We analyzed therefore OxS pathways in rat Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression. Rats are exposed to chronic unpredictable mild...... stressors and Sucrose Consumption Tests (measure of hedonic state) were performed. Some rats developed the anhedonia-like symptoms, which were evident after 4 weeks of CMS protocol. During 5th to 8th weeks of CMS anhedonic rats were treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Escitalopram (i.p., 5...

  9. Thermal stress reduction of bilayered systems by means of linearly graded interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binglian; Li, Yizeng; Huo, Yongzhong

    2009-07-01

    The technique of introducing graded interlayers has been used extensively to mitigate residual thermal stresses in joining dissimilar materials. The case-to-case numerical methods have often been used to discuss the effectiveness of the graded interlayers, because it is always a mathematical difficulty in analytical analysis. In this work, thermal stress reduction of bilayered systems with linearly graded interlayer is considered with analytical approaches. It has been found that the maximal stress in the system will always be lowered with a thick enough interlayer. However, if the interlayer thickness is restricted, a critical range of the elastic modulus and layer thicknesses of the original bilayered system can be identified only in which the maximal stress can be reduced. An even smaller range is found within which the maximal stress always decreases with the increase of the interlayer thickness.

  10. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  11. Aspectos neuroendocrinos de la obesidad Neuroendocrine aspects of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Perello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En la fisiopatología de la obesidad intervienen factores genéticos, sociales, metabólicos, endocrinos y neurológicos. Esta multifactoriedad junto al hecho que estos factores se interrelacionan a través de mecanismos muy complejos, que son sólo parcialmente conocidos, ha llevado a que la comprensión íntima de este trastorno resulte una tarea sumamente ardua. Por estos motivos, el conocimiento integral de esta afección plantea un desafío al que actualmente están abocados numerosos grupos de investigadores. El análisis de la obesidad como un trastorno neuroendocrino, propone el estudio de este fenómeno desde una visión particular que implica disfunciones en casi todos los órganos endocrinos y en el sistema nervioso central, fundamentalmente en la actividad hipotalámica. Estas alteraciones afectan principalmente a los ejes neuroendocrinos hipotálamo-hipofiso-adrenal, adipo-insular y al control hipotalámico, tanto de la ingesta de alimento como del almacenamiento y gasto energético. Este artículo plantea una actualización en este campo; en primer lugar, se realiza una breve descripción, en forma independiente, de los principales sistemas antes mencionados y luego una descripción de su funcionamiento normal integrado. Finalmente, se describen desregulaciones de estos mecanismos y se discute como ellas contribuirían al desarrollo y/o mantenimiento de la obesidad.Genetic, social, metabolic, endocrine and neural events participate in the physiopathological development of obesity. Because of the multifactorial background of obesity, up to now, it has been very difficult to fully understand the whole disease. In fact, the relationship between several signals, through very complex mechanisms, is only partially known. Obesity, from a neuroendocrine point of view, implies taking into account abnormalities in both hypothalamic and endocrine functions. Among altered functions in obesity, namely those involving the hypothalamo

  12. Stress among Farm Women: Work and Family as Interacting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Alan D.; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1984-01-01

    Examined a sample of dairy farm wives (N=126) regarding stress symptoms, husband support, farm and home task loads, and perceived role conflict between farm and home responsibilities. Results indicated that the content of home and work roles may not be as important as interpersonal dynamics in rural farm families. (LLL)

  13. Perceived Stress and Wellness in Early Adolescents Using the Neuman Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, Thomas J.; Mahon, Noreen E.; Yarcheski, Adela; Hanks, Michele M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and wellness in early adolescents and to test primary appraisal as a mediator of this relationship using the Neuman Systems Model as the primary framework. The sample consisted of 144 adolescents, ages 12-14, who responded to instruments measuring perceived stress,…

  14. Job-Stress and Burnout of the Venezuelan Teachers: Related to Educational Systems Change (Educacion Basica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi; And Others

    Beginning with a review of the increasing literature concerning job-related teacher stress, this study examines the particular stress and burnout experiences of school teachers in Venezuela since the incorporation by law in 1980 of "Educacion Basica" (basic education) as a new level of the school system (grades 1-9). To compare teachers…

  15. Stress analysis of the modified Pulsed Neutron Activation system downstream shield support structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.

    1980-05-28

    The modified LOFT Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) System downstream shielding support structure was stress analyzed for deadweight and worst-case LOCE loads. No deficiencies were found in the structure. This stress analysis was performed for the PNA Shielding Configuration that has been used on Test L3-2 and that is to be used on Test L3-7.

  16. Basal and stress-induced differences in HPA axis, 5-HT responsiveness, and hippocampal cell proliferation in two mouse lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Koolhaas, JM; De Kloet, ER; Pacak, K; Aguilera, B; Saban, E; Kvetnansky, R

    2004-01-01

    To characterize individual differences in neuroendocrine and neurochemical correlates of stress coping, two lines of wild house mice were studied. These mice are genetically selected for high and low aggression and show distinctly different behavioral strategies toward environmental stimuli. Long

  17. [Stress theories and the somatization process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, R

    1995-12-01

    Stress theories aim at understanding pathophysiology of psychosomatic disorders. The first stress theories have been inspired by the principles of homeostasis. They view the response to stressors as a quasi reflex reaction which aims at normalizing disturbed homeostasis. More modern stress theories emphasize the intermediate role of cognitive and behavioural processes in the determinism of neuroendocrine and neurovegetative responses to stressors. Active attempts to control the situation are associated with activation of the sympathetic and adrenal medullary system whereas loss of control is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Since the functional consequences of the activation of each of these physiological systems are not the same, the risk factors corresponding to each coping strategy are not the same. Whatever their details, physiological and psychobiological stress theories all emphasize the influence of psychic factors on bodily functions. However, mental states do not function independently of bodily functions. In the case of the influences of stress on immunity for instance, it has been shown that these influences represent the counterpart of feedback regulatory mechanisms in which the ability of the brain to regulate immune responses depends on the capacity of the immune system to influence brain functions. Activation of the immune system during infection or inflammation is accompanied by profound metabolic, neuroendocrine and behavioural changes which are mediated by the effects of immune products known as cytokines on brain cell targets. In view of the reciprocal relationships between peripheral organic systems and the brain, a purely psychosomatic view, from the psyche to the soma, is therefore no longer tenable. In addition, biological accounts of somatization processes run into the risk of minimizing the importance of perception and representation of somatic symptoms. Amplification of somatic symptoms is a common

  18. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  19. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  20. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated

  1. Effects of chronic stress on the auditory system and fear learning: an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a complex biological reaction common to all living organisms that allows them to adapt to their environments. Chronic stress alters the dendritic architecture and function of the limbic brain areas that affect memory, learning, and emotional processing. This review summarizes our research about chronic stress effects on the auditory system, providing the details of how we developed the main hypotheses that currently guide our research. The aims of our studies are to (1) determine how chronic stress impairs the dendritic morphology of the main nuclei of the rat auditory system, the inferior colliculus (auditory mesencephalon), the medial geniculate nucleus (auditory thalamus), and the primary auditory cortex; (2) correlate the anatomic alterations with the impairments of auditory fear learning; and (3) investigate how the stress-induced alterations in the rat limbic system may spread to nonlimbic areas, affecting specific sensory system, such as the auditory and olfactory systems, and complex cognitive functions, such as auditory attention. Finally, this article gives a new evolutionary approach to understanding the neurobiology of stress and the stress-related disorders.

  2. Declarative memory after stress in humans: differential involvement of the beta-adrenergic and corticosteroid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Françoise S; Joober, Ridha; Lupien, Sonia J

    2005-03-01

    To determine the role played by the beta-adrenergic and corticosteroid systems in the modulatory effects of stress on declarative memory function, 42 young men were administered a placebo, propranolol (beta-adrenergic blocker), or metyrapone (corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) before being submitted to a psychological stress protocol. Immediately after stress, subjects viewed a neutral story, unrelated to the stressor. Short- (5 min post learning) and long-term (1 wk post learning) recall of the story was assessed. Placebo and propranolol groups showed significant stress-related increases in corticosteroid levels, whereas metyrapone prevented corticosteroid reactivity to the stressor. Stress triggered significant elevations in cardiac activity (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels) in all three groups, with the metyrapone group showing the strongest elevation in heart rate levels in response to stress. Compared with placebo, propranolol had no effect on short- and long-term recall of the story learned after stress, whereas metyrapone impaired short-term recall of the story, with no further effects on long-term declarative memory. These results suggest that, contrary to the beta-adrenergic system, the corticosteroid system is implicated in declarative memory function after stress in humans.

  3. Stress-induced cross-sensitization to amphetamine is related to changes in the dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo Tadeu; Leão, Rodrigo Molini; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2012-04-01

    Repeated stress engenders behavioral sensitization. The mesolimbic dopamine system is critically involved in drug-induced behavioral sensitization. In the present study we examined the differences between adolescent and adult rats in stress-induced behavioral sensitization to amphetamine and changes in dopamine (DA) and its metabolite levels in the mesolimbic system. Adolescent or adult rats were restrained for 2 h, once a day, for 7 days. Three days after the last exposure to stress, the animals were challenged with saline or amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine-induced locomotion was recorded for 40 min. Immediately after the behavioral tests, rats were decapitated and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and amygdala (AM) were removed to measure tissue levels of DA and its metabolites by HPLC. Exposure to repeated restraint stress promoted behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in both adult and adolescent rats. In adult rats, amphetamine administration increased DA levels in both the stress and control groups in the NAcc and VTA. In adolescent rats, amphetamine increased DA levels in the NAcc in rats exposed to stress. Furthermore, in the AM of adolescent rats in the control group, amphetamine increased the DA levels; however, amphetamine reduced this neurotransmitter in the rats that were exposed to stress. No alteration was observed in the dopamine metabolite levels. Therefore, stress promoted behavioral sensitization to amphetamine and this may be related to changes in DA levels in the mesolimbic system. These changes appear to be dependent on ontogeny.

  4. Targeting oxidative stress in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread recognition that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in normal brain function and pathology in the context of neurological disease. Oxidative stress continues to remain a key therapeutic target for neurological diseases. In developing antioxidant therapies for neurological disease, special attention should be given to the brain’s unique vulnerability to oxidative insults and its architecture. Consideration of antioxidant therapy should be guided by a strong rationale for oxidative stress in the neurological disease. This review provides an overview of processes that can guide the development of antioxidant therapies in neurological diseases such as knowledge of basic redox mechanisms, unique features of brain pathophysiology, mechanisms and classes of antioxidants and desirable properties of drug candidates. PMID:27491897

  5. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  6. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al.

  7. The calm mouse: an animal model of stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfein, Blake T; Stamm, Andrew W; Bacchetti, Peter; Dallman, Mary F; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Milush, Jeffrey M; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Di Borgo, Charles Pozzo; Fromentin, Gilles; Lown-Hecht, Rachel; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Acree, Michael; Premenko-Lanier, Mary; Darcel, Nicolas; Hecht, Frederick M; Nixon, Douglas F

    2012-05-09

    Chronic stress is associated with negative health outcomes and is linked with neuroendocrine changes, deleterious effects on innate and adaptive immunity, and central nervous system neuropathology. Although stress management is commonly advocated clinically, there is insufficient mechanistic understanding of how decreasing stress affects disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we have developed a "calm mouse model" with caging enhancements designed to reduce murine stress. Male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control (Cntl), standard caging; calm (Calm), large caging to reduce animal density, a cardboard nest box for shelter, paper nesting material to promote innate nesting behavior, and a polycarbonate tube to mimic tunneling; control exercise (Cntl Ex), standard caging with a running wheel, known to reduce stress; and calm exercise (Calm Ex), calm caging with a running wheel. Calm, Cntl Ex and Calm Ex animals exhibited significantly less corticosterone production than Cntl animals. We also observed changes in spleen mass, and in vitro splenocyte studies demonstrated that Calm Ex animals had innate and adaptive immune responses that were more sensitive to acute handling stress than those in Cntl. Calm animals gained greater body mass than Cntl, although they had similar food intake, and we also observed changes in body composition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Together, our results suggest that the Calm mouse model represents a promising approach to studying the biological effects of stress reduction in the context of health and in conjunction with existing disease models.

  8. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  9. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG......) to assess the effect of chemicals in molluscs. To date no endocrine specific mollusc biomarkers have though been validated and included in draft test guidelines due to lack of knowledge of the endocrine system. Here we investigate effects of pharmaceuticals targeting serotonin and dopamine in a cost...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L...

  10. Oral probiotics supplementation can stimulate the immune system in a stress process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomar Martin Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a bifactorial stress mouse model we studied the effect of probiotic supplementation on biochemical parameter in serum, the intestinal impairment of the villi induced by stress, the systemic immune response and the susceptibility to intestinal infections. Probiotic effect was also evaluated on cells from the innate immunity. Mice were subjected to a stress protocol based on food deprivation and movement restrictions for 11 days. We analyzed the probiotic supplementation effect, as probiotic bacteria suspension or as a fermented milk, on the changes induced by stress: biochemical parameters as glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in serum, body weight and in the gut we determined the number of goblet cells, the length of the microvilli and bacterial translocation from the intestinal microbiota into deep tissues. Peritoneal and spleen macrophages activity, the immune response to ovalbumin immunization, the protection against Salmonella infection during the stress process in mice receiving probiotic, were also determined. We found that probiotic supplementation in the chronic stress model, improves the gut histological structure, increases phagocytic activity of peritoneal and spleen macrophages, enhance the humoral response to the OVA antigen and protect against Salmonella infection. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation was able to act on the gut and systemic immunity by improvement of the length and cellularity of the villi, increasing the systemic immune response and protecting against Salmonella infection. The effectiveness on the immune system exerted by probiotic consumption suggests the use of these bacteria as an alternative to minimize the damage induced during stress situation.

  11. [Correlation between Haemostatic and Vegetate Nervous System Parameters under Examination Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, R I; Doinikova, A N; Zhdanova, S I; Chernokhvostov, Yu V; Gadzhieva, E S; Dvoenosov, V G

    2016-01-01

    The work is aimed to an assessment of the correlation between of autonomic nervous system tone and the level of reactivity of the students' cardiovascular system and hemostasis system under examination stress. It was found that the students under exam stress are characterized with high values of respiration rate and with lower ones of tidal volume. The value of respiratory minute volume decreases in male students due to the bronchoconstrictor effects of stress at the tracheobronchial tree. This finding confirms a statistically significant reduction in the flow of small, medium and large bronchi, indicating an increased parasympathetic nervous system tone. A statistically significant increase in the power of fast waves as a result of determining heart rate variability in students of both hender during the exam also testifies the activation of the vagus nerve and can be used as a marker of exam stress. While exam stress, trombocrite value decreases and only femail students show a statistically significant reduction in the platelet number and increase of their volume. The tendency to increased thrombotic events under exam stress is demonstarated, being reached statistically significant differences in the case of female students--an increase in the initial thrombosis rate. In the case of mail students, an increase of prothrombin time value is testified under exam stress.

  12. Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Shimizu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP, PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C- and nitrogen (N-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI of phosphotransferase system (PTS, thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient limitations and environmental stresses. As for oxidative stress, the TCA cycle both generates and scavenges the reactive oxygen species (ROSs, where NADPH produced at ICDH and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathways play an important role in coping with oxidative stress. Solvent resistant mechanism was also considered for the stresses caused by biofuels and biochemicals production in the cell.

  13. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with complete replacement of the pancreas by serous cystic neoplasms in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shimpei; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Oana, Shuhei; Ariake, Kyohei; Mizuma, Masamichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Kei; Kamei, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-09-25

    von Hippel-Lindau disease is a dominantly inherited multi-system syndrome with neoplastic hallmarks. Pancreatic lesions associated with von Hippel-Lindau include serous cystic neoplasms, simple cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and serous cystic neoplasms is relatively rare, and the surgical treatment of these lesions must consider both preservation of pancreatic function and oncological clearance. We report a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease successfully treated with pancreas-sparing resection of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor where the pancreas had been completely replaced by serous cystic neoplasms, in which pancreatic function was preserved. A 39-year-old female with von Hippel-Lindau disease was referred to our institution for treatment of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a well-enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter in the tail of the pancreas, and two multilocular tumors with several calcifications, 5 cm in diameter, in the head of the pancreas. There was complete replacement of the pancreas by multiple cystic lesions with diameters ranging from 1 to 3 cm. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed innumerable cystic lesions on the whole pancreas and no detectable main pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass in the pancreatic tail showed characteristic features of a neuroendocrine tumor. A diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tail of the pancreas and mixed-type serous cystic neoplasms replacing the whole pancreas was made and she underwent distal pancreatectomy while avoiding total pancreatectomy. The stump of the pancreas was sutured as firm as possible using a fish-mouth closure. The patient made a good recovery and was discharged on postoperative day 9. She is currently alive and well with no symptoms of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency 8 months after surgery. A pancreas

  14. Stress and the engagement of multiple memory systems: integration of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Learning and memory can be controlled by distinct memory systems. How these systems are coordinated to optimize learning and behavior has long been unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that stress may modulate the engagement of multiple memory systems. In particular, rodent and human studies demonstrate that stress facilitates dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory, at the expense of hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" memory. Based on these data, a model is proposed which states that the impact of stress on the relative use of multiple memory systems is due to (i) differential effects of hormones and neurotransmitters that are released during stressful events on hippocampal and dorsal striatal memory systems, thus changing the relative strength of and the interactions between these systems, and (ii) a modulatory influence of the amygdala which biases learning toward dorsal striatum-based memory after stress. This shift to habit memory after stress can be adaptive with respect to current performance but might contribute to psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nordic guidelines 2014 for diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Sorbye, Halfdan; Welin, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic work-up and treatment of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has undergone major recent advances and new methods are currently introduced into the clinic. An update of the WHO classification has resulted in a new nomenclature dividing NENs into neuroendocrine...

  16. Neuroendocrine dysregulations in sexually abused children and adolescents: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I. A. E.; Meijer, M.; Sinnema, G.; van de Putte, E. M.; Olff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies provided evidence for neuroendocrine dysregulations in adults with a history of child sexual abuse. This review focuses on neuroendocrine studies in sexually abused children and adolescents, dating from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2007 and obtained from a systematic Medline Indexed

  17. Tracer development for detection and characterization of neuroendocrine tumors with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Olivier Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are slowly growing tumors which originate from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors can secrete several products. In case of overproduction of serotonin, symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea and right-sided heart disease can occur. Next to serotonin, other well known products are

  18. Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work with different physical and mental demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; van der Beek, AJ; Meijman, TF; Heisterkamp, SH

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the type or nature (physical, mental or mixed mental and physical) of work and work characteristics is related to the course of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work. Methods Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery

  19. Statistical Analysis of Stress Signals from Bridge Monitoring by FBG System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG-based stress monitoring system instrumented on an orthotropic steel deck arch bridge is demonstrated. The FBG sensors are installed at two types of critical fatigue-prone welded joints to measure the strain and temperature signals. A total of 64 FBG sensors are deployed around the rib-to-deck and rib-to-diagram areas at the mid-span and quarter-span of the investigated orthotropic steel bridge. The local stress behaviors caused by the highway loading and temperature effect during the construction and operation periods are presented with the aid of a wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach. In addition, the multi-modal characteristic of the rainflow counted stress spectrum is modeled by the method of finite mixture distribution together with a genetic algorithm (GA-based parameter estimation approach. The optimal probability distribution of the stress spectrum is determined by use of Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Furthermore, the hot spot stress of the welded joint is calculated by an extrapolation method recommended in the specification of International Institute of Welding (IIW. The stochastic characteristic of stress concentration factor (SCF of the concerned welded joint is addressed. The proposed FBG-based stress monitoring system and probabilistic stress evaluation methods can provide an effective tool for structural monitoring and condition assessment of orthotropic steel bridges.

  20. Individual differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system: Relevance to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher S; Valentino, Rita J; Wood, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Repeated exposure to psychosocial stress is a robust sympathomimetic stressor and as such has adverse effects on cardiovascular health. While the neurocircuitry involved remains unclear, the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system suggest that it is poised to contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability. A major theme throughout is to review studies that shed light on the role that the LC may play in individual differences in vulnerability to social stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. Recent findings are discussed that support a unique plasticity in afferent regulation of the LC, resulting in either excitatory or inhibitory input to the LC during establishment of different stress coping strategies. This contrasting regulation of the LC by either afferent regulation, or distinct differences in stress-induced neuroinflammation would translate to differences in cardiovascular regulation and may serve as the basis for individual differences in the cardiopathological consequences of social stress. The goal of this review is to highlight recent developments in the interplay between the LC-NE and cardiovascular systems during repeated stress in an effort to advance therapeutic treatments for the development of stress-induced cardiovascular vulnerability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilience-as-process: negative affect, stress, and coupled dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Deboeck, Pascal R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Boker, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    Resilience is often considered both a trait and a process. The current study proposes a new way to conceptualize resilience-as-process based on dynamical systems modeling, which allows researchers to capture the process of stress management in real time. Coupled damped linear oscillator models succinctly describe daily stress and negative affect in terms of developmental forces (e.g., velocity, acceleration). Models were fit to 56-day daily response data from 42 aging adults (M(age) = 78.8 years; SD(age) = 6.6 years) to observe and understand linkages between daily stress and affect. It was speculated that individuals with greater resilience would experience stress as less coupled to changes in negative affect (less stress reactivity), and would recover their affective equilibrium more quickly following a given exogenous stressor (greater stress recovery). To identify resilience resources related to reliable interindividual differences in coupling and damping between stress and negative affect, we examined possible protective factors. Aspects of personality and social support predicted both the strength and nature of this coupling, such that higher levels of these resources resulted in greater protection from the cost to negative affect from stress, as observed in damping of negative affect and decreased coupling between systems. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Stress Signals from Bridge Monitoring by FBG System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiao-Wei; Su, You-Hua; Xi, Pei-Sen

    2018-02-07

    In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based stress monitoring system instrumented on an orthotropic steel deck arch bridge is demonstrated. The FBG sensors are installed at two types of critical fatigue-prone welded joints to measure the strain and temperature signals. A total of 64 FBG sensors are deployed around the rib-to-deck and rib-to-diagram areas at the mid-span and quarter-span of the investigated orthotropic steel bridge. The local stress behaviors caused by the highway loading and temperature effect during the construction and operation periods are presented with the aid of a wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach. In addition, the multi-modal characteristic of the rainflow counted stress spectrum is modeled by the method of finite mixture distribution together with a genetic algorithm (GA)-based parameter estimation approach. The optimal probability distribution of the stress spectrum is determined by use of Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Furthermore, the hot spot stress of the welded joint is calculated by an extrapolation method recommended in the specification of International Institute of Welding (IIW). The stochastic characteristic of stress concentration factor (SCF) of the concerned welded joint is addressed. The proposed FBG-based stress monitoring system and probabilistic stress evaluation methods can provide an effective tool for structural monitoring and condition assessment of orthotropic steel bridges.

  3. Minichromosome Maintenance Expression Defines Slow-Growing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schimmack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC, Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22. MCM and Ki67 expression was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (tissue microarray, independent set [n = 55]. Forty-three pancreatic NENs and 14 normal tissues were included as controls. RESULTS: In SI-NENs, MCM2 (mean: 21.2%: range: 16%-25% and MCM3 (28.7%: 22%-34% were detected in significantly more cells than Ki67 (2.3%: 0%-7%, P < .01. MCM2 mRNA correlated with Ki67 IHC (P < .05. MCM3 protein expression was higher in metastases (38-fold than in normal small intestine (P = .06 and was largely absent in normal neuroendocrine cells. There was considerable variation at the MCM copy number level (0-4 copies. MCM3 expression in proliferating cells significantly predicted overall survival (P < .002. Combinations of Ki67 and MCM2/3 in algorithms differentiated low and higher proliferative lesions (overall survival: 12 vs 6.1 years, P = .06. MCM expression was not informative in pancreatic NENs. CONCLUSION: MCMs are expressed in a higher proportion of NEN cells than Ki67 in slow-growing small intestinal lesions and correlate with survival. Assessment can be used to augment Ki67 to improve prognostic classification in these low-grade tumors.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Immune System in Vitiligo and Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Roberta; Dragoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired dermatological disease frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Several theories have been proposed so far to unravel the complex vitiligo pathogenesis. Currently, the autocytotoxic and the autoimmune theories are the most accredited hypothesis, since they are sustained by several important clinical and experimental evidences. A growing body of evidences shows that autoimmunity and oxidative stress strictly interact to finally determine melanocyte loss. In this scenario, associated thyroid autoimmunity might play an active and important role in triggering and maintaining the depigmentation process of vitiligo. PMID:25838868

  5. Oxidative Stress and Immune System in Vitiligo and Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is an acquired dermatological disease frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Several theories have been proposed so far to unravel the complex vitiligo pathogenesis. Currently, the autocytotoxic and the autoimmune theories are the most accredited hypothesis, since they are sustained by several important clinical and experimental evidences. A growing body of evidences shows that autoimmunity and oxidative stress strictly interact to finally determine melanocyte loss. In this scenario, associated thyroid autoimmunity might play an active and important role in triggering and maintaining the depigmentation process of vitiligo.

  6. The stress response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: from molecule to melancholia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Organisms survive by maintaining equilibrium with their environment. The stress system is critical to this homeostasis. Glucocorticoids modulate the stress response at a molecular level by altering gene expression, transcription, and translation, among other pathways. The effect is the inhibition of the functions of inflammatory cells, predominantly mediated through inhibition of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The central effectors of the stress response are the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE)\\/sympathetic systems. The CRH system activates the stress response and is subject to modulation by cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Glucocorticoids also modulate the growth, reproductive and thyroid axes. Abnormalities of stress system activation have been shown in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as behavioural syndromes such as melancholic depression. These disorders are comparable to those seen in rats whose CRH system is genetically abnormal. Thus, the stress response is central to resistance to inflammatory and behavioural syndromes. In this review, we describe the response to stress at molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and behavioural levels, and discuss the disease processes that result from a dysregulation of this response, as well as recent developments in their treatment.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Thörnqvist, Per Ove

    2016-01-01

    By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive...

  8. Spontaneous rupture of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yeong; Lee, In Jae; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare neoplasm with tendencies of local invasion and metastasis. Usually, it is detected incidentally or by its symptoms caused by mass effect. Rupture of the tumor is extremely rare. In this study, we report a case of a ruptured thymic NEC that was combined with a potentially fatal hemorrhage. This lesion was manifested as a progressive bulging of the right cardiac border on serial chest radiographs, and on CT as a large anterior mediastinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement, internal necrosis, and hematoma.

  9. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Frankie K.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Ho, Allen S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neo...

  10. Pipe stress analysis on HCCR-TBS ancillary systems in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Pipe stress is performed on Korean HCCR-TBS for the load combinations including seismic events. • The resultant stress meets the requirement of the design code & standard except one position where modification is needed. • The results gives useful information for the design evolution in the next desgin phase. - Abstract: Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) will be tested in ITER to demonstrate feasibility of the breeding blanket concept. The HCCR-TBS comprises Test Blanket Module (TBM) with associated shield, and ancillary systems located in various positions of ITER building. Currently, conceptual design for the HCCR-TBS is in progress. This paper presents pipe stress analysis results for the HCCR-TBS ancillary systems. The pipe stress analysis was performed in accordance with ASME B31.3 for major pipes of the Helium Cooling System (HCS) and the Coolant Purification System (CPS), which are operated in high pressure and temperature. The pipe stress for various load cases and load combinations were calculated. Operational pressure and temperature during plasma operation are applied as pressure load and thermal load, respectively. In addition seismic events were combined to investigate the code compliance for sustained load case and occasional load case. It was confirmed that the resultant stress meets the requirements of ASME B31.3 except one position in which it needs modification. These results give useful information for the next design phase, for example, nozzle loads for the component selection, the support design parameters, etc.

  11. Voltage-clamp recordings from identified dissociated neuroendocrine cells of the adult rat supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, P; Weiss, M L

    1990-06-01

    In vitro intracellular recordings of membrane potential obtained from the oxytocin and vasopressin neurons of the mammalian hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system in slices (1-3) and expiants (4, 5) have demonstrated many of the intrinsic properties of these magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs). Voltage-clamp techniques, which are required to study directly the currents underlying intrinsic or transmitter-evoked potential changes, have been applied to cultured embryonic (6) or neonatal supraoptic neurons (7-9) and have been successfully applied to adult supraoptic neurons in situ in only one laboratory (10, 11). We have modified a technique for dissociation of viable adult guineapig hippocampal neurons (12) to dissociate supraoptic MNCs from adult rats for voltage-clamp studies. MNCs were selectively labelled with a fluorescent dye in vivo so that they could be identified after dissociation and prior to making recordings. These data have been published in abstract form elsewhere (13, 14).

  12. Neuroendocrine Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Arising in Long Standing History of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Boussios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune disease that targets myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is a well-recognised clinical disorder, accounting for 3–5% of all malignant epithelial tumors. CUP is clinically characterised as an aggressive disease with early dissemination. Studies of cancer risk in MS patients have shown inconsistent findings. An increased risk of malignancy in patients with MS has been suggested, but recently serious questions have been raised regarding this association. Use of disease-modifying therapies might contribute to an increased cancer risk in selected MS patients. The concurrence of MS and CUP is exceptionally rare. Here we describe the case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary diagnosed in a male patient with a nine-year history of MS. The discussion includes data from all available population-based register studies with estimates of certain malignancies in patients with MS.

  13. Role of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF in central cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Jhamandas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide FF (NPFF is an octapeptide belonging to the RFamide family of peptides that have been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions in the brain including central cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. The effects of these peptides are mediated via NPFF1and NPFF2 receptors that are abundantly expressed in the rat and human brain. Herein, we review evidence for the role of NPFF in central regulation of blood pressure particularly within the brainstem and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. At a cellular level, NPFF demonstrates distinct responses in magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of the PVN, which regulate the secretion of neurohypohyseal hormones, and sympathetic ouflow, respectively. Finally, the presence of NPFF system in the human brain and its alterations within the hypertensive brain are discussed.

  14. The effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on serum oxidative stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Aslan, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Selek, Sahbettin; Sabuncu, Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    Some authors have investigated the effects of oxidative stress in some process such as undergoing laparoscopic. However, the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress is unclear. We evaluated the short-term effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress. Thirty patients who underwent endoscopy process and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the prospective study. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurements were measured before and after endoscopy process. The ratio percentage of total oxidant status to total antioxidant capacity was regarded as oxidative stress index. Before endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity levels were higher, while serum total oxidant status levels and oxidative stress index values were lower in patients than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (all, p > 0.05). After endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were significantly higher in patients than before endoscopy process (both, p stress index values were slight higher in patients but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We observed that serum TAC and TOS levels were increased in patients who underwent endoscopy process after endoscopy process. However, short-time upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process did not cause an important change in the oxidative stress index. Further studies enrolling a larger number of patients are required to clarify the results obtained here.

  15. A Presence-Based Context-Aware Chronic Stress Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight or flight’ response. The currently available stress assessment methods are usually not suitable for daily chronic stress measurement. The paper presents a context-aware chronic stress recognition system that addresses this problem. The proposed system obtains contextual data from various mobile sensors and other external sources in order to calculate the impact of ongoing stress. By identifying and visualizing ongoing stress situations of an individual user, he/she is able to modify his/her behavior in order to successfully avoid them. Clinical evaluation of the proposed methodology has been made in parallel by using electrodermal activity sensor. To the best of our knowledge, the system presented herein is the first one that enables recognition of chronic stress situations on the basis of user context.

  16. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: Neuroendocrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica F Patton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus is directly entrained by daily light-dark cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect neural, hormonal and behavioral outputs. The daily rhythm of food intake provides stimuli that entrain most peripheral and central oscillators, some of which can drive a daily rhythm of food anticipatory activity if food is restricted to one daily mealtime. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs that drive food anticipatory rhythms, and the food-related stimuli that entrain these oscillators, remain to be clarified. Here, we critically examine the role of peripheral metabolic hormones as potential internal entrainment stimuli or outputs for FEOs controlling food anticipatory rhythms in rats and mice. Hormones for which data are available include corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1. All of these hormones exhibit daily rhythms of synthesis and secretion that are synchronized by meal timing. There is some evidence that ghrelin and leptin modulate the expression of food anticipatory rhythms, but none of the hormones examined so far are necessary for entrainment. Ghrelin and leptin likely modulate food-entrained rhythms by actions in hypothalamic circuits utilizing melanocortin and orexin signaling, although again food-entrained behavioral rhythms can persist in lesion and gene knockout models in which these systems are disabled. Actions of these hormones on circadian oscillators in central reward circuits remain to be evaluated. Food-entrained activity rhythms are likely mediated by a distributed system of circadian oscillators sensitive to multiple feeding related inputs. Metabolic hormones appear to play a modulatory role within this

  17. Genetic associations with neuroendocrine tumor risk: results from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yeting; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Brais, Lauren; Brooks, Nichole; Waldron, Amanda; Chan, Jennifer A; Lin, Xihong; Kraft, Peter; Christiani, David C; Kulke, Matthew H

    2016-08-01

    The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health. An additional 241 controls from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute were used for quality control. We assessed risk associations in the overall cohort, and in neuroendocrine tumor subgroups. We identified no potential risk associations in the cohort overall. In the small intestine neuroendocrine tumor subgroup, comprising 293 cases, we identified risk associations with three SNPs on chromosome 12, all in strong LD. The three SNPs are located upstream of ELK3, a transcription factor implicated in angiogenesis. We did not identify clear risk associations in the bronchial or pancreatic neuroendocrine subgroups. This large-scale study provides initial evidence that presumed sporadic small intestine neuroendocrine tumors may have a genetic etiology. Our results provide a basis for further exploring the role of genes implicated in this analysis, and for replication studies to confirm the observed associations. Additional studies to evaluate potential genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors are warranted. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Conservation of the Keap1-Nrf2 System: An Evolutionary Journey through Stressful Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Fuse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Keap1-Nrf2 system is an evolutionarily conserved defense mechanism against oxidative and xenobiotic stress. Its regulatory mechanisms, e.g., stress-sensing mechanism, proteasome-based regulation of Nrf2 activity and selection of target genes, have been elucidated mainly in mammals. In addition, emerging model animals, such as zebrafish, fruit fly and Caenorhabditis elegans, have been shown to have similar anti-stress systems to mammals, suggesting that analogous defense systems are widely conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Experimental evidence in lower animals provides important information beyond mere laboratory-confined utility, such as regarding how these systems transformed during evolution, which may help characterize the mammalian system in greater detail. Recent advances in genome projects of both model and non-model animals have provided a great deal of useful information toward this end. We herein review the research on Keap1-Nrf2 and its analogous systems in both mammals and lower model animals. In addition, by comparing the amino acid sequences of Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins from various species, we can deduce the evolutionary history of the anti-stress system. This combinatorial approach using both experimental and genetic data will suggest perspectives of approach for researchers studying the stress response.

  19. Conservation of the Keap1-Nrf2 System: An Evolutionary Journey through Stressful Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Yuji; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2017-03-09

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system is an evolutionarily conserved defense mechanism against oxidative and xenobiotic stress. Its regulatory mechanisms, e.g., stress-sensing mechanism, proteasome-based regulation of Nrf2 activity and selection of target genes, have been elucidated mainly in mammals. In addition, emerging model animals, such as zebrafish, fruit fly and Caenorhabditis elegans , have been shown to have similar anti-stress systems to mammals, suggesting that analogous defense systems are widely conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Experimental evidence in lower animals provides important information beyond mere laboratory-confined utility, such as regarding how these systems transformed during evolution, which may help characterize the mammalian system in greater detail. Recent advances in genome projects of both model and non-model animals have provided a great deal of useful information toward this end. We herein review the research on Keap1-Nrf2 and its analogous systems in both mammals and lower model animals. In addition, by comparing the amino acid sequences of Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins from various species, we can deduce the evolutionary history of the anti-stress system. This combinatorial approach using both experimental and genetic data will suggest perspectives of approach for researchers studying the stress response.

  20. Neuroendocrine control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP play important and opposite roles in the control of water and salt intake, with angiotensin II promoting the intake of both and ANP inhibiting the intake of both. Following blood volume expansion, baroreceptor input to the brainstem induces the release of ANP within the hypothalamus that releases oxytocin (OT that acts on its receptors in the heart to cause the release of ANP. ANP activates guanylyl cyclase that converts guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates protein kinase G that reduces heart rate and force of contraction, decreasing cardiac output. ANP acts similarly to induce vasodilation. The intrinsic OT system in the heart and vascular system augments the effects of circulating OT to cause a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume. Furthermore, natriuresis is rapidly induced by the action of ANP on its tubular guanylyl cyclase receptors, resulting in the production of cGMP that closes Na+ channels. The OT released by volume expansion also acts on its tubular receptors to activate nitric oxide synthase. The nitric oxide released activates guanylyl cyclase leading to the production of cGMP that also closes Na+ channels, thereby augmenting the natriuretic effect of ANP. The natriuresis induced by cGMP finally causes blood volume to return to normal. At the same time, the ANP released acts centrally to decrease water and salt intake.

  1. Meta-iodobenzyl guanidine for detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryma, Daniel [Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19105 (United States); Divgi, Chaitanya [Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19105 (United States)], E-mail: chaitanya.divgi@uphs.upenn.edu

    2008-08-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. These may be classified based on location into the following: pheochromocytomas and parangangliomas; carcinoids; and pancreatic endocrine tumors. The majority of these tumors are nonfunctional, and thus, molecular imaging methods are critical in detection and staging of disease. Meta-iodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) is a norepinephrine analog taken up by norepinephrine transporters that are overexpressed in the majority of GEP-NET. Radioactive MIBG can be used to image GEP-NET. The isotopes suitable for imaging include iodine-123 and iodine-131, using single-photon cameras, and iodine-124, using positron emission tomography (PET). Imaging is usually carried out a day or more after administration of the radiotracer, and serial and tomographic imaging may be necessary for optimal delineation. MIBG imaging is more useful for detecting pheochromocytoma, with reported accuracies greater than 80%, than for detecting carcinoid tumors, where the accuracy has been {approx}70% and is reportedly higher in mid-gut tumors. MIBG imaging has been invaluable in the accurate staging of children with neuroblastoma, a lethal childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. An important application of MIBG imaging is to demonstrate targeting of therapeutic I-131 MIBG. Imaging is thus useful in the detection of disease as well as in the demonstration of adequate targeting for therapy - either qualitatively or quantitatively with dosimetry. The latter will probably be feasible with PET using isotopes like iodine-124, and perhaps with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Imaging with MIBG will continue to be the mainstay for detection and staging of GEP-NET. More importantly, perhaps, imaging with MIBG will form part of an imaging continuum, including assessment of glycolytic rate and somatostatin

  2. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  3. Remote sensing of moisture and nutrient stress in turfgrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jason Keith

    Management of irrigation and fertility on a golf course or other large turfgrass area requires a significant amount of time scouting for and identifying problem areas to maintain optimum turfgrass quality. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the relationship between remotely sensed reflectance data collected from a turfgrass canopy and the associated phosphorus and nitrogen content of turfgrass tissue, and to determine the relationship between reflectance data and soil moisture content as determined by time domain reflectometry (TDR). Phosphorus deficiency symptoms decreased and biomass production increased at P rates above 1.0 g m-2 with a single application while no increase in soil-P was observed. Reflectance measurements were taken in increments from 400 to 1050 nm and correlated with plant tissue P concentration, chlorophyll content, plant biomass and visual quality. Stepwise regression identified a model utilizing reflectance in the blue, yellow, orange, and red regions of the spectrum that explained 73% of the variability in plant tissue P concentration for all sampling dates in 2002 and 2003. Few correlations were found between vegetative indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant response. Results indicate that P deficiencies of creeping bentgrass can be detected through the use of remote sensing. P deficiencies were corrected with a single foliar application of P at rates above 1.5 g m-2. Using partial least-squares regression, our results indicate a weak relationship between the actual and predicted values for turfgrass quality, biomass production, and chlorophyll content under varying rates of N fertilization. However, a strong relationship was observed between actual and predicted values for N concentration of the plant tissue during 2002 and 2003 (r2 = 0.90 and 0.74 respectively). Similarly, no correlation was observed between visual drought stress ratings and the associated soil moisture content for

  4. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.

  5. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  6. Systems approaches to genomic and epigenetic inter-regulation of peptide hormones in stress and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, David A; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia

    2013-12-01

    The evolution of the organismal stress response and fertility are two of the most important aspects that drive the fitness of a species. However, the integrated regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes has been traditionally thwarted by the complexity of these systems. Pepidergic signalling systems have emerged as critical integrating systems for stress and reproduction. Current high throughput systems approaches are now providing a detailed understanding of peptide signalling in stress and reproduction. These approaches were dependent upon a long history of discovery aimed at the structural characterization of the associated molecular components. The combination of comparative genomics, microarray and epigenetic studies has led not only to a much greater understanding of the integration of stress and reproduction but also to the discovery of novel physiological systems. Recent epigenomic approaches have similarly yielded a new level of complexity in the interaction of these physiological systems. Together, such studies have provided a greater understanding of the effects of stress and reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcriptome Reveals Unidentified Neuroendocrine Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Yamamoto, Sachie; Žitňan, Dušan; Watanabe, Ken; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Satake, Honoo; Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an important class of molecules involved in diverse aspects of metazoan development and homeostasis. Insects are ideal model systems to investigate neuropeptide functions, and the major focus of insect neuropeptide research in the last decade has been on the identification of their receptors. Despite these vigorous efforts, receptors for some key neuropeptides in insect development such as prothoracicotropic hormone, eclosion hormone and allatotropin (AT), remain undefined. In this paper, we report the comprehensive cloning of neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and systematic analyses of their expression. Based on the expression patterns of orphan receptors, we identified the long-sought receptor for AT, which is thought to stimulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpora allata (CA). Surprisingly, however, the AT receptor was not highly expressed in the CA, but instead was predominantly transcribed in the corpora cardiaca (CC), an organ adjacent to the CA. Indeed, by using a reverse-physiological approach, we purified and characterized novel allatoregulatory peptides produced in AT receptor-expressing CC cells, which may indirectly mediate AT activity on the CA. All of the above findings confirm the effectiveness of a systematic analysis of the receptor transcriptome, not only in characterizing orphan receptors, but also in identifying novel players and hidden mechanisms in important biological processes. This work illustrates how using a combinatorial approach employing bioinformatic, molecular, biochemical and physiological methods can help solve recalcitrant problems in neuropeptide research. PMID:18725956

  8. [Influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Roumiantseva, M L; Simarov, B V

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaC1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula system were studied. Its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these parameters. The structure of the nodDI locus and the content correlates to the efficiency of the symbiosis between S. meliloti and M. truncatula genotypes under stress conditions more sufficiently than in the absence of stress. Correlations between the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia strains and their growth rate outside symbiosis are expressed under stress conditions, not in the absence of stress. Under salt stress symbiotic effectiveness was decreased for M. truncatula line F83005.5, which was salt sensitive for mineral nutrition. The inhibition of symbiotic activity for this line is linked with decreased nodule formation, whereas for Jemalong 6 and DZA315.16 lines it is associated with repressed N2-fixation. It was demonstrated for the first time that salt stress impairs the M. truncatula habitus (the mass : height ratio increased 2- to 6-fold), which in the salt-resistant cultivar Jemalong 6 is normalized as the result of rhizobia inoculation.

  9. Neuroendocrine Tumours : From Radiomolecular Imaging to Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS eLIMOURIS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transhepatic radionuclide infusion (THRI has been introduced as a new treatment approach for unresectable liver neuroendocrine metastatic lesions with the prerequisite of a positive In-111 Pentetreotide (Octreoscan. Patients with multiple liver neuroendocrine metastases can be locally treated after selective hepatic artery catheterization and infusion of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, and in case of extra-hepatic secondary spread, after simple i.v. application. According to the world wide references, the average dose per session to each patient is 6.3±0.3 GBq (~ 160-180 mCi of In-111-DTPA-Phe1- Pentetreotide, 10-12 fold in total, administered monthly or of 4.1± 0.2 GBq (~105-116 mCi of Y-90 DOTA TOC, 3 fold in total or of 7.0 ± 0.4 GBq (~178-200 mCi of Lu-177 DOTA TATE, 4-6 fold in total (the choice of which being based on the tumor size, assessed by CT or MRI . Follow-up at monthly intervals has to be performed by means of ultrasonography (US. Treat- ment response has to be assessed according to the WHO criteria (RECIST or SWOG.

  10. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  11. [CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM REACTIVITY IN PRENATALLY STRESSED RATS DURING THE LATE PERIOD OF ONTOGENESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudaverdyan, A; Saroyan, M; Khudaverdyan, D

    2015-09-01

    Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined in normal rats and those exposed to influence of chronic stress during gestation. Data were registered six months after the birth and in 5, 24 and 48 hours after their immobilization. Analysis of the data showed that in rats undergoing stress, recorded systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate both before and during all periods of immobilization were significantly below than in control group. It is concluded that the maximum limit of motor activity in the prenatally stressed rats accompanied by a decrease in the values ​​recorded performance of the cardiovascular system, which is reflecting the decrease in these animals reactivity of the cardiovascular system, and thus the adaptive capacity for action of stress factors.

  12. Stress distribution in the dento-alveolar system using digital photoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundi, A; Kishen, A

    2000-01-01

    Past research has confirmed that the governing factors in cellular modelling and remodelling adhere to sound principles of engineering mechanics. Hence studies of stress distributions would provide better understanding of the functional adaptation of dental supporting structures. Photoelasticity is an established experimental tool to study whole-field stress distribution in structures subjected to forces. However, it has certain limitations that make its application in biological specimens tedious. In this investigation an advanced digital photoelastic system is used to visualize and study the nature of the stress distribution in dental supporting structures. These digital fringe patterns are analysed using a phase-shift technique. The present biomechanical study shows that dental supporting structures exhibit a characteristic stress distribution, promoting structural adaptation based on needs. Furthermore, the advantage of using a digital image processing system along with the circular polariscope is discussed.

  13. Research on remote stress test system of lifting machinery metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhifen

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new remote wireless stress testing system, wireless sensor network node principle and key technology are discussed in this system, combining with WSN (wireless sensor networks) technology and GPRS network data transmission technology, realizing the remote testing of lifting machinery metal structure. to MDEL900B handling machine for the testing object, on the base of finite element analysis, test the metal structure stress of key parts on the MDEL900B handling machine in working condition, by comparition between the results of test and finite element analysis , the reliability of the testing system is shown .

  14. Phloem small RNAs, nutrient stress responses, and systemic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr Julia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over long-distance via xylem and phloem. Recently, specific miRNAs emerged as a new type of regulating molecules during stress and nutrient deficiency responses, and miR399 was suggested to be a phloem-mobile long-distance signal involved in the phosphate starvation response. Results We used miRNA microarrays containing all known plant miRNAs and a set of unknown small (s RNAs earlier cloned from Brassica phloem sap 1, to comprehensively analyze the phloem response to nutrient deficiency by removing sulfate, copper or iron, respectively, from the growth medium. We show that phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs that is distinct from leaves and roots, and that the phloem also responds specifically to stress. Upon S and Cu deficiencies phloem sap reacts with an increase of the same miRNAs that were earlier characterized in other tissues, while no clear positive response to -Fe was observed. However, -Fe led to a reduction of Cu- and P-responsive miRNAs. We further demonstrate that under nutrient starvation miR399 and miR395 can be translocated through graft unions from wild type scions to rootstocks of the miRNA processing hen1-1 mutant. In contrast, miR171 was not transported. Translocation of miR395 led to a down-regulation of one of its targets in rootstocks, suggesting that this transport is of functional relevance, and that miR395, in addition to the well characterized miR399, could potentially act as a long-distance information transmitter. Conclusions Phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs, of which some specifically accumulate in response to nutrient deprivation. From

  15. Isoform 1 of TPD52 (PC-1) promotes neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Moritz, Tom

    2016-02-05

    The tumour protein D52 isoform 1 (PC-1), a member of the tumour protein D52 (TPD52) protein family, is androgen-regulated and prostate-specific expressed. Previous studies confirmed that PC-1 contributes to malignant progression in prostate cancer with an important role in castration-resistant stage. In the present work, we identified its impact in mechanisms leading to neuroendocrine (NE) transdifferentiation. We established for long-term PC-1 overexpression an inducible expression system derived from the prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP. We observed that PC-1 overexpression itself initiates characteristics of neuroendocrine cells, but the effect was much more pronounced in the presence of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report that treatment with IL-6 leads to a significant upregulation of PC-1 in LNCaP cells. Other TPD52 isoforms were not affected. Proceeding from this result, we conclude that PC-1 overexpression enhances the IL-6-mediated differentiation of LNCaP cells into a NE-like phenotype, noticeable by morphological changes and increased expression of typical NE markers, like chromogranin A, synaptophysin or beta-3 tubulin. Immunofluorescent staining of IL-6-treated PC-1-overexpressing LNCaP cells indicates a considerable PC-1 accumulation at the end of the long-branched neuron-like cell processes, which are typically formed by NE cells. Additionally, the experimentally initiated NE transdifferentiation correlates with the androgen receptor status, which was upregulated additively. In summary, our data provide evidence for an involvement of PC-1 in NE transdifferentiation, frequently associated with castration resistance, which is a major therapeutic challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  16. Work stress of primary care physicians in the US, UK and German health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Shackelton, Rebecca; Link, Carol; Marceau, Lisa; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; McKinlay, John

    2010-07-01

    Work-related stress among physicians has been an issue of growing concern in recent years. How and why this may vary between different health care systems remains poorly understood. Using an established theoretical model (effort-reward imbalance), this study analyses levels of work stress among primary care physicians (PCPs) in three different health care systems, the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany. Whether professional autonomy and specific features of the work environment are associated with work stress and account for possible country differences are examined. Data are derived from self-administered questionnaires obtained from 640 randomly sampled physicians recruited for an international comparative study of medical decision making conducted from 2005 to 2007. Results demonstrate country-specific differences in work stress with the highest level in Germany, intermediate level in the US and lowest level among UK physicians. A negative correlation between professional autonomy and work stress is observed in all three countries, but neither this association nor features of the work environment account for the observed country differences. Whether there will be adequate numbers of PCPs, or even a field of primary care in the future, is of increasing concern in several countries. To the extent that work-related stress contributes to this, identification of its organizational correlates in different health care systems may offer opportunities for remedial interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disruption of multisystem responses to stress in type 2 diabetes: Investigating the dynamics of allostatic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Bostock, Sophie; La Marca, Roberto; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress-related processes are thought to contribute to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes, but the biological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we tested the notion that people with type 2 diabetes experience chronic allostatic load, manifest as dynamic disturbances in reactivity to and recovery from stress across multiple (cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic) biological systems, coupled with heightened experience of chronic life stress. We carried out an experimental comparison of 140 men and women aged 50–75 y with type 2 diabetes and 280 nondiabetic individuals matched on age, sex, and income. We monitored blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, salivary cortisol, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, and total cholesterol in response to standardized mental stress, and assessed salivary cortisol over the day. People with type 2 diabetes showed impaired poststress recovery in systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate and cholesterol, and blunted stress reactivity in systolic BP, cortisol, cholesterol, and IL-6. Cortisol and IL-6 concentrations were elevated, and cortisol measured over the day was higher in the type 2 diabetes group. Diabetic persons reported greater depressive and hostile symptoms and greater stress experience than did healthy controls. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by disruption of stress-related processes across multiple biological systems and increased exposure to life stress. Chronic allostatic load provides a unifying perspective with implications for etiology and patient management. PMID:25331894

  18. The Brain on Stress: Toward an Integrative Approach to Brain, Body, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of stress-hormone receptors in the hippocampal formation has fostered research showing that the brain, including its higher cognitive centers, is the key organ of the response to stressors, in terms of both perception of what is stressful and its ability to determine the consequences of stress for brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems. These systems, in turn, are responsible for either successful adaptation or pathophysiology as a result of the cumulative burden of adaptation to stress and maladaptive lifestyle, which is known as "allostatic load." The brain itself is also a target of stress and stress-related hormones, and it undergoes structural and functional remodeling and significant changes in gene expression. These changes are adaptive under normal circumstances but can lead to damage when stress is excessive. The growing recognition of the adaptive plasticity and stress vulnerability of the brain itself, which began with research on the hippocampus, now includes other brain regions such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex and fear-related memories, working memory, and self-regulatory behaviors. The interactions between these brain regions during the biological embedding of experiences over the life course determines whether events in the social and physical environment will lead to successful adaptation or to maladaptation and impaired mental and physical health, with implications for understanding health disparities and the impact of early life adversity and for intervention and prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Measuring stress and cognitive load effects on the perceived quality of a multimodal dialogue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, A.I.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Cao, Y.; Nijholt, Antinus; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loyens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a pilot study investigating the impact of stress and cognitive load on the perceived interaction quality of a multimodal dialogue system for crisis management. Four test subjects interacted with the system in four differently configured trials aiming to induce

  20. Interaction between bone, the neuroendocrine system and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Classically, the skeleton is defined by its mechanical properties, as a site for hematopoiesis and in mineral homeostasis. In recent years, a further-reaching role has been suggested for the skeleton. In this thesis, we investigate three novel aspects of human bone metabolism. In the first part we