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Sample records for neuroendocrine stress responses

  1. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2002-06-01

    Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Here we discuss the key elements of the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species-specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops. Over- or underproduction of cortisol can result in the devastating diseases of Cushing's and Addison's, respectively, but less severe dysregulation of the HPA axis can still have adverse health consequences. These include the deposition of visceral fat as well as cardiovascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis). Thus, chronic stress with its physical and psychological ramifications remains a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. To date, treatments have been based on the existing knowledge concerning the brain areas and neurobiological substrates that subserve the stress response. Thus, the CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its

  2. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  3. Epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress response by adult life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, B.C.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.; Henckens, M.J.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder,

  4. Neuroendocrine stress responses predict catecholamine-dependent working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2018-01-01

    It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Multiple neuroendocrine responses to chronic social stress: interaction between individual characteristics and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormède, P; Lemaire, V; Castanon, N; Dulluc, J; Laval, M; Le Moal, M

    1990-06-01

    After four weeks of individual housing, male Wistar rats (selected for high or low spontaneous aggressiveness by multiple round-robin encounters) were housed three per cage and submitted to four weeks of chronic social stress consisting of changing membership in the social groups by daily rotation of the animals among cages every day according to a random permutation procedure. In addition, half the males in each condition were housed with three females. Each environmental condition triggered different neuroendocrine changes. Cohabitation with females increased the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, including enlargement of adrenals and increased circulating corticosterone levels. On the other hand, daily rotation of the rats between different social groups activated part of the sympathetic nervous system, such as increased phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity in the adrenals. The level of aggressiveness, however, had no direct influence but interacted with environmental factors on such neuroendocrine measures as circulating testosterone or plasma renin activity. These results indicate that during chronic stress, there is no single, unique response by the animal, but a highly complex set of neuroendocrine changes, dependent on the interaction between individual characteristics (the level of aggressiveness is an example) and situational factors.

  6. Effect of maternal restraint stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during days 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necr...

  7. The medial amygdala modulates body weight but not neuroendocrine responses to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; Jones, K; Packard, B A; Herman, J P

    2010-01-01

    Stress pathologies such as depression and eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa) are associated with amygdalar dysfunction, which are linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis hyperactivity. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), a key output nucleus of the amygdaloid complex, promotes HPA axis activation to acute psychogenic stress and is in a prime position to mediate the deleterious effects of chronic stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study tests the hypothesis that the MeA is necessary for the development of maladaptive physiological changes caused by prolonged stress exposure. Male rats received bilateral ibotenate or sham lesions targeting the MeA and one half underwent 2 weeks of chronic variable stress (CVS) or served as home cage controls. Sixteen hours post CVS, all animals were exposed to an acute restraint challenge. CVS induced thymic involution, adrenal hypertrophy, and attenuated body weight gain and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. Consistent with previous literature, lesions of the MeA dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone after 30 min of exposure to acute restraint stress. However, this effect was independent of CVS exposure, suggesting that the MeA may not be critical for modulating neuroendocrine responses after chronic HPA axis drive. Interestingly, lesion of the MeA modestly exaggerated the stress-induced attenuation of weight gain. Overall, the data obtained suggest that the MeA modulates the neuroendocrine responses to acute but not chronic stress. In addition, the data suggest that the MeA may be an important neural component for the control of body weight in the face of chronic stress.

  8. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  9. Central Mechanisms Underlying Variability in the Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria Møller

    . The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) also plays an important role in the neuroendocrine stress response by controlling CRF release in hypothalamus. The transmission of 5-HT and CRF are under feedback control of glucocorticoids and interact with the stress response by affecting processes...... in the limbic system. In fish, the telencephalon contains regions that are functional homologues to the mammalian limbic system including amygdala and hippocampus. However, the involvement of this brain region in the regulation of the hypothalamicpituitary- interrenal (HPI) axis, the homologue of the mammalian...... glucocorticoid in fish, and if these effects were related to changes in neurochemistry and gene expression in the telencephalon of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results showed that chronic stress affected HPI axis reactivity and serotonergic neurochemistry in the telencephalon. Moreover, effects...

  10. A Unique "Angiotensin-Sensitive" Neuronal Population Coordinates Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular, and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2017-03-29

    Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately

  11. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  12. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  14. Impact of the gut microbiota on the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in rodents

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    Rabot Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex microbial ecosystem, the gut microbiota, whose collective genome coding capacity exceeds that of the host genome. The gut microbiota is nowadays regarded as a full organ, likely to contribute to the development of pathologies when its dynamic balance is disrupted (dysbiosis. In the last decade, evidence emerged that the gut microbiota influences brain development and function. In particular, comparisons between germ-free and conventional laboratory rodents showed that the absence of the gut microbiota exacerbates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA system reactivity to stress and alters the anxiety-like behaviour. Furthermore, the dysfunctions observed in germ-free animals can be corrected if the gut microbiota is restored in early life but not in adulthood, suggesting a critical period for microbiota imprinting on the responsiveness to stress. The modes of action are still to be deciphered. They may involve transport of neuroactive bacterial metabolites to the brain through the bloodstream, stimulation of the vagus nerve or of entero-endocrine cells, or modulation of the immune system and, consequently, of the inflammatory status. The discovery that the gut microbiota regulates the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress paves the way for the hypothesis that gut microbiota dysbioses could contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety-related disorders. In this regard, treatments of anxiety-prone rodent strains with probiotics or antibiotics aimed at modifying their gut microbiota have shown an anxiolytic-like activity. Clinical trials are now needed to know if results obtained in preclinical studies can translate to humans.

  15. Perioperative stress in dogs undergoing elective surgery: evaluation of the Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) for the control of behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Siracusa, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 7 de gener de 2011 This clinical study is composed of two different trials. In the first we investigated and described the perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy and ovariohysterectomy. In the second trial we evaluated the efficacy of a commercial dog synthetic appeasing pheromone for the control of the perioperative stress response. The aim of this trial is to describe the behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress r...

  16. PACAP: A master regulator of neuroendocrine stress circuits and the cellular stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Stroth, Nikolas; Holighaus, Yvonne; Ait-Ali, Djida; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP is an informational molecule released from stress-transducing neurons. It exerts post-synaptic effects required to complete hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) and hypothalamo-splanchnico-adrenomedullary (HSA) circuits activated by psychogenic and metabolic stressors. PACAP-responsive (in cell culture models) and PACAP-dependent (in vivo) transcriptomic responses in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary upon activation of these circuits have been identif...

  17. Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses and brain pattern of c-fos induction associated with audiogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, S; Watson, S J

    1997-08-01

    The present study determined simultaneously the behavioural, neuroendocrine and regional brain activity, using semi-quantitative analysis of c-fos mRNA induction, produced by 30 min of auditory stimulation at different white noise intensities (background 60 dB, 70, 80, 90 and 105 dBA), in rats. Only the highest noise intensities (90 and 105 dB) significantly increased corticosterone release after 30 min stimulation. Behaviourally, the 105 dB noise condition reliably reduced overall activity, and moderate noise intensities (70 and 80 dB) increased sleeping time. Three distinct patterns of c-fos mRNA induction were observed. First, following exposure to the experimental cages, a wide pattern of brain activation was obtained in experimental animals irrespective of noise intensity presentation, compared to the naive rats. Second, a number of auditory structures (cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus and the medial division of the medial geniculate body) displayed a clear intensity-dependent increase in c-fos induction. Third, compared to all other conditions, the stressed rats (90 and 105 dB conditions) displayed significantly higher c-fos induction in relatively few areas. Particularly intense c-fos induction was observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, especially its anterior medial and ventral aspects, the septohypothalamic nucleus, the ventral lateral septum, the ventral portion of the dentate gyrus, a number of hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral preoptic area, the medial preoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus, the median raphe and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The involvement of a number of these structures in a specific audiogenic stress responsive circuit is discussed.

  18. Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs.

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    Siracusa, Carlo; Manteca, Xavier; Cuenca, Rafaela; del Mar Alcalá, Maria; Alba, Aurora; Lavín, Santiago; Pastor, Josep

    2010-09-15

    To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.

  19. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

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    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  20. Dynamics of neuroendocrine stress response: bistability, timing, and control of hypocortisolism

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    D'Orsogna, Maria; Chou, Tom; Kim, Lae

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates numerous physiological processes. Disruptions in its activity are correlated with stress-related diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. We characterize ``normal'' and ``diseased'' states of the HPA axis as basins of attraction of a dynamical system describing the inhibition of peptide hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), by circulating glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). Our model includes ultradian oscillations, CRH self-upregulation of CRH release, and distinguishes two components of negative feedback by cortisol on circulating CRH levels: a slow direct suppression of CRH synthesis and a fast indirect effect on CRH release. The slow regulation mechanism mediates external stress-driven transitions between the stable states in novel, intensity, duration, and timing-dependent ways. We find that the timing of traumatic events may be an important factor in determining if and how the hallmarks of depressive disorders will manifest. Our model also suggests a mechanism whereby exposure therapy of stress disorders may act to normalize downstream dysregulation of the HPA axis.

  1. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  2. Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Shift work is commonly associated with disturbed life rhythms, resulting in chronic exposure to circadian desynchronization and sleep restriction. Epidemiological data have shown that shift workers are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. In this review, we will explore how observed increases in neuroendocrine stress, non-specific immune responses and pro-oxidative status could act as biological mediators for these damaging health risks in shift workers. To explain these risks, compelling evidence from laboratory studies links circadian misalignment but also sleep restriction to disruptions in the neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress systems. Assessment of neuroendocrine, oxidative and immune stress in the shift worker population is still a limited and novel field, which may have considerable clinical relevance. Finally, we will consider the potential benefits of a countermeasure, such as napping, in minimizing the neuroendocrine and immune stress and cardiovascular risk imposed by shift work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroendocrine and immune responses to a cognitive stress challenge in veterans with and without PTSD

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    Carien S. de Kloet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: PTSD has been associated with altered hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal-axis (HPA-axis, immune and sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive stress on these systems in PTSD patients and controls. Methods: The subjective units of distress score (SUDS, NK-cell response, plasma levels of noradrenalin and ACTH in response to cognitive stress were assessed in male veterans with PTSD (n=15 and age, region and year of deployment matched veterans without psychopathology (n=15. Results: The challenge induced an increase in SUDS, noradrenalin, ACTH and NK-cell response in both groups. Baseline levels of ACTH were lower in PTSD patients. The test was experienced as more stressful by PTSD patients and resulted in an augmented ACTH response in patients. The noradrenalin and NK-cell responses showed no group differences. The ACTH response correlated with the severity of symptoms in patients, and the noradrenalin response correlated with the ACTH and NK-cell response in controls, but not in patients. Discussion: PTSD patients experience more distress and present with an exaggerated pituitary response to this stressor. In addition, our results suggest an altered interaction between the HPA-axis, SNS and immune system in PTSD.

  4. Effects of appraisal and coping on the neuroendocrine response to extreme stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to extreme stress, only some of them develop psychobiological disturbances that can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other posttrauma psychopathology. This paper examines the effects of different types of appraisal and coping to find clues to how

  5. Response of the nitrergic system to activation of the neuroendocrine stress axis

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    Hsiao-Jou Cortina eChen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful stimuli causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which rapidly releases high concentrations of glucocorticoid stress hormones, resulting in increased cellular metabolism and spontaneous oxygen and nitrogen radical formation. High concentrations of nitrogen radicals, including nitric oxide, cause damage to cellular proteins in addition to inhibiting components of the mitochondrial transport chain, leading to cellular energy deficiency. During stress exposure, pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide production reduces indicators of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to present an overview of the current literature on stress-evoked changes in the nitrergic system, particularly within neural tissue.

  6. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  7. Neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune functions during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in monosodium L-glutamate-damaged, hyperadipose male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    The essential amino acid l-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment...... for aquaculture. Fish were given feed containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 times the Trp content in normal feed for one week. Subsequently, the fish were reintroduced to feed containing the lowest Trp level, corresponding to standard commercial feed for a number of days prior to exposure to an acute confinement stressor....... Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...

  9. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    programming strongly, notably when hormonal surges occur during sensitive periods of development, so-called developmental windows of vulnerability. Stressful events occurring during the perinatal period may impinge on various aspects of the neuroendocrine programming, subsequently amending the offspring's growth, metabolism, sexual maturation, stress responses, and immune system. Such prenatal stress-induced modifications of the phenotypic plasticity of the progeny might ultimately result in the development of long-term diseases, from metabolic syndromes to psychiatric disorders. Yet, we would like to consider the outcome of this neuroendocrine programming from an evolutionary perspective. Early stressful events during gestation might indeed shape internal parameters of the developing organisms in order to adapt the progeny to its everyday environment and thus contribute to an increased reproductive success, or fitness, of the species. Moreover, parental care, adoption, or enriched environments after birth have been shown to reverse negative long-term consequences of a disturbed gestational environment. In this view, considering the higher potential for neonatal plasticity within the brain in human beings as compared to other species, long-term consequences of prenatal stress might not be as inexorable as suggested in animal-based studies published to date.

  10. THE EFFICACY OF PREGABALIN AS A PREMEDICANT IN ATTENUATING NEUROENDOCRINE STRESS RESPONSE DURING GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN ELECTIVE SURGERIES: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Muthukrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Pregabalin in the dose of 150 mg given per orally one hour before elective surgeries can attenuate the neuroendocrine stress response due to induction and intubation. Better surgical skills and techniques have got a major role in attenuating neuroendocrine stress response more than the conventional anaesthetic interventions.

  11. Conditioned Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Stress Responsiveness Accompanying Behavioral Passivity and Activity in Aged and in Young Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Buwalda, B.; Bouws, G.A.H.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Maes, F.W.; Bohus, B.

    1992-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma epinephrine (E), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured in 3-month- and 24-month-old male Wistar rats exposed to a conditioned emotional stress response (CER) paradigm and a conditioned defensive burying (CDB)

  12. Blunted neuroendocrine stress reactivity in young women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Het, Serkan; Vocks, Silja; Wolf, Jutta M; Hammelstein, Philipp; Herpertz, Stephan; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-03-01

    Stress is known to influence risk and progression of eating disorders (EDs). However, studies investigating physiological and psychological stress responses under laboratory conditions in patients with Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa are scarce and often produce conflicting findings. We therefore aimed to compare the neuroendocrine and affective stress response in ED inpatients and healthy controls. Twenty-eight female inpatients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa and 26 healthy women were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were assessed before as well as repeatedly after stress exposure, while heart rate and heart rate variability were determined before and during the TSST. Negative affective state was assessed at baseline and post-TSST. Compared to healthy controls, ED patients showed blunted cortisol stress responses combined with overall attenuated sAA levels. The latter was reflected in generally enhanced parasympathetic activity indicated by lower heart rate and stronger high-frequency heart rate variability throughout the TSST. Although patients reported more negative affect overall, they did not differ in their affective stress response. In summary, patients suffering from eating disorders show a blunted HPA axis reactivity to stress exposure and a generally reduced sympathetic/exaggerated parasympathetic nervous system activity. This combination may contribute to elevated health risks seen in eating disorder patients, such as enhanced inflammatory activity, and thus provide insight into the underlying stress-related mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  14. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  15. Single Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Session Dampens Acute Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Mental Stress in Healthy Male Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, Pcontrol participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, Pcontrol counterparts after the stress episode (control: t=2.7, Psession to healthy participants induced a faster recovery of heart rate and sympathovagal balance after an acute mental stressor by substantially dampening parasympathetic withdrawal and

  16. Brief cognitive intervention can modulate neuroendocrine stress responses to the Trier Social Stress Test: buffering effects of a compassionate goal orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, James L; Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Crocker, Jennifer; Briggs, Hedieh; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical mediator linking stress to health. Understanding how to modulate its reactivity could potentially help reduce the detrimental health effects of HPA axis activation. Social evaluative threat is a potent activator of this system. Access to control and coping responses can reduce its reactivity to pharmacological activation. Compassionate or affiliative behaviors may also moderate stress reactivity. Impact of these moderators on social evaluative threat is unknown. Here, we tested the hypotheses that interventions to increase control, coping, or compassionate (versus competitive) goals could reduce HPA-axis response to social evaluative threat. Healthy participants (n=54) were exposed to social evaluative threat using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). They were randomly assigned to receive one of four different instructions prior to the stressor: Standard TSST instructions (SI), standard instructions with access to "control" (SI Control), or one of two cognitive interventions (CI) that (1) increased familiarity and helped participants prepare coping strategies (CI Coping), or (2) shifted goal orientation from self-promotion to helping others (CI Compassionate Goals). ACTH and cortisol were obtained before and after stress exposure via intravenous catheter. Control alone had no effect. CI Compassionate Goals significantly reduced ACTH and cortisol responses to the TSST; CI Coping raised baseline levels. Compassionate Goals reduced hormonal responses without reducing subjective anxiety, stress or fear, while increasing expression of pro-social intentions and focus on helping others. Brief intervention to shift focus from competitive self-promotion to a goal orientation of helping-others can reduce HPA-axis activation to a potent psychosocial stressor. This supports the potential for developing brief interventions as inoculation tools to reduce the impact of predictable stressors and lends support to growing

  17. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  18. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  19. Subordination stress: behavioral, brain, and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D C; Sakai, R R; McEwen, B; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J

    1993-12-20

    In mixed-sex rat groups consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males can be differentiated from dominants on the basis of both agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors, wound patterns, weight changes. Their behavior changes suggest chronic defensiveness and are also broadly isomorphic to many of the symptoms of depression; their voluntary alcohol consumption increases, and their life-spans are shortened. Both subordinate and dominant males tend to show organ change compared to non-grouped controls, with adrenal and spleen enlargement and thymus reduction. However, these changes appear to be more marked in subordinates, and only subordinates show reduced testes weights. Basal corticosterone (CORT) levels were sharply higher, and plasma testosterone (T) sharply lower, in subordinates compared to both dominants and controls, and reduced corticosterone binding globulin further enhanced free CORT for subordinates particularly. Many subordinates failed to show a normal CORT response to restraint stress. Subordinates also appear to show widespread changes in serotonin systems, with increased 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in a number of brain areas, and alterations of 5-HT1A receptor binding at some sites. These changes suggest that subordination, a common and consistent feature of life for many animals living in social groups, may be a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  20. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K eSasse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on HPA axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid and cardiovascular (tachycardia response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across multiple response

  1. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Dobashi-Okuyama, Kaori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a "neuropsychiatry phenotype" in asthma. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased percentages of regulatory T cells are associated with inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to acute psychological stress and poorer health status in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia

    2016-05-01

    The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.

  4. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  5. Developmental stress and social phenotypes: integrating neuroendocrine, behavioural and evolutionary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Karen A

    2017-08-19

    The social world is filled with different types of interactions, and social experience interacts with stress on several different levels. Activation of the neuroendocrine axis that regulates the response to stress can have consequences for innumerable behavioural responses, including social decision-making and aspects of sociality, such as gregariousness and aggression. This is especially true for stress experienced during early life, when physiological systems are developing and highly sensitive to perturbation. Stress at this time can have persistent effects on social behaviours into adulthood. One important question remaining is to what extent these effects are adaptive. This paper initially reviews the current literature investigating the complex relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other neuroendocrine systems and several aspects of social behaviour in vertebrates. In addition, the review explores the evidence surrounding the potential for 'social programming' via differential development and activation of the HPA axis, providing an insight into the potential for positive effects on fitness following early life stress. Finally, the paper provides a framework from which novel investigations could work to fully understand the adaptive significance of early life effects on social behaviours.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. “left brain”) terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it “hears” are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, “Danger mines!!” However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of “love” being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, “spiritual” positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points. PMID:21694965

  7. The neuroendocrine system and stress, emotions, thoughts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2011-01-01

    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. "left brain") terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it "hears" are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, "Danger mines!!" However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of "love" being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, "spiritual" positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points.

  8. From the brain-skin connection: the neuroendocrine-immune misalliance of stress and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Perceived stress has long been allied with disturbances of the dynamic equilibrium established between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, thus triggering or aggravating disease manifestation. Several common skin diseases are now acknowledged to be worsened by psychological stress, particularly immunodermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic eczema, prurigo nodularis, lichen planus, chronic urticaria, alopecia areata and pruritus sine materia. Itch (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with a majority of these inflammatory skin diseases, and acute as well as chronic stress perceptions are recognized to trigger or enhance pruritus. A wealth of mediators released systemically or locally in the skin in response to stress increase sensory innervation, upregulate the production of other pruritogenic agents, perpetuate (neurogenic) inflammation and lower the itch threshold. In the present review, we explore recent frontiers in both stress and pruritus research and portray the perpetuation of chronic skin inflammation and itch as a neuroendocrine-immune 'misalliance'. We argue that key candidate molecules of the stress response with strong pruritogenic potential, such as nerve growth factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone and substance P, and mast cells, which may be considered as 'central cellular switchboards of pruritogenic inflammation', need to be further explored systematically in order to develop more effective therapeutic combination strategies for itch management in chronic, stress-vulnerable inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Psychological and Neuroendocrine Determinants of Stress Regulation in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPsychosocial stress is a reaction to a real or interpreted threat to the integrity of an individual that manifests itself by biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes. We assessed cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological responses during a standardized

  10. Effect of yoga on sleep quality and neuroendocrine immune response in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that distress and accompanying neuroendocrine stress responses as important predictor of survival in advanced breast cancer patients. Some psychotherapeutic intervention studies have shown have modulation of neuroendocrine-immune responses in advanced breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluate the effects of yoga on perceived stress, sleep, diurnal cortisol, and natural killer (NK cell counts in patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: In this study, 91 patients with metastatic breast cancer who satisfied selection criteria and consented to participate were recruited and randomized to receive “integrated yoga based stress reduction program” (n = 45 or standard “education and supportive therapy sessions” (n = 46 over a 3 month period. Psychometric assessments for sleep quality were done before and after intervention. Blood draws for NK cell counts were collected before and after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected for three consecutive days before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance on postmeasures using respective baseline measure as a covariate. Results: There was a significant decrease in scales of symptom distress (P < 0.001, sleep parameters (P = 0.02, and improvement in quality of sleep (P = 0.001 and Insomnia Rating Scale sleep score (P = 0.001 following intervention. There was a decrease in morning waking cortisol in yoga group (P = 0.003 alone following intervention. There was a significant improvement in NK cell percent (P = 0.03 following intervention in yoga group compared to control group. Conclusion: The results suggest modulation of neuroendocrine responses and improvement in sleep in patients with advanced breast cancer following yoga intervention.

  11. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  12. Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David

    2012-12-01

    Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress

  14. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Vasopressin in Resting and Mild Stress Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1993-01-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of subcutaneously administered AVP (6 mug/kg b.wt.) were determined in resting conditions and after the mild stress of transportation to and placement in a novel environment. In resting conditions, systemic administration of AVP caused a rapid increase in blood

  15. Risk-averse personalities have a systemically potentiated neuroendocrine stress axis: A multilevel experiment in Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Alexander T; Senft, Rebecca A; Firke, Marian; Lauder, Abigail; Schroeder, Julia; Meddle, Simone L; van Oers, Kees; Hau, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback. We show high among-individual variation and covariation (i.e. personality) in risk-taking behaviors and demonstrate that four aspects of glucocorticoid physiology (baseline, stress response, negative feedback strength and adrenal sensitivity) are also repeatable and covary. Further, we establish that high expression of mineralocorticoid and low expression of glucocorticoid receptor in the brain are linked with systemically elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels and more risk-averse personalities. Our findings support the hypothesis that steroid hormones can exert pleiotropic effects that organize behavioral phenotypes and provide novel evidence that neuroendocrine factors robustly explain a large fraction of endocrine and personality variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroendocrine circuits governing energy balance and stress regulation: functional overlap and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Ryan, Karen K

    2014-06-03

    Significant comorbidities between obesity-related metabolic disease and stress-related psychological disorders suggest important functional interactions between energy balance and brain stress integration. Largely overlapping neural circuits control these systems, and this anatomical arrangement optimizes opportunities for mutual influence. Here we first review the current literature identifying effects of metabolic neuroendocrine signals on stress regulation, and vice versa. Next, the contributions of reward-driven food intake to these metabolic and stress interactions are discussed. Lastly, we consider the interrelationships between metabolism, stress, and reward in light of their important implications in the development of therapies for metabolism- or stress-related disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and functional evolution of vertebrate neuroendocrine stress systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Robert John

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA; or interrenal) axis plays pivotal roles in animal development and in physiological and behavioral adaptation to environmental change. The HPA, or stress axis, is organized in a hierarchical manner, with feedback operating at several points along the axis. Recent findings suggest that the proteins, gene structures, and signaling pathways of the HPA axis were present in the earliest vertebrates and have been maintained by natural selection owing to their critical adaptive roles. In all vertebrates studied, the HPA axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled centrally by peptides of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of which four paralogous members have been identified. Signaling by CRF-like peptides is mediated by at least two distinct G protein-coupled receptors and modulated by a secreted binding protein. These neuropeptides function as hypophysiotropins and as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, influencing stress-related behaviors, such as anxiety and fear. In addition to modulating HPA activity and behavioral stress responses, CRF-like peptides are implicated in timing key life history transitions, such as metamorphosis in amphibians and birth in mammals. CRF-like peptides and signaling components are also expressed outside of the central nervous system where they have diverse physiological functions. Glucocorticoids are the downstream effectors of the HPA axis, playing essential roles in development, energy balance and behavior, and feedback actions on the activity of the HPA axis.

  18. Neuroendocrine coupling across adolescence and the longitudinal influence of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-09-01

    Drawing on conceptual models illustrating the advantages of a multisystemic, interactive, developmental approach to understanding development, the present study examines the covariation of stress and sex hormones across the adolescent transition and the effect of early life stress (ELS) on neuroendocrine coupling to gain insight into atypical development. Morning levels of cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assessed at ages 11, 13, and 15; ELS was assessed during the infancy and preschool periods. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that cortisol-DHEA coupling patterns progressed to tight, positive coupling across adolescence. Cortisol-testosterone coupling was positive at age 11 but became more negative at ages 13 and 15. Exposure to ELS resulted in more adultlike neuroendocrine coupling patterns earlier in life than non-exposed youth; however the effect of ELS on cortisol-testosterone coupling was unique to girls. Results illustrate trajectories of neuroendocrine coupling that may be unique to adolescence. Moderation by ELS suggests that early stress exposure may prompt earlier adultlike neuroendocrine coupling, particularly within girls, which may contribute to early pubertal development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Altered Neuroendocrine Immune Responses, a Two-Sword Weapon against Traumatic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan; Yang, Xuetao; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    During the occurrence and development of injury (trauma, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia and hypoxia), the neuroendocrine and immune system act as a prominent navigation leader and possess an inter-system crosstalk between the reciprocal information dissemination. The fundamental reason that neuroendocrinology and immunology could mix each other and permeate toward the field of traumatology is owing to their same biological languages or chemical information molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, cytokines and their corresponding receptors) shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The immune system is not only modulated by the neuroendocrine system, but also can modulate the biological functions of the neuroendocrine system. The interactive linkage of these three systems precipitates the complicated space-time patterns for the courses of traumatic inflammation. Recently, compelling evidence indicates that the network linkage pattern that initiating agents of neuroendocrine responses, regulatory elements of immune cells and effecter targets for immune regulatory molecules arouse the resistance mechanism disorders, which supplies the beneficial enlightenment for the diagnosis and therapy of traumatic complications from the view of translational medicine. Here we review the alternative protective and detrimental roles as well as possible mechanisms of the neuroendocrine immune responses in traumatic inflammation.

  20. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  1. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  2. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    stress was operationalized as the exposure of an animal to a non- painful , aversive environment (Piazza and LeMoal, 1998). Neurochemical and...Psychiatry 35:769-781. Kant GJ, Mougey EH, Meyerhoff JL (1986) Diurnal variation in neuroendocrine response to stress in rats: plasma ACTH, beta- endorphin

  3. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  4. Effects in dogs with behavioural disorders of a commercial nutraceutical diet on stress and neuroendocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, S; Di Cerbo, A; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Chiavolelli, F; Fiore, F; Cocco, R

    2017-01-07

    The well-being of dogs can be affected by changes in human lifestyle, eating habits and increased stressors that lead to behavioural disorders including fear, hyperactivity and anxiety, followed by negative affective moods and poor welfare. This randomised, controlled clinical evaluation involved 69 dogs, 38 males and 31 females, of different breeds, with behavioural disorders related to anxiety and chronic stress. They were fed a control diet or a nutraceutical diet (ND group) for 45 days. Neuroendocrine (serotonin, dopamine, β-endorphins, noradrenaline and cortisol) and stress (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP)) parameters related to behavioural disorders were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study period. Results showed a significant increase in serotonin, dopamine and β-endorphins plasma concentrations (*P<0.05, *P<0.05 and **P<0.01, respectively) and a significant decrease in noradrenaline and cortisol plasma concentrations in the ND group (*P<0.05). dROMs significantly decreased in the ND group (*P<0.05) while BAP was not affected. This study demonstrated for the first time that a specific diet significantly and positively affected neuroendocrine parameters and dROMs. These results open significant perspectives concerning the use of diet and nutraceuticals in the treatment of behavioural disorders. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  6. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  7. Mechanisms underlying hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress reactivity at different phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer L; Girdler, Susan S

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association of menstrual cycle phase with stress reactivity as well as the hormonal and neuroendocrine mechanisms contributing to cycle effects. Fifty-seven women underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test during the early follicular, late follicular, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Greater increases in cardiac index (CI) and greater decreases in vascular resistance index (VRI) during speech were observed in the luteal phase relative to other phases, while greater increases in epinephrine (EPI) was observed during the late follicular and luteal phases compared to the early follicular phase. Luteal phase estradiol predicted luteal EPI reactivity but not CI or VRI reactivity, while luteal phase EPI reactivity predicted luteal phase CI and VRI reactivity. Thus, cycle-related changes in EPI reactivity may be a stronger determinant of cycle effects on hemodynamic reactivity than sex hormones per se. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: variables affecting response rates and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Sanjay; Johnson, Marcella M; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; McRae, Stephen E; Hicks, Marshall E; Rao, Sujaya; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Yao, James C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE...

  9. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  10. Circadian variation in neuroendocrine response to L-dopa in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Larrosa, Oscar; Granizo, Juan José; de la Llave, Yolanda; Hening, Wayne A

    2004-06-15

    To investigate circadian changes in dopaminergic function by means of a neuroendocrine challenge (growth hormone and prolactin responses to an acute oral administration of L-dopa) in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and controls. Randomized administration of the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge. Sleep disorders laboratory at a 500-bed academic hospital. Twelve patients diagnosed with idiopathic RLS and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Following a comprehensive evaluation that included nocturnal polysomnographic study, all participants underwent the L-dopa neuroendocrine challenge on 2 occasions (11 am and 11 pm). Subjects were previously randomly assigned to the time of first challenge (11 am or 11 pm). On each occasion, subjects took 200 mg of L-dopa (plus 50 mg carbidopa) by mouth. Blood was drawn 20 minutes and 5 minutes before administration of the drug, as well as 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 102, and 120 minutes after administration. Prechallenge levels of plasma values of growth hormone or prolactin did not differ in the 2 subject groups. Following only the nighttime administration of L-dopa, RLS patients manifested a more pronounced inhibition of prolactin release and an increase in growth hormone secretion. Prolactin plasma levels were significantly correlated to the periodic limb movement index on the polysomnogram. These findings may reflect enhanced circadian variations in dopaminergic function and support an increased sensitivity at night of dopamine receptors in patients with RLS.

  11. Neuroendocrine and behavioral response to social confrontation: residents versus intruders, active versus passive coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Karl; Wotjak, Carsten T; Landgraf, Rainer; Engelmann, Mario

    2005-01-01

    We investigated in the present study the neuroendocrine correlates in intruder and resident rats of a social confrontation. Adult male Wistar rats (intruders) were introduced into the home cage of a well-trained resident to induce characteristic agonistic interactions including physical attacks prior to separation by a wire mesh. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the intrahypothalamic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were monitored via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters and microdialysis probes aimed at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), respectively. Based on the behavioral data collected during the 30-min confrontation, intruders and residents were additionally classified into two different subgroups: intruders which showed almost no freezing behavior (active copers) versus those showing pronounced freezing behavior (passive copers) and residents which were either predominantly aggressive or non-aggressive. The neuroendocrine data show that social confrontation caused a significantly increased secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into plasma in both intruder subgroups, independently of their coping strategy. In contrast, plasma ACTH in residents was increased in response to social confrontation in non-aggressive animals only, whereas aggressive residents failed to mount an ACTH response. Interestingly, plasma AVP decreased in response to social confrontation in active intruders. As measured in microdialysates, the two groups of residents and passive intruders failed to show significant changes of intra-PVN release of AVP. In contrast, an increased release of this neuropeptide within the PVN could be monitored for active intruders. The data of the present study suggest that the different interpretation of an aversive encounter results in differences in the neuroendocrine response and intrahypothalamic vasopressinergic signaling in intruders versus residents.

  12. Low stress reactivity and neuroendocrine factors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Yang, M; Turner, S M; Katz, A M; Bell, D B; Koenig, J I; Crawley, J N

    2010-12-29

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including low social interactions, reduced vocalizations in social settings, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. Autism-relevant phenotypes in BTBR offer translational tools to discover neurochemical mechanisms underlying unusual mouse behaviors relevant to symptoms of autism. Because repetitive self-grooming in mice may be a displacement behavior elevated by stressors, we investigated neuroendocrine markers of stress and behavioral reactivity to stressors in BTBR mice, as compared to C57BL/6J (B6), a standard inbred strain with high sociability. Radioimmunoassays replicated previous findings that circulating corticosterone is higher in BTBR than in B6. Higher basal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and higher oxytocin peptide levels were detected in the brains of BTBR as compared to B6. No significant differences were detected in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) peptide or CRF mRNA. In response to behavioral stressors, BTBR and B6 were generally similar on behavioral tasks including stress-induced hyperthermia, elevated plus-maze, light ↔ dark exploration, tail flick, acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. BTBR displayed less reactivity than B6 to a noxious thermal stimulus in the hot plate, and less immobility than B6 in both the forced swim and tail suspension depression-related tasks. BTBR, therefore, exhibited lower depression-like scores than B6 on two standard tests sensitive to antidepressants, did not differ from B6 on two well-validated anxiety-like behaviors, and did not exhibit unusual stress reactivity to sensory stimuli. Our findings support the interpretation that autism-relevant social deficits, vocalizations, and

  13. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2016-10-10

    Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation. Indeed, repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic stress situations may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation and lead to psychological difficulties. It was also shown that basal cortisol levels are lower in adolescents with externalizing behaviors. This study aims to assess the links between constructive thinking and neuroendocrine regulation in adolescent offenders and their association with externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, delinquency, psychopathic traits, substance use). Identifying particular biopsychological patterns can help to better understand stress management in youth with externalizing behaviors and to improve clinical treatments. Sixteen adolescent males aged from 12 to 18 years were recruited in an institution for juvenile offenders. Exclusion criteria were insufficient reasoning abilities assessed using the Raven Matrices Test. Regarding psychological dimensions, constructive thinking was assessed through the Constructive thinking inventory (CTI), psychopathic traits through the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI), externalizing behaviors through 30 items (out of 113) and 2 subscales (aggressive behavior and delinquency problems) from the Child behavior checklist-youth self-report (CBCL), and substance use through the Dep-ado. Regarding biological dimensions, cortisol daily secretion and regulation were assessed through saliva samples

  14. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  15. The effects of hydrotherapy on anxiety, pain, neuroendocrine responses, and contraction dynamics during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanner, Charles J; Swanson, Melvin; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Newton, Edward R

    2010-07-01

    Hydrotherapy (immersion or bathing) is used worldwide to promote relaxation and decrease parturient anxiety and pain in labor, but the psychophysiological effects of this intervention remain obscure. A pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to examine the effects of hydrotherapy on maternal anxiety and pain, neuroendocrine responses, plasma volume shift (PVS), and uterine contractions (CXs) during labor. Correlations among variables were examined at three time points (preimmersion and twice during hydrotherapy). Eleven term women (mean age 24.5 years) in spontaneous labor were immersed to the xiphoid in 37 degrees C water for 1 hr. Blood samples and measures of anxiety and pain were obtained under dry baseline conditions and repeated at 15 and 45 min of hydrotherapy. Uterine contractions were monitored telemetrically. Hydrotherapy was associated with decreases in anxiety, vasopressin (V), and oxytocin (O) levels at 15 and 45 min (all ps hydrotherapy for women with high baseline pain as for those with low baseline pain. beta-endorphin (betaE) levels increased at 15 min but did not differ between baseline and 45 min. During immersion, CX frequency decreased. A positive PVS at 15 min was correlated with contraction duration. Hydrotherapy during labor affects neuroendocrine responses that modify psychophysiological processes.

  16. Characterizing the neurotranscriptomic states in alternative stress coping styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Ryan Y; Lamm, Melissa S; Godwin, John

    2015-01-01

    Animals experience stress in many contexts and often successfully cope. Individuals exhibiting the proactive versus reactive stress coping styles display qualitatively different behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors...

  17. Serotonergic and dopaminergic neuroendocrine responses of male depressive patients before and after a therapeutic ECT course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markianos, Manolis; Hatzimanolis, John; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2002-08-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depressive illness, even for patients who do not respond to antidepressant drugs. According to the prevailing neurophysiological hypotheses for depression, it can be expected that an ECT therapeutic course modulates the responsivity of central neurotransmitter systems, but the results up to now have been inconclusive. To test such hypotheses, we studied possible changes in the serotonergic and in dopaminergic systems' responsivity in 11 male patients with major depression by performing neuroendocrine challenge tests before and after a therapeutic ECT course. Serotonergic responsivity was assessed by measuring the prolactin and cortisol responses to i. v. administration of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine (CMI test), and dopaminergic responsivity by measuring the prolactin responses to the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol (HAL test), administered intramuscularly. The prolactin and cortisol responses during the first and the last ECT of the course (8 to 13 sessions) were also assessed. The CMI and HAL tests were also performed in 13 male healthy subjects. The prolactin responses to CMI were significantly blunted in the patient group compared to the control group, and remained unaltered at the end of the ECT course, although the depressive symptomatology was substantially reduced from 27.8 +/- 7.1 to 4.8 +/- 2.3 points in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The cortisol responses to CMI were blunted before the ECT course compared to controls, but not after the course: there was a moderate increase of cortisol at + 30 min in the CMI test after the ECT course compared to that before ECT (p = 0.05). The prolactin and cortisol responses to the electrical stimulus during the first and the last ECT were identical. The strong therapeutic effect of ECT in depression, observed already at the end of the course, is not a result of considerable modifications in central serotonergic or

  18. Food cues do not modulate the neuroendocrine response to a prolonged fast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Marieke; Wijngaarden, Marjolein A; Bizino, Maurice B; van der Grond, Jeroen; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; van Buchem, Mark A; Jazet, Ingrid M; Pijl, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. In this randomized, crossover intervention study, healthy young men (n = 12) fasted twice for 60 h; once in the presence and once in the absence of food-related visual and odorous stimuli. At baseline and on the last morning of each intervention, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. During the OGTT, blood was sampled and a functional MRI scan was made. The main effects of prolonged fasting were: (1) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels; (2) downregulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis; (3) reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased glucose and insulin responses to glucose ingestion; (4) altered hypothalamic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to the glucose load (particularly during the first 20 min after ingestion); (5) increased resting energy expenditure. Exposure to food cues did not affect these parameters. This study shows that 60 h of fasting in young men (1) decreases the hypothalamic BOLD signal in response to glucose ingestion; (2) induces glucose intolerance; (3) increases resting energy expenditure, and (4) downregulates the pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes. Exposure to visual and odorous food cues did not alter these metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to nutrient deprivation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Neuroendocrine response to CRF stimulation in veterans with and without PTSD in consideration of war zone era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Yehuda, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been observed in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which differ from those observed in other veteran groups, raising the possibility that there is a unique neuroendocrine profile in this group of veterans. This study seeks to further characterize the effects of PTSD, military cohort (Vietnam, 1991 Gulf War, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)), and their interaction on the neuroendocrine response to synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulation. 51 male veterans were studied consisting of 21 from the Vietnam era, 16 from the Gulf War era, and 14 from the OEF/OIF era. 16 of these veterans were deployed to a war zone and had chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 25 were deployed to a war zone and did not have chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 were not deployed to a war zone and did not have PTSD (non-exposed). The participants underwent the CRF stimulation test in the afternoon (approximately 2:00 p.m.), which measures the integrity and sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured at baseline and at intervals over a 2h period following intravenous administration of 1 μg/kg of ovine CRF (o-CRF, max 100 μg). In a small subset of participants, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) were also assessed. There was a significant group by era interaction in the response of ACTH to CRF, in addition to a main effect of group (PTSD+, PTSD-, non-exposed). The interaction reflected that group differences were only evident in the Gulf War cohort; among Gulf War era veterans, the PTSD+ group had higher elevations in ACTH levels following CRF than the PTSD- group and the non-exposed group. Additionally, the peak change in ACTH was associated with a self-reported environmental exposure (pyridostigmine bromide ingestion) which has been found to be linked to the excess morbidity found in

  20. Adrenal Responses to Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on concepts proposed by Langley, Cannon, and Selye, adrenal responses to stress occur in a syndrome that reflects activation of the sympathoadrenal system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis; and a “stress syndrome” maintains homeostasis in emergencies such as “fight or flight” situations, but if the stress response is excessive or prolonged then any of a variety of clinical disorders can arise. The idea of a unitary sympathoadrenal system does not account for evidence ...

  1. The integrated stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Koryga, Izabela; Mnich, Katarzyna; Ljujic, Mila; Samali, Afshin; Gorman, Adrienne M

    2016-10-01

    In response to diverse stress stimuli, eukaryotic cells activate a common adaptive pathway, termed the integrated stress response (ISR), to restore cellular homeostasis. The core event in this pathway is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) by one of four members of the eIF2α kinase family, which leads to a decrease in global protein synthesis and the induction of selected genes, including the transcription factor ATF4, that together promote cellular recovery. The gene expression program activated by the ISR optimizes the cellular response to stress and is dependent on the cellular context, as well as on the nature and intensity of the stress stimuli. Although the ISR is primarily a pro-survival, homeostatic program, exposure to severe stress can drive signaling toward cell death. Here, we review current understanding of the ISR signaling and how it regulates cell fate under diverse types of stress. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kema, Ido R.; van der Pompe, Gieta; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Ormel, Johan; den Boer, Johan A.

    Objectives The stress response is related to both physiological and psychological factors and is strongly marked by a neuroendocrine component. Genetic factors are believed to underlie individual differences in the degree of stress resilience and thereby contribute in determining susceptibility to

  3. Neuroendocrine activation during combined mental and physical stress in women depends on trait anxiety and the phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacova, Natasa; Wawruch, Martin; Tisonova, Jana; Jezova, Daniela

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase on neuroendocrine activation during combined mental and physical stress procedure in 40 healthy female subjects. Women at the upper (anxious) and lower (nonanxious) limits of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale were exposed to the stress procedure consisting of a mental component (Stroop test) and handgrip exercise. Salivary cortisol levels, cardiovascular parameters, and cognitive performance in the Stroop test were evaluated. Stress-induced cortisol levels and the rise in systolic blood pressure were affected by both trait anxiety and menstrual cycle phase. The stress model used induced a significant cortisol elevation only in anxious women in the follicular phase. This group of women also exhibited greater increases in systolic blood pressure in response to handgrip exercise as compared to anxious ones in the luteal phase and to nonanxious women in either phase. In nonanxious women, stress-induced cortisol levels positively correlated with cognitive performance. In contrast, a negative correlation trend was observed in anxious subjects. Thus, in subjects with low but not high trait anxiety, enhanced cortisol concentrations seem to be associated with better cognitive performance. The results suggest that women with high trait anxiety exhibit greater cardiovascular and hormonal sensitivity to stress stimuli during the follicular phase.

  4. Dietary l-tryptophan leaves a lasting impression on the brain and the stress response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind; Åberg Andersson, Madelene

    2017-01-01

    Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stre......, they indicate that trophic/structural effects in the brain underlie the effects of dietary Trp treatment on stress reactivity.......Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress...... axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma...

  5. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  6. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: Tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  7. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Azeredo; Marina Machado; António Afonso; Camino Fierro-Castro; Reyes-López, Felipe E.; Lluis Tort; Manuel Gesto; Marta Conde-Sieira; Míguez, Jesús M.; José L. Soengas; Eva Kreuz; Sven Wuertz; Helena Peres; Aires Oliva-Teles; Benjamin Costas

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 ...

  8. Energetic Stress: The Reciprocal Relationship between Energy Availability and the Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, C.S.; Gillespie, C.F.; Neigh, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndromes and the recognized burden of mental health disorders have driven increased research into the relationship between the two. A maladaptive stress response is implicated in both mental health disorders and metabolic disorders, implicating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a key mediator of this relationship. This review explores how an altered energetic state, such as hyper- or hypoglycemia, as may be manifested in obesity or diabetes, affects the stress response and the HPA axis in particular. We propose that changes in energetic state or energetic demands can result in “energetic stress” that can, if prolonged, lead to a dysfunctional stress response. In this review, we summarize the role of the hypothalamus in modulating energy homeostasis and then briefly discuss the relationship between metabolism and stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Next, we examine seven mechanisms whereby energetic stress interacts with neuroendocrine stress response systems, including by glucocorticoid signaling both within and beyond the HPA axis; by nutrient-induced changes in glucocorticoid signaling; by impacting the sympathetic nervous system; through changes in other neuroendocrine factors; by inducing inflammatory changes; and by altering the gut-brain axis. Recognizing these effects of energetic stress can drive novel therapies and prevention strategies for mental health disorders, including dietary intervention, probiotics, and even fecal transplant. PMID:26454211

  9. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  10. Dietary l-tryptophan leaves a lasting impression on the brain and the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind; Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Moltesen, Maria M; Krogdahl, Åshild; Schjolden, Joachim; Winberg, Svante; Vindas, Marco A; Mayer, Ian; Hillestad, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary T...

  11. The neuroendocrine response of luteinizing hormone to estrogen administration in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L

    1986-09-01

    The neuroendocrine response of LH to estrogen administration may be related to sexual dimorphism of the brain, and therefore, homosexual and especially transsexual individuals may differ from heterosexual individuals in their responses. This study failed to find such differences among groups of female heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transsexuals. Specifically, after single dose estrogen administration, all subjects had an initial decline in serum LH levels, followed by a brisk rise of equal magnitude. Among males, the type of response was less uniform. After an initial fall in serum LH levels, the individual responses varied. In 12 of 23 male homosexuals, 10 of 15 male heterosexuals, and all 6 genetic male transsexuals studied, serum LH levels remained below pretreatment levels. In the remaining 11 male homosexuals and 5 of the heterosexuals, serum LH levels increased to values exceeding those before treatment, resembling the response found in the 3 groups of women. Those homosexual and heterosexual men with a rise in serum LH levels to above pretreatment values also had the greatest fall in testosterone levels after estrogen administration, while these same men had the lowest testosterone response to hCG stimulation. I conclude from these results that 1) the similarity of LH responses to estrogen administration in all groups of women studied does not support a theory of brain androgenization as a factor in the establishment of gender identity of sexual orientation; and 2) individual differences in men in the type of LH response to estrogen administration can be satisfactorily explained by endocrine factors, such as Leydig cell function, and need not be related to gender identity, sexual orientation, or other possible causes.

  12. Spouses’ Attachment Pairings Predict Neuroendocrine, Behavioral, and Psychological Responses to Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lindsey A.; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeBuse, Casey J.; Powers, Sally I.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated how spouses’ attachment styles jointly contributed to their stress responses. Newlywed couples discussed relationship conflicts. Salivary cortisol indexed physiological stress; observer-rated behaviors indexed behavioral stress; self-reported distress indexed psychological stress. Multilevel modeling tested predictions that couples including one anxious and one avoidant partner or two anxious partners would show distinctive stress responses. As predicted, couples with anxious wives and avoidant husbands showed physiological reactivity in anticipation of conflict: Both spouses showed sharp increases in cortisol, followed by rapid declines. These couples also showed distinctive behaviors during conflict: Anxious wives had difficulty recognizing avoidant husbands’ distress, and avoidant husbands had difficulty approaching anxious wives for support. Contrary to predictions, couples including two anxious partners did not show distinctive stress responses. Findings suggest that the fit between partners’ attachment styles can improve understanding of relationships by specifying conditions under which partners’ attachment characteristics jointly influence individual and relationship outcomes. PMID:23773048

  13. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Terminal neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate carcinoma cells in response to increased intracellular cyclic AMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Y J; Pirnia, F; Fang, W G; Kang, W K; Sartor, O; Whitesell, L; Ha, M J; Tsokos, M.; Sheahan, M D; Nguyen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Recent clinicopathologic studies have shown that many prostatic adenocarcinomas express focal neuroendocrine differentiation and that neuroendocrine differentiation is most apparent in advanced anaplastic tumors. While studying growth-regulatory signal transduction events in human prostate carcinoma cell lines, we found that in two of four cell lines, the androgen-sensitive line LNCaP and the highly metastatic androgen-independent line PC-3-M, elevation of cAMP through addition of cAMP analog...

  15. Visible burrow system as a model of chronic social stress: behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D C; Spencer, R L; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J; McEwen, B; Sakai, R R

    1995-01-01

    In mixed-sex rat groups maintained in visible burrow systems (VBS), consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males are characterized by particular wound patterns, severe weight loss, and a variety of behavioral changes, many of them isomorphic to target symptoms of clinical depression. In two VBS studies, subordinate males showed increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT), and increased adjusted adrenal and spleen weights compared to controls, and often, to dominants as well. Thymus weights and testosterone levels of subordinates were not reliably different in one study using highly aggressive males, but were reduced, along with testes weights, in a second study using unselected males. Glucocorticoid receptor binding levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus, and pituitary were not different, nor were aldosterone levels. When tested in a restraint stress procedure, subordinates had higher basal CORT levels, but about 40% of these animals showed a reduced, or absent, CORT response to restraint. These findings indicate that subordination may be reflected in high magnitude changes consistent with physiological indices of prolonged stress. Dominant rats of such groups may also show physiological changes suggesting stress, particularly when the groups are comprised of highly aggressive males only. The VBS colony model thus appears to enable rat groups to produce natural, stress-engendering, social interactions that constitute a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural, and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  16. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, M.; Afonso, A.

    2017-01-01

    the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2x dietary requirement level) or a control...... diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity......, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led...

  17. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. mTOR inhibitors response and mTOR pathway in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletta, Simona; Partelli, Stefano; Rubini, Corrado; Nann, Dominik; Doria, Andrea; Marinoni, Ilaria; Polenta, Vanessa; Di Pasquale, Carmelina; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Perren, Aurel; Falconi, Massimo; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However, the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. This study was aimed to identify the possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance. The response to Everolimus in vitro was associated with an active AKT/mTOR pathway and seemed to be associated with a greater clinical aggressiveness. In addition, a patient sensitive to Everolimus in vitro was sensitive to this drug in vivo also and showed a positive p-AKT immunohistochemistry (IHC) at tissue level. Similarly, a patient resistant to Everolimus treatment after surgery was not sensitive to the drug in vitro and had a negative p-AKT IHC staining. Therefore, present data confirm that P-NET primary cultures may be considered a model for testing medical treatment efficacy and that IHC characterization of p-AKT might help in identifying human P-NET who can benefit from Everolimus treatment. These data encourage conducting a prospective multicenter study involving different groups of P-NET patients treated with Everolimus. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Understanding the adaptive response in vertebrates: the phenomenon of ease and ease response during post-stress acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash Peter, M C

    2013-01-15

    Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to perceive stressors that arise either from their body or from the environment. Consequently, a state of stress and stress response occur in fish which is characterized by a disturbed physiological homeostasis. The pattern of stress response becomes complex as a result of neuroendocrine involvement and shows varied magnitudes in fishes depending on the nature and the severity of stressors. The integrated and compensatory physiological modifications in fishes during their early phase of adaptive response favor them to accommodate the imposed stressor through the process of stress acclimation. In contrast, with the direction of neuroendocrine signals, a phase of recovery often called post-stress acclimation occurs if the animal gets away from the stressor exposure. During this late phase of adaptive response, physiological modifications operate in favor of the animal that reduces the magnitude of stress response and finally to a phase of normality as animals possess the urge to correct its disrupted homeostasis. The phenomenon of ease and its response thus reduces the allostatic load, resets the homeostatic state through physiologic processes and corrects the stress-induced homeostatic disturbance with the aid of neuroendocrine signals. Ample evidences are now available to support this novel concept of ease and ease response where mitigation of the intensity of stress response occurs physiologically. Treatment of fish with melatonin or serotonin precursor tryptophan can modify the magnitude of stress response as evident in the pattern of tested physiological indices. In addition to cortisol, thyroid hormone as a major stress modifier hormone is involved in the regulation of ease response in fish probably due to the mechanisms involving inter-hormonal interference. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive responses in vertebrates thus warranties more studies on the physiology of ease and its response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  20. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  1. Flow cytometry analysis of hormone receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify stress-induced neuroendocrine effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the role of circulating peptide hormones in the pathogenesis of space-flight induced disorders would be greatly facilitated by a method which monitors chronic levels of hormones and their effects upon in vivo cell physiology. Single and simultaneous multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was employed to identify subpopulations of mononuclear cells bearing receptors for ACTH, Endorphin, and Somatomedin-C using monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera with indirect immunofluorescence. Blood samples were obtained from normal donors and subjects participating in decompression chamber studies (acute stress), medical student academic examination (chronic stress), and a drug study (Dexamethasone). Preliminary results indicate most ACTH and Endorphin receptor positive cells are monocytes and B-cells, exhibit little diurnal variation but the relative percentages of receptor positive cells are influenced by exposure to various stressors and ACTH inhibition. This study demonstrates the capability of flow cytometry analysis to study cell surface hormone receptor regulation which should allow insight into neuroendocrine modulation of the immune and other cellular systems during exposure to stress or microgravity.

  2. Modeling cortisol dynamics in the neuro-endocrine axis distinguishes normal, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sriram

    Full Text Available Cortisol, secreted in the adrenal cortex in response to stress, is an informative biomarker that distinguishes anxiety disorders such as major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from normal subjects. Yehuda et al. proposed a hypothesis that, in humans, the hypersensitive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is responsible for the occurrence of differing levels of cortisol in anxiety disorders. Specifically, PTSD subjects have lower cortisol levels during the late subjective night in comparison to normal subjects, and this was assumed to occur due to strong negative feedback loops in the HPA axis. In the present work, to address this hypothesis, we modeled the cortisol dynamics using nonlinear ordinary differential equations and estimated the kinetic parameters of the model to fit the experimental data of three categories, namely, normal, depressed, and PTSD human subjects. We concatenated the subjects (n = 3 in each category and created a model subject (n = 1 without considering the patient-to-patient variability in each case. The parameters of the model for the three categories were simultaneously obtained through global optimization. Bifurcation analysis carried out with the optimized parameters exhibited two supercritical Hopf points and, for the choice of parameters, the oscillations were found to be circadian in nature. The fitted kinetic parameters indicate that PTSD subjects have a strong negative feedback loop and, as a result, the predicted oscillating cortisol levels are extremely low at the nadir in contrast to normal subjects, albeit within the endocrinologic range. We also simulated the phenotypes for each of the categories and, as observed in the clinical data of PTSD patients, the simulated cortisol levels are consistently low at the nadir, and correspondingly the negative feedback was found to be extremely strong. These results from the model support the hypothesis that high stress intensity and

  3. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  4. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Afonso, António; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluis; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L; Kreuz, Eva; Wuertz, Sven; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level) or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL). Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together with a high

  5. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the exposure to chronic restraint or variable stress in early adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo T; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2012-02-01

    Stress events during adolescence may contribute to the expression or exacerbation of physical and behavioral disorders. However, little attention has been given to the physiological and behavioral changes promoted by stress during this period of ontogeny. In the present study we investigated, in adolescent male rats, the effects of repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress on: (a) locomotor activity and corticosterone levels after exposure to a novel environment; (b) corticosterone levels in response to the exposure to restraint stress; and (c) changes in body, thymus and adrenal weights. The results demonstrated that repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress reduced the locomotor response, but did not affect corticosterone secretion, in response to a novel environment. Moreover, both chronic stress procedures did not change corticosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Furthermore, our results showed that repeated restraint, but not variable stress, produced a decrease in body weight along the stress exposure. Finally, we observed that the exposure to variable stress reduced the thymus relative weight. Taken together our results suggest that behavioral and physiological changes induced by exposure to chronic stress during adolescence depend on the stress regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Cognitive Hardiness on Stress, Health, Performance, and Cardiovascular/Neuroendocrine Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Johathan

    1997-01-01

    .... Hardiness has also been thought to exert main effects on health and performance outcomes. In Study 1, relationships between hardiness, perceived stress, depression, and academic performance were investigated...

  7. Oxidative stress, neuroendocrine function and behavior in an animal model of extended longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Stress and oxidative stress (OS) might act synergistically to exacerbate the neuronal decay associated with aging. Recent evidence has shown a redox regulation of the function of the glucocorticoid receptors as nuclear transcription factors. The lack of the p66Shc gene reduces OS and increases

  8. GENDER RESPONSES TO STRESS OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Zafir Mohd Makhbul; Fazilah Mohamad Hasun

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences have been highlighted by the researchers in discussing the stress outcomes. Stress studies consistently show that females report significantly higher levels of psychological and physical stress than their male counterparts. The literature has shown that rarely have there been any studies conducted which are able to look at the gender responses to stress outcomes among supporting staff. The main objective of this paper is to compare the stress outcomes experienced by male an...

  9. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  10. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  11. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  12. Costs and benefits of self-efficacy: Differences of the stress response and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, P; Preusser, F; Margraf, J

    2017-04-01

    Encounters with stressors induce diverse idiosyncratic neuroendocrine, behavioral and psychological reactions across people. Perceived self-efficacy can alter autonomic responses and their effects on mental health. The beneficial effects of self-efficacy in buffering physiological arousal, enhancing performance, and diminishing psychopathological symptoms have been observed in diverse contexts. We show that the role of self-efficacy is not uniformly beneficial, and that higher levels of self-efficacy can sometimes lead to increases in neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses and decreases in performance, a phenomenon that has been widely neglected. We discuss specific conditions under which self-efficacy effects do not uniformly ameliorate or prevent the consequences of stress. These conditions suggest that therapeutic interventions need not always promote self-efficacy in principal. Simultaneously, they to do suggest that keeping self-efficacy high might be disadvantageous or detrimental. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses...... include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review...... the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level....

  14. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-08-15

    While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  15. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-08-16

    individual neuroendocrine stress response patterns are linked to affective responses to stress and structural variability in neuroendocrine regulatory brain regions. By applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses to a prolonged acute stressor, we identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response. Relative to the group showing a moderate cortisol response, groups characterized by hyper and mild cortisol response were both associated with more negative affect. Moreover, a continuous measure of cortisol response showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release correlated with reduced hippocampal gray matter volume. Given that neuroendocrine stress responses are conceptualized as biomarkers of stress susceptibility, these insights may have clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377995-09$15.00/0.

  16. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  17. Development of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Sarah; Stewart, Iain; Placzek, Marysia

    2016-03-15

    The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual. Here, we summarize studies that begin to reveal how different territories and cell types within the neuroendocrine hypothalamus are assembled in an integrated manner to enable function, thus supporting the organism's ability to survive and thrive. We discuss how signaling pathways and transcription factors dictate the appearance and regionalization of the hypothalamic primordium, the maintenance of progenitor cells, and their specification and differentiation into neurons. We comment on recent studies that harness such programmes for the directed differentiation of human ES/iPS cells. We summarize how developmental plasticity is maintained even into adulthood and how integration between the hypothalamus and peripheral body is established in the median eminence and neurohypophysis. Analysis of model organisms, including mouse, chick and zebrafish, provides a picture of how complex, yet elegantly coordinated, developmental programmes build glial and neuronal cells around the third ventricle of the brain. Such conserved processes enable the hypothalamus to mediate its function as a central integrating and response-control mediator for the homeostatic processes that are critical to life. Early indications suggest that deregulation of these events may underlie multifaceted pathological conditions and dysfunctional physiology in humans, such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium (177Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE were conside...

  19. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  20. A clinical and radiological objective tumor response with somatostatin analogs (SSA in well-differentiated neuroendocrine metastatic tumor of the ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Divitiis C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chiara De Divitiis,1 Claudia von Arx,2 Roberto Carbone,3 Fabiana Tatangelo,4 Elena di Girolamo,5 Giovanni Maria Romano,1 Alessandro Ottaiano,1 Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone,3 Rosario Vincenzo Iaffaioli,1 Salvatore Tafuto1 On behalf of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS Center of Excellence Multidisciplinary Group for Neuroendocrine Tumors in Naples (Italy 1Department of Abdominal Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Endoscopy, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G Pascale”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs are typically used to treat the symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, but they are not used as the primary treatment to induce tumor shrinkage. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a symptomatic metastatic NET of the ileum. Complete symptomatic response was achieved after 1 month of treatment with SSAs. In addition, there was an objective response in the liver, with the disappearance of secondary lesions noted on computed tomography scan after 3 months of octreotide treatment. Our experience suggests that SSAs could be useful for downstaging and/or downsizing well-differentiated NETs, and they could allow surgery to be performed. Such presurgery therapy could be a promising tool in the management of patients with initially inoperable NETs. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumor, somatostatin analogs, octreotide, metastatic tumor of the ileum, radiological tumor response

  1. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  3. Neuroendocrine Response to School Load in Prepubertal Children: Focus on Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsdorfer, D; Hlavacova, N; Vondrova, D; Argalasova, L; Sevcikova, L; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-08-31

    At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam). In the whole sample, the condition with exam was associated with higher cortisol and lower testosterone concentrations in saliva compared to the condition without exam. The activity of salivary alpha-amylase increased at the end of the exam. Anxious children showed higher concentrations of aldosterone and lower activity of alpha-amylase compared to children with low trait anxiety. Cortisol levels were higher in anxious children in the first morning samples before starting the lessons. Children with high and low trait anxiety did not differ in extraversion, neuroticism, as well as non-verbal intelligence and school success. Thus, the anxious children at school showed a more rapid decrease of anticipatory stress-induced cortisol concentrations, higher aldosterone levels, and lower alpha-amylase activities compared to non-anxious children. These changes, particularly high concentrations of aldosterone in children with high trait anxiety, may have an impact on their psychophysiological development.

  4. Improvement in Stress, General Self-Efficacy, and Health Related Quality of Life following Patient Education for Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Haugland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, health related quality of life (HRQoL, and stress among patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET following a multidisciplinary educational intervention. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this exploratory pilot study. A total of 37 patients completed the full 26-week intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. General self-efficacy was measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale, HRQoL was measured with the SF-36, and stress was measured with the Impact of Event Scale. Mixed effect models were used to evaluate changes in general self-efficacy, mental and physical components of HRQoL, and stress adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Results showed significant improvements in patients’ general self-efficacy (β = 0.71; P<0.05, physical component scores of HRQoL (β = 3.09; P<0.01, and stress (β=-2.10, P=0.008. Findings suggest that patients with NET have the capacity to improve their ability to cope with their disease, problem-solve, improve their physical status, and reduce their stress following an educational intervention based on the principles of self-efficacy. These preliminary data provide a basis for future randomized controlled trials to test interventions to improve HRQoL for patients with NET.

  5. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  6. Association between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and physical health-related quality of life: a path model study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Trude; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Hofoss, Dag; DeVon, Holli A

    2016-01-19

    A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) provides challenges to patients and clinicians due to physical side effects of and mental response to treatment resulting in increased perceived stress. General self-efficacy, social support and cancer-related stress are key factors in coping. Thus, knowledge of these factors may be of value in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and HRQoL in patients with NET using a path model. 196 Norwegian patients living with NET were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were: patients with tumors restricted to the GI tract; ability to speak and write Norwegian; over 18 years of age; undergoing medical treatment for NET. Measures used in the study were background characteristics, Health-related Quality of Life (SF-36), the Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Self-efficacy and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Relationships between sociodemographic variables, general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and mental and physical components scores were tested by path analysis with AMOS 22 using maximum standard likelihood estimation. The sample consisted of 50.5 % women and the average age was 65 years and the median disease duration was 4 years. Sociodemographic variables of gender, education and whether the patient lived alone or with someone were unrelated (directly or indirectly) to HRQoL. Age was directly and negatively correlated with physical HRQoL, general self-efficacy and social support in a well-fitting path model. General self-efficacy modified the negative effects of age on physical HRQoL. Physical and mental HRQoL were not associated with cancer-related stress. Higher social support was related to less stress. Intervening to improve general self-efficacy and social support for patients with NET may improve their HRQoL.

  7. Neuroendocrine and neurochemical impact of aggressive social interactions in submissive and dominant mice: implications for stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Marie-Claude; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-04-01

    Social conflicts may engender stress-related behavioural and physiological disturbances in the victims of aggression. In addition, stress-like neurochemical changes and ensuing depressive and anxiety symptoms might also be evident in the perpetrators of aggressive acts. The present investigation assessed basal levels of circulating corticosterone and of brain serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in pre-identified submissive and dominant mice. In addition, brain neurochemical changes were determined following a single or three 15-min aggressive episodes both in submissive mice and in those that dominated the aggressive interplay. Three minutes after single and repeated confrontations, plasma corticosterone levels and 5-HT utilization within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus were increased to a comparable extent in submissive and dominant animals. Interestingly, however, NE utilization within the PFC and hippocampus was augmented to a greater level in submissive mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neuronal functioning was generally responsive to aggressive events, irrespective of social rank, whereas NE neuronal activity within the PFC and hippocampus was more sensitive to the submissive/dominance attributes of the social situation. It is possible that NE and 5-HT variations associated with an aggressive experience contribute to depressive- and anxiety-like manifestations typically observed after such psychosocial stressors, particularly in submissive mice. However, given that 5-HT changes occur irrespective of social rank, these data suggest that a toll is taken on both submissive and dominant mice, leaving them vulnerable to stress-related pathology.

  8. Neuroendocrine modulation of the inflammatory response in common carp: adrenaline regulates leukocyte profile and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepka, M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory responses have to be carefully controlled, as high concentrations and/or prolonged action of inflammation-related molecules (e.g. reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines) can be detrimental to host tissue and organs. One of the potential regulators of the

  9. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  11. Dietary l-tryptophan leaves a lasting impression on the brain and the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind; Andersson, Madelene Å; Silva, Patricia; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Moltesen, Maria M; Krogdahl, Åshild; Schjolden, Joachim; Winberg, Svante; Vindas, Marco A; Mayer, Ian; Hillestad, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon. Fish were fed diets containing one, two or three times the Trp content in normal feed for 1 week. Subsequently, fish were reintroduced to control feed and were exposed to acute crowding stress for 1 h, 8 and 21 d post Trp treatment. Generally, acute crowding resulted in lower plasma cortisol levels in fish treated with 3×Trp compared with 1×Trp- and 2×Trp-treated fish. The same general pattern was reflected in telencephalic 5-HTergic turnover, for which 3×Trp-treated fish showed decreased values compared with 2×Trp-treated fish. These long-term effects on post-stress plasma cortisol levels and concomitant 5-HT turnover in the telencephalon lends further support to the fact that the extrahypothalamic control of the neuroendocrine stress response is conserved within the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, they indicate that trophic/structural effects in the brain underlie the effects of dietary Trp treatment on stress reactivity.

  12. Response, survival, and long-term toxicity after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Anna; Brunner, Philippe; Marincek, Nicolas; Briel, Matthias; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Mäcke, Helmut R; Rochlitz, Christoph; Müller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2011-06-10

    To investigate response, survival, and safety profile of the somatostatin-based radiopeptide (90)yttrium-labeled tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid modified Tyr-octreotide ([(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC) in neuroendocrine cancers. In a clinical phase II single-center open-label trial, patients with neuroendocrine cancers were treated with repeated cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Each cycle consisted of a single intravenous injection of 3.7GBq/m(2) body-surface [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Additional cycles were withheld in case of tumor progression and/or permanent toxicity. Overall, 1,109 patients received 2,472 cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC (median, two; range, one to 10 cycles per patient). Of the 1,109 patients, 378 (34.1%) experienced morphologic response; 172 (15.5%), biochemical response; and 329 (29.7%), clinical response. During a median follow-up of 23 months, 491 patients (44.3%) died. Longer survival was correlated with each: morphologic (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.56; median survival, 44.7 v 18.3 months; P TOC treatment in a large cohort. Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC is associated with longer survival. Somatostatin receptor imaging is predictive for both survival after [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment and occurrence of renal toxicity.

  13. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  14. How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S; Lee, Hae Yeon; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2016-08-01

    This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Integrated Stress Responses in Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Fang, Ferric C.

    2011-01-01

    The foodborne gram-negative pathogen Salmonella must adapt to varied environmental conditions encountered within foods, the host gastrointestinal tract and the phagosomes of host macrophages. Adaptation is achieved through the coordinate regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals such as temperature, pH, osmolarity, redox state, antimicrobial peptides, and nutrient deprivation. This review will examine mechanisms by which the integration of regulatory responses to a broad array of environmental signals can be achieved. First, in the most straightforward case, tandem promoters allow gene expression to respond to multiple signals. Second, versatile sensor proteins may respond to more than one environmental signal. Third, transcriptional silencing and counter-silencing as demonstrated by the H-NS paradigm provides a general mechanism for the convergence of multiple regulatory inputs. Fourth, signaling cascades allow gene activation by independent sensory elements. These mechanisms allow Salmonella to utilize common adaptive stress pathways in response to a diverse range of environmental conditions. PMID:21570144

  16. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-10-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  17. Increased anxiety induced by listening to unpleasant music during stress exposure is associated with reduced blood pressure and ACTH responses in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Daniela; Hlavacova, Natasa; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Duncko, Roman; Loder, Ingrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and the neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an acute increase in state anxiety to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. To do so, it was necessary to find a stress condition of the same character and intensity with and without a rise in state anxiety. We decided to examine the effects of listening to music on anxiety and to apply a new methodological approach. A group of 14 healthy volunteers participated in a counterbalanced crossover design study. The stress procedure consisted of mental (Stroop test, mental arithmetic) and physical (handgrip exercise) tasks combined with listening to music played forward (pleasant) or backwards (unpleasant). The results confirmed our hypothesis, namely the condition with listening to unpleasant music was anxiogenic, while the other was not. In case of increased state anxiety, the rise in ACTH concentrations in response to mental challenge and the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by handgrip exercise was reduced compared to the situation with unchanged anxiety. Concentrations of testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin and aldosterone were slightly increased in response to the stress paradigm accompanied with increased anxiety. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that an acute increase in state anxiety contributes to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. Moreover, the results show that listening to music may both positively and negatively influence the perception of stress and the level of anxiety, which might have functional consequences. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The stress response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: from molecule to melancholia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Organisms survive by maintaining equilibrium with their environment. The stress system is critical to this homeostasis. Glucocorticoids modulate the stress response at a molecular level by altering gene expression, transcription, and translation, among other pathways. The effect is the inhibition of the functions of inflammatory cells, predominantly mediated through inhibition of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The central effectors of the stress response are the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE)\\/sympathetic systems. The CRH system activates the stress response and is subject to modulation by cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Glucocorticoids also modulate the growth, reproductive and thyroid axes. Abnormalities of stress system activation have been shown in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as behavioural syndromes such as melancholic depression. These disorders are comparable to those seen in rats whose CRH system is genetically abnormal. Thus, the stress response is central to resistance to inflammatory and behavioural syndromes. In this review, we describe the response to stress at molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and behavioural levels, and discuss the disease processes that result from a dysregulation of this response, as well as recent developments in their treatment.

  19. Neurovascular responses to mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R; Kupiers, Nathan T; Ray, Chester A

    2005-01-01

    The effects of mental stress (MS) on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and limb blood flows have been studied independently in the arm and leg, but they have not been studied collectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular implications of postmental stress responses have not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of the current investigation was to comprehensively examine concurrent neural and vascular responses during and after mental stress in both limbs. In Study 1, MSNA, blood flow (plethysmography), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in both the arm and leg in 12 healthy subjects during and after MS (5 min of mental arithmetic). MS significantly increased MAP (Δ15 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01) and HR (Δ19 ± 3 beats min−1; P < 0.01), but did not change MSNA in the arm (14 ± 3 to 16 ± 3 bursts min−1; n= 6) or leg (14 ± 2 to 15 ± 2 bursts min−1; n= 8). MS decreased forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by −27 ± 7% (P < 0.01; n= 8), while calf vascular resistance (CVR) did not change (−6 ± 5%; n= 11). FVR returned to baseline during recovery, whereas MSNA significantly increased in the arm (21 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.01) and leg (19 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.03). In Study 2, forearm and calf blood flows were measured in an additional 10 subjects using Doppler ultrasound. MS decreased FVR (−27 ± 10%; P < 0.02), but did not change CVR (5 ± 14%) as in Study 1. These findings demonstrate differential vascular control of the arm and leg during MS that is not associated with muscle sympathetic outflow. Additionally, the robust increase in MSNA during recovery may have acute and chronic cardiovascular implications. PMID:15705649

  20. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  1. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  2. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  3. [Stress-induced changes in functional activity of the neuro-endocrine system: modulatory action of derinat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomicheva, E E; Filatenkova, T A; Shanin, S N; Rybakina, E G

    2009-03-01

    Changes in functional activity of HPA and HPG axes under stress influences of different intensity, and possible ways for their correction by native DNA preparation: derinat, possessing immune modulator effects, were studied. It was shown that the vector of changes in hormone's reactions of both axes did not depend on the intensity of stress influences: different models of stress increased corticosterone level and decreased testosterone level in rats' blood. Intraperitoneal injection of 10 and 50 mg/kg BW doses of Derinat to rats enhanced HPA and HPG axes activity, reversed stress-induced decrease of testosterone concentration in blood, that may indicate a stress-protective effect of derinat. Injection of derinat caused normalizing of stress-induced changes in immunomodulatory cytokines production within Lymphocyte Activating Factors, which regulate not only the immune system functions but also the functions of HPA and HPG axes.

  4. Effects of physical exercise on depression, neuroendocrine stress hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nabkasorn, Chanudda; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Sootmongkol, Anek; Junprasert, Suwanna; Yamamoto, Hiroichi; Arita, Mikio; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    .... We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of physical exercise on depressive state, the excretions of stress hormones and physiological fitness variables in adolescent...

  5. Epigenetic programming of the stress response in male and female rats by prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to hostile conditions results in a series of coordinated responses aimed at enhancing the probability of survival. The activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a pivotal role in the stress response. While the short-term activation of the HPA axis allows adaptive responses to the challenge, in the long run this can be devastating for the organism. In particular, life events occurring during the perinatal period have strong long-term effects on the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stressors. In male and female rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS), these effects include a long-lasting hyperactivation of the HPA response associated with an altered circadian rhythm of corticosterone secretion. Furthermore, male animals exhibit sleep disturbances. In males, these HPA dysfunctions have been reported in infant, young, adult and aged animals, thus suggesting a permanent effect of early stress. Interestingly, after exposure to an intense inescapable footshock, female PRS rats durably exhibit a blunted corticosterone secretion response to stress. In male PRS rats exposed to an alcohol challenge, the HPA axis is similarly hyporesponsive. Rats exposed to PRS also show behavioral disturbances. Both male and female PRS rats show high anxiety levels and depression-like behavior during adulthood, although some studies suggest that female PRS rats present low anxiety levels. With ageing, male and female PRS rats exhibit memory impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks, while female PRS rats improve their memory performance during adulthood. The gender effect on behavior seems to be related to a reduction in hippocampal plasticity in male PRS rats, and an increase in female PRS rats. Despite the permanent imprinting induced by early stress, the dysfunctions observed after PRS can be reversed by environmental or pharmacological strategies such as environmental enrichment or antidepressive and neurotrophic treatments

  6. Altered gene expression of the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) systems is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, Pedro; Olivera, Anlys; Rusch, Heather L; Roy, Michael; Martin, Christiana; Lejbman, Natasha; Lee, Hwyunhwa; Gill, Jessica M

    2016-03-01

    Whole transcriptome analysis provides an unbiased examination of biological activity, and likely, unique insight into the mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid depression and traumatic brain injury. This study compared gene-expression profiles in military personnel with PTSD (n=28) and matched controls without PTSD (n=27) using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix), which contain 54,675 probe sets representing more than 38,500 genes. Analysis of expression profiles revealed 203 differentially expressed genes in PTSD, of which 72% were upregulated. Using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6, differentially expressed transcription clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥1.5 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) of the differentially expressed genes indicated a dysregulation of genes associated with the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and NF-κB systems. These findings provide novel insights that may lead to new pharmaceutical agents for PTSD treatments and help mitigate mental and physical comorbidity risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to fluctuating conditions in its environment with a wide variety of stress responses. Apart from a series of specific responses and a series of large-scale developmental changes, B. subtilis also has a general stress response (GSR). The GSR is activated

  8. Stress-induced eating and the relaxation response as a potential antidote: A review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Tasmiah; Dimmock, James A; Epel, Elissa S; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-11-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence to indicate that stress leads to the consumption of unhealthy, energy-dense, palatable food, potentially contributing to the alarming global prevalence of chronic diseases, including obesity. However, comparatively little research has been devoted to addressing how best to remedy this growing problem. We provide an overview of the influence of stress on dietary intake, and then explore the novel, yet simple, possibility that regular elicitation of the relaxation response may effectively reduce stress-induced eating via both physiological neuroendocrine and reward pathways and psychological pathways involving emotion regulation, and habitual coping. If shown to be effective, the regular practice of relaxation may provide a convenient, cost efficient, patient-centered therapeutic practice to assist in the prevention of unhealthy weight gain and other negative consequences of unhealthy food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular mechanisms in plant abiotic stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poltronieri Palmiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved crop varieties are needed to sustain the food supply, to fight climate changes, water scarcity, temperature increase and a high variability of rainfalls. Variability of drought and increase in soil salinity have negative effects on plant growth and abiotic stresses seriously threaten sustainable agricultural production. To overcome the influence of abiotic stresses, new tolerant plant varieties and breeding techniques using assisted selection are sought. A deep understanding of the mechanisms that respond to stress and sustain stress resistance is required. Here is presented an overview of several mechanisms that interact in the stress response. Localised synthesis of plant hormones, second messengers and local effectors of abiotic stress response and survival, the signaling pathways regulated by plant hormones are today better understood. Metabolic networks in drought stress responses, long distance signaling, cross-talk between plant organs finalised to tissue-specific expression of abiotic stress relieving genes have been at the centre of most recent studies.

  10. Perinatal exposure to organohalogen pollutants decreases vasopressin content and its mRNA expression in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells activated by osmotic stress in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that produce neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine disruption. They affect the vasopressinergic system but their disruptive mechanisms are not well understood. Our group reported t...

  11. Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation. The mechanisms underlying this process may involve a pathological series of events from the brain to the lungs, which is attracting attention as a conceptually advanced phenotype in asthma pathogenesis. This review presents insights into the critical role of psychological stress in the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, with a special focus on our own data that emphasizes on the continuity from the central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  12. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  13. Adolescence and the ontogeny of the hormonal stress response in male and female rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias fun

  15. Effects of Pup Separation on Stress Response in Postpartum Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Manu; Callahan, Phyllis; Janik, James M.; Shi, Haifei

    2017-01-01

    There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. Restraint stress for 30 min was performed at the end of pup separation as an acute stressor. Plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were measured following restraint stress or no-stress (control) in virgin rats and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for different periods of time of one hour, 24 h, or eight days. We then tested the hypothesis that circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R gene expression were involved in mediating the acute stress response in postpartum rats. Plasma levels of PRL and PRL-R mRNA levels in the choroid plexus of the CNS were determined in both no-stress and stress, virgin rats, and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for various periods, and their correlation with plasma CORT levels was assessed. The results demonstrated that PRL levels declined to virgin state in all postpartum rats separated from their pups, including the dams with one-hour pup separation. Stress-induced HPA activity dampened in lactating rats housed with pups, and returned to the pre-pregnancy state after 24 h of pup separation when both circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R expression were restored to a pre-pregnancy state. Additionally, basal plasma CORT and CNS PRL-R expression were significantly correlated in rats with various pup status. This study suggested that stress-induced HPA

  16. Measuring stress responses in postpartum mothers: perspectives from studies in human and animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mai Thanh; Lupien, Sonia J; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2005-03-01

    Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress during the last week of pregnancy and lactation have been consistently observed in rat studies. Several contributing factors have been proposed for this phenomenon in lactation, including the suckling stimulus from the pups, hormones (oxytocin and prolactin) and opioids, a decrease in the ability of noradrenaline to potentiate hypothalamic responses and changes in pituitary responsiveness to ACTH secretagogues (AVP and CRF). In contrast to this vast literature using the rat model, only few studies have addressed this issue in the human population. The consensus is that women engaging in breastfeeding activities exhibit reduced anxiety, although the reductions in neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stressors are variable, in part because of the different nature of the stressors used. Further work is required to investigate how additional factors, such as maternal parity or emotional salience of the stressor can affect stress responsiveness in postpartum women. Here, we review first the findings regarding stress responsiveness during lactation in both rat and human studies, and then discuss potential research avenues and methodological issues that could be the lead to future research protocols in human subjects. Knowing the reciprocal relationship in the mother-infant dyad, it is clear that investigation of the mechanisms regulating stress responses and mental health in postpartum mothers can only be beneficial to the development of the infant.

  17. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  18. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  19. Do brassinosteroids mediate the water stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Ross, John J; Reid, James B

    2008-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been suggested to increase the resistance of plants to a variety of stresses, including water stress. This is based on application studies, where exogenously applied bioactive BRs have been shown to improve various aspects of plant growth under water stress conditions. However, it is not known whether changes in endogenous BR levels are normally involved in mediating the plant's response to stress. We have utilized BR mutants in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to determine whether changes in endogenous BR levels are part of the plant's response to water stress and whether low endogenous BR levels alter the plant's ability to cope with water stress. In wild-type (WT) plants, we show that while water stress causes a significant increase in ABA levels, it does not result in altered BR levels in either apical, internode or leaf tissue. Furthermore, the plant's ability to increase ABA levels in response to water stress is not affected by BR deficiency, as there was no significant difference in ABA levels between WT, lkb (a BR-deficient mutant) and lka (a BR-perception mutant) plants before or 14 days after the cessation of watering. In addition, the effect of water stress on traits such as height, leaf size and water potential in lkb and lka was similar to that observed in WT plants. Therefore, it appears that, at least in pea, changes in endogenous BR levels are not normally part of the plant's response to water stress.

  20. Onset, Timing, and Exposure Therapy of Stress Disorders: Mechanistic Insight from a Mathematical Model of Oscillating Neuroendocrine Dynamics (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link...drome (CFS) [4–7]. Since PTSD develops in the aftermath of extreme levels of stress experienced during traumatic incidents like combat, sexual abuse, or...o)− cs), (20) dx dt = F(cs, x), (21) where x = (c, a, o, r) is the vector of fast dynamical vari- ables, and F(cs, x) denotes the right -hand-sides

  1. Disruption of multisystem responses to stress in type 2 diabetes: Investigating the dynamics of allostatic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Bostock, Sophie; La Marca, Roberto; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress-related processes are thought to contribute to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes, but the biological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we tested the notion that people with type 2 diabetes experience chronic allostatic load, manifest as dynamic disturbances in reactivity to and recovery from stress across multiple (cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic) biological systems, coupled with heightened experience of chronic life stress. We carried out an experimental comparison of 140 men and women aged 50–75 y with type 2 diabetes and 280 nondiabetic individuals matched on age, sex, and income. We monitored blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, salivary cortisol, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, and total cholesterol in response to standardized mental stress, and assessed salivary cortisol over the day. People with type 2 diabetes showed impaired poststress recovery in systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate and cholesterol, and blunted stress reactivity in systolic BP, cortisol, cholesterol, and IL-6. Cortisol and IL-6 concentrations were elevated, and cortisol measured over the day was higher in the type 2 diabetes group. Diabetic persons reported greater depressive and hostile symptoms and greater stress experience than did healthy controls. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by disruption of stress-related processes across multiple biological systems and increased exposure to life stress. Chronic allostatic load provides a unifying perspective with implications for etiology and patient management. PMID:25331894

  2. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  3. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  4. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-04-17

    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  5. Copia is transcriptionally responsive to environmental stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, D J; McDonald, J F

    1985-01-01

    Adult Drosophila subjected to a variety of environmental stresses that induce classic Drosophila heat shock response simultaneously exhibit a rapid and significant rise in copia homologous transcripts. Levels of Drosophila Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and 18s ribosomal RNA were unaffected by environmental stress. Copia's ability to be induced by stress is correlated with the presence of sequences homologous to the heat shock promoter consensus sequence which appear to be appropriately pos...

  6. Subjective stress, salivary cortisol and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.

  7. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...

  8. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival responses to oxidative stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress is recognized as an important environmental factor in aging; however, because reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related free radicals are normally produced both intra- and extracellularly, air-living organisms cannot avoid the risk of oxidative stress. Consequently, these organisms have evolved various anti-oxidant systems to prevent ROS, scavenge free radicals, repair damaged components and adaptive responses. This review will focus on the repair and adaptive response to oxidative stress, and summarize the changes of these systems as a result aging and their relationship to premature aging.

  10. Social interaction decreases stress responsiveness during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lürzel, Stephanie; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adolescence is the transition from infancy to adulthood and encompasses major changes in the brain, the endocrine systems, and behavior. During late adolescence, male guinea pigs living in mixed-sex colonies exhibit a lower cortisol (C) response to novelty compared with animals in other ages and housing conditions. It was hypothesized that this reduction in stress responsiveness is induced by a high amount of social interactions in the colonies. In a previous study (Lürzel et al., 2010), late adolescent colony-housed males (CM) were compared with similarly aged males that were housed in heterosexual pairs (PM) as well as with males that were also housed in pairs, but regularly received additional social stimulation by allowing them ten times to interact with unfamiliar adult animals of both sexes for 10 min (SM). CM had a significantly lower stress response than PM, with SM being intermediate and not significantly different from either of the other groups. We assumed that the amount of social stimulation in SM was insufficient in order to achieve a significant reduction of stress responsiveness compared with PM. For the present study, we hypothesized that with a higher amount of social stimulation, a significant difference in stress responsiveness between PM and SM becomes apparent during late adolescence. Thus, PM were again compared with SM that, this time, had received twice as much social stimulation as in the previous study. As a result, stress responsiveness was indeed significantly lower in SM than in PM during late adolescence. Thus, a high amount of social interactions during the course of adolescence leads to a decreased stress responsiveness. Furthermore, SM showed an increase in testosterone (T) levels caused by social stimulation. We hypothesize that the reduction in stress responsiveness is brought about by high T levels that organize central neural structures over the course of adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of the stress response in wild fish is associated with variation in dissolved nitrate and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Tom G

    2017-06-01

    Disruption of non-reproductive endocrine systems in wildlife by chemicals has received little attention but represents a potentially significant problem. Nitrate is a major anthropogenic contaminant in the freshwater aquatic environment and has been identified as a potential disrupter of endocrine function in aquatic animals. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the function of the neuroendocrine stress axis in fish and inorganic N loading along reaches of rivers receiving cumulative point source and diffuse chemical inputs. To accomplish this, the responsiveness of the stress axis, quantified as the rate of release of cortisol to water across the gills during exposure to a standardised stressor, was measured in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) resident at three sites on each of four rivers in north-west England. The magnitude of the stress response in fish captured at the sites furthest downstream on all rivers was more than twice that of fish captured at upstream sites. Site-specific variation in stress axis reactivity was better explained by between-site variation in concentrations of dissolved nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia than by the concentration of wastewater treatment works effluent. An increase in the magnitude of the stress response was seen among sticklebacks at sites where long-term averaged concentrations of NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N exceeded 0.6, 4.0 and 0.1 mg/L respectively. These data suggest that either (i) inorganic N is a better surrogate than wastewater effluent concentration for an unknown factor or factors affecting stress axis function in fish, or (ii) dissolved inorganic N directly exerts a disruptive influence on the function of the neuroendocrine stress axis in fish, supporting concerns that nitrate is an endocrine-modulating chemical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  13. Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days restraint stress (RS and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS on neuroendocrine (corticosterone and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF . Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

  14. PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Giancarlo

    2008-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms that originate from pluripotent stem cells or differentiated neuroendocrine cells, mostly localized in the bronchus, lungs, or gastroenteropancreatic tract. This issue reviews the results achieved with PET. The potential applications of the most commonly used receptor or metabolic positron-emitter radiopharmaceuticals in the field of NET to stage or restage disease, to detect unknown primary tumor, and to assess and monitor therapy response to different kind of treatments are analyzed. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal and stress-induced differences in HPA axis, 5-HT responsiveness, and hippocampal cell proliferation in two mouse lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Koolhaas, JM; De Kloet, ER; Pacak, K; Aguilera, B; Saban, E; Kvetnansky, R

    2004-01-01

    To characterize individual differences in neuroendocrine and neurochemical correlates of stress coping, two lines of wild house mice were studied. These mice are genetically selected for high and low aggression and show distinctly different behavioral strategies toward environmental stimuli. Long

  16. Proteomics studies on stress responses in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Zhuo; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a highly diverse group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that are distributed throughout marine and freshwater environments and are believed to be responsible for approximately 40% of the total marine primary productivity. The ecological success of diatoms suggests that they have developed a range of strategies to cope with various biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is of great interest to understand the adaptive responses of diatoms to different stresses in the marine environment. Proteomic technologies have been applied to the adaptive responses of marine diatoms under different growth conditions in recent years such as nitrogen starvation, iron limitation and phosphorus deficiency. These studies have provided clues to elucidate the sophisticated sensing mechanisms that control their adaptive responses. Although only a very limited number of proteomic studies were conducted in diatoms, the obtained data have led to a better understanding of the biochemical processes that contribute to their ecological success. This review presents the current status of proteomic studies of diatom stress responses and discusses the novel developments and applications for the analysis of protein post-translational modification in diatoms. The potential future application of proteomics could contribute to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying diatom acclimation to a given stress and the acquisition of an enhanced diatom stress tolerance. Future challenges and research opportunities in the proteomics studies of diatoms are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Telomere length and procedural justice predict stress reactivity responses to unfair outcomes in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Lumley, Mark A; Granger, Douglas A; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S

    2017-09-07

    This experiment demonstrates that chromosomal telomere length (TL) moderates response to injustice among African Americans. Based on worldview verification theory - an emerging psychosocial framework for understanding stress - we predicted that acute stress responses would be most pronounced when individual-level expectancies for justice were discordant with justice experiences. Healthy African Americans (N=118; 30% male; M age=31.63years) provided dried blood spot samples that were assayed for TL, and completed a social-evaluative stressor task during which high versus low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice were simultaneously manipulated. African Americans with longer telomeres appeared more resilient (in emotional and neuroendocrine response-higher DHEAs:cortisol) to receiving an unfair outcome when a fair decision process was used, whereas African Americans with shorter telomeres appeared more resilient when an unfair decision process was used. TL may indicate personal histories of adversity and associated stress-related expectancies that influence responses to injustice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    ... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...

  20. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  1. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  2. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  3. Sleep restriction alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, P.; Koehl, M.; van der Borght, K.; Turek, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is an increasing problem in many countries and may have many, as yet unknown, consequences for health and well being. Studies in both humans and rats suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. However, few attempts have been made to examine how sleep loss affects the HPA axis response to subsequent stressors. Furthermore, most studies applied short-lasting total sleep deprivation and not restriction of sleep over a longer period of time, as often occurs in human society. Using the rat as our model species, we investigated: (i) the HPA axis activity during and after sleep deprivation and (ii) the effect of sleep loss on the subsequent HPA response to a novel stressor. In one experiment, rats were subjected to 48 h of sleep deprivation by placing them in slowly rotating wheels. Control rats were placed in nonrotating wheels. In a second experiment, rats were subjected to an 8-day sleep restriction protocol allowing 4 h of sleep each day. To test the effects of sleep loss on subsequent stress reactivity, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress. Blood samples were taken at several time points and analysed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The results show that ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were elevated during sleep deprivation but returned to baseline within 4 h of recovery. After 1 day of sleep restriction, the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint stress did not differ between control and sleep deprived rats. However, after 48 h of total sleep deprivation and after 8 days of restricted sleep, the ACTH response to restraint was significantly reduced whereas the corticosterone response was unaffected. These results show that sleep loss not only is a mild activator of the HPA axis itself, but also affects the subsequent response to stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation may gradually appear under

  4. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  5. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  6. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  7. Influence of cocaine dependence and early life stress on pituitary-adrenal axis responses to CRH and the Trier social stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Back, Sudie E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Spratt, Eve G; Simpson, Annie N; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-11-01

    Long-term changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a result of early life stress could be related to the development of substance use disorders during adulthood. In this study, the neuroendocrine, physiologic (HR), and subjective responses to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) in individuals with cocaine dependence, with (n=21)/without early life stress (n=21), non-dependent individuals with early life stress (n=22), and a control group were examined (n=21). CRH increased cortisol and ACTH levels in all groups. However, a significant effect of early life stress on ACTH was observed indicating that the increase in ACTH was greatest in subjects with a history of childhood stress. Post hoc analysis indicated the early life stress/non-cocaine dependent individuals exhibited significantly higher levels of ACTH as compared to the early life stress/cocaine-dependent group. Despite the elevated ACTH response there was no difference between the groups in the cortisol response to CRH. The TSST produced a significant elevation in ACTH and cortisol all study groups. No significant group differences were observed. The subjective stress and peak heart rate responses to the TSST were greatest in cocaine-dependent subjects without early life stress. In response to CRH, subjective stress and craving were positively correlated in cocaine-dependent subjects regardless of early life stress history, while stress and craving following the TSST were correlated only in cocaine-dependent subjects without a history of early life stress. Findings support previous studies demonstrating that subjects with a history of childhood adversity exhibit elevated ACTH and blunted cortisol levels in response to stress. In contrast, HR and subjective stress in response to the TSST were greatest in cocaine-dependent subjects without a history of early life stress, suggesting that childhood adversity may desensitize autonomic and subjective

  8. Prion switching in response to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Tyedmers

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution depends on the manner in which genetic variation is translated into new phenotypes. There has been much debate about whether organisms might have specific mechanisms for "evolvability," which would generate heritable phenotypic variation with adaptive value and could act to enhance the rate of evolution. Capacitor systems, which allow the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation and release it under stressful conditions, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSI(+] exposes a large array of previously hidden genetic variation, and the phenotypes it thereby produces are advantageous roughly 25% of the time. The notion that [PSI(+] is a mechanism for evolvability would be strengthened if the frequency of its appearance increased with stress. That is, a system that mediates even the haphazard appearance of new phenotypes, which have a reasonable chance of adaptive value would be beneficial if it were deployed at times when the organism is not well adapted to its environment. In an unbiased, high-throughput, genome-wide screen for factors that modify the frequency of [PSI(+] induction, signal transducers and stress response genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when cells were exposed to various stressful conditions, such as oxidative stress (H2O2 or high salt concentrations. The severity of stress and the frequency of [PSI(+] induction were highly correlated. These findings support the hypothesis that [PSI(+] is a mechanism to increase survival in fluctuating environments and might function as a capacitor to promote evolvability.

  9. Assessment of predictors of response and long-term survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.; Thompson, M.; Johnston, V.; Eu, P. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Collins, M.; Herschtal, A. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Michael, M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    To review the response and outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate chemoradionuclide therapy (LuTate PRCRT) in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors with uncontrolled symptoms or disease progression. A total of 68 patients (39 men; 17 - 76 years of age) who had completed an induction course of at least three cycles of LuTate PRCRT between January 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed. Ten patients were treated for uncontrolled symptoms and 58 had disease progression despite conventional treatment. The majority had four induction LuTate cycles (median treatment duration 5 months and cumulative activity 31 GBq), and 63 patients had concomitant 5-FU radiosensitizing infusional chemotherapy. Factors predicting overall survival were assessed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of those treated for uncontrolled symptoms, 70 % received benefit maintained for at least 6 months after treatment. Among patients with progressive disease 68 % showed stabilization or regression on CT, 67 % on molecular imaging and 56 % biochemically up to 12 months after treatment; 32 patients died. Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 year were 72.1 % and 52.1 %, respectively. Median overall survival was not estimable at a median follow-up of 60 months (range 5 - 86 months). Nonpancreatic primary sites, dominant liver metastases, lesion size <5 cm and the use of 5-FU chemotherapy were statistically significantly associated with objective response. A disseminated pattern and a high disease burden (whole-body retention index) were associated with an increased risk of death. Objective biochemical, molecular imaging and CT responses were all associated with longer overall survival. A high proportion of patients with progressive NET or uncontrolled symptoms received therapeutic benefit from LuTate with concomitant 5-FU chemotherapy. The achievement of objective biochemical, molecular or CT responses within 12 months was

  10. Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Thörnqvist, Per Ove

    2016-01-01

    By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive...

  11. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  12. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Edward Lewis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The vgf gene (non-acronymic is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68kDa precursor polypeptide which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific pro-hormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles and in this mini-review we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction and cognition.

  13. Relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling and neuroendocrine function – A perspective on extrinsic hypothalamic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E Ganella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex neural circuits within the hypothalamus that govern essential autonomic processes and associated behaviors signal using amino acid and monoamine transmitters and a variety of neuropeptide (hormone modulators, often via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and associated cellular pathways. Relaxin-3 is a recently identified neuropeptide that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Neurons expressing relaxin-3 are located in the brainstem, but broadly innervate the entire limbic system including the hypothalamus. Extensive anatomical data in rodents and non-human primate, and recent regulatory and functional data, suggest relaxin-3 signaling via its cognate GPCR, RXFP3, has a broad range of effects on neuroendocrine function associated with stress responses, feeding and metabolism, motivation and reward, and possibly sexual behavior and reproduction. Therefore, this article aims to highlight the growing appreciation of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system as an important ‘extrinsic’ regulator of the neuroendocrine axis by reviewing its neuroanatomy and its putative roles in arousal-, stress- and feeding-related behaviors and links to associated neural substrates and signaling networks. Current evidence identifies RXFP3 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuroendocrine disorders and related behavioral dysfunction.

  14. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2017-09-28

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The modulation of catecholamines on immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Zhi; Yue, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Mengqiang; Song, Linsheng

    2014-01-01

    Catecholamines (CAs) play key roles in mediating the physiological responses to various stresses. In the present study, the expression of CA-related genes were examined in the hemocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress, and several immune or metabolism-related parameters were investigated after heat stress and adrenoceptor antagonist stimulation. After the scallops were cultured at 28°C, the mRNA expression level of dopa decarboxylase (CfDDC) and α-adrenoceptor (CfαAR) increased significantly (P<0.01), whereas that of monoamine oxidase (CfMAO) was down-regulated in the first 6h (P<0.05), and then up-regulated to the maximum level at 24h (P<0.01). In the hemocytes of scallops injected with adrenoceptor antagonist, the expression levels of peptidoglycan-recognition protein (CfPGRP-S1) and C-type lectin (CfLec-1) began to increase significantly at 2 and 3h post propranolol and high temperature treatment, respectively (P<0.01). While the up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (CfHSP70) post heat stress was significantly inhibited by prazosin injection (P<0.01), and that of hexokinase (CfHK) was inhibited by both prazosin and propranolol injection (P<0.01). Moreover, the remarkable increase of relative specific activity of SOD in the hemolymph post heat stress (P<0.01) was further up-regulated early after prazosin or propranolol injection (P<0.01), while that of the relative anti-bacterial ability was down-regulated by prazosin or propranolol treatment (P<0.01). These results collectively indicated that the catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system in scallop could be activated by heat stress to release CAs, which subsequently modulated the immune response and energy metabolism via α- and β-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Stress Response, Brain Noradrenergic System and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Radkowski, Marek; Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response. In particular, we present the mechanisms responsible for thinking inflexibility often observed under highly stressful conditions. Finally, the main directions for future research are highlighted.

  17. The effect of music on the human stress response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thoma, Myriam V; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2013-01-01

    ... domains of the human stress response. Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test...

  18. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    -term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized...... to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results Change in CorAUCtotal showed...... no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in Cor...

  19. Escitalopram and Neuroendocrine Response in Healthy First-Degree Relatives to epressed Patients – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were...... randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results: Change in Cor......AUCtotal showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration...

  20. Escitalopram and Neuroendocrine Response in Healthy First-Degree Relatives to Depressed Patients – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan; Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Hilsted, Linda; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results Change in CorAUCtotal showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUCtotal, rho = −0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUCtotal. Conclusion The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00386841 PMID:21738622

  1. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.

  2. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  3. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  4. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  5. Neuroendocrine Function After Hypothalamic Depletion of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Matia B; Loftspring, Matthew; de Kloet, Annette D; Ghosal, Sriparna; Jankord, Ryan; Flak, Jonathan N; Wulsin, Aynara C; Krause, Eric G; Zhang, Rong; Rice, Taylor; McKlveen, Jessica; Myers, Brent; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Herman, James P

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoids act rapidly at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to inhibit stress-excitatory neurons and limit excessive glucocorticoid secretion. The signaling mechanism underlying rapid feedback inhibition remains to be determined. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the canonical glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) is required for appropriate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Local PVN GR knockdown (KD) was achieved by breeding homozygous floxed GR mice with Sim1-cre recombinase transgenic mice. This genetic approach created mice with a KD of GR primarily confined to hypothalamic cell groups, including the PVN, sparing GR expression in other HPA axis limbic regulatory regions, and the pituitary. There were no differences in circadian nadir and peak corticosterone concentrations between male PVN GR KD mice and male littermate controls. However, reduction of PVN GR increased ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute, but not chronic stress, indicating that PVN GR is critical for limiting neuroendocrine responses to acute stress in males. Loss of PVN GR induced an opposite neuroendocrine phenotype in females, characterized by increased circadian nadir corticosterone levels and suppressed ACTH responses to acute restraint stress, without a concomitant change in corticosterone responses under acute or chronic stress conditions. PVN GR deletion had no effect on depression-like behavior in either sex in the forced swim test. Overall, these findings reveal pronounced sex differences in the PVN GR dependence of acute stress feedback regulation of HPA axis function. In addition, these data further indicate that glucocorticoid control of HPA axis responses after chronic stress operates via a PVN-independent mechanism.

  6. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  7. 2016 Microbial Stress Response GRC/GRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Sensing Signal AI-2 Affects the Antibiotic-Treated Gut Microbiota " 11:30 am - 11:40 am Discussion 11:40 am - 12:05 pm Patricia Casino (University of...feedback collected from the meeting was extremely positive. Evaluations included numerous positive remarks regarding the diversity of speakers, the...00 pm Dinner 7:30 pm - 9:30 pm A Diversity in Bacterial Stress Responses Discussion Leader: Joan Slonczewski (Kenyon College, USA) 7:30 pm - 7:55

  8. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-12-11

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia in attenuation of stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Writuparna Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy though minimally invasive produces significant hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response. Though general anesthesia (GA is the conventional technique, now-a-days, regional anesthesia has been accepted for laparoscopic diagnostic procedures, and its use is also being extended to laparoscopic surgeries. Objective: The aim was to compare the hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC under GA and spinal anesthesia (SA in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA PS 1 patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty ASA physical status I patients, aged 18-65 years were randomly allocated into two equal groups of 15 each. Group A received GA with controlled ventilation. Patients were preoxygenated for 5 min with 100/5 oxygen, premedicated with midazolam 0.03 mg/kg intravenous (i.v, fentanyl 2 mcg/kg i.v; induction was done with thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg i.v; intubation was achieved after muscle relaxation with 0.5 mg/kg atracurium besylate i.v. Anesthesia was maintained with 1-2% sevoflurane and N2O:O2 (60:40 and intermittent i.v injection of atracurium besylate. Group B SA with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 μg fentanyl along with local anesthetic instillation in the subdiaphragmatic space. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon-dioxide were recorded. Venous blood was collected for cortisol assay before induction and 30 min after pneumoperitoneum. All data were collected in Microsoft excel sheet and statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. All numerical data were analyzed using Student′s t-test and paired t-test. Any value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean arterial pressure and mean HR and postpneumoperitoneum cortisol level were lower in group B than group A though the difference was not statistically significant in hemodynamic parameters but significant in case of cortisol

  10. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  11. Interventional treatment of neuroendocrine liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Hansen, C.P.; Stadil, F.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases s....... The symptomatic response rate is 90% with a mean duration of two years. Liver transplantation should be restricted to very few and highly selected patients without extrahepatic disease. Recurrence is inevitable in nearly all patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8......Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours are rare with an incidence of 2-4/100.000 per year. More than 75% of the patients develop hepatic metastases, which reduce the five year survival from 70-80% to 30-40%. In addition to chemo- and biotherapy, interventional therapy of liver metastases...

  12. Psychobiological stress response to a simulated school shooting in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Ziegert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Police work is one of the most demanding professions with various sources of high occupational stress. Among the most demanding tasks are amok situations, such as school shootings. Hardly anything is known about endocrine and cardiovascular markers in safety professionals during emergency situations in real life and how this relates to stress perception and management. This study will therefore explore police officers' stress responses to a reality-based school shooting simulation assessing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and psychological stress markers. A convenience sample of 50 police officers (39.5 ± 8.7 yrs, 9 women) participating in a basic or refresher amok training session for the German uniformed and criminal police were recruited. Saliva samples were collected shortly before the simulation task (school shooting), immediately after, 20 and 45 min after finishing the task for the assessment of cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA), as markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, respectively. Heart rate (variability) was assessed continuously. Officers rated their actual mood right before and 10 min after the simulation. Subjective experience of task stressfulness was assessed minutes after finishing the simulation. Overall, the simulated school shooting did not result in changes of mood, tiredness, or calmness but higher restlessness was experienced during the basic training, which was also experienced as more controllable. Female officers reported to experience more strain and anxiety. Cortisol showed highest levels at the beginning of the training and steadily decreasing values thereafter. In contrast, sAA increased substantially right after the simulation with officers on the front position showing most pronounced changes. Cardiovascular reactivity was highest in officers acting on the side positions while advancing to find the suspect. Furthermore higher self-efficacy as well as, by trend, controllability and

  13. Basal transcription machinery: role in regulation of stress response ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Stress can be broadly defined as any unfavourable condition. A given condition may or may not be stressful to an organism hence the stress response elicited by a given condition is dependent on the organism as well as the stressor. The stresses in general can be categorized into different groups.

  14. Programming of neuroendocrine self in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Vincent; Bodart, Gwennaëlle; Henry, Séverine; Michaux, Hélène; Dardenne, Olivier; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri; Hober, Didier

    2013-01-01

    For centuries after its first description by Galen, the thymus was considered as only a vestigial endocrine organ until the discovery in 1961 by Jacques FAP Miller of its essential role in the development of T (thymo-dependent) lymphocytes. A unique thymus first appeared in cartilaginous fishes some 500 million years ago, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive (acquired) immune system. The thymus may be compared to a small brain or a computer highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was a necessity for the survival of species, given the potent evolutionary pressure imposed by the high risk of autotoxicity inherent in the stochastic generation of the diversity of immune cell receptors that characterize the adaptive immune response. A new paradigm of “neuroendocrine self-peptides” has been proposed, together with the definition of “neuroendocrine self.” Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neuroendocrine signaling, but are processed for presentation by, or in association with, the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. The presentation of self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments that encode variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). At the same time, self-antigen presentation in the thymus generates regulatory T (Treg) cells that can inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells that escaped negative selection in the thymus. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results primarily from a defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. This defect may be genetic

  15. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium ((177)Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with (177)Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites

  16. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium (177Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites of

  17. [The effect of psychic stress on the immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2004-03-24

    Linkage between the central nervous system and the immune system is obvious and is accomplished through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes. This review focuses on the effects of psychic stress in animals and humans on immune system function. The effects of stress depend on its duration, type, and intensity. Generally, mild stress enhances the immune response. The effects of stress also depend on the animal's behavioral profile, genetic background and preexposure to stressful conditions. Prenatal stress modifies the immune response of the offspring. Stress also modifies autoimmune reactions in animals and humans. Knowledge of the mediators and their receptors involved in the functioning of the HPA and SAM axes allows pharmacological intervention to alleviate the harmful effects of stress on the immune system. Our studies revealed a benefit of oral lactoferrin application in reversing stress-induced changes in the humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

  18. Stress, stress?induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H.C.; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T.; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or...

  19. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  20. Physiological Stress Responses in Amphibian Larvae to Multiple Stressors Reveal Marked Anthropogenic Effects even below Lethal Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology. Here we study the physiological stress response in spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) against three levels of a series of natural and anthropogenic stressors common to many aquatic systems: salinity (0, 6, and 9 ppt), herbicide (0, 1, and 2 mg/L acid equivalent of glyphosate), water acidity (pH 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5), predators (absent, native, and invasive), and temperature (21°, 25°, and 29°C). The physiological stress response was assessed examining corticosterone levels, standard metabolic rate, activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative cellular damage in lipids, and immunological status. We found that common stressors substantially altered the physiological state of tadpoles. In particular, salinity and herbicides cause dramatic physiological changes in tadpoles. Moreover, tadpoles reduced corticosterone levels in the presence of natural predators but did not do so against invasive predators, indicating a lack of innate recognition. Corticosterone and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase were the most sensitive parameters to stress in this study. Anthropogenic perturbations of aquatic systems pose serious threats to larval amphibians even at nonlethal concentrations, judging from the marked physiological stress responses generated, and reveal the importance of

  1. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Novais

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  2. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Sweep, F.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.; Koulil, S. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four

  3. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  4. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van de Ven

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age, including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W/XPA(-/- that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80(-/- mouse. Specific (but not all types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage.

  5. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  6. Chilling stress response of postemergent cotton seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRidder, Benjamin P; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J

    2008-11-01

    Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to postemergent 13-day-old cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 100A-glandless) seedlings. Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. For some chilled plants, the soil temperature was maintained at control level. Plant growth, water relations and net photosynthesis (P(n)) were analyzed after one or three chilling cycles and after 3 days of recovery. Three chilling cycles led to lower relative growth rate (RGR) compared with controls during the recovery period, especially for plants with chilled shoots and roots. Treatment differences in RGR were associated with net assimilation rate rather than specific leaf area. Both chilling treatments led to loss of leaf turgor during the night-to-day transition; this effect was greater for plants with chilled compared with warm roots. Chilling-induced water stress was associated with accumulation of the osmolyte glycine betaine to the same extent for both chilling treatments. Inhibition of P(n) during chilling was related to both stomatal and non-stomatal effects. P(n) fully recovered after seedlings were returned to control conditions for 3 days. We conclude that leaf expansion during the night-to-day transition was a significant factor determining the magnitude of the chilling response of postemergent cotton seedlings.

  7. Child Maltreatment and Gender Interactions as Predictors of Differential Neuroendocrine Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Child maltreatment is a potent stressor associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation and increased risk for mental and physical disorders throughout the lifespan. Gender differences in stress reactivity and adult psychopathology prevalence may be related to sex-specific responsivity to stress. The purpose of this study is to examine whether gender interacts with the stress of maltreatment to produce differential neuroendocrine profiles in children. Participants included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income, racially and ethnically diverse children (range: 7.9–10.9 years; M= 9.42 years; 52% male) who attended a summer research day camp. Saliva was collected 3 times across the day for 5 days for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) analysis. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the type, severity, chronicity, onset, and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Significant interactions between gender and maltreatment pervasiveness predicted diurnal cortisol, DHEA, and cortisol/DHEA ratio levels. Elevated daily cortisol levels were reported for boys compared to girls in the group with more pervasive maltreatment. Boys with less pervasive maltreatment had lower DHEA and higher cortisol/DHEA ratio levels than girls with similar experiences, nonmaltreated boys, and boys with more pervasive maltreatment. Further results are consistent with down-regulation of cortisol production in girls with more pervasive maltreatment and girls who experienced maltreatment that was early onset and not recent. The effectiveness of interventions for maltreated children may be improved with greater knowledge of how maltreatment differentially affects neuroendocrine regulation by gender. PMID:23333253

  8. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenga, KJ; Sinha, R.; Small, DM

    2012-01-01

    Objective Stress is associated with increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food, and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to impact amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. Design Fourteen overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as t...

  10. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4

  11. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  12. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and

  13. Proteomic analysis of cold stress responses in tobacco seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...

  14. Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bzorek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy.

  15. Induction of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE in a Murine Model of a Human Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yin; Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Myschetzky, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new mode of internally targeted radiotherapy currently in clinical trials. In PRRT, ionizing radioisotopes conjugated to somatostatin analogues are targeted to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) via somatostatin receptors. Despite promising...... clinical results, very little is known about the mechanism of tumor control. By using NCI-H727 cells in an in vivo murine xenograft model of human NETs, we showed that 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT led to increased infiltration of CD86+ antigen presenting cells into tumor tissue. We also found that following...... treatment with PRRT, there was significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD49b+/FasL+ NK cells potentially capable of tumor killing. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory effects of PRRT will be essential in improving treatment efficacy....

  16. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-07-04

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed.

  17. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, D; Rieu, I.; Mariani, C.; van Dam, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in...

  18. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  19. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  20. Stress in university students and cardiovascular response to academic stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Teresa; Silva, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Iolanda; Gomes, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: University students are frequently exposed to events that can cause stress and anxiety, producing elevated cardiovascular responses. Repeated exposure to academic stress has implications to students’ success and well-being and may contribute to the development of long-term health problems. Objective: To identify stress levels and coping strategies in university students and assess the impact of stress experience in heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: 17 university students, 1...

  1. Plant behaviour under combined stress: tomato responses to combined salinity and pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Kissoudis, Christos; Yan, Zhe; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2017-12-13

    Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited. In the last few years, we studied powdery mildew resistance under salt stress conditions in the model crop plant tomato with the aim to understand the requirements to achieve plant resilience to a wider array of combined abiotic and biotic stress combinations. We uncovered specific responses of tomato plants to combined salinity-pathogen stress, which varied with salinity intensity and plant resistance genes. Moreover, hormones, with their complex regulation and cross-talk, were shown to play a key role in the adaption of tomato plants to the combined stress. In this review, we attempt to understand the complexity of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations, with a focus on tomato responses (genetic control and cross talk of signaling pathways) to combined salinity and pathogen stresses. Further, we provide recommendations on how to design novel strategies for breeding crops with a sustained performance under diverse environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenga, K J; Sinha, R; Small, D M

    2013-02-01

    Stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to affect amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. A total of 14 overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven, autobiographical, guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are affected by stress. In contrast, whereas the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress-related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex(OFC). These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and OFC as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.

  3. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  4. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the response of the majority of the genes cannot be predicted from single stress experiments and only a small fraction of the genes have potential antagonistic responses, indicating that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and therefore may be bred to endure...

  6. Early social stress in female guinea pigs induces a masculinization of adult behavior and corresponding changes in brain and neuroendocrine function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Sylvia; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Swaab, Dick F.; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate, in guinea pigs, the effects of pre- and early postnatal social stress on the functioning of hormonal-, autonomic-, behavioral-, and limbic-brain systems. Dams had either lived in groups with a constant composition (i.e. stable social environment) or in

  7. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yam, K.Y.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Schmidt, M.V.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the

  8. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  9. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, M.; Korf, J.; Kema, I. P.; Hartman, C.; van der Pompe, G.; Minderaa, R. B.; Ormel, J.; den Boer, J. A.

    Highly prevalent stress-related disorders such as major depression ( MD) are characterised by a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system. Although heritability for these disorders is high, the role of genes in the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we show that polymorphic

  10. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  11. Disrupted glucocorticoid--Immune interactions during stress response in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Shi, Qiaoyun; Kodi, Priyadurga; Savransky, Anya; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Nugent, Katie L; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and immune pathways typically interact dynamically to optimize adaptation to stressful environmental challenges. We tested the hypothesis that a dysfunctional glucocorticoid-immune relationship contributes to abnormal stress response in schizophrenia. Saliva samples from 34 individuals with schizophrenia (20 male, 14 female) and 40 healthy controls (20 male, 20 female) were collected prior to and at 3 time points following completion of a computerized psychological challenge meant to be frustrating. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and their response to the challenge were examined. Both cortisol and IL-6 significantly increased in response to stress in the combined sample (both pschizophrenia patients (r=.379, p=.027). The trends were significantly different (Z=3.7, p=.0002). This stress paradigm induces a rise in both cortisol and IL-6. In healthy controls, a more robust acute cortisol response was associated with a steeper decline of IL-6 levels following stress, corresponding to the expected anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. Patients exhibited the opposite relationship, suggesting an inability to down-regulate inflammatory responses to psychological stress in schizophrenia; or even a paradoxical increase of IL-6 response. This finding may partially underlie abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways previously found in the illness, implicating dysregulated stress response in the chronic inflammatory state in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroendocrine effects of cytokines in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, C

    1993-01-01

    The necessity ot maintain and/or restore homeostasis is an essential feature of mammals. This requires complex interactions between body cells, such as those from the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and in particular implies that the occurrence of immune activation be conveyed to the brain. It is now widely recognized that following infection, injury or inflammation, some immune cells (particularly macrophages) produce polypeptides called cytokines, interleukins or lymphokines /48/. These proteins provide the basis for intercellular communication between leukocytes (hence the name "interleukins") and mediate the immunoinflammatory responses (in particular T and B lymphocyte proliferation) /4,177/. In addition, interleukins (IL) can enter the general circulation and reach cells of the neuroendocrine axes, a phenomenon which represents one arm of the bidirectional communication links between the immune and the endocrine systems /25/. The early events which take place after presentation of an antigen (the so-called "acute-phase response" /89/) include metabolic and endocrine changes, such as changes in the circulating levels of insulin, TSH, GH, LH and ACTH, as well as adrenal and gonadal steroids /7,14/. This article reviews our present state of knowledge with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes of the rodent in response to interleukins.

  13. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activ...

  14. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activation ...

  15. Interactions between cytokinin signalling and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwack, Paul J; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms for sensing and responding to sub-optimal environmental conditions. Abiotic stresses caused by these conditions trigger a wide range of local and long-distance signals which must be co-ordinated and integrated into whole-plant processes, such as development, in order for the plant to respond properly and survive. Several hormones function as key regulators of stress tolerance, connecting local stimuli to systemic responses. Cytokinin is a hormone well known for its role in numerous aspects of growth and development, although abundant evidence also indicates that cytokinin functions in stress responses as well. At present, a full understanding of the effects of cytokinin on plant resistance to stress is lacking, possibly as a result of the complex interactions between cytokinin and stress signalling. Current knowledge of the physiological relationship between cytokinin and abiotic stress, based on measurements of cytokinin levels under stress conditions and the effects of cytokinin treatment on stress tolerance, has been examined here. A pattern of transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes by cytokinin in different plant species has also been identified. In addition, research regarding the role of specific cytokinin signalling components in a variety of stress responses is presented. We discuss what this body of research collectively implies with regard to cross-talk between cytokinin and abiotic stress tolerance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. DUAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MANAGING STRESS, EUSTRESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    out and burnout. Suggestions on what both individuals and organizations can do to manage them are given. The paper recommends continual development of one's awareness as one of the most important general stress-management ...

  17. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-09-23

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds.

  18. Molecular mechanisms in plant abiotic stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Poltronieri Palmiro; Bonsegna Stefania; De Domenico Stefania; Santino Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Improved crop varieties are needed to sustain the food supply, to fight climate changes, water scarcity, temperature increase and a high variability of rainfalls. Variability of drought and increase in soil salinity have negative effects on plant growth and abiotic stresses seriously threaten sustainable agricultural production. To overcome the influence of abiotic stresses, new tolerant plant varieties and breeding techniques using assisted selection are sought. A deep understanding of the m...

  19. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human

  20. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the ...

  1. Regulation of plant stress response by dehydration responsive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... salicylic acid, jasmonate acid, ethylene and gibberellic acid. In addition, this review summarized the progress of the genetic engineering of DREB transcription factors in the main crops and model plants. Keywords: Abscisic acid, biotic stress, DREB transcription factor, environmental stress, signaling pathway, transgenic ...

  2. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Achim; Kilian, Joachim; Mohrholz, Anne; Ladwig, Friederike; Peschke, Florian; Dautel, Rebecca; Harter, Klaus; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt) can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR), e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner. PMID:23567274

  3. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  4. Compensatory activation of Akt in response to mTOR and Raf inhibitors - a rationale for dual-targeted therapy approaches in neuroendocrine tumor disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Kathrin; Rüden, Janina von; Brand, Stephan; Göke, Burkhard; Lichtl, Jennifer; Spöttl, Gerald; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have established a link between aberrant PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling and neuroendocrine tumor disease. In this study, we comparatively investigate the antitumor potential of novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting mTOR (RAD001), mTOR/PI(3)K (NVP-BEZ235) and Raf (Raf265) on human NET cell lines of heterogeneous origin. All inhibitors induced potent antitumor effects which involved the induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest. However, the dual mTOR/PI(3)K inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was more efficient compared to the single mTOR inhibitor RAD001. Consistently, NVP-BEZ235 prevented the negative feedback activation of Akt as observed after treatment with RAD001. Raf265 inhibited Erk1/2 phosphorylation but strongly induced Akt phosphorylation and VEGF secretion, suggesting the existence of a compensatory feedback loop on PI3K-Akt signaling. Finally, combined treatment with RAD001 or NVP-BEZ235 and Raf265 was more efficient than single treatment with either kinase inhibitor. Together, our data provide a rationale for dual targeting of PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling in NET disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments.

  6. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  7. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle.

  8. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L., which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals.

  9. Towards a unified model of neuroendocrine-immune interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, N

    2001-08-01

    Although the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulating potential, studies examining the relationship between stress, immunity and infection have, until recently, largely been the preserve of behavioural psychologists. Over the last decade, however, immunologists have begun to increasingly appreciate that neuroendocrine-immune interactions hold the key to understanding the complex behaviour of the immune system in vivo. The nervous, endocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared messenger molecules variously called neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones. Their classification as neurotransmitters, cytokines or hormones is more serendipity than a true reflection of their sphere of influence. Rather than these systems being discrete entities we would propose that they constitute, in reality, a single higher-order entity. This paper reviews current knowledge of neuroendocrine-immune interaction and uses the example of T-cell subset differentiation to show the previously under-appreciated importance of neuroendocrine influences in the regulation of immune function and, in particular, Th1/Th2 balance and diurnal variation there of.

  10. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  11. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  12. Hypothalamic mechanisms mediating inhibition of prolactin secretion following stress in early pregnant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Victoria Joanne

    2012-01-01

    In early pregnancy prolonged exposure to stress is known to have profound adverse effects on reproduction and is associated with suppressed progesterone secretion and consequent disturbance of the pregnancy-protective cytokine milieu, thus threatening early pregnancy maintenance. Maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress in early pregnancy are poorly understood. Therefore, we designed experiments to (1) study the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress in...

  13. The Brain on Stress: Toward an Integrative Approach to Brain, Body and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stress hormone receptors in the hippocampal formation has fostered research showing that the brain, including its higher cognitive centers, is the key organ of the response to stressors, both in terms of perception of what is stressful and for its ability to determine the consequences of stress for both brain and body via the neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems. These systems are, in turn, responsible for either successful adaptation or pathophysiology due...

  14. Prenatal Cortisol Exposure Predicts Infant Cortisol Response to Acute Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2012-01-01

    Summary Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure. PMID:22315044

  15. Prenatal stress alters cardiovascular responses in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igosheva, N; Klimova, O; Anishchenko, T; Glover, V

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors in early life are clearly established risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life. Most studies have focused on nutritional programming and analysed basal cardiovascular parameters rather than responses. In the present study we have investigated whether prenatal stress has long-term effects on cardiovascular responses in adult offspring. Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to stress three times daily from day 15 to day 21 of gestation. Litters from stressed and control females were cross-fostered at birth to control for mothering effects. When the offspring were 6 months old, blood pressure was measured in the conscious rats through implanted catheters at rest, during restraint stress and during recovery. Basal haemodynamic parameters were similar in the different groups but the pattern of cardiovascular responses during stress and recovery differed markedly between prenatally stressed (PS) and control animals. PS rats had higher and longer-lasting systolic arterial pressure elevations to restraint stress than control animals. They also showed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure values during the recovery phase. PS rats demonstrated a greater increase in blood pressure variability compared with control animals during exposure to restraint stress, and showed more prolonged heart rate responses to acute stress and delayed recovery than controls. There was no effect of prenatal stress on baroreflex regulation of heart rate. PS females showed a greater increase in systolic arterial pressure and blood pressure variability and delayed heart rate recovery following return to the home cage then did PS males. These findings demonstrate for the first time that prenatal stress can induce long-term, sex-related changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to subsequent stress. PMID:15034122

  16. Expression of p53 protein in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs) are aggressive, rapidly proliferating tumors. Therapeutic response to current chemotherapy regimens is usually short lasting. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and potential clinical importance of immunoreac...

  17. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Brennan, Caroline H; Vinson, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio), the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA), as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms. The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  18. Quantification of Bacillus cereus stress responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial stability and safety of minimally processed foods is controlled by a deliberate combination of preservation hurdles. However, this preservation strategy is challenged by the ability of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens to adapt to stressing environments providing cell

  19. Biochemical Measurements of the Human Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Seid, 1978; Melton, Hoffman, & Delafield, 1969; Melton. McKenzie, Kellin, Hoffmann, & Saldivar , 1975; and Sarviharju, Hluikk, Jouppila, & Kaerki, 1971...Melton, C. E. McKenzie. J. M., Kellin, J. R., Hoffmann, S. U., & Saldivar , J. T. Effect of a general aviation trainer on the stress of flight training

  20. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Le Gall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  1. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to detect changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil palm. Under stress conditions, changes in plant growth, dry matter allocation, relative ...

  2. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls)

  3. Sources of Stress and Coping Responses of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mates, Donna; Allison, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Used focus group interviews to identify major sources of stress and coping resources of grade 10 students (n=23). Relationships with parents and family, work, and lack of money were found to be important sources of stress. Major coping responses included substance use and diversionary activities. Examined differences between academic streams in…

  4. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  5. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different stresses include nutrient deficiency, pathogen attack, exposure to toxic chemicals etc. Transcriptomic studies have been mainly applied to only a few plant species including the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have provided valuable insights into the genetic networks of plant stress responses.

  6. Basal transcription machinery: role in regulation of stress response ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... ... logic behind the suggestion that like in prokaryotes, eukaryotes also have a common functional unit in the transcription machinery through which the stress specific transcription factors regulate rapid and highly controlled induction of gene expression associated with generalized stress response and point ...

  7. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... The research was conducted to detect changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil palm. Under stress conditions, changes in plant growth, dry.

  8. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  9. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase participate in the immunoendocrine responses of hypothermal stressed white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Ka, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-12-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) plays a critical role in catecholamine (CA) synthesis of neuroendocrine regulatory network, and is suggested to be involved in the immunoendocrine responses of invertebrate against bacterial challenge. DBH has been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on its potential function was conducted after hypothermal stress, pharmaceutical inhibition and gene silencing in the present study. Cloned DBH L. vannamei (LvDBH), belonging to the Copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenases, was characterized by a DOMON domain, a Cu2_monooxygen domain and three glycosylation sites, and its expression was abundant in thoracic ganglia and haemocytes determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The effects of hypothermal stress showed that LvDBH expression in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas as well as the DBH contents in haemocytes and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in haemolymph are obviously up-regulated. L. vannamei receiving disulfiram for 30-120 min revealed the inhibition of DBH and NE contents in haemocytes and haemolymph respectively, but high level of DA in haemolymph was noticed. Besides, a significant decrease of LvDBH expression in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas were also observed. Subsequently, LvDBH expression was successfully silenced in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas of shrimp that received LvDBH-dsRNA for 3 days, and meanwhile, a decrease of DBH contents in haemocytes accompanied by decreased levels of NE and DA in haemolymph were also observed. These results indicate that LvDBH possesses the functional domains responsible for CAs synthesis, and therefore, inhibiting DBH contents in haemocytes by disulfiram and by LvDBH-dsRNA resulted in the impaired synthesis of NE from DA in haemolymph. These also suggest that the increased release of DA and NE in haemolymph for potential modulation of physiological or immunological responses

  10. Autonomic stress responses in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrusselt, Neel; Santermans, Lien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a difference in stress response between typically developing adolescents and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during different tasks.Important factors that have to be taken into account are anxiety, temperament and sex.

  11. The surgical stress response: should it be prevented?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    Postoperative complications such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary infection, thromboembolism and fatigue are probably related to increased demands, hypermetabolism, catabolism and other physiologic changes included in the global "surgical stress response." Strategies have been developed to sup...

  12. Autonomic stress responses in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrusselt, Neel; Santermans, Lien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a difference in stress response between typically developing adolescents and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during different tasks. Important factors that have to be taken into account are anxiety, temperament and sex.

  13. Vascular Mechanobiology Endothelial Cell Responses to Fluid Shear Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ando, Joji; Yamamoto, Kimiko

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessel walls respond to shear stress, a fluid mechanical force generated by flowing blood, and the EC responses play an important role in the homeostasis of the circulatory system...

  14. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese quail. The Japanese quail provides an excellent avian model for testing EDCs because this species has well-characterized reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. Considerable research has been conducted in quail in which the effects of embryonic steroid exposure have been studied relative to reproductive behavior. Moreover, developmental processes have been studied extensively and include investigations of the reproductive axis, thyroid system, and stress and immune responses. We have conducted a number of studies, which have considered long-term neuroendocrine consequences as well as behavioral responses to steroids. Some of these studies have specifically tested the effects of embryonic steroid exposure on later reproductive function in a multigenerational context. A multigenerational exposure provides a basis for understanding potential exposure scenarios in the field. In addition, potential routes of exposure to EDCs for avian species are being considered, as well as differential effects due to stage of the life cycle at exposure to an EDC. The studies in our laboratory have used both diet and egg injection as modes of exposure for Japanese quail. In this way, birds were exposed to a specific dose of an EDC at a selected stage in development by injection. Alternatively, dietary exposure appears to be a primary route of exposure; therefore experimental exposure through the diet mimics potential field situations. Thus, experiments should consider a number of aspects of exposure when attempting to replicate field exposures to EDCs.

  15. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  16. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Effect of Pet Dogs on Children's Perceived Stress and Cortisol Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A; Liu, Jingwen; Hall, Nathan J; Hadad, Natalie A; Wynne, Clive D L; Bhatt, Samarth S

    2017-05-01

    The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7-12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol. Results indicated that in the alone (no social support) condition, children showed the expected rise for both perceived stress and cortisol response to stress. Pet dog presence significantly buffered the perceived stress response in comparison to children in the alone and parent present conditions. No main condition effect was observed for cortisol; however, for children experiencing the stressor with their pet present, lower cortisol response to stress was associated with more child-initiated petting and less dog proximity-seeking behavior. The results support the notion that pet dogs can provide socio-emotional benefits for children via stress buffering.

  18. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  20. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  1. Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Human Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach based on the second law of thermodynamics is developed to investigate the psychophysiology and quantify human stress level. Two types of stresses (thermal and mental) are examined. A Unified Stress Response Theory (USRT) is developed under the new proposed field of study called Engineering Psychophysiology. The USRT is used to investigate both thermal and mental stresses from a holistic (human body as a whole) and thermodynamic viewpoint. The original concepts and definitions are established as postulates which form the basis for thermodynamic approach to quantify human stress level. An Objective Thermal Stress Index (OTSI) is developed by applying the second law of thermodynamics to the human thermal system to quantify thermal stress or dis- comfort in the human body. The human thermal model based on finite element method is implemented. It is utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal stress responses under different environmental conditions. An innovative hybrid technique is developed to analyze human thermal behavior based on series of human-environment interaction simulations. Continuous monitoring of thermal stress is demonstrated with the help of OTSI. It is well established that the human thermal system obeys the second law of thermodynamics. Further, the OTSI is validated against the experimental data. Regarding mental stress, an Objective Mental Stress Index (OMSI) is developed by applying the Maxwell relations of thermodynamics to the combined thermal and cardiovascular system in the human body. The OMSI is utilized to demonstrate the technique of monitoring mental stress continuously and is validated with the help of series of experimental studies. Although the OMSI indicates the level of mental stress, it provides a strong thermodynamic and mathematical relationship between activities of thermal and cardiovascular systems of the human body.

  2. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  3. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy eFancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing music in public is widely recognised as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects glucocorticoid responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance.

  4. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  6. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  7. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sarika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a constant factor in today′s fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  8. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  9. Genes Acting on Transcriptional Control during Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glacy Jaqueline da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are the major cause of yield loss in crops around the world. Greater genetic gains are possible by combining the classical genetic improvement with advanced molecular biology techniques. The understanding of mechanisms triggered by plants to meet conditions of stress is of fundamental importance for the elucidation of these processes. Current genetically modified crops help to mitigate the effects of these stresses, increasing genetic gains in order to supply the agricultural market and the demand for better quality food throughout the world. To obtain safe genetic modified organisms for planting and consumption, a thorough grasp of the routes and genes that act in response to these stresses is necessary. This work was developed in order to collect important information about essential TF gene families for transcriptional control under abiotic stress responses.

  10. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-08-13

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  14. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response and diabetic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folds and modifies proteins; however, during conditions of cellular stress, unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR, also referred to as the ER stress response, activates three distinct signaling cascades that are designed to globally reduce transcription and translation. The three major arms of the mammalian UPR include 1) protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), 2) inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1α), and 3) activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) pathways. The PERK pathway rapidly attenuates protein translation, whereas the ATF6 and IRE1α cascades transcriptionally upregulate ER chaperone genes that promote proper folding and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of proteins. This integrated response in turn allows the folding machinery of the ER to catch up with the backlog of unfolded proteins. The ER stress response plays a role in a number of pathophysiological processes, including pancreatic β-cell failure and apoptosis. The goals of the current review are to familiarize investigators with cellular and tissue activation of this response in the rodent and human diabetic kidney. Additionally, we will review therapeutic modulators of the ER stress response and discuss their efficacy in models of diabetic kidney disease. The ER stress response has both protective and deleterious features. A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulated during this process in a cell- and disease-specific manner could reveal novel therapeutic strategies in chronic renal diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. PMID:21345978

  15. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  16. The yeast environmental stress response regulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Shor

    Full Text Available Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors.

  17. the response of plants to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rys Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    a wider spectrum of compounds scattering the radiation in the leaves tested, and their subsequent comparative analysis. The impact of drought on metabolism of soybean was clearly visible on spectra and confirmed using cluster analysis. The technical problem of the influence of leaf water content on measurements, which appeared in studies, will be discussed. To conclude, FT-Raman spectroscopy may be a good complement to other non-invasive methods, e.g., fluorescent methods, in assessing the stress-induced damage of crops.

  18. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Stressed out? Associations between perceived and physiological stress responses in adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Bosch, Nienke M.; Bouma, Esther M. C.; Van Roon, Arie M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Riese, Harriette

    Studies regarding the interrelation of perceived and physiological stress indices have shown diverging results. Using a population sample of adolescents (N=715, 50.9% girls, mean age 16.11 years, SD=0.59), we tested three hypotheses: (1) perceived responses during social stress covary with

  20. Integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moenner, Michel; Pluquet, Olivier; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Chevet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a major site of cellular homeostasis regulation, particularly in the unfolded protein response, which is being found to play a major role in cancer and many other diseases...

  1. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Functional techniques are playing a pivotal role in the imaging of cancer today. Our aim was to compare, on a head-to-head basis, 3 functional imaging techniques in patients with histologically verified neuroendocrine tumors: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In......-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide, scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and (18)F-FDG PET. METHODS: Ninety-six prospectively enrolled patients with neuroendocrine tumors underwent SRS, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET on average within 40 d. The functional images were fused with low......-positive, of which 3 were also (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy-positive, giving a combined overall sensitivity of 96%. SRS also exceeded (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET based on the number of lesions detected (393, 185, and 225, respectively) and tumor subtypes. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was superior to (18)F...

  2. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-08-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective

  3. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...

  4. The Stress Response of Escherichia coli under Microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S.; Matin, A.

    At the onset of adverse environmental conditions, bacteria induce a controlled stress response to enable survival. Escherichia coli induces stress-specific reactions in response to a variety of environmental strains. A family of proteins termed sigma (s) factors is pivotal to the regulation of stress responses in bacteria. In particular Sigma S (ss) regulates several stress responses in E. coli and serves as an important global stress regulatory protein. Under optimal growth conditions, levels of ss are maintained at low cellular concentrations primarily via a proteolytic regulatory mechanism. At the onset of stress, ss levels increase due to increased stability of the molecule, facilitating transcriptional initiation and up regulation of specific stress related proteins. Concentrations of ss can therefore be indicative of cellular stress levels. Recent work by Kendrick et al demonstrated that Salmonella species grown under conditions of simulated microgravity display increased virulence - a stress-related phenotype. Using E. coli as a model system we aim to investigate the stress response elicited by the organism under conditions of simulated microgravity (SMG). SMG is generated in specially constructed rotary cell culture systems termed HARVs (High Aspect Ratio Vessels- Synthecon Inc.). By rotating at constant velocity around a vertical axis an environment is produced in which the gravitational vectors are randomized over the surface of the cell, resulting in an overall-time-averaged gravitational vector of 10-2 x g (4). E. coli cultures grown in HARVs under conditions of normal gravity (NG) and SMG repeatedly display slower growth kinetics under SMG. Western analysis of cells at exponential and stationary phase of growth from both cultures reveal similar levels of ss exist in exponential phase under both SMG and NG conditions. However, during stationary phase, levels of ss are at least 2-fold higher under conditions of SMG as compared to NG. Translational fusion

  5. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Sévin

    Full Text Available Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species' taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance.

  7. Role of chromatin in water stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wagner, Doris

    2014-06-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to environmental stresses throughout their life. They have developed survival strategies such as developmental and morphological adaptations, as well as physiological responses, to protect themselves from adverse environments. In addition, stress sensing triggers large-scale transcriptional reprogramming directed at minimizing the deleterious effect of water stress on plant cells. Here, we review recent findings that reveal a role of chromatin in water stress responses. In addition, we discuss data in support of the idea that chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may be direct targets of stress signalling pathways. Modulation of chromatin regulator activity by these signaling pathways may be critical in minimizing potential trade-offs between growth and stress responses. Alterations in the chromatin organization and/or in the activity of chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may furthermore contribute to stress memory. Mechanistic insight into these phenomena derived from studies in model plant systems should allow future engineering of broadly drought-tolerant crop plants that do not incur unnecessary losses in yield or growth. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The auditory startle response in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, S. E.; Olff, M.; Bour, L. J.; Veelo, D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Bruggen, G.; de Vries, G. J.; Raabe, S.; Cupido, C.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are considered to have excessive EMG responses in the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle and excessive autonomic responses to startling stimuli. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the pattern of the generalized auditory startle reflex

  9. Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-27

    Oct 27, 2004 ... The three Hsfs represent examples of striking functional diversification specialized for the three phases of the heat stress (hs) response (triggering, maintenance and recovery). This is best illustrated for the tomato Hsf system: HsfA1a is the master regulator responsible for hs-induced gene expression ...

  10. Chronic stress decreases cerebrovascular responses during rat hindlimb electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohee eLee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After three weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2, was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain.

  11. The effect of music on the human stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Myriam V; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2013-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music ('Miserere', Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the beneficial effects of music on the human body.

  12. The effect of music on the human stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam V Thoma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor. It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. METHODS: Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1 relaxing music ('Miserere', Allegri (RM, 2 sound of rippling water (SW, and 3 rest without acoustic stimulation (R. Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. RESULTS: The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025 to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026 baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery, and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  13. The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  14. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  15. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of marine plankton to pollutant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Morten

    The thesis analyses effects of pollutants on natural plankton communities on the basis of three independent mesocosm experiments and a series of laboratory experiments performed in Denmark and Greenland. The work focus on integrating functional and structural measures of community responses to re...... with examples of work done on natural communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Abiotic conditions such as UV light and nutrient concentrations are shown to influence pollutant effects.......The thesis analyses effects of pollutants on natural plankton communities on the basis of three independent mesocosm experiments and a series of laboratory experiments performed in Denmark and Greenland. The work focus on integrating functional and structural measures of community responses...

  17. Using Arabidopsis Protoplasts to Study Cellular Responses to Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confraria, Ana; Baena-González, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts can be readily isolated and transfected in order to transiently express proteins of interest. As freshly isolated mesophyll protoplasts maintain essentially the same physiological characteristics of whole leaves, this cell-based transient expression system can be used to molecularly dissect the responses to various stress conditions. The response of stress-responsive promoters to specific stimuli can be accessed via reporter gene assays. Additionally, reporter systems can be easily engineered to address other levels of regulation, such as transcript and/or protein stability. Here we present a detailed protocol for using the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system to study responses to environmental stress, including preparation of reporter and effector constructs, large scale DNA purification, protoplast isolation, transfection, treatment, and quantification of luciferase-based reporter gene activities.

  18. Stress and Memory: A Selective Review on Recent Developments in the Understanding of Stress Hormone Effects on Memory and Their Clinical Relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, O.T.; Atsak, P.; Quervain, D.J. de; Roozendaal, B.; Wingenfeld, K.

    2016-01-01

    Stress causes a neuroendocrine response cascade, leading to the release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs influence learning and memory by acting on mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Typically, GCs enhance the consolidation of memory processing at the same time

  19. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  20. Using Thermodynamic Degradation Approach to Quantify Human Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Boregowda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic degradation approach to model human stress response. Finger skin temperature was used as an indicator of stress response to a stressor (or stressful event followed by a recovery. The entropy change (ΔS is calculated using heat transfer (δQ from the peripheral skin and finger skin temperature (Tf. It was hypothesized that the human stress response, as evidenced by finger skin temperature change, is a quasi-static process. The entropy approach is demonstrated using data from a medical school experimental study. The finger skin temperature was measured under three conditions (relaxation, stressor task, and recovery during the physiological test profile. The entropy change (ΔS is postulated as entropy damage (ΔSD, which is a metric for measuring the aging or system degradation. The aging-ratio, Aaging-ratio, that is, the ratio of entropy change due to stressor to that of recovery, is presented for both male and female subjects. The statistical t-tests demonstrate statistical significance in human stress response to stressor and recovery states within and between male and female subjects. This novel approach could be valuable to medical researchers, particularly in the field of occupational health to evaluate human exposure to stressful environments.

  1. Towards establishment of a rice stress response interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Seo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa is a staple food for more than half the world and a model for studies of monocotyledonous species, which include cereal crops and candidate bioenergy grasses. A major limitation of crop production is imposed by a suite of abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in 30%-60% yield losses globally each year. To elucidate stress response signaling networks, we constructed an interactome of 100 proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays around key regulators of the rice biotic and abiotic stress responses. We validated the interactome using protein-protein interaction (PPI assays, co-expression of transcripts, and phenotypic analyses. Using this interactome-guided prediction and phenotype validation, we identified ten novel regulators of stress tolerance, including two from protein classes not previously known to function in stress responses. Several lines of evidence support cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress responses. The combination of focused interactome and systems analyses described here represents significant progress toward elucidating the molecular basis of traits of agronomic importance.

  2. Towards establishment of a rice stress response interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Su; Chern, Mawsheng; Bartley, Laura E; Han, Muho; Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Insuk; Walia, Harkamal; Richter, Todd; Xu, Xia; Cao, Peijian; Bai, Wei; Ramanan, Rajeshwari; Amonpant, Fawn; Arul, Loganathan; Canlas, Patrick E; Ruan, Randy; Park, Chang-Jin; Chen, Xuewei; Hwang, Sohyun; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela C

    2011-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half the world and a model for studies of monocotyledonous species, which include cereal crops and candidate bioenergy grasses. A major limitation of crop production is imposed by a suite of abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in 30%-60% yield losses globally each year. To elucidate stress response signaling networks, we constructed an interactome of 100 proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays around key regulators of the rice biotic and abiotic stress responses. We validated the interactome using protein-protein interaction (PPI) assays, co-expression of transcripts, and phenotypic analyses. Using this interactome-guided prediction and phenotype validation, we identified ten novel regulators of stress tolerance, including two from protein classes not previously known to function in stress responses. Several lines of evidence support cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress responses. The combination of focused interactome and systems analyses described here represents significant progress toward elucidating the molecular basis of traits of agronomic importance.

  3. Effects of d-amphetamine upon psychosocial stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. [Neuroendocrine factors in hypertension during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Minodora; Ghiciuc, Cristina-Mihaela; Tarţău, Liliana; Lupuşoru, Cătălina-Elena

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy induced hypertension is a condition of high blood pressure during early and mid-pregnancy. This type of hypertension is much like the chronic type, but it occurs only when the woman is pregnant and resolves completely after delivery. to evaluate some stress hormones in both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. The study investigated the correlation between pregnancy induced hypertension and different immune/inflammatory and other markers. This exploratory investigation was performed on pregnant women diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension, admitted to the lasi Cuza Voda Hospital. The psychometric assessment was performed by using the daily stress test, daily hassle scale, blood pressure measurements, and determination of anthropometrical parameters. Some parameters, such as the neuroendocrine and immune/inflammatory ones, and specific parameters for pregnancy hypertension were determined. Our study revealed that blood pressure values presented significant differences between systolic, but not diastolic blood pressure values (p < 0.05). In 75% of subjects blood cortisol levels were not changed. Daily stress level assessment proved that low potential factors and an annoying environment had a high influence on both normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertensive women also presented leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The research results showed that plasma cortisol level was higher in hypertensive pregnant women, compared with normotensives.

  6. Bacillus cereus responses to acid stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-01-01

    Coping with acid environments is one of the prerequisites for the soil saprophytic and human pathogenic lifestyle of Bacillus cereus. This minireview highlights novel insights in the responses displayed by vegetative cells and germinating spores of B. cereus upon exposure to low pH as well as

  7. [The effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Yeong

    2009-06-01

    This study was done to examine the effects of aromatherapy on stress and stress responses in adolescents. A two-group cross-over design was used for this study. The experimental treatment was aroma essential oil inhalation and the placebo treatment was carrier oil inhalation using a necklace. The sample included 36 female high school students. Fisher's exact test, t-test, and paired t-test using SPSS/WIN program were used to analyze the data. Stress levels were significantly lower when the students received the aroma treatment compared to when they received the placebo treatment. The stress responses except salivary IgA levels were significantly lower when the students received the aroma treatment. Aroma inhalation could be a very effective stress management method for high school students. Therefore, it is recommended that this program be used in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for high school students.

  8. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  9. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Adachi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  10. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea W.U. Busch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.

  11. Cloning of opioid receptors in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and their involvement in regulation of stress and immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadzinska, M.K.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In mammals opiate alkaloids and endogenous opioid peptides exert their physiological and pharmacological actions through opioid receptors (MOR, DOR and KOR) expressed not only on neuroendocrine cells but also on leukocytes. Therefore, opioids can modulate the immune response. We cloned and sequenced

  12. Neuroendocrine and immune characteristics of aging in avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A; Lavoie, E

    2007-01-01

    Avian species show a remarkable diversity in lifespan. The differing lifespan patterns are found across a number of birds, in spite of higher body temperature and apparent increased metabolic rate. These characteristics make study of age-related changes of great interest, especially for understanding the biology of aging associated with surprisingly long lifespan in some birds. Our studies have focused on a short-lived avian model, the Japanese quail in order to describe reproductive aging and the neuroendocrine characteristics leading to reproductive senescence. Biomarkers of aging used in mammalian species include telomere length, oxidative damage, and selected metabolic indicators. These markers provide confirming evidence that the long-lived birds appear to age more slowly. A corollary area of interest is that of immune function and aging. Immune responses have been studied in selected wild birds and there has been a range of studies that have considered the effects of stress in wild and domestic species. Our laboratory studies have specifically tested response to immune challenge relative to aging in the quail model and these studies indicate that there is an age-related change in the qualitative aspects of the response. However, there are also intriguing differences in the ability of the aging quail to respond that differ from mammalian data. Finally, another approach to understanding aging is to attempt to develop or test strategies that may extend lifespan and presumably health. One area of great interest has been to consider the effect of calorie restriction, which is a treatment shown to extend lifespan in a variety of species. This approach is routinely used in domestic poultry as a means for extending reproductive function and enhancing health. Our data indicate that moderate calorie restriction has beneficial effects, and that physiological and endocrine responses reflect these benefits. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chloroplast retrograde regulation of heat stress responses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Zhen eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the primary susceptible targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. In recent years several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS and organellar gene expression (OGE in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation and cellular coordination in plants.

  15. Cortico-amygdala circuits: role in the conditioned stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Sabina

    2005-12-01

    The amygdala plays a crucial role in the orchestration and modulation of the organism response to aversive, stressful events. This response could be conceived as the result of two interdependent components. The first is represented by sets of visceral and motor responses aimed at helping the organism to cope with the present event. The second is the acquisition and modulation of memories relative to the stressful stimulus and its context. This latter component contributes to the instatement of conditioned stress responses that are essential to the capability of the organism to predict future exposures to similar stimuli in order to avoid them or counteract them effectively. In the amygdala, these two components become fully integrated. Massive networks link the amygdala to the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. These networks convey visceral, humoral and nociceptive information to the amygdala and mediate its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well on autonomic and motor centers. On the other hand, interactions between the amygdala and interconnected cortical networks play a crucial role in acquisition, consolidation and extinction of learning relative to the stressful stimulus. Within the scope of this review, current evidence relative to the interaction between the amygdala and cortical networks will be considered in relationship to the integration of the conditioned response to stress.

  16. Proteomics analysis of alfalfa response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    Full Text Available The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin seedlings were exposed to 25 °C (control and 40 °C (heat stress in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa.

  17. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arvind D.; Lamb, Christopher J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Protoplasts derived from cell suspensions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) responded to treatment with fungal elicitor (FE) by an increase in endogenous chalcone synthase (CHS) activity but were unresponsive to reduced glutathione (GSH). Preexposure of protoplasts to polyethylene glycol and electroporation resulted in strong responsiveness to GSH but little change in responsiveness to FE. Protoplasts from suspension cultures which had been subcultured more than 12 times lost responsiveness to GSH, but not FE, as assessed by measuring expression of a chimeric gene containing a bean CHS promoter linked to a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. In protoplasts in which putative cis-acting CHS promoter sequences had been coelectroporated in trans with the intact CHS promoter-CAT construct, the extent of CAT expression depended upon the elicitor used (FE or GSH), the age (number of times subcultured) of the cells from which the protoplasts were isolated, and the nature of the coelectroporated CHS promoter sequence. For example, a region of the CHS promoter from -326 to -141 behaved as a trans-activator when coelectroporated with the CAT construct into unelicited protoplasts isolated from newly initiated cell suspensions, but the same region acted as a trans-silencer in the same protoplasts in the presence of FE. This silencer activity was much reduced in GSH-treated protoplasts. The results suggest that there are differences in the signal transduction pathways for elicitation of CHS transcription by FE and GSH, which involve previously indentified cis-elements in the CHS promoter. PMID:16667919

  18. Stress and fear responses in the teleost pallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Martins, C.I.M.; Khan, Uniza Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has resulted in behavioural responses to threat which show extensive similarities between different animal species. The reaction to predator cues is one example of such prevailing responses, and functional homologies to mammalian limbic regions involved in threat-sensitive behaviour hav...... to chemical alarm cues, but this effect did not reach the level of statistical significance. Hence, limbic responses to stress and fear, akin to those seen in extant mammals, are also present in the teleost lineage...

  19. [Epigenetic regulation of abiotic stress response in plants to improve the stress tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Na

    2013-06-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various stresses at all phases of development, and epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in the adaptive evolution to the changing environment. Recent studies have shown that genomic hypermethylation and locus-specific DNA demethylation induced by cold, salinity and other stimuli would inhibit the deleterious gene mutations and increase the expression of stress responsive genes. The mutants of histone acetyltransferase (GCN5) and histone deacetylase (HDA6 and HDA19) genes displayed hypersensitivity to ABA and salinity stresses. Histone acetylation and methylation exert a cumulative or synergistic effect on the expression of stress-responsive genes. The inter-actions between H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes and DNAs mediate the thermosensory responses in Arabidopsis. Further-more, there are reports that drought, high temperature and salinity stress responses can be modulate by chromatin remodel-ing complexes SWI/SNF. In this review, we summarized previously published researches on the epigenetic regulation of plant stress response.

  20. Biotechnological impact of stress response on wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matallana, E; Aranda, A

    2017-02-01

    Wine yeast deals with many stress conditions during its biotechnological use. Biomass production and its dehydration produce major oxidative stress, while hyperosmotic shock, ethanol toxicity and starvation are relevant during grape juice fermentation. Most stress response mechanisms described in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are useful for understanding the molecular machinery devoted to deal with harsh conditions during industrial wine yeast uses. However, the particularities of these strains themselves, and the media and conditions employed, need to be specifically looked at when studying protection mechanisms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. The frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Selim M H; Goodwill, Joseph; Lim, Eric; Yap, Yoong K; Wells, Athol U; Hansell, David M; Davis, Peter; Selim, Abdel-Ghani; Abdel-Ghani, Syed; Goldstraw, Peter; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NEH) in resected neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas and to study its relationship to selected clinical parameters. Random blocks without tumour from resected typical carcinoids (TCs, n = 46), atypical carcinoids (ACs, n = 14), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs, n = 18), small cell carcinomas (SCLCs, n = 22), adenocarcinomas (ADENOs, n = 26) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, n = 18) were stained for CD56 and evaluated for linear proliferations, cell aggregates (>4 CD56+ cells), and tumourlets (<5 mm with basement membrane invasion). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of NEH in all neuroendocrine tumours (TC/AC/LCNEC/SCLC, 35/100, 35%) (P = 0.009) when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas (ADENO/SCC, 6/44, 14%) and in the frequency of NEH in TC (21/46, 46%) versus all other tumours (AC/LCNEC/SCLC/SCC/ADENO, 20/98, 20%) (P = 0.001). There was increased frequency of NEH in peripheral TCs (8/13, 62%) compared with central TCs (14/33, 43%) (P = 0.33). There was no association between smoking history and NEH. Clinical and imaging data showed no evidence of an increased frequency of obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with NEH. NEH is significantly increased in the background lung of neuroendocrine tumours when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, supportive data for NEH having neoplastic potential.

  2. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating ...

  3. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulong eChan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  5. Negative affectivity moderated by BDNF and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, C S; Paternina, A C; Gomez, Y; Lattig, M C

    2012-02-01

    Gene×environment (G×E) interactions are known to predict susceptibility to disorders such as depression and anxiety. Adverse experiences in childhood and number of stressful life events (SLEs) have been widely studied as environmental risk factors; however, SLE response has not yet been studied. Here we present a first attempt at the analysis of the interaction between the response to personal and academic stressful events during different life stages and the gene polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTTVNTR (STin2), HTR1A C(-1019)G, and BDNF Val66Met in the prediction of negative affectivity (NA). Standardized questionnaires (ST-DEP and STAI) were used to measure negative affectivity derived from depression and anxiety in a sample of 303 undergraduate students. Response to stressful events during childhood, high school and college years was evaluated together with a self-report personal history form. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to perform association and G×E analysis. Negative affectivity is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment and stress response. Gene associations were observed between 5-HTTVNTR allele 12 and the S_12 haplotype with NA derived from high scores in both depression and anxiety. The BDNF gene variant was not associated with NA derived from depression or anxiety alone, but it was associated with the comorbid presentation. A significant G×E interaction was observed between the BDNF Val66Met and stress response during childhood and college years although the risk for negative affectivity conferred by stress response during childhood was only significant among the Met allele carriers, while stress response during college years was a significant risk factor regardless of the BDNF Val66Met genotype. A significant G×E interaction was also found between the HTR1A C(-1019)G variant and childhood maltreatment. The study has two main limitations, sample size is low and retrospective recognition of SLEs is a concern. Altogether, our

  6. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Maria; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per; Frandsen, Erik; Damgaard, Morten; Asmar, Ali; Norsk, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose was to examine whether prolonged moderate stress associated with a student exam would increase the blood pressure response to a salt load in young healthy normotensive individuals. Ten healthy young subjects were examined at two different occasions in random order (i) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL Symptom Checklist for stress and the Visual Analogue Scale. On each level of stress, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Furthermore, plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured. Twenty-four-hour ABP, 24-h heart rate, CO as well as plasma levels of NE, E and PRA remained unchanged by changes in stress level. Day-night reduction in SAP was significantly larger during moderate stress and high-salt intake; however, no significant difference was observed during daytime and night-time. Individual increase in mental stress correlated significantly with an individual decrease in PRA (SCL-17, r = -0·80, Pstress over a period of time in young healthy normotensive individuals does not lead to changes in 24-h ABP. However, the augmented reduction in day-to-night systolic blood pressure during high-salt intake and moderate stress may indicate that stress affects blood pressure regulation. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. RPE necroptosis in response to oxidative stress and in AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Jakub; Anderson, Chastain; Wang, Shusheng

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD), also named geographic atrophy (GA) remains unclear and the mechanism of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death in AMD is controversial. We review the history and recent progress in understanding the mechanism of RPE cell death induced by oxidative stress, in AMD mouse models, and in AMD patients. Due to the limitation of toolsets to distinguish between apoptosis and necroptosis (or necrosis), most previous research concludes that apoptosis is a major mechanism for RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress and in AMD. Recent studies suggest necroptosis as a major mechanism of RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress. Moreover, ultrastructural and histopathological studies support necrosis as major mechanism of RPE cells death in AMD. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress, in AMD mouse models, and in human AMD patients. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that necroptosis is a major mechanism for RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress and in AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RPE Necroptosis in Response to Oxidative Stress and in AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Jakub; Anderson, Chastain; Wang, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD), also named geographic atrophy (GA) remains unclear and the mechanism of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death in AMD is controversial. We review the history and recent progress in understanding the mechanism of RPE cell death induced by oxidative stress, in AMD mouse models, and in AMD patients. Due to the limitation of toolsets to distinguish between apoptosis and necroptosis (or necrosis), most previous research concludes that apoptosis is a major mechanism for RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress and in AMD. Recent studies suggest necroptosis as a major mechanism of RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress. Moreover, ultrastructural and histopathological studies support necrosis as major mechanism of RPE cells death in AMD. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress, in AMD mouse models, and in human AMD patients. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that necroptosis is a major mechanism for RPE cell death in response to oxidative stress and in AMD. PMID:26369358

  9. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  10. Oxidative stress response pathways: Fission yeast as archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Manos A; Workman, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transcriptional response of fission yeast cells to elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms that yeast cells employ to promote cell survival in conditions of intermediate and acute oxidative stress. The role of the Sty1/Spc1/Phh1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in regulating gene expression at multiple levels is discussed in detail.

  11. Epidemic spreading on networks based on stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Yao, Shuanglong

    2017-06-01

    Based on the stress responses of individuals, the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model was improved on the small-world networks and BA scale-free networks and the simulations were implemented and analyzed. Results indicate that the behaviors of individual’s stress responses could induce the epidemic spreading resistance and adaptation at the network level. This phenomenon showed that networks were learning how to adapt to the disease and the evolution process could improve their immunization to future infectious diseases and would effectively prevent the spreading of infectious diseases.

  12. ROS regulation during abiotic stress responses in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eYou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anions (O2•‾, hydroxyl radical (OH• and singlet oxygen (1O2 are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed.

  13. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  14. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  16. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  17. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  18. Oxidative stress, inflammation and treatment response in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; James, S Jill; Hough, Christina M; Jain, Felipe A; Bersani, F Saverio; Reus, Victor I; Verhoeven, Josine E; Epel, Elissa S; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H

    2017-02-01

    Increased inflammation and oxidative stress have been shown in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), although there is significant heterogeneity across studies. Whether markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with antidepressant treatment response in MDD is currently unclear. The goals of the present study are to investigate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in unmedicated MDD subjects and controls and test the relationship between these markers and antidepressant response in MDD subjects. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, F2-isoprostanes, 8-OH 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and vitamin C were quantified in blood samples from 50 unmedicated MDD subjects and 55 healthy controls. Depression symptom severity was rated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). All subjects were somatically healthy and free from medications that could interfere with inflammation and oxidative stress markers. A subgroup of 22 MDD subjects underwent open-label selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment for eight weeks, after which blood sampling and the HDRS were repeated. Antidepressant treatment "response" was defined as ≥50% decrease in HDRS ratings over 8 weeks of treatment. After controlling for the effects of age, sex, body mass index and smoking, MDD subjects had significantly higher levels of IL-6 (pinflammation and oxidative stress in MDD. Moreover, poorer antidepressant treatment response was related to higher baseline levels of the major oxidative stress marker, F2-isoprostanes, in vivo. Further, antidepressant response was associated with changes in oxidative (8-OHdG) and inflammatory (IL-6) markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with l-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, Dean; Schjolden, Joachim; Krogdahl, Ashild; von Krogh, Kristine; Hillestad, Marie; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian; Skjerve, Eystein; Höglund, Erik

    2013-06-28

    The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates. Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with L-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain structures innervated by DA and 5-HTergic neurons, by measuring regional activity of DA and 5-HT in the lateral pallial regions (Dl) of the telencephalon and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) of the hypothalamus. Dietary Trp resulted in a dose-dependent suppression in plasma cortisol among fish exposed to confinement stress on the first day following experimental diet; however, such an effect was not observed at 2 or 6 d after Trp treatment. Feeding the fish with moderate Trp doses also evoked a general increase in DA and 5-HT-ergic activity, suggesting that these neural circuits within the NLT and Dl may be indirectly involved in regulating the acute stress response.

  1. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  2. Stress, stress‐induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaekers, Linsey H.C.; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T.; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J.; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1–2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress‐responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target‐present and target‐absent line‐ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27417874

  3. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  4. Untranslated regions (UTRs) orchestrate translation reprogramming in cellular stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Deb, Rajib; Raina, Susheel Kumar; Pawar, Sachin; Brahmane, Manoj P; Nirmale, Avinash V; Kurade, Nitin P; Manjunathareddy, Gundallahalli B; Bal, Santanu Kumar; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2017-04-01

    Stress is the result of an organism's interaction with environmental challenges. Regulations of gene expression including translation modulations are critical for adaptation and survival under stress. Untranslated regions (UTRs) of the transcripts play significant roles in translation regulation and continue to raise many intriguing questions in our understanding of cellular stress physiology. IRES (Internal ribosome entry site) and uORF (upstream open reading frame) mediated alternative translation initiations are emerging as unique mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed novel means of mRNAs stabilization in stress granules and their reversible modifications. Differential regulation of select transcripts is possible by the interplay between the adenine/uridine-rich elements (AREs) in 3'UTR with their binding proteins (AUBP) and by microRNA-mediated effects. Coordination of these various mechanisms control translation and thereby enables appropriate responses to environmental stress. In this review, we focus on the role of sequence signatures both at 5' and 3'UTRs in translation reprogramming during cellular stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  6. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo-response

  7. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  8. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  9. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjana eGhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops.

  10. REM SLEEP REBOUND AS AN ADAPTIVE RESPONSE TO STRESSFUL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah eSuchecki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a form to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic stress, conversely, has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, which confer more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the REM phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior.

  11. Drought stress responses in maize are diminished by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenying; Wang, Jun; Xu, Le; Wang, Aiai; Huang, Lan; Du, Hewei; Qiu, Lijuan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2018-01-02

    As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000). The number of P. indica-responsive genes increased from 464 (no stress at 0 h) to 1337 (6 h drought) and 2037 (12 h drought). Gene Ontology analyses showed that the carbon and sulfur metabolisms are major targets of the fungus. Furthermore, the growth promoting effect of P. indica is reflected by higher transcript levels for microtubule associated processes. Under drought stress, the fungus improved the oxidative potential of the roots, and stimulated genes for hormone functions, including those which respond to abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid and cytokinins. The comparative analyses of our study provides systematic insight into the molecular mechanism how P. indica promotes plant performance under drought stress, and presents a collection of genes which are specifically targeted by the fungus under drought stress in maize roots.

  12. Identification of drought-responsive universal stress proteins in viridiplantae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokpehi, Raphael D; Simmons, Shaneka S; Cohly, Hari H P; Ekunwe, Stephen I N; Begonia, Gregorio B; Ayensu, Wellington K

    2011-02-07

    Genes encoding proteins that contain the universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. Specifically in plants, drought tolerance is a desirable phenotype. However, limited focused and organized functional genomic datasets exist on drought-responsive plant USP genes to facilitate their characterization. The overall objective of the investigation was to identify diverse plant universal stress proteins and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) responsive to water-deficit stress. We hypothesize that cross-database mining of functional annotations in protein and gene transcript bioinformatics resources would help identify candidate drought-responsive universal stress proteins and transcripts from multiple plant species. Our bioinformatics approach retrieved, mined and integrated comprehensive functional annotation data on 511 protein and 1561 ESTs sequences from 161 viridiplantae taxa. A total of 32 drought-responsive ESTs from 7 plant genera Glycine, Hordeum, Manihot, Medicago, Oryza, Pinus and Triticum were identified. Two Arabidopsis USP genes At3g62550 and At3g53990 that encode ATP-binding motif were up-regulated in a drought microarray dataset. Further, a dataset of 80 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) linked to 20 singletons and 47 transcript assembles was constructed. Integrating the datasets on SSRs and drought-responsive ESTs identified three drought-responsive ESTs from bread wheat (BE604157), soybean (BM887317) and maritime pine (BX682209). The SSR sequence types were CAG, ATA and AT respectively. The datasets from cross-database mining provide organized resources for the characterization of USP genes as useful targets for engineering plant varieties tolerant to unfavorable environmental conditions.

  13. Overexpression of agouti protein and stress responsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R B; Zhou, J; Shi, M; Redmann, S; Mynatt, R L; Ryan, D H

    2001-07-01

    Ectopic overexpression of agouti protein, an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors' linked to the beta-actin promoter (BAPa) in mice, produces a phenotype of yellow coat color, Type II diabetes, obesity and increased somatic growth. Spontaneous overexpression of agouti increases stress-induced weight loss. In these experiments, other aspects of stress responsiveness were tested in 12-week-old male wild-type mice and BAPa mice. Two hours of restraint on three consecutive days produced greater increases in corticosterone and post-stress weight loss in BAPa than wild-type mice. In Experiment 2, anxiety-type behavior was measured immediately after 12 min of restraint. This mild stress did not produce many changes indicative of anxiety, but BAPa mice spent more time in the dark side of a light-dark box and less time in the open arms of an elevated plus maze than restrained wild-type mice. In a defensive withdrawal test, grooming was increased by restraint in all mice, but the duration of each event was substantially shorter in BAPa mice, possibly due to direct antagonism of the MC4-R by agouti protein. Thus, BAPa mice showed exaggerated endocrine and energetic responses to restraint stress with small differences in anxiety-type behavior compared with wild-type mice. These results are consistent with observations in other transgenic mice in which the melanocortin system is disrupted, but contrast with reports that acute blockade of central melanocortin receptors inhibits stress-induced hypophagia. Thus, the increased stress responsiveness in BAPa mice may be a developmental compensation for chronic inhibition of melanocortin receptors.

  14. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3) in response to a blood draw stressor. A significantly higher serum cortisol response was found in the group of children wit...

  15. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  16. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS TO ABIOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought, temperature and salt stress are the most prominent among different types of abiotic stress in soybean production. This PhD dissertation aimed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of soybean response to the above mentioned stresses. The research was performed with 6 cultivars in the germination - emergence stage and two cultivars in the flowering stage. In the first experiment, soybean seed was germinated in paper towels soaked in water or the solution with given osmotic pressure. Two levels of drought (5% and 10% PEG solutions, salt (50 and 100 mM NaCl solutions and temperature stress (10°C and 30°C, as well as a control treatment (20°C, water were applied through a 7 day germination period. Seed germinability (% and morphological traits were analysed, as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters in hypocotyls. The most effective were higher level of drought stress and low temperature. High temperature stimulated seedling development and mild drought stress had a priming effect and increased germination rate. In the second experiment, two cultivars were grown in pots filled with soil and kept in the open until flowering, and afterwards exposed to different temperature degrees (30°C, 10°C and 20°C as control during 3 days in a climate chamber. The photosynthesis efficiency parameters and, like in first experiment, physiological indicators of plant stress response were determined in the leaf tissue. Highly significant treatment influence on the analysed parameters in the both growth stages, confirms that the applied treatments invoked the oxidative stress and defence reactions in soybean.

  17. Endocrine and behavioural response of dog in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Țurcanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visit to the veterinary doctor for different reasons constitutes an unpleasant/negative or perhaps stressed experience for the dog. The stress could modify the physiological function and mask the symptom of an illness, or make the dog aggressive (1. Aims: Comparing the endocrine and behavioral response of dogs during the visit to the veterinary hospital and during activities in other places that are not related to stress (workplace, park. Materials and Methods: Six dog were taken in consideration, as indicators of stress there were used urinary cortisol, and behavioral observations. Results: Five of six dogs got high values of urinary cortisol after the visit to the veterinary clinic comparing with the values obtained in working spaces/park – areas that were familiar for dogs. Behavioral data’s have indicated a hesitating behavior at the entrance of the clinic and also in the examination room for all dogs, but the levels of intensity range individually for each dog. The results of the „Clinic Dog Stress Scale” classify behavior of dogs in following categories: 1 dog had score of 1 point that means a calm, relaxed dog; 2 dogs-3 points that means a middle level of stress, the dog is tense but cooperative; 2 dogs got 4 points-very tense, difficult to maneuver, and one dog 5 points that means a high level of distress.. Conclusion: Studding behavior relating with stress and the endocrine response at the veterinary visit it has importance for animal, owner and veterinary doctor. There is also a correlation between the stress manifestation and urinary cortisol.

  18. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    abscissic acid signals (Hermans et al. 2010). Arabidopsis infected by pathogens and insects showed a high level of transcriptional modification. Infected plants overexpressed the stress-related genes. Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene in orchestration have been identified as key play- ers in plant defense responses ...

  19. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  20. Oxidative stress response pathways: Fission yeast as archetype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Manos A.; Workman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transc...

  1. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  2. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Abstract. The paper examined gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress. The sample for the study consists of 250 workers (male and female) randomly selected from 2 Nigeria Universities - Private (Babcock University) and Public. (Olabisi Onanbanjo University). The instrument for the study was ...

  3. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and often detrimental to their health and productivity. In spite of the numerous recommendations and guidelines by many countries on the welfare of animal transport order and ...

  4. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuttings of three hybrid clones of P. ussuriensis × P. deltoides were exposed to different low temperatures (cold and freezing) for 24 h, or consecutive low temperatures (5°C, 0 to 120 h), to determine physiological and biochemical responses to cold stress in these woody plants. Soluble sugar and protein contents increased ...

  6. Differential response to water deficit stress in alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was fixed as objective to compare the response to water deficit (33% of field capacity, FC) stress of eight cultivars of Medicago sativa, originating from the Mediterranean basin. Comparison was performed on some key parameters such as growth, relative water content, leaf water potential, MDA tissue ...

  7. Variability salt stress response analysis of Tunisian natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the responses to salt stress of 106 Medicago truncatula lines from 11 Tunisian natural populations collected from areas that varied in soil composition, salinity and water availability. Five references lines were also included in this study. Plants were cultivated in two treatments (0 and 50 mM of NaCl) during a ...

  8. Proteomics-based dissection of biotic stress responsive proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... digestion, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching of some of the identified proteins indicated that the proteins are ... identified as biotic stress responses proteins directly coupled to disease and pathogen infection on wheat. Nevertheless ... and animals (McMullen et al., 1997). Host resistance is.

  9. Modulation of the immune response by emotional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E

    1987-01-01

    The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as

  10. Stress response signaling and virulence: insights from entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-08-01

    The Ascomycete fungal insect pathogens, Beauveria and Metarhizium spp. have emerged as model systems with which to probe diverse aspects of fungal growth, stress response, and pathogenesis. Due to the availability of genomic resources and the development of robust methods for genetic manipulation, the last 5 years have witnessed a rapid increase in the molecular characterization of genes and their pathways involved in stress response and signal transduction in these fungi. These studies have been performed mainly via characterization of gene deletion/knockout mutants and have included the targeting of general proteins involved in stress response and/or virulence, e.g. catalases, superoxide dismutases, and osmolyte balance maintenance enzymes, membrane proteins and signaling pathways including GPI anchored proteins and G-protein coupled membrane receptors, MAPK pathways, e.g. (i) the pheromone/nutrient sensing, Fus3/Kss1, (ii) the cell wall integrity, Mpk1, and (iii) the high osmolarity, Hog1, the PKA/adenyl cyclase pathway, and various downstream transcription factors, e.g. Msn2, CreA and Pac1. Here, we will discuss current research that strongly suggests extensive underlying contributions of these biochemical and signaling pathways to both abiotic stress response and virulence.

  11. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced

  12. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, E.; Testerink, C.; Khalil, M.; El-Shihy, O.; Munnik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  13. Physiological response of heat stressed broiler chickens to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing the drinking water of broilers reared under natural heat stress with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and ascorbic acid (AA) on physiological response was investigated. A 200, one-day Arbor acre chicks were randomly allotted to five treatments in ...

  14. Ontogeny of gender-specific responsiveness to stress and glucocorticoids in the rat and its determination by the neonatal gonadal steroid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchev, V K; Hayashi, S; Orikasa, C; Almeida, O F

    1999-08-01

    The neuroendocrine response to stress in the rat displays gender-specific characteristics resulting from both sex hormone-dependent organization of neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms and the modulatory action of circulating gonadal steroids. To define the role of gonadal steroid-mediated brain differentiation in the emergence of sex-specific differences in pituitary-adrenal function, and the necessity of physiological gonadal secretions for the manifestation of these differences, we examined the ontogeny of diurnal and stress-induced corticosterone (B) secretion, and suppressibility of the latter by dexamethasone (DEX) in intact male and female rats, and in animals that were subject to neonatal manipulations of the gonadal steroid environment (orchidectomy in males and neonatal estrogenization in females). Further, gene expression of corticosteroid receptors (MR and GR), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) under basal conditions, and following adrenalectomy (ADX) and chronic supplementation with high doses of B, were investigated in adult male and female rats, and individuals of both sexes which have been exposed to alterations of the gonadal steroid milieu during early development. The results demonstrate that: i) gender-specific differences in basal and stress-induced adrenocortical secretion are present at birth, but are still maleable by neonatal alterations of the gonadal steroid environment; ii) gender-specific dichotomy in the sensitivity of the secretory stress response to glucocorticoid feedback becomes fully manifest in adulthood; iii) sex differences in basal adrenocortical secretion become fully expressed only in the presence of intact gonads, whereas, once established by the neonatal hormonal milieu, differential sensitivity of the stress response to glucocorticoids persists in the absence of functioning gonads; iv) neonatal hormone manipulations alter sex-specific characteristics of CRH, AVP, MR and GR gene

  15. Stress, Roles and Responsibilities of Single Mothers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Intan Hashimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life as a single mother is often associated with great demands and many challenges. This study examines how a group of single mothers in Malaysia views sources of stress and challenges in their lives. It also investigates perceived roles and responsibilities of single mothers. Three hundred single mothers from all over Malaysia were interviewed in this study. Single mothers reported relatively low level of stress that was mostly related to financial (insufficient pay and day-to-day living. They had fairly low stress on issues related to romantic partner and romantic relationships. They however reported extensive roles and responsibilities. Single mothers reported feeling responsible across various domains of life including for their own health and well-being and also for the health and wellbeing of their family and friends. They reported high level of coping and particularly oriented towards solving the problems. They also reported general satisfaction over life. Correlation analysis indicated significant positive relationships between roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction and coping in which coping was associated with higher level of roles and responsibilities and life satisfaction. There was also a negative correlation between stress and life satisfaction in which more stress was associated with lower life satisfaction. Findings indicated a substantial nurturing role of single mothers and provided important policy and practice implications that highlights the important to study and continuously improve quality of life for these women. Finally, this study highlights the important to continuously study and support, important but marginalized groups in society such as single mothers.

  16. Response of restraint stress-selected lines of Japanese quail to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone (Cort) response to restraint stress were evaluated for their susceptibility to heat stress and challenge with Escherichia coli. These quail lines are designated as the high stress (HS), low stress (LS), and the random-bred control (CS) lines. Hea...

  17. Biological stress responses in high and low trait anxious students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D D; Dunlop, S R; Shea, P; Brittain, H; Hendrie, H C

    1985-08-01

    In an investigation of biological indicators of stress in normal humans, undergraduate psychology students were differentiated on trait anxiety and assessed under baseline, preexam (stress), and postexam conditions. Assessment at each condition involved drawing 20 ml of blood, followed by self-reporting for selected questionnaires. Self-reports included state anxiety, general psychological symptomatology, dysfunctional attitudes, academic confidence, sleep patterns, and intake of drugs, including alcohol and caffeine. Blood was analyzed for whole blood serotonin content, plasma MHPG, and platelet imipramine binding. Baseline differences between high and low trait anxious students on biological measures were significant only for whole blood serotonin content. Variation across situational conditions was significant for whole blood serotonin, with an increase under the stressful condition for both anxiety groups. Thus, serotonin is highlighted as an important factor in the human response to stress, whereas expected differences in MHPG were not observed. The serotonergic response to stress was not explained by changes in psychological or physical state variables. Changes in serotonin content were positively correlated with changes in platelet imipramine binding.

  18. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  19. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  20. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecinka, Ales; Rosa, Marisa; Schikora, Adam; Berlinger, Marc; Hirt, Heribert; Luschnig, Christian; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  1. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  2. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E.; Gálvez, I.; Hinchado, M. D.; Guerrero, J.; Martín-Cordero, L.; Torres-Piles, S.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre `El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Serum inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β) were evaluated using the Bio-Plex® Luminex® system. Circulating neuroendocrine-stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72), were measured by ELISA. After the cycle of mud therapy, OA patients improved the knee flexion angle and OA-related pain, stiffness and physical function, and they reported a better health-related quality of life. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TGF-β, as well as eHsp72, were markedly decreased. Besides, systemic levels of cortisol increased significantly. These results confirm that the clinical benefits of mud therapy may well be mediated, at least in part, by its systemic anti-inflammatory effects and neuroendocrine-immune regulation in OA patients. Thus, mud therapy could be an effective alternative treatment in the management of OA.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E.; Gálvez, I.; Hinchado, M. D.; Guerrero, J.; Martín-Cordero, L.; Torres-Piles, S.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre `El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Serum inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β) were evaluated using the Bio-Plex® Luminex® system. Circulating neuroendocrine-stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72), were measured by ELISA. After the cycle of mud therapy, OA patients improved the knee flexion angle and OA-related pain, stiffness and physical function, and they reported a better health-related quality of life. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TGF-β, as well as eHsp72, were markedly decreased. Besides, systemic levels of cortisol increased significantly. These results confirm that the clinical benefits of mud therapy may well be mediated, at least in part, by its systemic anti-inflammatory effects and neuroendocrine-immune regulation in OA patients. Thus, mud therapy could be an effective alternative treatment in the management of OA.

  5. Effect of paroxetine on physiological response to stress and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; al'Absi, Mustafa; Thuras, Paul; Vuchetich, John P; Adson, David E; Nowack, April L; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-04-01

    Smokers often smoke during stressful events, which leads to large increases in cardiovascular measures such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Because exaggerated cardiovascular response to stress is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, this study examined paroxetine's effect on the physiological response to combining stress and smoking. Sixty-two participants completed this randomized, double-blind, crossover study in which BP, HR, plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking, and during a speech and math task. Laboratory sessions occurred after 1 month of paroxetine and after 1 month of placebo. Significant increases occurred for all measures (except cortisol) during smoking, with further increases occurring during the speech task (time effect, p paroxetine, norepinephrine and HR values were lower and cortisol values were higher (versus placebo) throughout the laboratory session (treatment effect, p paroxetine compared with placebo (both, p paroxetine (versus placebo). This study suggests that paroxetine affects physiological response to stress in smokers. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these results on cardiovascular health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00218439.

  6. Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Janssen, D.; Knaap, N.J.F. van der; Roubos, E.W.; Leshan, R.L.; Myers, M.G.; Gaszner, B.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp), a region implicated in the stress response and in various

  7. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  8. Molecular Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. to Zinc Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John De Britto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons. The interference of germination related proteins by heavy metals has not been well documented at the proteomic and genomic level. In the current study, molecular responses of germinating groundnut seeds were investigated under Zinc stress. The SDS-PAGE showed the preliminary changes in the polypeptides patterns under Zinc stress. Restriction digestion banding pattern of EcoRI and Hind III enzymes showed distinct banding pattern in the treated plants.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrah, Nahid H.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Atef, Ahmed; Ramadan, Ahmed M.; Arasappan, Dhivya; Nelson, Charllotte A.; Edris, Sherif; Mutwakil, Mohammed Z.; Alhebshi, Alawia; Gadalla, Nour O.; Makki, Rania M.; Al-Kordy, Madgy A.; El-Domyati, Fotouh M.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Khiyami, Mohammad A.; Hall, Neil; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl) across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h) to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged. PMID:28520766

  11. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Baiamonte

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio, the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA, as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms.The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  12. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Svendstrup; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  13. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi ePandey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

  14. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat-drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought-pathogen and heat-pathogen as examples of abiotic-biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.

  15. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Akinola, Modupe; Martin, Ashley; Fath, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Prior research suggests that altering situation-specific evaluations of stress as challenging versus threatening can improve responses to stress. The aim of the current study was to explore whether cognitive, physiological and affective stress responses can be altered independent of situation-specific evaluations by changing individuals' mindsets about the nature of stress in general. Using a 2 × 2 design, we experimentally manipulated stress mindset using multi-media film clips orienting participants (N = 113) to either the enhancing or debilitating nature of stress. We also manipulated challenge and threat evaluations by providing positive or negative feedback to participants during a social stress test. Results revealed that under both threat and challenge stress evaluations, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in anabolic ("growth") hormones relative to a stress-is-debilitating mindset. Furthermore, when the stress was evaluated as a challenge, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in positive affect, heightened attentional bias towards positive stimuli, and greater cognitive flexibility, whereas a stress-is-debilitating mindset produced worse cognitive and affective outcomes. These findings advance stress management theory and practice by demonstrating that a short manipulation designed to generate a stress-is-enhancing mindset can improve responses to both challenging and threatening stress.

  16. Effect of prenatal stress on subsequent response to mixing stress and a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, D C; Kattesh, H G; Cunnick, J E; Daniels, M J; Kranendonk, G; McMunn, K A; Toscano, M J; Roberts, M P

    2011-06-01

    Sows subjected to prenatal stress have been found to produce offspring that have altered responses to stress. Our objective was to determine if exposing a sow to stress would alter the response of the offspring to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 2 mo of age or their response to mixing stress at 4 mo of age. Sow treatments consisted of intravenous injections of ACTH (1 IU/kg of BW), exposure to rough handling for a 10-min duration (rough), or no treatment (control) once per week from d 42 to 77 of gestation. At 2 mo of age, pigs from each treatment, 1 per litter (n = 21, 17, and 15 for the ACTH, rough, and control treatments, respectively), were challenged with 2 μg of LPS/kg of BW or saline, or served as a noninjected control. Their behavioral response to a human approach test and salivary cortisol were measured. At 4 mo of age, 1 pig from each treatment (n = 14, 14, and 15 for the ACTH, rough, and control treatments, respectively) was taken from its home pen and placed in a pen of unfamiliar pigs. At this time, a punch biopsy wound (6 × 6 mm) was created to measure the ability of the pig to heal the wound. At this same time, each pig received a 1-mL intramuscular injection of 20% ovine red blood cells (oRBC), and then a second injection of oRBC at 21 d postmixing. Blood samples were collected 3 times per week for 2 wk and then once a week for 4 more weeks. Blood samples were analyzed for cortisol, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin, antibody response to oRBC, and nitric oxide production by macrophages. Behavior was recorded during the first 5 d after mixing. All pigs in the LPS challenge responded with characteristic sickness behavior; however, pigs in the rough treatment showed less sickness behavior than those in the other 2 treatments (P Pigs from all treatments responded similarly to mixing stress with regard to cortisol, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin, antibody titers, nitric oxide production, and hematology measures, and all pigs experienced the

  17. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 regulates abiotic stress-responsive gene expression by binding to different cis-acting elements in response to different stress signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-07-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  19. Stress responses from the endoplasmic reticulum in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eKato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signalling pathways such as calcium signalling and lipid signalling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM, which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signalling, inflammatory signalling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signalling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signalling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM.

  20. Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response by Lipid Bilayer Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbleib, Kristina; Pesek, Kristina; Covino, Roberto; Hofbauer, Harald F; Wunnicke, Dorith; Hänelt, Inga; Hummer, Gerhard; Ernst, Robert

    2017-08-17

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved homeostatic program that is activated by misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, it became evident that aberrant lipid compositions of the ER membrane, referred to as lipid bilayer stress, are equally potent in activating the UPR. The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remained unclear. We show that the most conserved transducer of ER stress, Ire1, uses an amphipathic helix (AH) to sense membrane aberrancies and control UPR activity. In vivo and in vitro experiments, together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, identify the physicochemical properties of the membrane environment that control Ire1 oligomerization. This work establishes the molecular mechanism of UPR activation by lipid bilayer stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In response to community violence: coping strategies and involuntary stress responses among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Maurizi, Laura K; Bregman, Allyson; Ceballo, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Among poor, urban adolescents, high rates of community violence are a pressing public health concern. This study relies on a contextual framework of stress and coping to investigate how coping strategies and involuntary stress responses may both mediate and moderate the relation between exposure to community violence and psychological well-being. Our sample consists of 223 ninth grade Latino adolescents from poor, urban families. In response to community violence, these adolescents reported using an array of coping strategies as well as experiencing a number of involuntary stress responses; the most frequent coping responses were turning to religion and seeking social support. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that involuntary stress responses mediated the relations between both witnessing or being victimized by violence and poorer psychological functioning, while coping strategies moderated these relations. These findings suggest that the negative psychological effects of exposure to community violence may, in part, be explained by involuntary stress responses, while religious-based coping may serve as a protective factor.

  2. Performance of 177Lu-DOTATATE-based peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: a multiparametric response evaluation correlating with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Pradeep; Ranade, Rohit; Ostwal, Vikas; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Goel, Mahesh; Basu, Sandip

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP-NET) and correlate it with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics. Fifty patients (M : F 33 : 17, age: 26-71 years) with histopathologically confirmed metastatic/inoperable NETs who had undergone at least three cycles of PRRT with Lu-DOTATATE were included in the analysis. As part of the pretreatment evaluation, they underwent either Tc-HYNIC TOC (n=40)/Ga-DOTATATE PET (n=10) or fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT). Response was assessed after three and five cycles PRRT on the basis of three parameters: (a) symptomatic and subjective scale, (b) biochemical tumor marker level, and (c) objective imaging (F-FDG/Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, Tc-HYNIC TOC, ceCT), and was categorized using predefined criteria (detailed in methods). Stable disease on imaging assessment with response on symptomatic or biochemical tumor marker scales or both were included in the responder group. The study population was broadly classified into (a) metastatic GEP-NET with known primary (n=43 i.e. 86%), which was further subclassified according to the site of primary and (b) those with unknown primary (n=7 i.e. 14%). Symptomatic response: 96% of patients showed a symptomatic response or improvement in health-related quality of life, irrespective of tumor proliferation index, dual tracer imaging characteristics, and response or progression of disease in the scan. Biochemical tumor marker response: 83% of scan responders showed a decrease, 10% showed a stable value, and 7% showed an increase in tumor marker levels. Among the scan nonresponders, 67% patients showed a corresponding increase in the tumor marker level, 22% patient showed a decrease, whereas 11% showed stable values. Scan response: 31 out of total 50 patients (62%) showed a partial scan response with either a

  3. Cortisol and subjective stress responses to acute psychosocial stress in fibromyalgia patients and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-12-11

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.

  4. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  5. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  6. Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar

    2017-03-27

    Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  7. Particle shape effects on the stress response of granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G; Miskin, Marc Z; Kaplan, Paul; Rodenberg, Nicholas; Lee, Seung Hwan; Merritt, Jason; Brown, Eric; Amend, John; Lipson, Hod; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2014-01-07

    We present measurements of the stress response of packings formed from a wide range of particle shapes. Besides spheres these include convex shapes such as the Platonic solids, truncated tetrahedra, and triangular bipyramids, as well as more complex, non-convex geometries such as hexapods with various arm lengths, dolos, and tetrahedral frames. All particles were 3D-printed in hard resin. Well-defined initial packing states were established through preconditioning by cyclic loading under given confinement pressure. Starting from such initial states, stress-strain relationships for axial compression were obtained at four different confining pressures for each particle type. While confining pressure has the largest overall effect on the mechanical response, we find that particle shape controls the details of the stress-strain curves and can be used to tune packing stiffness and yielding. By correlating the experimentally measured values for the effective Young's modulus under compression, yield stress and energy loss during cyclic loading, we identify trends among the various shapes that allow for designing a packing's aggregate behavior.

  8. Osmotic stress response in the wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2013-12-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is mainly associated with lambic beer fermentation and wine production and may contribute in a positive or negative manner to the flavor development. This yeast is able to produce phenolic compounds, such as 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol which could spoil the wine, depending on their concentration. In this work we have investigated how this yeast responds when exposed to conditions causing osmotic stress, as high sorbitol or salt concentrations. We observed that osmotic stress determined the production and accumulation of intracellular glycerol, and the expression of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was elevated. The involvement of the HOG MAPK pathway in response to this stress condition was also investigated. We show that in D. bruxellensis Hog1 protein is activated by phosphorylation under hyperosmotic conditions, highlighting the conserved role of HOG MAP kinase signaling pathway in the osmotic stress response. Gene Accession numbers in GenBank: DbHOG1: JX65361, DbSTL1: JX965362. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering abiotic stress response in plants for biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohit; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Pareek, Ashwani

    2018-01-16

    One of the major challenges in today's agriculture is to achieve enhanced plant growth and biomass even under adverse environmental conditions. Recent advancements in genetics and molecular biology have enabled identification of a complex signaling network contributing towards plant growth and development on the one hand and abiotic stress response on the other. As an outcome of these studies, three major approaches have been identified having a potential to improve biomass production in plants under abiotic stress conditions. These approaches deal with having changes in (i) plant-microbe interactions, (ii) cell wall biosynthesis, and (iii) phytohormone levels. In addition, and at the same time, employing functional genomics and genetics-based approaches, a very large number of genes have been identified which play a key role in abiotic stress tolerance. Our review is an attempt to unveil the crosstalk between the transcriptional circuitries for biomass production and abiotic stress response that has just started emerging. This knowledge may serve as a valuable resource to eventually custom design the crop plants for higher biomass production in a more sustainable manner, in marginal lands under variable climatic conditions. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  11. Mid-term effects of serial sleep deprivation therapy implemented in cognitive-behavioral treatment on the neuroendocrine response to clomipramine in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundermann, Bernd; Strate, Peter; Hemmeter-Spernal, Julia; Huber, Martin Tobias; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2009-04-01

    While data dealing with neurobiological effects of sleep deprivation (SD) are mainly restricted to the acute effects of a single night, only few studies have investigated mid-term effects after repeated SD. We therefore examined the clinical and hormonal characteristics of depressive patients before and after serial SD to determine potential sustained effects, focusing especially on serotoninergic functions. One tool to investigate serotoninergic dysfunction in depression is the use of serotoninergic agents to stimulate hormonal secretion, which is assumed to normalize during a clinically effective therapy. Eighteen drug-free inpatients with unipolar major depression received cognitive-behavioral treatment for three weeks and - according to a randomized control design - additional SD therapy (six nights of total SD within three weeks, separated by nights of recovery sleep) or no SD therapy (control group). Serotoninergic function was assessed by measuring cortisol and prolactin in response to intravenously administered clomipramine (12.5mg) before and after the treatment period. The post-treatment challenge test was performed three days after the last SD night. Apart from of a transient overnight improvement of mood induced by SD, both groups showed a comparable clinical course during the three-week treatment period. Compared to the control group, the SD-treated patients exhibited significantly decreased pre-stimulation cortisol levels and significantly increased cortisol responses to clomipramine, whereas no treatment effects were observed for prolactin. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the mid-term effects of serial SD therapy lead to a normalization of serotoninergic dysfunction, although an obvious impact on clinical symptoms was not detected.

  12. A Unique ISR Program Determines Cellular Responses to Chronic Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guan, B.J.; van Hoef, V.; Jobava, R.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Cargnello, M.; Gao, X.H.; Krokowski, D.; Merrick, W.C.; Kimball, S.R.; Komar, A.A.; Koromilas, A.E.; Wynshaw-Boris, A.; Topisirovic, I.; Larsson, O.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2017), s. 885-900 ISSN 1097-2765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06238S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE * EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION * ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 14.714, year: 2016

  13. The integrated stress response system in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ribeiro, Diana; Godinas, Laurent; Pilette, Charles; Perros, Frédéric

    2018-02-27

    The integrated stress response system represents an ancillary, extremely conserved signalling pathway present in virtually all eukaryotic cells, which plays an important part in the pathophysiology of several disorders such as cancer and neurodegeneration. However, its role in the cardiovascular system remains largely elusive. Hence, this review aims to acknowledge recent findings regarding the action of the eIF2α kinases in the cardiovascular system and their role in the pathophysiology of related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Negr?o, S.; Schm?ckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant?s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant?s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of sa...

  15. Unusual Paraneoplastic Syndrome Accompanies Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bertani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a small percentage of pancreatic neoplasia (10% (1. Diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours is difficult, especially if the tumours are small and nonfunctional. CT scans, MRI, and nuclear scans are sufficiently sensitive assessment tools for tumours with diameters of at least 2 cm; otherwise, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques is less than 50% (2. Myasthenia gravis (MG is a heterogeneous neuromuscular junction disorder that is primarily caused when antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors (Ab-AchR. MG can develop in conjunction with neoplasia, making MG a paraneoplastic disease. In those cases, MG is most commonly associated with thymomas and less frequently associated with extrathymic malignancies. The mechanism underlying this paraneoplastic syndrome has been hypothesized to involve an autoimmune response against the tumour cells (3. No published reports have linked malignant pancreatic diseases with MG. Here, we report the case of a young woman, negative for Ab-AchR, with a neuroendocrine tumour in the pancreatic head, who experienced a complete resolution of her MG-like syndrome after surgical enucleation of the tumour.

  16. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal J Phukan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Response to Thymidylate Synthase-Targeted Antimetabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ufuk; Barbour, Karen W; Clinton, Sarah A; Berger, Franklin G

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS; EC 2.1.1.15) catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) by N(5),N(10)-methyhlenetetrahydrofolate, forming dTMP for the maintenance of DNA replication and repair. Inhibitors of TYMS have been widely used in the treatment of neoplastic disease. A number of fluoropyrimidine and folate analogs have been developed that lead to inhibition of the enzyme, resulting in dTMP deficiency and cell death. In the current study, we have examined the role of oxidative stress in response to TYMS inhibitors. We observed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations are induced by these inhibitors and promote apoptosis. Activation of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX), which catalyzes one-electron reduction of O2 to generate superoxide (O2 (●-)), is a significant source of increased ROS levels in drug-treated cells. However, gene expression profiling revealed a number of other redox-related genes that may contribute to ROS generation. TYMS inhibitors also induce a protective response, including activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a critical mediator of defense against oxidative and electrophilic stress. Our results show that exposure to TYMS inhibitors induces oxidative stress that leads to cell death, while simultaneously generating a protective response that may underlie resistance against such death. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. MOF maintains transcriptional programs regulating cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, B N; Bechtel-Walz, W; Lucci, J; Karpiuk, O; Hild, I; Hartleben, B; Vornweg, J; Helmstädter, M; Sahyoun, A H; Bhardwaj, V; Stehle, T; Diehl, S; Kretz, O; Voss, A K; Thomas, T; Manke, T; Huber, T B; Akhtar, A

    2016-05-01

    MOF (MYST1, KAT8) is the major H4K16 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) in Drosophila and mammals and is essential for embryonic development. However, little is known regarding the role of MOF in specific cell lineages. Here we analyze the differential role of MOF in proliferating and terminally differentiated tissues at steady state and under stress conditions. In proliferating cells, MOF directly binds and maintains the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression. In contrast, MOF is dispensable for terminally differentiated, postmitotic glomerular podocytes under physiological conditions. However, in response to injury, MOF is absolutely critical for podocyte maintenance in vivo. Consistently, we detect defective nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structures, as well as presence of multivesicular bodies in vivo in podocytes lacking Mof following injury. Undertaking genome-wide expression analysis of podocytes, we uncover several MOF-regulated pathways required for stress response. We find that MOF, along with the members of the non-specific lethal but not the male-specific lethal complex, directly binds to genes encoding the lysosome, endocytosis and vacuole pathways, which are known regulators of podocyte maintenance. Thus, our work identifies MOF as a key regulator of cellular stress response in glomerular podocytes.

  19. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and bio......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...

  20. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila; Artiko Vera; Pavlović Smiljana; Šobić-Šaranović Dragana; Obradović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT) methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1) somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide) or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC); 2) noradrenaline a...

  1. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  2. Analysis of transcriptional response to heat stress in Rhazya stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Abdullah Y; Sabir, Jamal S M; Atef, Ahmed; Liu, Xuan; Edris, Sherif; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Mutwakil, Mohammed Z; Gadalla, Nour O; Hajrah, Nahid H; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Hall, Neil; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    Climate change is predicted to be a serious threat to agriculture due to the need for crops to be able to tolerate increased heat stress. Desert plants have already adapted to high levels of heat stress so they make excellent systems for identifying genes involved in thermotolerance. Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is native to extremely hot regions across Western and South Asia, making it an excellent system for examining plant responses to heat stress. Transcriptomes of apical and mature leaves of R. stricta were analyzed at different temperatures during several time points of the day to detect heat response mechanisms that might confer thermotolerance and protection of the plant photosynthetic apparatus. Biological pathways that were crosstalking during the day involved the biosynthesis of several heat stress-related compounds, including soluble sugars, polyols, secondary metabolites, phenolics and methionine. Highly downregulated leaf transcripts at the hottest time of the day (40-42.4 °C) included genes encoding cyclin, cytochrome p450/secologanin synthase and U-box containing proteins, while upregulated, abundant transcripts included genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), chaperones, UDP-glycosyltransferase, aquaporins and protein transparent testa 12. The upregulation of transcripts encoding HSPs, chaperones and UDP-glucosyltransferase and downregulation of transcripts encoding U-box containing proteins likely contributed to thermotolerance in R. stricta leaf by correcting protein folding and preventing protein degradation. Transcription factors that may regulate expression of genes encoding HSPs and chaperones under heat stress included HSFA2 to 4, AP2-EREBP and WRKY27. This study contributed new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of thermotolerance in the wild plant species R. stricta, an arid land, perennial evergreen shrub common in the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent. Enzymes from several pathways are interacting in the

  3. [EGFR-expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, C; Winter, B U

    2006-03-01

    15 cases of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (carcinoid-tumorlets, diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia/DIPNECH) and 20 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (10 carcinoid tumors, 5 large cell neuroendocrine, and 5 small cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas) were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, = HER-1). All cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia exhibited a maximum EGFR expression (score 3 in 100% of cells) showing predominantly membranous, partly cytoplasmic staining. 4 ot the 10 carcinoid tumors were strongly positive for EGFR, whereas the other 6 were EGFR-negative. A total of 90% of large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were negative for EGFR. Overexpression of EGFR in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might be significant for the pathogenesis of these lesions. As DIPNECH is characterized by clinical signs and symptoms including mild cough and obstructive functional impairment, a specific antagonistic therapeutic trial could aim at blocking EGFR/HER-1 or its subsequent signal transduction pathway.

  4. Redox homeostasis and cellular stress response in aging and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Mancuso, Cesare; Lentile, Riccardo; Stella, A M Giuffrida; Butterfield, D Allan

    2010-01-01

    Decreased expression and/or activity of antioxidant proteins leads to oxidative stress, accelerated aging, and neurodegeneration. While overwhelming levels and uncontrolled/dysregulated actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to deleterious effects, tighter regulation of those plays an important role in cell signaling. Mutations causing protein misfolding and the overload of toxic products derived from the free radical oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and glucose contribute to the disruption of the cellular redox homeostasis. Collectively or individually, these effects create pro-oxidant conditions in cells. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damage, modulate intracellular signaling, and can ultimately lead to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. Emerging evidence indicates that homocysteine (Hcy), a non-protein amino acid naturally present in the plasma, is implicated as a risk factor for numerous diseases. In particular, increased levels of circulating Hcy have been recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of vascular disease(s). Recent findings emphasize a relationship between elevated Hcy levels and neurodegeneration, which can be observed in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. An integrated response exists in the brain to detect and control diverse forms of stress. This is accomplished by a complex network of the so-called longevity assurance processes, which are controlled by several genes termed "vitagenes." Among these, the heat-shock proteins (HSPs) form a highly conserved system that is responsible for the preservation and repair of the correct protein conformation. Recent studies have shown that the heat-shock response (HSR) contributes to cytoprotection in a number of human diseases including inflammation, cancer, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the HSR, interest mounts currently among investigators toward discovering and developing

  5. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear

  6. The genetic architecture of the genome-wide transcriptional response to ER stress in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Y Chow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. The cellular response to ER stress involves complex transcriptional and translational changes, important to the survival of the cell. ER stress is a primary cause and a modifier of many human diseases. A first step to understanding how the ER stress response impacts human disease is to determine how the transcriptional response to ER stress varies among individuals. The genetic diversity of the eight mouse Collaborative Cross (CC founder strains allowed us to determine how genetic variation impacts the ER stress transcriptional response. We used tunicamycin, a drug commonly used to induce ER stress, to elicit an ER stress response in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs derived from the CC founder strains and measured their transcriptional responses. We identified hundreds of genes that differed in response to ER stress across these genetically diverse strains. Strikingly, inflammatory response genes differed most between strains; major canonical ER stress response genes showed relatively invariant responses across strains. To uncover the genetic architecture underlying these strain differences in ER stress response, we measured the transcriptional response to ER stress in MEFs derived from a subset of F1 crosses between the CC founder strains. We found a unique layer of regulatory variation that is only detectable under ER stress conditions. Over 80% of the regulatory variation under ER stress derives from cis-regulatory differences. This is the first study to characterize the genetic variation in ER stress transcriptional response in the laboratory mouse. Our findings indicate that the ER stress transcriptional response is highly variable among strains and arises from genetic variation in individual downstream response genes, rather than major signaling transcription factors. These results have important implications for understanding how genetic variation

  7. CRF receptor type 2 neurons in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis critically contribute to stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, M J A G; Printz, Y; Shamgar, U; Dine, J; Lebow, M; Drori, Y; Kuehne, C; Kolarz, A; Eder, M; Deussing, J M; Justice, N J; Yizhar, O; Chen, A

    2017-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. Here, we found that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST send dense inhibitory projections to other stress-related brain regions (for example, the locus coeruleus, medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus), implicating a prominent role of these neurons in orchestrating the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stressful situations. Local CRFR2 activation by urocortin 3 depolarized the cells, increased the neuronal input resistance and increased firing of action potentials, indicating an enhanced excitability. Furthermore, we showed that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST are critically involved in the modulation of the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stress. Optogenetic activation of CRFR2 neurons in the pBNST decreased anxiety, attenuated the neuroendocrine stress response, ameliorated stress-induced anxiety and impaired the fear memory for the stressful event. Moreover, activation following trauma exposure reduced the susceptibility for PTSD-like symptoms. Optogenetic inhibition of pBNST CRFR2 neurons yielded opposite effects. These data indicate the relevance of pBNST activity for adaptive stress recovery.

  8. Systems biology meets stress ecology: linking molecular and organismal stress responses in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Connon, Richard; Hooper, Helen L; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Maund, Steve J; Hill, Christopher J; Bouetard, Anthony; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen. Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and invertebrates, and they suggest that ibuprofen has a targeted impact on reproduction at the molecular, organismal, and population level in daphnids. Microarray expression and temporal real-time quantitative PCR profiles of key genes suggest early ibuprofen interruption of crustacean eicosanoid metabolism, which appears to disrupt signal transduction affecting juvenile hormone metabolism and oogenesis. Combining molecular and organismal stress responses provides a guide to possible chronic consequences of environmental s