James, D K; Telfer, F M; Keating, N A; Blair, M E; Wilcox, M A; Chilvers, C
A case-control study was undertaken of 471 children on the Nottingham Special Needs Register (SNR) who were born in one of the two maternity units in the city between 1987 and 1993 (inclusive). Controls were selected as the next infant born at the same hospital following each index case. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors on the Nottingham Obstetric Database for a baby subsequently appearing on the SNR. Disability was analysed by both ICD-9 coding and functional assessment. Factors which independently and significantly predicted a child's likelihood of being on the SNR were breech presentation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.0), congenital abnormality (OR=4.9), intrapartum fetal distress (OR=1.7), fetal growth restriction (OR=2.0), socioeconomic deprivation (OR=1.8), prematurity (OR=2.2), reduced fetal movements (OR=2.5) and medication in pregnancy (OR=10.4). To our knowledge the last two factors have not previously been reported as risk predictors for neurodevelopmental disability.
Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L
Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja; Radanović, Branko
Many factors that have an adverse effect on fetal growth and development can manifest later in the child's development. Because of the biological basis, children born under the influence of these factors belong to the group of neurorisk children. They need special attention and prompt participation in the early rehabilitation program to encourage the use of brain plasticity. In addition to the biological influences, socioeconomic status affects a wide array of medical, cognitive and socio-emotional consequences in children, which begin before birth and continue into adulthood. This retrospective study included 50 children aged one to three years, hospitalized at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the frequency of inclusion of children with neurodevelopmental risks in the early rehabilitation program according to the level of parental education. The results showed the highest percentage of parents of neurorisk children to have high school education, while the smallest number of parents had elementary school education. These data pointed to the lack of public awareness of the importance of the early period of life. However, they also indicated the lack of parental knowledge of their rights and opportunities for involvement of their neurorisk children in the early rehabilitation programs.
Allely, Clare S.; Minnis, Helen; Thompson, Lucy; Wilson, Philip; Gillberg, Christopher
Multiple and serial murders are rare events that have a very profound societal impact. We have conducted a systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, of both the peer reviewed literature and of journalistic and legal sources regarding mass and serial killings. Our findings tentatively indicate that these extreme forms of violence may be a result of a highly complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociological factors and that, potentially, a significant proportion of mass or...
Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil
The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2014, and identified 78 studies reporting 222 risk factor models. Most studies presented risk factor analyses that were not intended to be used for prediction, confirming that there is a dearth of specifically designed prognostic modeling studies for long-term outcomes in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology and reporting to date, and provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies seeking to analyze risk prediction or develop prognostic models for VPT/VLBW children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S
to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10). There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hellmuth, S G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, C B
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...... spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those...
Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, preterm births have drastically increased and today represent 12.5% of total births. About 1.2% of preterm births characterize very preterm births (GA<32weeks that, with very low birth weight (BW<1500grams, are constantly found as risk factors of unfavourable neurological outcomes in longitudinal follow up studies. Actually, also “late preterm” children (preterm born from 33 to 36 weeks of gestational age, normally considered at low risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities, are supposed to represent a population of children to be monitored. Previous findings of a general cognitive impairment in children born preterm have gradually addressed the assessment of more specific neuropsychological skills and pointed out the importance to follow these children up to adolescent age. The neuroanatomical prerequisite of an abnormality in frontal lobe development and the correlation with various neuropsychological dysfunctions (fine and gross motor disabilities, executive function and working memory deficits, visual-constructional and attentional dysfunctions underline the interference of preterm birth with normal brain maturational phases. Though showing more demanding neurodevelopmental pathways than term peers, a large number of preterm children tend to functionally normalize in adolescence. The review supports the hypothesis of a neurodevelopmental model that can be at risk to influence dysfunctional neuropsychological outcome.
Talkowski, Michael E.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Blumenthal, Ian
Sequencing of balanced chromosomal abnormalities, combined with convergent genomic studies of gene expression, copy-number variation, and genome-wide association, identifies 22 new loci that contribute to autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. These data support a polygenic risk model f...
Lionel, Anath C; Tammimies, Kristiina; Vaags, Andrea K
during brain development. To determine the prevalence of astrotactin mutations and delineate their associated phenotypic spectrum, we screened ASTN2/TRIM32 and ASTN1 (1q25.2) for exonic CNVs in clinical microarray data from 89,985 individuals across 10 sites, including 64,114 neurodevelopmental disorder...... in the neurodevelopmental disorder subjects (p=0.002) compared with 44,085 population-based controls. Frequent phenotypes observed in individuals with such deletions included Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), speech delay, anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD......). The 3'-terminal ASTN2 deletions were significantly enriched compared with controls in males with neurodevelopmental disorders, but not in females. Upon quantifying ASTN2 human brain RNA, we observed shorter isoforms expressed from an alternative transcription start site of recent evolutionary origin...
O’Kusky, John; Ye, Ping
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling greatly impacts the development and growth of the central nervous system (CNS). IGF-I and IGF-II, two ligands of the IGF system, exert a wide variety of actions both during development and in adulthood, promoting the survival and proliferation of neural cells. The IGFs also influence the growth and maturation of neural cells, augmenting dendritic growth and spine formation, axon outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and myelination. Specific IGF actions, however, likely depend on cell type, developmental stage, and local microenvironmental milieu within the brain. Emerging research also indicates that alterations in IGF signaling likely contribute to the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. This review summarizes experimental studies and shed light on the critical roles of IGF signaling, as well as its mechanisms, during CNS development. PMID:22710100
Margaretha J Brouwer
Full Text Available First, to apply a recently extended scoring system for preterm brain injury at term-equivalent age (TEA-MRI in a regional extremely preterm cohort; second, to identify independent perinatal factors associated with this score; and third, to assess the prognostic value of this TEA-MRI score with respect to early neurodevelopmental outcome.239 extremely preterm infants (median gestational age [range] in weeks: 26.6 [24.3-27.9], admitted to the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2012 were included. Brain abnormalities in white matter, cortical and deep grey matter and cerebellum and brain growth were scored on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI using the Kidokoro scoring system. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. The association between TEA-MRI and perinatal factors as well as neurodevelopmental outcome was evaluated using multivariable regression analysis.The distribution of brain abnormalities and brain metrics in the Utrecht cohort differed from the original St. Louis cohort (p 7 days (β [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.3 [.5; 2.0] and parenteral nutrition >21 days (2.2 [1.2; 3.2] were independently associated with higher global brain abnormality scores (p < .001. Global brain abnormality scores were inversely associated with cognitive (β in composite scores [95% CI]: -.7 [-1.2; -.2], p = .004, fine motor (β in scaled scores [95% CI]: -.1 [-.3; -.0], p = .007 and gross motor outcome (β in scaled scores [95% CI]: -.2 [-.3; -.1], p < .001 at two years corrected age, although the explained variances were low (R2 ≤.219.Patterns of brain injury differed between cohorts. Prolonged mechanical ventilation and parenteral nutrition were identified as independent perinatal risk factors. The prognostic value of the TEA-MRI score was rather limited in this well-performing cohort.
Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha
Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rasmussen, Annett Helleskov; Melikyan, Maria; Globa, Evgenia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogeneous disease most frequently caused by KATP-channel (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) mutations, with neonatal or later onset, variable severity, and with focal or diffuse pancreatic involvement as the two major histological types. CHI confers a high.......023; and treatment delay from first symptom to expert center >5 days; OR 4.0 (1.0-16.6), trend p = 0.05. In multivariate analysis (n = 31) for early predictors with exclusion of brain MRI, treatment delay from first symptom to expert center >5 days conferred a significantly increased risk of neurodevelopment...... seen in uni- or multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Not only very low blood glucose, but also insufficient treatment as expressed by delay until expert center hospitalization, increased the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. This novel finding calls for improvements in spread of knowledge about CHI...
Stolwijk, Lisanne J.; Lemmers, P. M A; Harmsen, Marissa; Groenendaal, Floris; De Vries, Linda S.; Van Der Zee, David C.; Benders, Manon J N; Van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, M. Y A
CONTEXT: Increasing concerns have been raised about the incidence of neurodevelopmental delay in children with noncardiac congenital anomalies (NCCA) requiring neonatal surgery. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the incidence and potential risk factors for developmental delay after neonatal
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0
Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B
Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (p<0.0001). The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without ND; adjusted OR for definite PEs 1.76 (95% CI 1.11- 2.79). IQ (but not working memory) deficit partly explained this association. Conclusion Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026
Khandaker, G M; Stochl, J; Zammit, S; Lewis, G; Jones, P B
Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Nevertheless, longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with NDs are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood NDs, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six NDs (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaires at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated the mean difference in cognitive scores between children with and without NDs. Associations between NDs and PEs were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father's social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Out of 8220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have NDs at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without, NDs performed worse on all cognitive measures; the adjusted mean difference in total IQ was 6.84 (95% CI 5.00-8.69). The association between total IQ and NDs was linear (p memory) deficit partly explained this association. Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 is a neurotrophic polypeptide with crucial roles to play in Central Nervous System (CNS growth, development and maturation. Following interrogation of the neurobiology underlying several neurodevelopmental disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, both recombinant IGF-1 (mecasermin and related derivatives, such as (1-3 IGF-1, have emerged as potential therapeutic approaches. Clinical pilot studies and early reports have supported the safety/preliminary efficacy of IGF-1 and related compounds in the treatment of Rett Syndrome, with evidence mounting for its use in Phelan McDermid Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome. In broader ASD, clinical trials are ongoing. Here, we review the role of IGF-1 in the molecular etiologies of these conditions in addition to the accumulating evidence from early clinical studies highlighting the possibility of IGF-1 and related compounds as potential treatments for these childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders.
Gkoltsiou, Konstantina; Tzoufi, Meropi; Counsell, Serena; Rutherford, Mary; Cowan, Frances
To describe cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonates at risk of kernicterus, in relation to gestational age (GA), total serum bilirubin (TSB), age at imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome. Neonates with peak TSB > 400 micromol/L and/or signs of bilirubin encephalopathy. Review of neonatal data, cUS, preterm, term and later MRI scans and neurodevelopmental outcome. 11 infants were studied, two kernicterus are not seen early remains unexplained.
... Many things in our genes , our lifestyle, and the environment around us may increase or decrease our risk ... Being exposed to chemicals and other substances in the environment has been linked to some cancers: Links between ...
Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M
The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Ppregnancies, only early onset of symptoms (prior to 5 weeks gestation) was significantly linked to neurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Esbensen, Anna J; Schwichtenberg, Amy J
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience sleep problems at higher rates than the general population. Although individuals with IDD are a heterogeneous group, several sleep problems cluster within genetic syndromes or disorders. This review summarizes the prevalence of sleep problems experienced by individuals with Angelman syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du Chat syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and idiopathic IDD. Factors associated with sleep problems and the evidence for sleep treatments are reviewed for each neurodevelopmental disorder. Sleep research advancements in neurodevelopmental disorders are reviewed, including the need for consistency in defining and measuring sleep problems, considerations for research design and reporting of results, and considerations when evaluating sleep treatments. PMID:28503406
Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran
Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, calls for more research into the identification of etiologic and risk factors. The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD hypothesizes that the environment during fetal and childhood development affects the risk for many chronic diseases in later stages of life, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetics, a term describing mechanisms that cause changes in the chromosome state without affecting DNA sequences, is suggested to be the underlying mechanism, according to the DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, many neurodevelopmental disorders are also related to epigenetic abnormalities. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal environmental toxicants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, there is also evidence that environmental toxicants can result in epigenetic alterations, notably DNA methylation. In this review, we first focus on the relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and environmental toxicants, in particular maternal smoking, plastic-derived chemicals (bisphenol A and phthalates, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals. We then review studies showing the epigenetic effects of those environmental factors in humans that may affect normal neurodevelopment.
Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe
Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed...
Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James
Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc
... Professional Meetings Order Materials Clinical Trials Support Group Leader Training Adolescent and Young Adult Guidelines For brain ... nitrites), cigarette smoking, cell phone use, and residential power line exposure, for example—are true risk factors ...
Full Text Available AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3 and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1. Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ; yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described. Here, we describe that AGAP1 localizes to axons, dendrites, dendritic spines, and synapses, colocalizing preferentially with markers of early and recycling endosomes. Functional studies reveal overexpression and down-regulation of AGAP1 affects both neuronal endosomal trafficking and dendritic spine morphology, supporting a role for AGAP1 in the recycling endosomal trafficking involved in their morphogenesis. Finally, we determined the sensitivity of AGAP1 expression to mutations in the DTNBP1 gene, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder, and found that AGAP1 mRNA and protein levels are selectively reduced in the null allele of the mouse orthologue of DTNBP1. We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function.
Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.
Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.
Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...
Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for
Gao, Yi-Xiong; Zhang, Hongxia; Yu, Xinwei; He, Jia-lu; Shang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning
The aim of this study was to assess net neurodevelopmental effect via maternal consumption of marine fish. A total of thirty-one species were collected from Zhoushan, China. The net IQ point gain was assessed by FAO/WHO deterministic approach and probabilistic computation (if necessary). Results of the deterministic assessment of two samples belonging to Scoliodon sorrakowah showed negative IQ point gain in both common and extreme consumption scenarios (175 and 450 g/week, respectively); the net IQ gain caused by both consumption scenarios of other species were positive. Both consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah showed beneficial neurodevelopmental effect according to probabilistic computation (95% CI for mean of net IQ gain: 0.0536-0.0554 and 0.1377-0.1425, respectively). Except for Scoliodon sorrakowah, this study indicates that both consumption scenarios of other studied species would be recommended according to the FAO/WHO approach. There would be no recommendation of consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah for the reason for carefulness.
Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Dzaman, Karolina; Rapiejko, Piotr
Laryngeal cancer is the most common of head and neck cancers. Neoplasm used to develop basing on DNA mutation which leads to uncontrolled growth and cells' division. It is due to spontaneous mutations or influence of chemical, biological and physical factors. Laryngeal cancer generation is conditioned by many synergic factors. Some of them certainly participate in cancer genesis and this thesis is accepted by medical environment and other of them have been discussed giving different information. Definition of the risk factors role in laryngeal cancer etiology is very difficult especially regarding their contemporary occurrence in one person. Most common risk factors are environmental factors, gastroesophageal reflux, viral infections, diet, radiation, individual predisposition. Some of them, such as cigarette smoking and abuse alcohol are significantly oftener confirmed in patients with neoplasm diagnosis and others' role in developing of illness has been still researched. Thus the purpose of the study was to present so far achievements in laryngeal cancer etiology and to emphasize controversies relating to some factors' role in cancer genesis.
Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L
In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be
Vinet, É; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fombonne, É; Platt, R W; Bernatsky, S
Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus seem to have a potentially increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children born to healthy women. Recent experimental data suggest in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, women with systemic lupus erythematosus display high levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, which have been shown, in animal models, to alter fetal brain development and induce behavioral anomalies in offspring. Furthermore, subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and neurodevelopmental disorders share a common genetic predisposition, which could impair the fetal immune response to in utero immunologic insults. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes and medication exposures, which have been implicated as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on neurodevelopmental disorders and their potential determinants in systemic lupus erythematosus offspring. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.
Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Harmony, Thalía; Porras-Kattz, Eneida; Colmenero-Batallán, Miguel J.; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús E.; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Cruz-Rivero, Erika
In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:22957240
Full Text Available In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy.
Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C
The main aims of this paper are to review and evaluate the neurobiology of the depressive syndrome from a neurodevelopmental perspective. An English language literature search was performed using PubMed. Depression is a complex syndrome that involves anatomical and functional changes that have an early origin in brain development. In subjects with genetic risk for depression, early stress factors are able to mediate not only the genetic risk but also gene expression. There is evidence that endocrine and immune interactions have an important impact on monoamine function and that the altered monoamine signalling observed in the depressive syndrome has a neuro-endocrino-immunological origin early in the development. Neurodevelopment is a key aspect to understand the whole neurobiology of depression.
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It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.
Lindenburg, Irene T; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E; van Klink, Jeanine M; Verduin, Esther; van Kamp, Inge L; Walther, Frans J; Schonewille, Henk; Doxiadis, Ilias I; Kanhai, Humphrey H; van Lith, Jan M; van Zwet, Erik W; Oepkes, Dick; Brand, Anneke; Lopriore, Enrico
To determine the incidence and risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in children with hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn treated with intrauterine transfusion (IUT). Neurodevelopmental outcome in children at least 2 years of age was assessed using standardized tests, including the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, according to the children's age. Primary outcome was the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment defined as at least one of the following: cerebral palsy, severe developmental delay, bilateral deafness, and/or blindness. A total of 291 children were evaluated at a median age of 8.2 years (range, 2-17 years). Cerebral palsy was detected in 6 (2.1%) children, severe developmental delay in 9 (3.1%) children, and bilateral deafness in 3 (1.0%) children. The overall incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 4.8% (14/291). In a multivariate regression analysis including only preoperative risk factors, severe hydrops was independently associated with neurodevelopmental impairment (odds ratio, 11.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-92.7). Incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment in children treated with intrauterine transfusion for fetal alloimmune anemia is low (4.8%). Prevention of fetal hydrops, the strongest preoperative predictor for impaired neurodevelopment, by timely detection, referral and treatment may improve long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry
Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....
Qin, Gordon; Lo, Jessica W; Marlow, Neil; Calvert, Sandy A; Greenough, Anne; Peacock, Janet L
Postnatal dexamethasone is associated with reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There remains, however, concern that its short-term benefits are accompanied by long-term adverse effects e.g. poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our aim was to determine the effects of administration of postnatal dexamethasone on respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age after adjusting for neonatal and infant risk factors. The study included 412 infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation, 29% had received postnatal dexamethasone. Two outcomes were examined, respiratory hospital admissions in the past 12 months and neurodevelopmental impairment. Logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birthweight z-score, gestation, maternal smoking, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks, airleak, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary haemorrhage, major ultrasound abnormality, mode of ventilation and age at assessment, was undertaken. After adjustment, postnatal dexamethasone was associated with significantly increased proportions of both respiratory hospital readmission: (0.35 vs 0.15, difference = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.31) and neurodevelopmental impairment (0.59 vs 0.45, difference = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26). Postnatal dexamethasone use in extremely preterm infants is associated with increased risks of respiratory hospital admissions and neurodevelopmental impairment. These associations were not explained by excess neonatal morbidities.
Reuner, Gitta; Hassenpflug, Anne; Pietz, Joachim; Philippi, Heike
Most studies on clinical outcome of preterm born infants focus on high-risk infants, whereas little is known about the long-term prognosis of low-risk low birth weight preterm born infants (LBW). To examine physical growth, school outcome, behavioural aspects, quality of life, and intervention impact on LBW in late adolescence compared to term born controls and to analyse developmental pathways from childhood to adolescence for these groups. In late adolescence 65 LBW and 41 matched term born controls were assessed with a structured telephone interview and standardized questionnaires with regard to physical growth, school career, therapeutic interventions, behavioural aspects, and quality of life. Longitudinal analysis comprised data from birth, infancy, school age, and adolescence. Growth in height of LBW was highly variable, but correlated significantly with birth parameters and was below those of controls with regard to percentiles. School enrollment of LBW was more often delayed, and there was a trend toward lower school graduation in LBW. The groups did not differ with regard to general or health-related quality of life and behavioural aspects, but LBW received significantly more therapeutical interventions. In general, LBW showed no major deficits in late adolescence. However, a prolonged school career and a higher demand for therapeutic interventions indicate subtle neurodevelopmental deficits in LBW. This underscores the need for professional follow-up programmes for this majority of preterm born infants.
Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Camacho, Ricardo; McCauley, Brandon; Szczech Moser, Christy
Over 70 years ago Dr. Karel Bobath and his wife Bertha Bobath began to craft the therapeutic intervention now known as neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT). This edition of Reviews, Tools, and Resources will highlight a historical review of research studies that have been completed, current websites, books, and blogs focusing on NDT.
Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.
Prenatal infection is an environmental risk factor for various brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Modeling this association in animals shows that maternal immune activation negatively affects fetal brain development and leads to the emergence of behavioral disturbances later in life. Recent discoveries in these preclinical models suggest that epigenetic modifications may be a critical molecular mechanism by which prenatal immune activation can mediate changes in brain development and functions, even across generations. This review discusses the potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal infections, thereby highlighting how infection-mediated epigenetic reprogramming may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of pathological traits. The identification of epigenetic and transgenerational mechanisms in infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders appears relevant to brain disorders independently of existing diagnostic classifications and may help identifying complex patterns of transgenerational disease transmission beyond genetic inheritance. The consideration of ancestral infectious histories may be of great clinical interest and may be pivotal for developing new preventive treatment strategies against infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders.
...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...
... Version Â» [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials Â» Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is ... and can be treated with drugs or surgery. Symptoms of a Stroke If you see or have one or more ...
Vlastos, Emanuel J; Tomlinson, Tracy M; Bildirici, Ibrahim; Sreenarasimhaiah, Sreedevi; Yusuf, Kamran; Sadovsky, Yoel; Levy, Roni
The risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia correlates with fetal brain immaturity. Given that the appearance of fetal heart rate (FHR) accelerations is associated with brain maturation, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal cerebral lesions and developmental delay in very low birthweight newborns are associated with absent reactivity of the FHR tracing prior to delivery. We analyzed the FHR tracing of 97 fetuses with birthweight < 1200 g who underwent head ultrasound at day 3 and Bayley Scales of Infant Development testing at age 1 year. We used multivariate analysis to adjust for confounding variables. We found that the absence of two FHR accelerations of 10 beats per minute (bpm) for 10 seconds twice in a 20-minute window 1 hour before delivery was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia ( P < 0.01) and a significant risk for mental and psychomotor delays by Bayley testing ( P < 0.001). The absence of accelerations of 15 bpm for 15 seconds was not associated with these abnormalities. The absence of FHR accelerations before delivery suggests a greater risk for cerebral injury and developmental delay in the very premature neonate.
Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni
, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention, managed remotely by rehabilitation staff. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of CareToy training in a first sample of low-risk preterm infants. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial, randomised, multi...... parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue...... standard care. Infant Motor Profile Scale is the primary outcome measure and a total sample size of 40 infants has been established. Bayley-Cognitive subscale, Alberta Infants Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards are secondary outcome measures. All measurements will be performed at T0 and at the end...
Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.
Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Srivastava, Siddharth; Poretti, Andrea; Vaurio, Rebecca; Hartman, Adam; Johnston, Michael V
Infants born with tuberous sclerosis complex, a genetic condition resulting from a mutation in TSC1 or TSC2, are at increased risk for intellectual disability and/or autism. Features of epilepsy, neuropathology, genetics, as well as timing and type of mechanism-based medications have been proposed as risk factors. Neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported among these studies; however, few include data about the individuals' early neurodevelopmental profile, a factor that may contribute significantly to these outcomes. Further, there is no clinical standard for the neurodevelopmental assessment of these infants. The paucity of data regarding the natural history of neurodevelopment in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex and the lack of a gold standard for neurodevelopmental evaluation present a significant challenge for clinicians and researchers. During the first year of life, we tracked the onset of infantile spasms, the type and timing of antiepileptic treatments, and the associated response of two age-matched infants with tuberous sclerosis complex. We also employed Capute Scales as a part of a structured neurodevelopmental evaluation to characterize and compare their neurodevelopmental profiles. Infant 1 developed infantile spasms with confirmed hypsarrhythmia at 4 months of age. Treatment with vigabatrin was initiated within 24 hours with near immediate cessation of seizures and no further seizures to date. Expressive language delay was detected at 12 months and treated with speech and/or language therapy. Infant 2 developed complex partial seizures at 1 month. Treatment included levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and the ketogenic diet. Vigabatrin was initiated on detection of hypsarrhythmia after 4 months. Intractable epilepsy persists to date. Global developmental delay was evident by 8 months and treated with physical, occupational, and speech and/or language therapy. Many risk factors have been associated with intellectual disability and/or autism in
... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women ... Cerebral Aneurysms 7 Types of Aphasia 8 Brain Stem Stroke 9 Cognitive Challenges After Stroke 10 Personality ...
Reijnders, Margot R F; Leventer, Richard J; Lee, Boo Hon; Baralle, Diana; Selber, Paulo; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Hunt, David
Clinical characteristics. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders include PURA syndrome, caused by a heterozygous pathogenic sequence variant in PURA, and 5q31.3 deletion syndrome, caused by a genomic 5q31.3 deletion encompassing all or part of PURA. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay with absence of speech in most and lack of independent ambulation in many. Early-onset problems can include hypotonia, hypothermia, hyper...
Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra
Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case ? control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
Ehninger, Dan; Li, Weidong; Fox, Kevin; Stryker, Michael P; Silva, Alcino J
.... Surprisingly, a number of recent animal model studies of neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate that reversing the underlying molecular deficits can result in substantial improvements in function...
Hogue, Aaron; Evans, Steven W.; Levin, Frances R.
This article introduces neurodevelopmental and clinical considerations for treating adolescents with co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent substance use (ASU) in outpatient settings. We first describe neurobiological impairments common to ADHD and ASU, including comorbidity with conduct disorder, that evoke a…
Ciccia, Angela Hein; Roizen, Nancy; Garvey, Matt; Bielefeld, Roger; Short, Elizabeth J
Children living in poverty are at high risk for delays in development of language and behavior and they experience a discrepancy in diagnosis and access to intervention services. This gap is partially caused by barriers in access as well as traits that are specific to each child and family. The Identification of Neurodevelopmental Disabilities in Underserved Children using Telehealth (INvesT) trial is a novel intervention approach that was specifically designed to address these barriers. The INvesT trial has three primary aims: 1) to reduce the age of identification of neurodevelopmental disability for high-risk, low-income children. 2) To validate the INvesT protocol as a service delivery model that will decrease age of identifications of neurodevelopmental disability for high-risk, low-income children; and 3) to identify important child-specific factors, family-specific factors, and environmental factors that impact feasibility and success of the INvesT trial for high-risk, low-income children. The INvesT trial is an open-label, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multi-level study that includes telehealth risk assessment, telehealth screening, traditional full assessment, and follow through to enrollment in early intervention. The trial is conducted in partnership with an urban community health clinic that largely serves a low-income patient population. The results of the INvesT trial will provide evidence for the use of a telehealth service delivery model to improve access to care for neurodevelopmental disabilities for high-risk, low-income children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hodyl, Nicolette A; Aboustate, Natalie; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T; Clifton, Vicki L; Stark, Michael J
A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection. Further, we will describe the placenta's role as both a barrier to maternally-derived bioactive substances critical for normal fetal brain development, such as cortisol, and a source of neuroactive steroids and neurotrophins known to have critical functions in neuronal proliferation, axonal growth, myelination and the regulation of apoptosis. Finally, emerging data supporting the potential utility of novel placental biomarkers in the early prediction of poor neurodevelopmental outcome in infants born both preterm and term will be discussed. These include the assessment of genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms in placental tissue) and epigenetic biomarkers (e.g. placental microRNAs and placental DNA methylation). With the placenta the key tissue regulating the fetal environment, integration of observed changes in placental function with genetic and epigenetic variations may advance our ability to predict future infant health. Ultimately, this may facilitate targeted allocation of health resources with the aim of improving lifelong neurodevelopmental capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan
. Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... of medicine during pregnancy from the National Prescription Drug Register, and birth characteristics of the child from the Danish National Birth Register. Rate ratios (RR) of isolated and syndromic CHC with 95% CI were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: In a cohort of 1928666 live...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural...
Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania
The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly......-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We found that the majority of claims about treatment safety and efficacy were unsubstantiated. Instead, a range of rhetorical strategies were used to imply scientific support. When peer-reviewed publications were cited, 20...... % were incorrect or irrelevant. We call for new partnerships between advocacy and experts in developmental disorders to ensure better accuracy and higher transparency about how treatment information is selected and evidenced on advocacy websites....
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...
Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.
OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and
Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel.
Powell, Susan B.
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409
Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh
Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.
López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia
preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...
Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...
Suvanand, S; Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Singh, U; Sundaram, K R
Cerebral palsy is a major cause of crippling in children, but it's etiology is poorly understood. This case control study was done to assess some of the identified risk factors for cerebral palsy, 125 cerebral palsy cases selected from hospital clinic and 125 age and sex matched neighbourhood controls, all aged less than 5 years and residing in Delhi (India) were studied. Information regarding antenatal, natal and postnatal period was collected by mother's interview, and wherever available, from hospital records with the study subjects. Most common type of cerebral palsy was spastic (88%). Quadriplegia was the commonest topographical subtype (86.4%). Birth asphyxia was found to be present in only 25.6% of cases. The commonest risk factor amongst cases was low birth weight (28.8%). The multivariate odds ratios (confidence limits) for the risk factors found to be significantly associated with cerebral palsy were 36.1 (7.76-160) for birth asphyxia, 13.8 (4.95-38.3) for low birth weight, 37.4 (4.47-313) for neonatal convulsion, 23 (4.7-112) for neonatal jaundice, 14.4 (3.69-56.4) for neonatal infection, 24.9 (2.78-223) for instrument assisted delivery and 15.4 (1.57-152) for antepartum hemorrhage. Precipitate labour, caesarean section, twins, toxemia, breech delivery and head injury were not found to be significantly associated with cerebral palsy. Thus birth asphyxia, low birth weight, neonatal convulsions, neonatal jaundice, neonatal infection, instrument assisted delivery and antepartum hemorrhage are significant risk factors for cerebral palsy.
Vogel, Alecia C; Gutmann, David H; Morris, Stephanie M
Over the past several decades, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has become increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder conferring increased risk for several important neurodevelopmental problems. In this review, we summarize the specific neurodevelopmental problems encountered in the context of NF1. These include impairments in general cognitive function, deficits in specific cognitive domains such as executive function and visuospatial processing and risk for specific learning disorders, impairments in attention and social skills and the overlap with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, and the risk of developing other psychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. Early recognition of these developmental impairments is important for the effective treatment of children with NF1, and further characterization is essential to improve our understanding of how mutations in the NF1 gene create the diversity of clinical neuropsychiatric symptomatology observed in this at-risk population. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and clinical characteristics of neonatal candidemia are poorly understood in western China. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of neonatal candidemia in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Electronic databases were reviewed and data on Candida species were isolated from blood cultures and candidemia incidence, risk factors, and mortality were extracted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with candidemia. Results During the 4-year period, candidemia was identified in 69 newborns, for an incidence rate of 13.6 per 1000 admissions. Prolonged antibiotic therapy duration [odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence incidence (95% CI = 1.06, 1.01–1.10], total parenteral nutrition [OR, 95% CI = 6.03, 2.10–17.30] and neurodevelopmental impairment (OR, 95% CI = 7.34, 1.18–45.80 were all associated with increased odds of candidemia development in infants (P value was 0.010, 0.001, 0.033, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 7.2% in the candidemia group. Conclusions Prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy, presence of total parenteral nutrition and neurodevelopmental impairment were the major risk factors associated with neonatal candidemia. This study highlights the importance of the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal candidemia.
Breathnach, Fionnuala M
Subclinical thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy has been shown to have an association with neurodevelopmental delay in the offspring. It is unclear whether obstetric factors may account for this observation.
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...
Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.
Schertz, Mitchell; Karni-Visel, Yael; Tamir, Ada; Genizi, Jacob; Roth, Dana
We aimed to examine family quality of life (FQOL) of Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability and its relation to socio-demographics. The cohort included caregivers of 70 children ages (mean ± standard deviation) 5.36 ± 3.53 years. Families were two-parent (85.7%), lived in the periphery (67.1%) and included Jews (60%), Muslims (18.6%), Druze (14.3%) and Christians (7.1%). Religiosity included: secular (38.6%), traditional (31.4%), religious (30%). Children's diagnosis included autistic spectrum disorder (41.4%), intellectual disability (21.4%), cerebral palsy (17.1%), genetic syndromes (17.1%) and sensorineural hearing loss (2.9%). Degree of support (1-minimal,5-greatest) required by the child was 3.67 ± 1.28 for physical and 3.49 ± 1.36 for communication. Primary caregivers completed the FQOL Survey. Domain scores were highest for family relations and lowest for financial well-being. Dimension scores were highest for importance and lowest for opportunities. Overall FQOL approximated average. Jewish families and residents of a major urban area reported higher and more religious families reported lower overall FQOL. Regression analysis found ethnicity contributing to overall FQOL and domain scores with residence contributing to support from services. Ethnicity and child dependence contributed to dimension scores. Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability report average FQOL scores. However, family and child dependence characteristics affect FQOL scores. Professionals working with these families should consider FQOL information when making recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Francisco Rodal Abal
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine those risk factors that may cause running injuries in general, and particularly damage to the muscle mass, and the tendon. Twenty six male and female Galician runners were evaluated about their lower limb flexibility and length, knee Q angle, explosive power and training features such as kilometers and sessions per week, level of competition, shoes, surface, injuries last year, use of insoles, athletic specially, age, weight and height. During next 12 weeks runners continued training as they had been doing regularly and we recorded all injuries that appeared in this period. After that and from the liner regression we obtained different models that explained the variability of general injuries, tendon injuries and damages to the muscle mass. We also find positive correlations between previous injuries and training volume, and these with the dependent variable «injuries in 12 weeks». In regard to tendinopathy and muscle mass injuries, we observed that the synthetic material present in the track is a risk factor for these muscle injuries. Meanwhile, the increasing age and the Q angle, increments the occurrence of tendon injuries.
In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11
... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Abram, K; Silm, H; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M
Although rosacea is a common disease, the cause of disease is still a mystery -Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic predisposition, climatic factors, and detrimental habits are implicated as triggers of rosacea. The aim of current study is to evaluate several suspected risk factors coincidently. Patients with rosacea from a dermatology clinic and skin-healthy controls from an randomly selected employees' population enrolled the study. Skin status were evaluated by one and same dermatologist. Participants were queried for age, gender, sun-reactive skin type, and detrimental habits using a questionnaire; blood samples for detecting Helicobacter pylori serostatus were collected. Totally 145 skin-healthy controls and 172 subjects either with flushing episodes or established rosacea included the study. In multivariate analysis, rosacea patients had significantly higher chance to have photosensitive skin types (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.01-3.04; P < 0.05), positive family history to rosacea (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.34-7.92; P < 0.0001) or previous smoking status (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.07-3.80; P < 0.05) comparing with skin-healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences either in gender, Helicobacter pylori serostatus, caffeine intake, alcohol consumption, occupational environment, or education level between rosacea patients and controls. Rosacea is foremost associated with familial predisposition. There is no association between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea in current study.
Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Lindemann, Lothar; Jønch, Aia E
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal gene...
Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana
Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (pacid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mullins, R J
There are few studies on the incidence or recurrence of anaphylaxis. To examine the incidence of anaphylaxis and risk factors for recurrence. A prospective study of 432 patients referred to a community-based specialist practice in the Australian Capital Territory with anaphylaxis, followed by a survey to obtain information on recurrence. Of 432 patients (48% male, 73% atopic, mean 27.4 years, SD 19.5, median 26) with anaphylaxis, 260 patients were seen after their first episode; 172 experienced 584 previous reactions. fifty-four percent of index episodes were treated in hospital. Aetiology was identified in 91.6% patients: food (61%), stinging insects (20.4%) or medication (8.3%). The minimum occurrence and incidence of new cases of anaphylaxis was estimated at 12.6 and 9.9 episodes/100,000 patient-years, respectively. Follow-up data were obtained from 304 patients (674 patient-years). One hundred and thirty experienced further symptoms (45 serious), 35 required hospitalization and 19 administered adrenaline. Accidental ingestion of peanut/tree nut caused the largest number of relapses, but the highest risk of recurrence was associated with sensitivity to wheat and/or exercise. Rates of overall and serious recurrence were 57 and 10 episodes/100 patient-years, respectively. Of those prescribed adrenaline, 3/4 carried it, 2/3 were in date, and only 1/2 patients faced with serious symptoms administered adrenaline. Five patients each developed new triggers for anaphylaxis, or re-presented with significant psychiatric symptoms. In any 1 year, 1/12 patients who have suffered anaphylaxis will experience recurrence, and 1/50 will require hospital treatment or use adrenaline. Compliance with carrying and using adrenaline is poor. Occasional patients develop new triggers or suffer psychiatric morbidity.
Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G
To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.
Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.
Robaey, Philippe; Krajinovic, Maja; Marcoux, Sophie; Moghrabi, Albert
Pharmacogenetics holds the promise of minimizing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of cancer patients by identifying patients at risk, enabling the individualization of treatment and the planning of close follow-up and early remediation. This review focuses first on methotrexate, a drug often implicated in neurotoxicity, especially when used in…
Springer, Priscilla E; Slogrove, Amy L; Laughton, Barbara; Bettinger, Julie A; Saunders, Henriëtte H; Molteno, Christopher D; Kruger, Mariana
To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility. At 12 months of age, HEU and HUU infant growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared. Growth was evaluated as WHO weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length and head-circumference-for-age Z-scores. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated using the Bayley scales of Infant Development III (BSID) and Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Fifty-eight HEU and 38 HUU infants were evaluated at 11-14 months of age. Performance on the BSID did not differ in any of the domains between HEU and HUU infants. The cognitive, language and motor scores were within the average range (US standardised norms). Seven (12%) HEU and 1 (2.6%) HUU infant showed social withdrawal on the ADBB (P = 0.10), while 15 (26%) HEU and 4 (11%) HUU infants showed decreased vocalisation (P = 0.06). There were no growth differences. Three HEU and one HUU infant had minor neurological signs, while eight HEU and two HUU infants had macrocephaly. Although findings on the early neurodevelopmental outcome of HEU infants are reassuring, minor differences in vocalisation and on neurological examination indicate a need for reassessment at a later age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Homer, Eliza S.
This article describes the use of collaborative fabric collage based on a neurodevelopmental adaptation for an adult who was being treated for trauma. The case demonstrates the value of thinking about neurodevelopmental factors when creating art therapy interventions. A biologically respectful treatment that offers relational, relevant,…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...
Fily, Antoine; Pierrat, Véronique; Delporte, Valérie; Breart, Gérard; Truffert, Patrick
We sought to (1) evaluate at 2 years the postsurfactant era developmental outcome of children who were born before 33 weeks of gestational age (GA) in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France in 1997 and (2) identify risk factors of poor developmental quotient (DQ). Children were part of the EPIPAGE study, which included all of these births in 9 French regions. A prospective observational study was conducted of all births before 33 weeks in 1997. Risk factors of poor DQ were obtained from a multiple linear regression, and results were expressed as DQ differences with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 546 births were included in the study. A total of 461 (84.4%) had a clinical evaluation at 2 years of age, and 380 (69.6%) had an assessment with the use of the Brunet-Lezine scale of infant development. Their mean GA was 29.9 weeks (29.7-30.1 weeks), and mean birth weight was 1378 g (1338-1418 g). A total of 9% had a recognizable pattern of cerebral palsy, 0.2% were blind, and 0.8% required hearing aids. The mean DQ was 94 +/- 11 and decreased from 97 at 32 weeks to 86 at 24 to 25 weeks. After multivariate analysis, children who were born at 24 to 25 weeks had a mean DQ reduction of 11 points (-20 to -1) compared with those who were born at 32 weeks, but minor differences were found from 26 to 32 weeks. Boys had a DQ 4 points lower than girls (-7 to -1). In this study, the outcome of extremely preterm infants was poor. After 25 weeks, outcome was related mainly to the sociocultural level of the family and to the presence of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormalities. Consequently, in the postsurfactant era, we have to propose follow-up programs to children who are born extremely preterm and to concentrate our efforts on children with less-than-optimal social and family setting.
Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele
Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
risk of developing pelvic floor disorders 5 - 10 years after their first delivery. Our finding of a non-significant association between AI and instrumental delivery at 6 weeks after delivery differs from that of. Donnelly et al., who showed that instrumentation, mainly forceps delivery, carried the greatest risk for sphincter disruption ...
Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood
Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.
Tatlı, Burak; Özer, Irmak; Ekici, Barış; Kalelioğlu, Ibrahim; Has, Recep; Eraslan, Emine; Yüksel, Atıl
We present the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with isolated borderline fetal ventriculomegaly. The present study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University in July-December 2010. Prenatal second trimester detailed ultrasound examinations were performed by obstetricians at the Prenatal Diagnosis Department of Istanbul Medical School, and 31 consecutive patients aged 8-33 months have been included in the study. Four patients with atrial diameters of over 15 mm and three patients with central nervous system development anomalies were excluded from the study. In order to assess the neuromotor development of patients, neurologic examinations and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) were used. Nine patients were female (29%) and 22 were male (71%). In the postnatal period, tuberous sclerosis was found in one patient, Down syndrome in one, and equinovarus foot deformity in one. Atrial diameter was patients and >12 mm in 13. Cranial ultrasounds done in the first postnatal month revealed persisting ventriculomegaly in nine patients. The two patients who scored significantly low in all areas on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were the patients with Down syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. The one scoring low in the motor area was the patient with the equinovarus foot deformity. The BSID-III scores of the patients whose prenatal ventricle diameter was patients showing slight developmental delay were the ones whose cranial ultrasound in the first postnatal month showed persisting ventriculomegaly. In patients with borderline fetal ventriculomegaly, atrial diameter being more than 12 mm, the condition persisting in the first postnatal month and the presence of accompanying syndromes and malformations all constitute clear risk factors for neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile)
textabstractPurpose of review: Breast and ovarian cancer remain a significant burden for women living in the Western world. This paper reviews the risk factors and current strategies to prevent these diseases. Recent findings: Established factors associated with the risk of breast cancer include
De Theije, Caroline G M; Bavelaar, Bas M.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, Sijmen Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...
Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors ...
Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than
Böhm, Stephan K; Kruis, Wolfgang
Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of the carriers of diverticula are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant diseases in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allow defining risk factors for the development of diverticulitis and its complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulitis and associated conditions reviewed. Besides non-controllable risk factors like age and sex, lifestyle factors like food, drinks and physical activity, drugs are described to increase or decrease the risk to develop diverticulitis or to suffer from complications. The recognition of risk factors for the development of diverticular disease or even complicated disease like lifestyle habits or medication is crucial for patient management.
Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.
Andrews, G; Pine, D S; Hobbs, M J; Anderson, T M; Sunderland, M
DSM-IV and ICD-10 are atheoretical and largely descriptive. Although this achieves good reliability, the validity of diagnoses can be increased by an understanding of risk factors and other clinical features. In an effort to group mental disorders on this basis, five clusters have been proposed. We now consider the second cluster, namely neurodevelopmental disorders. We reviewed the literature in relation to 11 validating criteria proposed by a DSM-V Task Force Study Group. This cluster reflects disorders of neurodevelopment rather than a 'childhood' disorders cluster. It comprises disorders subcategorized in DSM-IV and ICD-10 as Mental Retardation; Learning, Motor, and Communication Disorders; and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Although these disorders seem to be heterogeneous, they share similarities on some risk and clinical factors. There is evidence of a neurodevelopmental genetic phenotype, the disorders have an early emerging and continuing course, and all have salient cognitive symptoms. Within-cluster co-morbidity also supports grouping these disorders together. Other childhood disorders currently listed in DSM-IV share similarities with the Externalizing and Emotional clusters. These include Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Separation Anxiety Disorder. The Tic, Eating/Feeding and Elimination disorders, and Selective Mutisms were allocated to the 'Not Yet Assigned' group. Neurodevelopmental disorders meet some of the salient criteria proposed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to suggest a classification cluster.
Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B
BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464 pa...... to a standardized heat stimulus may preferably be treated using an operative technique with lowest risk for nerve damage.......BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...
Charles W. McMonnies
Full Text Available Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.
Rapoport, J L; Giedd, J N; Gogtay, N
... greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis...
Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas
Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.
Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura
The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...
Anjali; Deepak; Dinesh Kumar
Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic...
de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi
Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors.
McMonnies, Charles W
Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the marriage protective factors in married people with risk factors. The method of this study is qualityative. In this study the researcher-made risk factor check list and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (115-item test were used. to select the sample group, Risk Factor Check List and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were distributed among 100 men and 100 women who had been married for at least 3 years. Among these 200 individuals, 22 people with high risk factors and marital satisfaction were screened. Data reached saturation through Interviewing 18 people. Protective factors based on their frequencies include: relationship, personality traits, skills, adjustment, out-side factors, religion, and beliefs. Each of these protective factors includes several primary components. Some of the components such as respect, desirable sexual relation and commitment have important role in protecting marriage. In addition, some other factors, such as contentment, not being jealous of otherpeople’s lives, accepting the current life situation, were mentioned that seem to be specific to Iranian culture. There was no significant difference between men and women choosing protective factors. There was however a significant difference between men and women in some of the mentioned components.
Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted reproduction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.
Full Text Available Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age, as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue. Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a
Review: Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk marker? 128. Vol 52 No 2. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(2): 128-129. Heart rate in epidemiological studies. Over the last 25 years numerous reports demonstrated a significant association between resting heart rate and all- cause mortality ...
Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in ... echocardiography may enhance the diagnosis but not necessarily change management. ..... Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on.
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann
children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...
J Gordon Millichap
Clinical and polysomnographic risk factors as early predictors for the development of postnatal epilepsy were determined in 158 infants presenting with two or more seizures, in a study at Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada
Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...
... changing, depending on your age and other factors unique to you. High Blood Pressure —Blood pressure is ... cholesterol raise your LDL cholesterol level. A high-sodium (salt) diet can raise your risk for high ...
Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten
Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide...... population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis...... as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk...
de Santhiago, MR; Giacomin NT; Smadja D; Bechara SJ
Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refracti...
Kelsey, J L
Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol co...
Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.
Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing vascular risk factors in patients with established vascular diseases. Patients with different manifestations of vascular diseases appeared to have high levels of self-efficacy concerning the self-ma...
Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura
Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.
This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk
Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.
The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to
... is high mainly because the body doesn't use its insulin properly. Over time, a high blood sugar level can lead to ... plaque buildup in their heart arteries by the time they’re in their 70s. ... of CHD. Gender Some risk factors may affect CHD risk differently ...
Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian
Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.
Kubota, Takeo; Takae, Hirasawa; Miyake, Kunio
The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stre...
Aymen N Naguib
Full Text Available Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1 st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5 th edition. Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF + dexmedetomidine (DEX (LDF + DEX group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046. The bispectral index (BIS value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011. For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R 2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027. Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....
Full Text Available Preterm labor or parturition Prematurus is labor that occurs at age less than 37 weeks of pregnancy is calculated from the first day of last period. Data in hospitals Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru data obtained in 2010 obtained data on the number of labor as much as 2400 cases, with 190 cases of preterm labor (7.91%, in 2011 the number of births as 2287 cases with 279 cases of preterm labor (12% and in the period January-April 2012 Number 780 cases of preterm labor (11.5%. The purpose of research is knowing the relationship of the complications of pregnancy, a history of preterm labor, anemia, age and parity with preterm labor. Type of research is a case-control study. The population in this study were all mothers giving birth at hospitals Arifin achmad Pekanbaru. Size of the sample consisted of 245 cases and 245 controls. Data analysis was performed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate Logistic Regression method Ganda. The results is a complication of pregnancy (95% CI: 4.09 to 9.21, age (95% CI: 1.58 to 3.69, and parity (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.36 associated with preterm labor. The conclusion that the dominant variables associated with the incidence of preterm birth is a complication of pregnancy and no variable counfounding. Advice to pregnant women who experience pregnancy complications during their pregnancy on a regular basis at least four times during pregnancy and high parity mothers are advised to use contraception; To health professionals to classify the status of patients at risk to facilitate the provision of IEC.
Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J
This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy.
Chocarro Martínez, A; Galindo Tobal, F; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; González López, A; Alvarez Navia, F; Ochoa Sangrador, C; Martín Arribas, M I
The role of gastric acid inhibitors as predisposing factors for Candida esophagitis is unknown. A retrospective case-control study of esophageal candidiasis was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients diagnosed from January 1991 to December 1997. The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis was always made on the basis of endoscopic and histological criteria. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, 15 of whom had esophageal complaints and 48 of whom suffered from another previous chronic disease (17 had cancer). In addition, 20 patients had previously been treated with antibiotics, 13 with steroids and 14 with omeprazole. In the multivariate analysis, neoplasm (odds ratio, 5.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-15.56) and therapy with antibiotics (odds ratio, 11.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.82-37.45), steroids (odds ratio, 35.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-324.01) or omeprazole (odds ratio, 18.23; 95% confidence interval, 4.67-71.03) were all associated with esophageal candidiasis. These data suggest that Candida esophagitis tends to occur in patients with chronic diseases, most of whom have been previously treated with antibiotics, steroids or omeprazole. The findings support the hypothesis that treatment with omeprazole favors the development of esophageal candidiasis.
Laraja, Kristin; Sadhwani, Anjali; Tworetzky, Wayne; Marshall, Audrey C; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Freud, Lindsay; Hass, Cara; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ware, Janice; Lafranchi, Terra; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Newburger, Jane W
To characterize neurodevelopmental outcomes after fetal aortic valvuloplasty for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome and determine the risk factors for adverse neurodevelopment. Questionnaires were mailed to families of children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty from 2000 to 2012, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcome was the General Adaptive Composite score of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Questionnaire-Second Edition. Other questionnaires included the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Among 69 eligible subjects, 52 (75%) completed questionnaires at median age of 5.5 (range 1.3-12) years; 30 (58%) had biventricular status circulation. The General Adaptive Composite mean score (92 ± 17) was lower than population norms (P Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), most subscale scores for patients with biventricular and single ventricular status were similar. Children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty have neurodevelopmental delay, similar to patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome without fetal intervention. Achievement of biventricular circulation was not associated with better outcomes. We infer that innate patient factors and morbidity during infancy have the greatest effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.
Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on
About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.
van der Mark, M.
Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on
Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent
occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR......Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...
Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia
Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.
Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko
The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pskill was also associated with PTH rate. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed that adult age (odds ratio [OR]=18.9) and male gender (OR=3.78) were the clinical risk factors for PTH. It also revealed that male gender (OR=82065335), adult age (OR=10.6), and surgeon's skill level (OR=7.50) were the clinical risk factors for the category III PTH. The risk of PTH was higher in this report compared with previous reports, which may be associated with the definition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo
Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.
Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine
Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.
Slaghekke, F; van Klink, J M M; Koopman, H M; Middeldorp, J M; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E
To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in children who developed twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) after fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Neurological, motor and cognitive development was assessed in a consecutive cohort of TTTS survivors treated with laser surgery between 2004 and 2011 and complicated by post-laser TAPS. Primary outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment, a composite outcome including any of the following: cerebral palsy, bilateral deafness, blindness, severe motor and/or cognitive developmental delay (>2 SD below the mean). A risk analysis on cognitive outcome was performed. During the study period, 33/306 (11%) monochorionic twin pairs developed TAPS after laser surgery for TTTS. Survival was 53/66 (80%). Long-term outcome was assessed in 47/53 (89%) children. The incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 4/47 (9%), occurring in one donor (1/20; 5%) and three recipients (3/27; 11%) (P=0.63). Mild-to-moderate cognitive delay, i.e. scores below 85, was detected in 8/47 (17%) children. Risk factors for low cognitive scores were low gestational age at birth (P=0.02) and low birth weight (P<0.01). The lowest cognitive scores were detected in the subgroup of TAPS survivors treated with intrauterine transfusion (median score, 82.5). Neurodevelopmental impairment and cognitive delay were found in almost one in five children surviving post-laser TAPS. Better treatment and, ideally, prevention of this complication after laser treatment for TTTS is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sumanasena, S P; Vipulaguna, D V; Mendis, M M; Gunawardena, N S
There is a lack of information on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates in low- and middle-income countries. To describe the developmental attainments of preterm neonates followed up for 5 years and to identify the risk factors for impairment. A prospective descriptive cohort study was undertaken in neonates of 34 weeks gestation born within a period of 12 months at a single tertiary maternity and neonatal unit in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Infants were assessed for neurodevelopment using the Bayley Infant and Toddler III® Assessments at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age and school readiness assessment at 5 years. Fifty-one infants were assessed at least once, 45 were assessed at 2 years and 39 had a final assessment at 5 years. Neurodevelopmental attainment deteriorated significantly in the cognitive and motor composite scores from 6 to 24 months (p < 0.05). By 5 years the number of children with delay in cognitive, language and motor domains had reduced significantly from 24 months (p < 0.05) but the cognitive skills remained most affected (10/39). At 5 years, 13 of 39 children had a confirmed diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder: eight had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, three autism spectrum disorder, one cerebral palsy and one visual impairment. Surfactant administration and retinopathy of prematurity were the most significant risks for delayed development at 5 years (p < 0.05). Deterioration of cognitive and motor composite scores over the first 24 months highlights the need for regular surveillance of premature infants. There was a discrepancy between the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental delay at 24 months and at 5 years. But the notable impact on school readiness skills requires public health initiatives to cater for the needs of these children.
Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E
The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.
Jae Hoon Moon
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.
Molodecky, Natalie A.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592
Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian
Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.
Nowadays stroke has a dominant place in the structure of neurological morbidity. According to data of the World Health Organization, stroke is the third highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries of the world, immediately following ischemic heart disease and malignant diseases. The appearance of the disease is influenced by many etiological factors, that is risk factors. Natural risk factors are: heredity, sex, age, geographical and climatic factors. Other diseases being risk factors include: hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. Bad habits as risk factors are: eating habits, obesity, smoking, alcoholism and physical and mental inactivity. The paper presents a review of risk factors, their categorization and the influence of each individual risk factor on the development of stroke. Hereditary factors have a significant role in development of stroke and they may serve as a basis for determining the person's susceptibility to stroke in a certain period of life. SEX: It has been proved that persons of female sex in the period prior to menopause are less susceptible to atherosclerosis risk and its side effects--ischemic heart disease and stroke. It is due to the fact that in this period of life women have a higher concentration of high-density lipoproteins, which are known to protect blood vessels against atherosclerosis. AGE: The incidence of stroke is higher at an older age, although nowadays there is evidence that younger people may develop the disease as well. It has been noticed that the frequency and intensity of insult are connected with abrupt changes of the front (weather conditions with certain values of atmospheric factors). A high correlation between the frequency of cerebrovascular insult and abrupt change of the front is evident during spells of warm front in cold months and during spells of cold front in warm months. Moreover, changes during the circadian cycle are of utmost importance. Hypertension is one of the factors
Merten, Julie Williams; Parker, Alexander; Williams, Adrienne; King, Jessica L; Largo-Wight, Erin; Osmani, Morsal
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA. Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have risen steadily and cost the healthcare system over $264 billion annually. Cancer risk can be reduced by restricting alcohol consumption, avoiding tobacco, eating a balanced diet, limiting sun exposure, exercising, and seeking routine cancer screenings. The purpose of this study is to examine cancer risk factor knowledge among college students. Researchers surveyed undergraduate and graduate students (n = 758) at a mid-sized public university in the Southeast about their knowledge regarding cancer risk factors including smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, obesity, hypertension, and human papillomavirus (HPV). Participants were mostly able to identify the association between cancers and health risk behaviors that have received widespread media coverage, are somewhat intuitive, or are salient to their life stage such as drinking, tanning, and smoking. Nearly all participants correctly reported exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, and smoking increased risk of developing skin and lung cancer, respectively. Most students correctly identified an increased risk of liver cancer associated with alcohol use but missed head/neck and breast cancer. However, knowledge of less publicized relationships was insufficient. The findings offer encouragement to public health professionals that campaigns have increased awareness of cancer risk. However, there were many relationships that revealed a lack of knowledge, and future campaigns can target lesser-known cancer risk relationships to reduce the personal tragedy and societal burden of cancer.
G. Carson, Charlotte
The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD.......016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though...
Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.
Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor
de Theije, Caroline G M; Bavelaar, Bas M; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, Sijmen Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD and ADHD. Allergic immune reactions, in prenatal and postnatal phases, are examples of these environmental factors, and adverse reactions to foods are reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings of (food) allergy in ASD and ADHD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, opportunities for nutritional interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck
The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... included. Information of potential risk factors was obtained by questionnaire and clinical examination. Additional information on medication use, comorbidities and fractures were obtained from national registries. An association (bone health.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan
Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan
of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan
of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus
Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...
Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.
Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.
Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known an...
Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.
Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unkn...
Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and
Felipe Freire da Silva
Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.
van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O
complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...... in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...
Brinton, L A; Vessey, M P; Flavel, R; Yeates, D
The importance of various risk factors for benign breast disorders has been assessed an analysis of data obtained from a multicenter cohort study of contraceptive use among women in the United Kingdom (the Oxford Family Planning Association Contraceptive Study). Cases comprised all women diagnosed as having any type of benign breast lesion; 74 had fibroadenoma, 211 had histologically confirmed chronic cystic disease, 331 had breast lumps not subjected to biopsy and 70 had other disease. Each case was individually matched with another study participant who was free from recognized breast disease. Matching factors were center of recruitment, date of recruitment, age at entry, and continuation in the study. An inverse association was found between use of oral contraceptives and the risk of the first three conditions. Current users of the pill had the lowest risk, particularly when the use was for an extended period. In contrast, past users demonstrated no reduction in risk. The reduction in risk for chronic cystic disease appeared to relate to the amount of progestogen contained in the pill. No significant association was observed between the risk of any of the conditions and either parity or age at first livebirth. Women of low social class and obese women were at low risk, perhaps reflecting diagnostic biases.
E. A. Epanchintseva
Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42
Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...
Hovland, V; Riiser, A; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C
Early life risk factors are previously described for childhood asthma, but less is known related to asthma in adolescence. We aimed to investigate early risk factors (before 2 years) for pubertal asthma and secondarily for pubertal asthma phenotypes based upon allergic comorbidities. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, subjects were categorized by recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years, asthma 2-10 years, and pubertal asthma from 10 to 16 years including incident asthma in puberty and asthma in remission from 10 to 16 years or as never rBO/asthma 0-16 years. Asthma in puberty was further classified based on the comorbidities atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. Twenty-three common asthma risk factors identified by 2 years of age, including frequency and persistence of bronchial obstruction (severity score), were analysed by weighted logistic regression for each phenotype. In adjusted models, the risk of pubertal asthma increased significantly with higher severity score, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and familial stress around birth. Pubertal asthma in remission was significantly associated with severity score and number of lower respiratory tract infections and inversely associated with breastfeeding beyond 4 months. Pubertal incident asthma was more common among firstborn children. All asthma phenotypes with allergic diseases were significantly associated with severity score, whereas familial perinatal stress increased the risk of asthma only. Asthma combined with AR was associated with parental asthma and being firstborn, whereas the risk of asthma with both atopic dermatitis and AR increased with higher paternal education, atopic dermatitis, being firstborn, and familial perinatal stress. Important early risk factors for pubertal asthma were early airways obstruction, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and perinatal familial
Panegyres, Peter K; Gray, Victoria
Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010) were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i) active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii) the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise) as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.
Peter K. Panegyres
Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.
Borowsky, I W; Hogan, M; Ireland, M
Little research addresses the correlates of sexual aggression in nonclinical populations of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual violence among male and female adolescents. We analyzed data on 71,594 students in the 9th and 12th grades responding to the 1992 Minnesota Student Survey, an anonymous, self-report survey examining an array of risk environments, health-compromising behaviors, and protective factors. The responses of students reporting a history of forcing someone into a sexual act were compared with those who reported that they had never forced someone into a sexual act. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females. A history of sexual violence perpetration was reported by 4.8% of male and 1.3% of female adolescents. Using a logistic regression model, sexual aggression was associated with experiencing intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse, witnessing family violence, frequent use of illegal drugs, anabolic steroid use, daily alcohol use, gang membership, high levels of suicide risk behavior, and excessive time spent "hanging out." Emotional health and connectedness with friends and adults in the community were protective factors for male adolescents against sexually aggressive behavior, and academic achievement was a protective factor for female adolescents. A history of forcing someone into a sexual act was associated with several risk and protective factors. Efforts to prevent adolescent sexual violence should target individuals at increased risk. Through their psychosocial assessment of young people, health care professionals can play a role in identifying, counseling, and making appropriate referrals for adolescents at risk for sexually aggressive behavior.
Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R
Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il
This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.
Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher
We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.
Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Kewei; Cao, Hongshi; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Ye; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Dezhi; Jia, Qian; Bie, Li
To investigate clinical characteristics of postcranioplasty seizures (PCS) first observed after cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC) to treat traumatic brain injury and to define factors that increase PCS risk. This retrospective study, covering the period between January 2008 and July 2015, compared PCS in postcranioplasty patients. Postcranioplasty seizures risk factors included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, time between DC and cranioplasty, duraplasty material, cranioplasty contusion location, electrocautery method, PCS type, and infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated (95% CI). Of 270 patients, 32 exhibited initial PCS onset postcranioplasty with 11.9% incidence (32/270). Patients fell into immediate (within 24 hours), early (from 1 to 7 days), and late (after 7 days) PCS groups with frequencies of 12, 5, and 15 patients, respectively. Generalized, partial, and mixed seizure types were observed in 13, 13, and 6 patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed increased risk with increasing age (>50 years). Cranioplasty contusion location, precranioplasty deficits, duraplasty material, and monopolar electrocautery were predictive of PCS onset (P < 0.05). Increased DC to cranioplasty interval increased risk but was not statistically significant (P = 0.062). Understanding risk factors for PCS will benefit the management of cranioplasty patients.
Alexander J. Ambinder
Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.
Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction
Wetmore, Daniel Z; Garner, Craig C
A growing and interdisciplinary translational neuroscience research effort for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is investigating the mechanisms of dysfunction and testing effective treatment strategies in animal models and, when possible, in the clinic. NDDs with a genetic basis have received particular attention. Transgenic animals that mimic genetic insults responsible for disease in man have provided insight about mechanisms of dysfunction, and, surprisingly, have shown that cognitive deficits can be addressed in adult animals. This review will present recent translational research based on animal models of genetic NDDs, as well as pharmacotherapeutic strategies under development to address deficits of brain function for Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, neurofibromatosis-1, tuberous sclerosis, and autism. Although these disorders vary in underlying causes and clinical presentation, common pathways and mechanisms for dysfunction have been observed. These include abnormal gene dosage, imbalance among neurotransmitter systems, and deficits in the development, maintenance and plasticity of neuronal circuits. NDDs affect multiple brain systems and behaviors that may be amenable to drug therapies that target distinct deficits. A primary goal of translational research is to replace symptomatic and supportive drug therapies with pharmacotherapies based on a principled understanding of the causes of dysfunction. Based on this principle, several recently developed therapeutic strategies offer clear promise for clinical development in man.
Golembo-Smith, Shana; Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily
of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10-13years old. Parent psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained in order to evaluate the predictive strength of neurodevelopmental factors in combination with genetic risk. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample...... included minor physical anomalies (MPAs), coordination, ocular alignment, laterality, and IQ. Adult diagnoses were assessed through psychiatric interviews in 1992, as well as through a scan of the national psychiatric registry through 2007. Through a combination of multiple childhood predictors, the model...... correctly classified 73% (24 of 33) of the participants who eventually developed a schizophrenia-spectrum outcome in adulthood. Results suggest that, with replication, multivariate premorbid prediction could potentially be a useful complementary approach to identifying individuals at risk for developing...
Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen
augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...
Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy. ... Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. ... speech; and (iv) the hypernasality was rated as severe by a speech therapist, could not be remedied by speech therapy alone and required further management by a plastic surgeon through pharyngosplasty.
Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.
Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing
... medicines as prescribed. Ask your doctor about taking aspirin. Ask others to help you manage your diabetes. "I wasn't aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart problems." — Ann Preventing Diabetes If you ...
Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with
Boonstra, Kirsten; de Vries, Elisabeth M G; van Geloven, Nan; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Spanier, Marcel; Poen, Alexander C; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M; Witteman, Ben J; Tuynman, Hans A; Naber, Anton H; Kingma, Paul J; Beuers, Ulrich; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause, but strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Potential risk factors triggering PSC have never been studied on a population level. The aim of this study was to
associated with an increased risk of graft loss, but less is known regarding the severity of rejection . Factors contributing to ongoing alloimmune responses include breakdown in immunosuppression as a result of patient non compliance, therapeutic decisions to minimize exposure to complications of immunosuppressive ...
of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that as a high-risk factor in pregnancy and delivery macrosomia probably deserves as much attention as ...
Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.
Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this
Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...
Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…
The aims of this thesis were to determine the epidemiology of ALS in the Netherlands, to determine the familial aggregation of ALS with Parkinson disease (PD), dementia, and vascular diseases, and to determine the association between several environmental and lifestyle factors and risk for sporadic
Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
Jan 18, 2011 ... exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a ... Key words: Cardiovascular disease, Risk factor, Aerobic Exercise. Introduction. There has always ... Oftentimes, problems appear to be more prevalent among the elderly. This may not be far.
Korf, D.J.; Nabben, T.; Benschop, A.; Ribbink, K.; van Amsterdam, J.G.C.
The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
Habib, M A; Dey, S K; Alam, M R; Bhuiyan, M; Bhuiyan, S I; Khatun, M H; Rizvi, A N; Haque, A
Obesity is an established risk factor of stroke. Malnutrition in post-stroke period is common and can influence outcome. But malnutrition, though predicted, has not yet been established as a risk factor of stroke. This descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Department of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College (DMC), from January 2009 to December 2010 to explore whether malnutrition is an independent risk factor of stroke. Nutritional status of 100 stroke patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed in this study. Anthropometric measurements including Body Mass Index (BMI), Triceps skin fold (TSF), Mid-arm circumference (MAC) and Arm-muscle circumference (AMC) were measured within 7 days of stroke. Haemoglobin and haematocrit percentage, serum iron and serum albumin were measured at the same time. No significant difference was observed regarding TSF thickness, MAC, AMC, mean Hb and mean albumin level between the stroke patients and the control group, although iron level was significantly lower in stroke group. Multiple logistic regressions analysis showed that increase in age, smoking and decreased serum iron level has a positive association with stroke. Malnutrition is, according to this study, not a significant risk factor of stroke and triceps skin fold (TSF) thickness, mid-arm circumference (MAC), arm-muscle circumference (AMC), hemoglobin and serum albumin are not appropriate predictor of stroke.
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones, L.
The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and
London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F
The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...
There is a close relationship between sleep and childhood neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the sleep issues may provide greater insight into pathophysiology and treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tresidder, J; Fielder, A R; Nicholson, J
Delayed visual maturation (DVM) can present as an isolated anomaly (type 1A), but can be compounded by perinatal problems (type 1B), severe neurodevelopmental delay (type 2), or ocular anomalies/nystagmus (type 3), in which group the common feature appears to be nystagmus. The neurodevelopmental and ophthalmic aspects of 26 infants with DVM were studied. Onset of visual improvement, rate of acquisition of normal vision and eventual outcome were studied quantitatively, using an adaptation of the acuity card procedure. Neurodevelopmental assessment was performed after visual improvement. The results support the long-held clinical impression that if blindness is the presenting feature, neurodevelopmental outlook is excellent. DVM could represent a defect in the extrageniculostriate visual system, and the onset of vision in all types--and the development of nystagmus in type 3--could herald the emergence of geniculostriate function.
Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin
This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823
Osborn, D A
Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxemia) and an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone therapy might prevent this morbidity. To assess whether thyroid hormone therapy in preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism results in clinically important changes in neonatal and long term outcomes in terms of both benefits and harms. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the English language. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation, in which thyroid hormone therapy (either treatment or prophylaxis) was compared to a control in premature infants. Primary clinical outcomes included measures of neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Assessment of trial quality, data extraction and synthesis of data, using relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD), were performed using standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group. Eight studies were identified that compared thyroid hormone treatment to control. Four randomized or quasi-randomized studies met inclusion criteria (Chowdhry 1984, Amato 1989, van Wassenaer 1997 and Vanhole 1997). All studies enrolled preterm infants thyroid hormones. Three studies used thyroxine, whereas Amato 1989 used triiodothyronine. Only two studies with neurodevelopmental follow-up were of good methodology (van Wassenaer 1997 and Vanhole 1997). All studies were of small size with the largest, van Wassenaer 1997, enrolling 200 infants. A lack of comparability of data (neurodevelopmental test or timing of follow-up) prevented meta-analytic pooling of the studies for
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R
Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.
McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T
The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used
Tepper, Naomi K; Boulet, Sheree L; Whiteman, Maura K; Monsour, Michael; Marchbanks, Polly A; Hooper, W Craig; Curtis, Kathryn M
To calculate incidence of postpartum venous thromboembolism by week after delivery and to examine potential risk factors for venous thromboembolism overall and at different times during the postpartum period. A deidentified health care claims information database from employers, health plans, hospitals, and Medicaid programs across the United States was used to identify delivery hospitalizations among women aged 15-44 years during the years 2005-2011. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify instances of venous thromboembolism and associated characteristics and conditions among women with recent delivery. Incidence proportions of venous thromboembolism by week postpartum through week 12 were calculated per 10,000 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for selected risk factors among women with postpartum venous thromboembolism and among women with venous thromboembolism during the early or later postpartum periods. The incidence proportion of postpartum venous thromboembolism was highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery, dropping from nine per 10,000 during the first week to one per 10,000 at 4 weeks after delivery and decreasing steadily through the 12th week. Certain obstetric procedures and complications such as cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and postpartum infection conferred an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 6.4), which persisted over the 12-week period compared with women without these risk factors. Risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism is highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery. Women with obstetric complications are at highest risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism, and this risk remains elevated throughout the first 12 weeks after delivery. II.
Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Essa, Maron; Garth, Jeanne; Ghara, Mohammed; Shneor, Einat
To determine whether consanguinity is a risk factor for keratoconus (KC). A questionnaire was distributed to all patients presenting to St. John Eye Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Questionnaire included data on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors. Patients were divided into two groups: cases with KC, in at least one eye, who were diagnosed by the attending ophthalmologist on the basis of abnormal corneal topography and at least one of the common signs of the disease; and controls presenting for problems other than KC and free of systemic and ocular conditions associated with KC. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify risk factors for KC. Seventy cases and 140 controls participated in the study. Groups were similar with respect to sex and age. Univariate analyses found a significant association between KC and parental first-cousin consanguinity, eye rubbing, allergy, positive family history, education (>12 years), and sunglass wear, whereas asthma, eczema, smoking, and second-cousin consanguinity were not. Multivariate analyses showed that total consanguinity (first-cousin and second-cousin) (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; p = 0.001), eye rubbing and absence of sunglass wear were significant risk factors. Education was also associated with KC, but family history was not so in the multivariate analysis. This study supports the hypothesis that consanguinity is a significant risk factor for KC and provides strong support for a genetic contribution to the disease. Wearing sunglasses in this environment is beneficial, and the study confirmed that eye rubbing, allergy, and education are also significantly associated with KC after adjusting for other predictors.
Babar, Tariq Farooq; Zaman, Mir; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Khan, Mohammad Daud
To estimate the frequency and major risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. A cross-sectional analytical study. The Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2003 to December 2006. All consecutive patients between ages 6 and 40 years, admitted to the institute with the diagnosis of preseptal and orbital cellulitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with ages 6-16 years and group II with ages 17-40 years. The clinical features, diagnosis and risk factors were entered on a specially-designed proforma. The risk factors included were trauma, insect bite, localized or systemic infection and postsurgical. Odd ratio and p-values were calculated for potential risk factors. The frequency of orbital cellulitis was 0.1% of total admission. Out of 26 patients, 42.30% patients were in group I and 57 in group II. In group I, insect bite was the most common risk factor identified in 40% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and trauma as a common cause in 50% with orbital cellulitis. In group II, trauma was the leading cause in 50% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and sinusitis as a common cause in 18.1% with those of orbital cellulitis. In both groups the p-values were found insignificant (p>0.5). Complications included cicatricial ectropion in 44.4% and orbital abscess in 41.1%. For preseptal cellulitis, insect bite was the most common cause in group I and trauma was the leading cause in group II. For orbital cellulitis, trauma was important cause in group I and sinusitis in group II.
Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Thomas, G; Huinck, W; Donders, R; Graamans, K; Schutte, H K
In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints and absenteeism. Different factors play a role in the development and consolidation of voice problems. Physical and psycho-emotional factors appear to be the most important risk factors. Remarkably, voice load and environment seem to be less important as risk factors in the development and consolidation of voice complaints. Teachers who experienced voice problems during their training reported more voice problems during their career. The results of this study stress the importance of a multifactorial approach in the diagnosis and treatment of voice problems, whereby physical and psycho-emotional aspects should be considered as sensitive to the risk of developing voice problems. Moreover, this study shows the crucial importance of adequate voice training during the teacher training programme.
Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling
PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...... with the number of admissions (all p income countries (all p
Balkau, B; Eschwege, E
This series of three articles reviews the designs of studies which can be used to identify risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the present issue of Diabete & Metabolisme, the first article of the series, we give the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force--relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors are further discussed and we complete the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies will be described in the second of the series in the next issue of the journal. Examples will be provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In a third issue, the final paper will provide some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, then we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.
Balkau, B; Eschwege, E
This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series , we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.
Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena
Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to rev......Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... the Scottish, the Greek and the Turkish fishermen respectively. For the diet, 23% of the Scottish fishermen reported eating fruit and vegetables more than once a day at sea and only 29% at home. The Spanish study reported “excessive calorie consumption while on shore, notably high in animal fats....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Paul P. Connell
Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J
Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes.
AlJaroudi, Wael A; Petersen, John L
The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 10 years. Recent studies have associated obesity with other cardiovascular risk factors, and an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular death. Patients with obesity should undergo a global evaluation cardiovascular risk, including measurement of abdominal waist circumference, assessment of standard cardiovascular risk factors, screening for dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and hypertension. Recommendations for dietary modification should be tailored to the patient's associated medical conditions, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and all patients should be instructed on the importance of monitoring caloric intake. For patients who can engage in regular physical activity, we recommend a minimum regimen of 150 min/wk of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking. Use of pharmacotherapy for obesity can be considered when efforts at therapeutic lifestyle modification have been ineffective, but patients must be carefully screened because many agents have potential side effects. Surgical approaches for obesity have also been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and sustaining weight loss and improving markers of cardiovascular risk and should be considered in patients who are refractory to therapeutic lifestyle modification. All diabetic patients should be treated comprehensively to reduce other comorbid conditions, including hypertension and dyslipidemia. Hypoglycemic therapy should be initiated when efforts to reduce hyperglycemia to target thresholds fail.
Vupputuri, Suma; Sandler, Dale P
To examine the effects of lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the development of chronic kidney disease. We used a case-control study of 554 hospital cases and 516 age, race, and gender-matched community controls. The main outcome measure was newly-diagnosed chronic kidney disease, assessed by chart review. Self-reported history of alcohol consumption, smoking, and BMI as well as other co-variables were obtained during telephone interviews. Logistic regression models assessed the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic kidney disease and were adjusted for important co-variables. We found no significant associations between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease, with the exception of moonshine, which resulted in an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (including all subtypes). The effects of smoking on chronic kidney disease were inconsistent, but pointed to no appreciable excess risk among smokers. Increasing quartiles of BMI were positively and significantly associated with nephrosclerosis (ORs [95% CI]: 2.5 [1.0-6.0], 2.8 [1.2-6.8] and 4.6 [1.8-11.6], for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of BMI, respectively). Our study revealed a significant positive association between BMI and nephrosclerosis. We did not find an increased risk of chronic kidney disease associated with alcohol or cigarette smoking.
Schech, Stephanie; Graham, David; Staffa, Judy; Andrade, Susan E; La Grenade, Lois; Burgess, Margaret; Blough, David; Stergachis, Andy; Chan, K Arnold; Platt, Richard; Shatin, Deborah
To identify and characterize risk factors for rhabdomyolysis in patients prescribed statin monotherapy or statin plus fibrate therapy. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 252,460 new users of lipid-lowering medications across 11 geographically dispersed U.S. health plans. Twenty-one cases of rhabdomyolysis confirmed by medical record review were compared to 200 individually matched controls without rhabdomyolysis. A conditional logistic regression model was applied to evaluate the effects of age, gender, comorbidities, concurrent medication use, dosage, and duration of statin use on the development of rhabdomyolysis. Statin users 65 years of age and older have four times the risk of hospitalization for rhabdomyolysis than those under age 65 (odds ratio (OR) = 4.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5,14.1). We also observed a joint effect of high statin dosage and renal disease (p = 0.022). When these two variables were added to the model with age, we obtained an OR of 5.73 for dosage (95%CI: 0.63, 52.6) and 6.26 for renal disease (95%CI: 0.46, 63.38). Although not statistically significant, we did observe a greater than twofold increase in risk for rhabdomyolysis among females (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 0.91, 7.32). Findings of this study indicate that older age is a risk factor for rhabdomyolysis among statin users. Although the evidence is not as strong, high statin dosage, renal disease, and female gender may be additional risk factors. Patients at higher risk of developing rhabdomyolysis should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of the disease. (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G
In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response
Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C
To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.
Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A
Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception. Systematic review. Not applicable. Children born after medically assisted reproduction vs. reference groups of spontaneously conceived children. Data were reviewed from worldwide published articles, without restrictions as to publication year or language. A total of 80 studies included between 31 and 2,446,044 children. Child neurodevelopmental outcomes categorized as cognitive, behavioral, emotional or psychomotor development, or diagnoses of mental disorders. For infants, studies on psychomotor development showed no deficits, but few investigated cognitive or behavioral development. Studies on toddlers generally reported normal cognitive, behavioral, socio-emotional, and psychomotor development. For children in middle childhood, development seems comparable in children born after assisted reproduction and controls, although fewer studies have been conducted with follow-up to this age. Very few studies have assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes among teens, and the results are inconclusive. Studies investigating the risk of diagnoses of mental disorders are generally large, with long follow-up, but the results are inconsistent. It may tentatively be concluded that the neurodevelopment of children born after fertility treatment is overall comparable to that in children born after spontaneous conception. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M. M. Vysotsky
Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.
Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma.
... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...
Sugranyes, Gisela; de la Serna, Elena; Borras, Roger; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Pariente, Jose C; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Inmaculada; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Moreno, Carmen; Bernardo, Miguel; Moreno, Dolores; Vieta, Eduard; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
Studies in child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders may help understand the influence of neurodevelopmental factors on the premorbid phenotype of these disorders. To assess whether a combination of neurodevelopmental factors discriminates between young offspring of patients with schizophrenia (SzO) or bipolar disorder (BpO) and community controls (CcO). To assess the association between these factors and rates of psychiatric diagnoses in high risk (HR) youth. One hundred thirty-three HR offspring (47 SzO and 86 BpO) and 84 CcO, aged 6-17, underwent cross-sectional clinical, neurocognitive, and structural neuroimaging assessment. Information on perinatal events and early childhood development was also obtained. General linear mixed models were performed to assess group discrimination and association with lifetime axis I psychiatric disorders. Multivariate analyses revealed that greater neurological soft signs (NSS), less total grey matter volume (GMV) and a higher frequency of obstetric complications discriminated HR offspring from CcO. When comparing each group individually, greater NSS and a higher frequency of obstetric complications discriminated SzO from CcO, and BpO from CcO, while lower intelligence also discriminated SzO from CcO and from BpO. Within HR offspring, lower intelligence and less total GMV were associated with lifetime incidence of psychiatric disorders. Both SzO and BpO showed evidence of neurodevelopmental insult, although this may have a greater impact in SzO. Lower intelligence and less total GMV hold potential as biomarkers of risk for psychiatric disorders in HR youth.
Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera
Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.
Apostolopolou, Eleni; Katsaris, Georgios; Katostaras, Theophanis
A retrospective study of 205 patients was performed to identify the risk factors associated with nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI). The study occurred during a 5-month period in four medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Athens, Greece. Risk factors were determined using single and multivariate analyses. Thirty-five patients developed nosocomial BSI (17.1%). The incidence density (defined as the number of new cases of BSI divided by the total of patient-days in the population studied; Jarvis, 1997) of BSI was 14.3 per 1000 patient-days (total number of days that patients are in the ICU during the selected time period). A multivariate model showed that only three factors were significantly and independently responsible for nosocomial BSI: the length of ICU stay (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) 1.052, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.018-1.087, P = 0.002); the presence of trauma at admission (AOR 2.622, 95% CI 1.074-6.404, P = 0.034); and nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia (AOR 6.153, 95% CI 2.305-16.422, P = 0.000). These results show that the factors that had most influence on the development of nosocomial BSI were those factors associated with the treatment received by patients during ICU stay.
Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501
Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado
This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion...
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise
Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...
Full Text Available A case-control study involving 54 cases and 108 matched controls was conducted to find out the association of risk factors like smoking, chewing paan and tobacco and the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity. More than 80% of the cases were over 40 years of age, with a male: female ratio of 2:1, paan and tobacco chewing were significantly related to the oral cancers (Odds Ratio of 9.3 and 7.8 respectively. Smoking showed a statistically significant relationship with oral cancers among male patients. In addition, the study also established dose-response and time-response relationship these risk factors and oral cancer.
Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Fayech, Chiraz; Girard, Pauline; Plantaz, Dominique
Cure rates for most childhood cancers and adolescents have made remarkable progress over the last thirty to forty years. The development of secondary malignancies has become an important question for these patients. The frequency is low, but the risk is significantly higher (between 3 and 10 times) and it is the leading cause of long-term mortality off relapse. In this literature review, we discuss the epidemiological aspect and the risk factors contributing to this increased risk, and conclude with a summary of current recommendations for screening and surveillance. We also discuss briefly the constitutional predisposing genetic contributions to other cancers. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon
The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. PMID:21480948
Sticca, Fabio; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Alsaker, Françoise; Perren, Sonja
Cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of antisocial behaviour in the context of online communication over the last decade. The present study investigates potential longitudinal risk factors for cyberbullying. A total of 835 Swiss seventh graders participated in a short-term longitudinal study (two assessments 6 months apart). Students reported on the frequency of cyberbullying, traditional bullying, rule-breaking behaviour, cybervictimisation, traditional victimisation, and frequency of onl...
Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah; Laksmi, Lidya Imelda
Background: Chronic atrophic gastritis is a well-established precursor of gastric cancer. The development of atrophic chronic gastritis is multifactorial, involving the environment as well as host responses to the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence and risk factors of chronic atrophic gastritis.Method: The study was a cross sectional study on gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and P...
Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still
Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.
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Objective: to study risk factors and options for clinical course of acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. Materials and methods. A detailed study of history, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment characteristics of acute intestinal obstruction in 79 pregnant women was undertaken. Results: It was determined that a combination of intestinal obstruction, and pregnancy is more common for II and III trimester of gestation (88,5%, with more likely to develop mechanical obstruction caused by the adhesive process (77,2%. Risk factors for intestinal obstruction in pregnancy are: chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, surgery of abdominal cavity and pelvis, burdened obstetric and gynecological history and long-term use of progestogens during pregnancy. Difficulties in diagnosis are associated with absence of classical symptoms of disease that is caused by changes in topographical relations of abdominal cavity, increasing size of uterus, as well as lack of immune response to the emergence of a pathological process. Conclusion. Formation of pregnant women at risk for development of intestinal obstruction and preventive measures to address violations of intestinal motor function can reduce the risk of disease. Algorithm of medical tactics for suspected acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy, allowing to reduce time of diagnosis and provision of medical care.
Mohamed Akheel Ahmed
Full Text Available To determine the risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic patients and to study the management of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we conducted a hospital-based prospective study in the Internal Medicine department of our hospital on 60 patients with DN and 60 diabetic patients without DN. An odds ratio (OR disclosed the following risk factors: Hypertension (OR = 2.06, family history of diabetes (OR = 1.23, family history of DN (OR = 2.86, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (OR = 11.80, obesity (OR = 1.07, duration of diabetes between 11 and 20 years (OR = 4.69, smoking (OR = 2.79, alcohol consumption (OR = 3.75, other complications (OR = 2.03, lack of physical activity (OR = 1.51 and anemia (OR = 2.29. According to these risk factors, we suggest that improving patient′s knowledge on diabetes and its treatment, life style modifications and aggressive management of the disease may delay the progression of disease to advanced stages.
Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry
Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.
Julia Estela Willrich Boell
Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.
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PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include
Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R
Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy.
Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads
Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:18709149
Fontana, M; Jackson, R; Eckert, G; Swigonski, N; Chin, J; Zandona, A Ferreira; Ando, M; Stookey, G K; Downs, S; Zero, D T
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction.
Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become the most common cause of liver disease in children worldwide. Purpose: to identify risk factors (RF for hepatic steatosis in children. Methods. Thirty two children with gastrointestinal disorders were examined by us. The presence and severity of hepatic steatosis was determined using FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of CAP the children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (basic — 13 children with steatosis (40.6 %, group 2 (control — 19 children without steatosis (59.4 %. To determine the risk factors we analyzed a history of life and disease, objective clinical and laboratory examination of patients. Results. Analysis of the age distribution showed that children older than 10 years old dominated in the basic group (RR 3.3; OR 4.0; p = 0.1. Obesity was found in 12 (92.3 % children in the group with steatosis and in 9 (47 % children without steatosis. Increased waist circumference values above 95 percentile according to age and sex of a child was observed in 12 (92.3 % children in the basic group and in 8 (42.1 % children in the control group (RR 7.2; OR 16.5; p < 0.05. It was found that the presence of pubertal hypothalamic syndrome is associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in children (RR 30.6; OR 4.8; p < 0.05. Discussion. Abdominal type of obesity in combination with diseases of the endocrine system, namely, hypothalamic syndrome should be considered as the leading risk factors for hepatic steatosis in children.
Schubert, D; Martens, G J M; Kolk, S M
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), seat of the highest-order cognitive functions, constitutes a conglomerate of highly specialized brain areas and has been implicated to have a role in the onset and installation of various neurodevelopmental disorders. The development of a properly functioning PFC is directed by transcription factors, guidance cues and other regulatory molecules and requires the intricate and temporal orchestration of a number of developmental processes. Disturbance or failure of any of these processes causing neurodevelopmental abnormalities within the PFC may contribute to several of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we elaborate on the specific processes underlying prefrontal development, such as induction and patterning of the prefrontal area, proliferation, migration and axonal guidance of medial prefrontal progenitors, and their eventual efferent and afferent connections. We furthermore integrate for the first time the available knowledge from genome-wide studies that have revealed genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders with experimental molecular evidence in rodents. The integrated data suggest that the pathogenic variants in the neurodevelopmental disorder-associated genes induce prefrontal cytoarchitectonical impairments. This enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prefrontal (mis)development underlying the four major neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, that is, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may thus provide clues for the development of novel therapies. PMID:25450230
Full Text Available Approximately 30-50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence.Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months.The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p=0.001. Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001: the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9, MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2, and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4, unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3, relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ≤ 100 mg prednisone/day (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9.Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral, and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk.
van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J
The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.
Tsunoda, T; Yamashita, R; Kojima, Y; Takahara, S
Kidney transplantation is recognized as the only potentially curative treatment for end-stage renal failure. But many psychiatric problems are associated with the procedure. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of a risk for depression after kidney transplantation. This retrospective cohort study recruited 116 first kidney-only Japanese recipients whose mean age was 50.2 +/- 11.87 years include a male/female ratio of 63/53. They underwent transplantation between 1990 and 2008. At enrollment, we used the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale score as well as characterized demographic and clinical features of recipients and donors. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients concerning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used chi(2) tests for categorical variables and Student's t-tests for continuous variables. Risk factors with significant correlation coefficients (P depression after kidney transplantation. The prevalence of depression in this study was 41.4%. Depressed patients were significantly more likely to not have regular incomes, nor to have desired kidney transplantation, to have experienced a rejection episode, and to live alone (P depression was living alone; subjects living alone were 2.51 times more likely to be depressed as those living with others (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-5.22; P depression after kidney transplantation is driven by multiple, complex, and often overlapping risk factors, we observed characteristic features of recipients including their social environment and follow-up treatment.
Paules, Cristina; Pueyo, Victoria; Martí, Elena; de Vilchez, Susana; Burd, Irina; Calvo, Pilar; Oros, Daniel
Threatened preterm labor is a leading cause of hospital admission during pregnancy. Patients with an episode of threatened preterm labor who deliver at term are considered to have false preterm labor. However, threatened preterm labor has been proposed as a pathologic insult that is not always sufficient to induce irreversible spontaneous preterm birth but that could alter the normal course of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate threatened preterm labor during pregnancy as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental deficits of children at 2 years of age. Two-year-old children who were born late preterm (n=22) or at term after threatened preterm labor (n=23) were compared with at-term control children (n=42). Neurodevelopment was evaluated at a corrected age of 24-29 months with the use of the Merrill-Palmer-Revised Scales of Development. Children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor had lower scores than control children on global cognitive index (95.4 vs 104.2; P=.011), cognition (95.1 vs 103.1; P=.021), fine motor (95.2 vs 103.4; P=.003), gross motor (84.7 vs 99.8; P=.001), memory (92.9 vs 100.4; P=.015), receptive language (93.9 vs 102.9; P=.03), speed of processing (105.7 vs 113.3; P=.011), and visual motor coordination (98.8 vs 106.7; P=.003) subtests. Children born at term after threatened preterm labor had an increased risk of mild neurodevelopmental delay compared with control children (odds ratio for global cognitive index, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.88; P=.033). There were no significant differences in any cognitive domain between children who were born late preterm and children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor. Threatened preterm labor is a risk factor for impaired cognitive development at 2 years of age, even if birth occurred at term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...
About half (44.8%) of the cases had no known risk factor. Conclusion: Uterine scaring following abortion management is an important risk factor for placenta praevia. However, majority of patients with placenta praevia in this work have no identifiable risk factor. Key Words: placenta praevia, antepartum haemorrhage, risk ...
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Marinescu, Ileana P; Foarfă, Maria Camelia; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Turculeanu, Adriana
Prenatal stress and depression affects 10-25% of pregnant women and is associated with disruption of fetal neurodevelopment, higher rates of placental abnormalities, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, or preterm birth. Markers of genetic vulnerability are catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase-A, variation of serotonin transporters, low levels of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (BDNF), while hyperactivity of HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and massive release of endogenous cortisol, regulated by metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3 and -9, and are involved both in depressive symptoms and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in fetus. In women with prenatal stress and depression which suffered spontaneous abortion were observed placental abnormalities as regular shape and necrotic villi, decidua with large areas of necrosis, acute inflammation and effusion areas correlated with increase in proinflammatory factors, immune deficit and infections, hyaline type fibrosis, intervilos and deciduous intense hemorrhage, associated with increase of vascular endothelial growth factor. Taking into account the important societal and economic costs becomes important for an interdisciplinary approach, in which pregnancy and its risks are a central point for women mental health.
Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.
Acute postoperative pain is followed by persistent pain in 10-50% of individuals after common operations, such as groin hernia repair, breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery. Since chronic pain can be severe in about 2-10% of these patients, persistent...... therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA, also often called “osteoarthrosis” or “degenerative joint disease” is the most common form of arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present retrospective statistical study was conducted at the Department of orthopaedics in a tertiary care hospital (Catering to a largely agricultural population over a period of 2 years from January 2012 to December 2014. RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02%. It is in conformity with most previous studies reviewed. CONCLUSION Osteoarthritis of Knee is a major health issue and important cause of disability in elderly population. Occupational risk factors are important in development of osteoarthritis.
Crawley, Jacqueline N
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose diagnosis is based on three behavioral criteria: unusual reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A large number of de novo single gene mutations and chromosomal deletions are associated with autism spectrum disorders. Based on the strong genetic evidence, mice with targeted mutations in homologous genes have been generated as translational research tools. Mouse models of autism have revealed behavioral and biological outcomes of mutations in risk genes. The field is now poised to employ the most robust phenotypes in the most replicable mouse models for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics.
Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing
This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan
Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.
Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559
London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann
The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431
Full Text Available GABAergic interneurons control neuronal excitability, integration, and plasticity. Further, they regulate the generation of temporal synchrony and oscillatory behavior among networks of pyramidal neurons. Such oscillations within and across neural systems are believed to serve various complex functions, such as perception, movement initiation, and memory. Alterations in the development of GABAergic circuits have been implicated in various brain diseases with neurodevelopmental origin. Here, we highlight recent studies suggesting a role for alterations of GABA transmission in the pathophysiology of two neurodevelopmental diseases, schizophrenia and autism. We further discuss how manipulations of GABA signaling may be used for novel therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye
I. E. Deneka
Full Text Available Despite the possibilities of contemporary pharmacotherapy, more than 80% of hypertensive patients do not achieve target blood pressure levels. Besides the obvious reasons – poor adherence of patients to treatment and non-rational therapy, there are other objective risk factors of resistance. Three main modifiable causes of resistant hypertension, that are often underestimated, are considered: obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and primary hyperaldosteronism. Understanding these mechanisms of resistance and their diagnostic criteria can improve the results of resistant hypertension treatment.
Signorelli, C; Limina, R M
The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the
Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen
The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 overweight and non-overweight schoolchildren in frequency of high degree educated mother and father, birth weight, breakfast intake, eating habits and exercise. However overweight children intake high-caloric food, low in fiber, with troubles of nutritional comportment, and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional education and promote physical activity and reducing the time
Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace. Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should
Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Thompson, Deanne K
Very preterm children are at a high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments, but there is variability in the pattern and severity of outcome. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhances the capacity to detect brain injury and altered brain development and assists in the prediction of high-risk children who warrant surveillance and early intervention. This review describes the application of conventional and advanced MRI with very preterm neonates, specifically focusing on the relationship between neonatal MRI findings and later neurodevelopmental outcome. Research demonstrates that conventional MRI is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood. Further studies are needed to examine the role of advanced MRI techniques in predicting outcome in very preterm children, but early research findings are promising. In conclusion, neonatal MRI is predictive of later neurodevelopment but is dependent on appropriately trained specialists and should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE is characterized by persistently ele-vated hematocrit level 0 51%. This complication is reported to develop in 10-20% of renal allografts recipients, mostly 2 years after kidney transplantation. PTE is self-limited in 25% of the patients; however it may persist in patients with an increased susceptibility for thrombosis and potential fatal outcome. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of PTE in our center, we reviewed the records of 235 patients who received renal allografts from 1999 to 2004. Polycythemia was found in 45 (19% patients. There was no significant correlation of polycythemia and age, history of hypertension, diabetes, pre-transplant hematocrit level, pre-transplant history of transfusion, graft′s function, and source of kidney. A significantly higher proportion of PTE patients were males, patients with history of polycystic kidney disease, and patients with glomerulonephritis. We conclude that PTE is an important complication of kidney transplantation. There are several risk factors that should be addressed to prevent this complication.
Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes
To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.
Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome
Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A
To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.
Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing.
Rodrigues, Naira Lígia de Araújo; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Carvalho, Elaine de Sousa; Vera, Paula Valentina de Sousa; Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Oliveira, Edina Araújo Rodrigues
Identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May to September 2012, in the public schools of the city of Picos (Piaui State, Brazil). The sample consisted of 320 adolescents 10-19 years. As to gender, 60% were female. With regard to blood pressure values, 15.3% of participants had altered blood pressure values (6.9% with hypertension) and, in relation to nutritional status, 15.6% were overweight and 5.3% obese. None of the variables showed statistically significant differences according to sex. Correlation were found between the variables: family history of hypertension with arm circumference and triceps skinfold; maternal education with triceps skinfold thickness and diastolic blood pressure; uptime with body mass index, arm circumference, waist-hip ratio and heart rate; birth weight with body mass index and arm circumference. A significant proportion of adolescent respondents had risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nursing should lead the adoption of interventions that promote the improvement of healthy lifestyle in adolescence, thus avoiding not only cardiovascular disease, but also other chronic diseases that can develop.
Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins
Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.
Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras
Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.
Silvia Di Legge
Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.
Bandoli, G; Coles, CD; Kable, JA; Wertelecki, W; Granovska, IV; Pashtepa, AO; Chambers, CD
Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an established risk factor for neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring. Prenatal depression has been associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, although investigations into un-medicated prenatal depression have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that un-medicated prenatal depressive symptoms would independently and jointly with PAE predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in infant offspring. Methods We studied 344 participants from a randomized clinical trial of multivitamin supplements in pregnant women in Ukraine. Women were recruited based upon peri-conceptional alcohol use and followed up to 12 months postpartum. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed at approximately 32 weeks of gestation using the Beck Depression Scale. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales for Infant Development II Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Generalized linear regression models were constructed to assess the independent and joint effects of prenatal depressive symptoms and PAE in models adjusted for sociodemographic and pregnancy characteristics. Results PAE was independently associated with deficits in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months, however, level of prenatal depressive symptoms was not. We found marginal evidence of synergism of depressive symptoms and PAE, with larger deficits in those with both exposures observed for the PDI-6 months (p=0.05) and MDI-12 months (p=0.09). Additionally, there was a suggestion of sexual dimorphism; females had stronger deficits from joint exposures than males (depressive symptom (MDI-6 months) female: −8.28, 95% CI −13.06, −3.49; male: 0.68, 95% CI −4.58, 5.94; p for interaction 0.04). While not statistically significant for the MDI or PDI at 12 months, the trend persisted. Conclusion Infants exposed to PAE and prenatal depression may be at an increased risk of
Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.
Florian Joachim Raabe
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.
Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John
To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Saskatchewan. A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Household income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease
Lígia da Silva Leroy
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.
Fabiola Caroline da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To investigate the main risk factors for the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of Santa Casa de Misericordia de Ponta Grossa. Methods: Retrospective study, case-control, through the review of medical records from January / 2010 to December / 2014. Infants weighing ?1,500 grams at birth, ?37 weeks gestational age were included in this study and infants with congenital malformation, not submitted to funduscopy and with incomplete records were excluded. The risk factors were compared with univariate and multivariate analyzes. For the quantitative variables, the t test was used for the qualitative Fisher's exact test and, after univariate analysis we used logistic regression. Results: 172 neonates were selected and divided into two groups: controls 154 (89.5% and 18 cases (10.5%. The factors studied were: gestational age, birth weight, Apgar at 1 and 5 minutes, use of surfactant, oxygen therapy time, FiO2 used, jaundice, need for phototherapy, development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolits, intracranial hemorrhage and surgeries. Before the univariate analysis gestational age, birth weight, APGAR at 1 and 5 minutes after birth, oxygen therapy time, maximum fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2, need for surfactant, start time of jaundice and level of indirect bilirubin statistically significant (p Conclusion: The frequency of ROP was lower than that found in the literature, stage III predominated, 38.9% of premature infants with severe ROP benefited from photocoagulation, confirming that identification, screening and early treatment of premature are essential in preventing blindness.
Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM.
Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti
autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...
mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk factors among respondents and to compare ... banking are a significant risk factor for hypertension.3 ..... ternational Archive of Occupation and Environment.DOI:.
Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.
Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor
Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.
Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated
Financial or corporate risk management is a part of the firm risk management with which deal with the financial risks, such as market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. In the context of international financial crisis, a variety of factors are influencing the development of corporate risk management: the increased volatility and deregulation of financial markets; developments in information and communications technology; the complexity of financial products and so on. The objective of risk...
Dr. T.B. Hafsteinsdóttir; A Algra; M.H.F. Grypdonck; L.J. Kappelle
Background: Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) is a rehabilitation approach increasingly used in the care of stroke patients, although no evidence has been provided for its efficacy. Objective: To investigate the effects of NDT on the functional status and quality of life (QoL) of patients
van Wassenaer, Aleid
Fetal growth retardation is associated with postnatal growth retardation and cardio-vascular and metabolic problems later on in life. Less well described are the consequences of neurodevelopmental outcome. The term SGA is associated with mild to moderate school problems, still present in late
Conclusion: Most children with grade 2 or 3 PVL had severe neurodevelopmental delays, but attention should also be paid to the 56% of children with grade 1 PVL who presented with normal psychomotor development. Further studies of larger populations, including long-term follow-up, are necessary to evaluate the outcomes of children with PVL.
Decker, Scott L.
The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…
Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal
Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advance...
... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important ... a woman is, the higher her risk for heart disease. Overweight also increases the risks for stroke, congestive ...
Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.
Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva
the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...
Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C
To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.
Mohamed Shameem P. M
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss
Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads
To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....
Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.
Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron
Наталья Витальевна Батырева
Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.
There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose. Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 ...
de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan
In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the
Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive
Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I; Msall, Michael E; Marks, Jeremy D; Huo, Dezheng; Schreiber, Michael D
With advances in neonatal care, more children born prematurely are successfully reaching school age. It is unknown how many will be ready for school and what factors affect school readiness. Our objective was to assess readiness of children born prematurely for entry into public school, and determine risk factors associated with lack of school readiness in this population. This was a single-center prospective cohort study. Follow- up data were collected for 135 of 167 (81%) surviving premature infants with RDS requiring surfactant-replacement therapy. The children were seen between July 2005 and September 2006 (average age: 5.7 +/- 1.0 years) and underwent standardized neurodevelopmental and health assessments and socioeconomic status classification. A 4-level school-readiness score was constructed by using each child's standardized scores on assessments of basic concepts (Bracken School-Readiness Assessment), perceptual skills (Visual-Motor Integration Test), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition), daily living functional skills (Pediatric Functional Independence Measure), and presence of sensory impairments or autism. Proportional odds models were used to identify risk factors predicting lower school-readiness levels. Mean birth weight was 1016 +/- 391 g, and mean gestational age was 27.5 +/- 2.6 weeks. Ninety-one (67%) children were school-ready. Using multivariate analysis, male gender, chronic lung disease, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia were associated with lower school-readiness levels. However, the most powerful factor determining school-readiness level was low socioeconomic status. Interventions targeting neonatal morbidities may be much less effective at improving overall performance at school age compared with the effect of the impoverished social environment.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…
Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.
Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane
The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a very aggressive and lethal tumor, which arises from the epithelial cells of bile ducts. CCA comprises about 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and its incidence is on the rise in the recent years. Anatomically, it is classified into intrahepatic, perihilar, or extrahepatic (distal CCA. There are a number of risk factors associated with CCA including primary sclerosing cholangitis, fibropolycystic liver disease, parasitic infection, viral hepatitis, chronic liver disease, and genetic disorders like Lynch syndrome. Autoimmune hepatitis is also recently reported to have an association with development of CCA. We report an interesting case of perihilar CCA in the setting of autoimmune hepatitis along with a literature review. This case highlights the importance of early treatment and close clinical follow-up of patients with autoimmune hepatitis for development of CCA.
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...
Akin, Yasemin; Ercan, Oya; Telatar, Berrin; Tarhan, Fatih; Comert, Serdar
The aim of the present prospective study was to determine the incidence of hypospadias in newborns in one of the busiest teaching hospitals of Istanbul, and to investigate the risk factors. All live-born boys delivered between September 2007 and December 2008 were screened for hypospadias. A questionnaire was given to the parents of the hypospadias and control subjects for investigation. Out of 1750 boys examined, 34 had hypospadias, that is, the frequency was 19.4 per 1000 male live-births and 93.7 per 10,000 total live-born deliveries. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 29.4%, predominantly urogenital (17.6%), the majority of which were cryptorchidism (14.7%). Twelve (35.3%) of the 34 hypospadiac boys had a second family member with a genital anomaly, nine (26.5%) of whom had hypospadias, three (8.8%) being the fathers. Mean birthweight, length and head circumference were significantly lower in the hypospadiac infants than the control group (P= 0.003, P= 0.025, P= 0.002). Although parity, parental consanguinity, hypospadias in family members, and low birthweight also varied significantly among the groups, logistic regression analysis indicated that maternal age, prematurity, coexistence of cryptorchidism and presence of genital anomaly among family members were independent risk factors for hypospadias (P= 0.016, P= 0.0001, P= 0.041, P= 0.0001, respectively). Genetic predisposition and placental insufficiency in early gestation might play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Full Text Available The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stress can alter the epigenetic status in neuronal cells, environmental factors may alter brain function through epigenetic changes. However, one advantage of epigenetic changes is their reversibility. Therefore, diseases due to abnormal epigenetic regulation are theoretically treatable. In fact, several drugs for treating mental diseases are known to have restoring effects on aberrant epigenetic statuses, and a novel therapeutic strategy targeting gene has been developed. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms of congenital and acquired neurodevelopmental disorders, drugs with epigenetic effects, novel therapeutic strategies for epigenetic diseases, and future perspectives in epigenetic medicine.
Gentile, Douglas A; Berch, Olivia N; Choo, Hyekyung; Khoo, Angeline; Walsh, David A
Mass media have numerous effects on children, ranging from influencing school performance to increased or reduced aggression. What we do not know, however, is how media availability in the bedroom moderates these effects. Although several researchers have suggested that bedroom media may influence outcomes by displacing other activities (the displacement hypothesis) or by changing the content of media consumed (the content hypothesis), these have rarely been tested directly. This study tested both hypotheses using several outcomes that are associated with bedroom media and some of the underlying mediating mechanisms. The hypotheses were tested using 3 longitudinal samples of varying methods, age, duration, and country. The results indicate that children who have bedroom media are likely to watch larger amounts of screen time which displaced important activities, such as reading and sleeping, which mediated later negative outcomes such as poor school performance. Bedroom media also influence risk for obesity and video game addiction. Children with bedroom media are also likely to be exposed to more media violence. The violent content increased normative beliefs about aggression, which increased physical aggression, providing support for the content hypothesis. This study demonstrates that media can have effects not just from what they show, but also because of what children are not exposed to. Bedroom media are therefore a robust risk factor for several aspects of child development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Brener Dik, Pablo H; Niño Gualdron, Yeimy M; Galletti, María F; Cribioli, Carolina M; Mariani, Gonzalo L
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common chronic pulmonary sequela among very low birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence in our Neonatal Unit over the past 5 years and analyze associated risk factors. An observational and analytical study was conducted in a retrospective cohort, using data obtained from a prospective database of infants born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its association with several secondary outcome measures were studied. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The incidence of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%, and it was associated with a younger gestational age and lower birth weight. A significant association was observed with surfactant use, mechanical ventilation requirement, and length of mechanical ventilation. Patients with moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus and late-onset sepsis. A lower birth weight (adjusted odds ratio |-#91;aOR|-#93;: 0.99, 95% confidence interval |-#91;CI|-#93;: 0.991-0.997, pdysplasia in our unit was associated with a lower birth weight and the length of mechanical ventilation. Among infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth restriction accounted for an additional risk.
Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M
In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.
Bindu Hima Avatapalle
Full Text Available Introduction: Neuroglycopaenia is recognised to be associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in 26-44% of children with persistent congenital hyperinsulinism (P-CHI. The prevalence of abnormal neurodevelopment in transient CHI (T-CHI is not known. We have aimed to investigate abnormal neurodevelopment and associated factors in T-CHI and P-CHI. Materials and Methods: A cohort of children with CHI (n=67, age 2.5-5 years was assessed at follow up review and noted to have normal or abnormal (mild or severe neurodevelopmental outcomes for the domains of speech and language, motor and vision. Children were classified as P-CHI (n=33, if they had undergone surgery or remained on medical therapy, or T-CHI (n=34, if medical treatment for hypoglycaemia was stopped. Results: Overall, abnormal neurodevelopment was present in 26 (39% children with CHI, of whom 18 (69% were severe. Importantly, the incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in T-CHI was similar to that in P-CHI (30% v 47% respectively, p=0.16. The prevalence of severe abnormal neurodevelopment in speech, motor and vision domains was similar in both T-CHI and P-CHI children. For this cohort, we found that the severity of disease (based upon maximal diazoxide dose, [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals 1.3 (1.1;1.5, p=0.03] and early presentation of CHI <7 days following birth [5.9 (1.3;27.8, p=0.02] were significantly associated with abnormal neurodevelopment. There was no significant association with gender, genotype or the histopathological basis of CHI. Conclusions: Abnormal neurodevelopment was evident in one third of children with both T-CHI and P-CHI, early presentation and severe CHI being risk factors. Early recognition and rapid correction of hypoglycaemia are advocated to avoid abnormal neurodevelopment in children with CHI.
From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.
González, A L; Ulloa Galván, G; Alpuche, G; Romero Arauz, J F
To determine in multivariate analysis the clinical, social, and demographic factors for preeclampsia. A case-control study was designed. Three hundred patients were included, divided in two groups. 150 cases with criteria diagnosis for preeclampsia. 150 patients with normal pregnancy and deliveries. The main variables analyzed were age, schooling, marital status, employment, socioeconomic status, smoking and alcohol consumption, body mass index, familiar history of preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy, parity and type of pregnancy (single or multiple). For comparison of cases and controls on categorical variables, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy has OR 23.7, 95% p < 0.001, familiar history of preeclampsia OR 1.62, p < 0.08, high body mass has OR 1.60. The knowledge of the most important risk factors in our population could be useful for the clinical to pre-detect the patient who will develop preeclampsia.
Walsh, Michele C; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Martin, Camilia R; Cnaan, Avital; Keller, Roberta L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Martin, Richard J; Truog, William E; Ballard, Philip L; Zadell, Arlene; Wadlinger, Sandra R; Coburn, Christine E; Ballard, Roberta A
In a randomized multi-center trial, we demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide begun between 7 and 21 days and given for 24 days significantly increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in ventilated premature infants weighing score <70 on the Bayley Scales II), compared with 114 of 234 (49%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.75-1.12; P = .39). No differences on any subcomponent of neurodevelopmental impairment or growth variables were found between inhaled nitric oxide or placebo. Inhaled nitric oxide improved survival free of BPD, with no adverse neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years of age. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Antonio; Abranches, Denise; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Paulo
To characterize the presence of hoarseness and the risk factors in male and female university teachers in private institutions in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey. Voice self-evaluation forms prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor were administered to 846 university teachers in a private institution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of hoarseness in the sample is 39.6%. Percentage of hoarseness is higher in females (51.8%) than in males (32.6%). Comparing hoarseness and time of teaching, it was observed that the percentage of hoarseness is lower in a time shorter or equal to 1 year, and it is higher in a time between 10 and 20 years. Percentage of hoarseness is lower in the maximum workload of one to three class hours per day compared with the other workloads. Percentage of hoarseness is lower when the maximum number of students per classroom is less than 30 than when it is between 101 and 150 students. Other factors like in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life are related to the presence of hoarseness. University teachers show high percentage of hoarseness. Factors, such as time of teaching, females, work organization, workplace, in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life, are related to the presence of hoarseness in this group. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Aminophylline therapy for apnea of prematurity had no apparent and additional risk on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBW infants at a corrected age of 18 months. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the adverse neurological effects of aminophylline treatment.
Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
M. Genco Usta
Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.
Full Text Available Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines, especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.
Hudić, Igor; Fatusić, Zlatan; Sinanović, Osman; Skokić, Fahrija
To investigate risk factors for brachial plexus palsy in newborns. We analyzed 45 544 live-born children, born over a nine-year period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2004. The analysis was retrospective and based on the medical documentation of the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinic for Neurology, and Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the University Clinical Center Tuzla. We compared study and control groups of newborns. Rates among groups were compared using Chi-square, with significance at p labor pattern itself, it was found that the highest factors of risk for brachial plexus injury were birth weight of over 4000 g, a precipitous second stage of labor (labor. Brachial plexus palsy was more frequent when the mothers were overweight, with a body mass index >or=29 kg/m2. None of the parturient women, whose newborns were diagnosed with brachial plexus palsy, had external conjugate diameter <18 cm. Newborns delivered vaginally were not diagnosed with a higher frequency of brachial plexus palsy when compared to newborns who were delivered by cesarean section, but newborns who were vaginal breech-delivered were diagnosed to have a higher incidence of brachial plexus palsy. Newborns whose mothers were older than 35 years were diagnosed to have brachial plexus palsy more frequently, but a statistically significant difference between primiparas and multiparas was not found. A total of 39 newborns (45.2%) were diagnosed with a fracture of the clavicle, which was the most frequently combined damage with brachial plexus injury. Forty-two newborns (48.8%) had an Apgar score of
Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood
Kocek, Melissa; Wilcox, Roger; Crank, Christopher; Patra, Kousiki
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are exposed to many painful procedures while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as catheter insertion and endotracheal intubation. Exposure of ELBW infants to repetitive pain and stress in the NICU can lead to cardiovascular instability and may alter neuronal and synaptic organization. Opioid analgesics are administered to reduce pain, stress and to potentially reduce poor neurologic outcomes. They may also be utilized as sedation for mechanically ventilated ELBW infants. There is limited data in regards to neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to opioids, and available studies have conflicting results. To examine the relationship between cumulative opioid dose in ELBW infants in the NICU and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months corrected age (CA). 100 ELBW infants who had complete neurodevelopmental assessments at 20 months CA were categorized by cumulative opioid exposure during the NICU stay (high vs. low/no opioid). Outcome measures included cognitive, motor and language scores from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III). Multiple regression analyses adjusted for the impact of social and neonatal risk factors on outcome. There were 60 patients with high and 40 with low/no opioid exposure. Infants in the high dose group had a higher number of median ventilator days (53.5 vs. 45.6 days, p=0.046) and a higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (5% vs. 21.7%, p=0.022). There were no significant differences in BSITD-III scores between the two opiate groups. In multivariate analysis cumulative opioid dose was associated with lower cognitive scores on the BSITD-III even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors (β=-0.247, p=0.012). Cumulative opioid dose is associated with worse cognitive scores at 20 months CA even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis. However, given the functional diversity and complexity of histone methylation within the cell, the study of the molecular basis of histone methylation-related neurodevelopmental disorders is currently still in its infancy. Here, we review the latest studies that revealed the pathological implications of alterations in histone methylation status in the context of various neurodevelopmental disorders and propose possible therapeutic application of epigenetic compounds regulating histone methylation status for the treatment of these diseases.
Gałuszka, Z; Grzelec, T; Hudzik, A; Jodłowski, J; Pokorska, M; Kolarzyk, E
The subjects of investigation in a standard clinical conditions were 4 groups of workers: blast furnace workers (n = 121), operators (n = 131), persons from managic staff (n = 73) and monks (n = 81). In all subjects 8 factors enhancing ischemic heart disease were estimated: treating family history, habit of smoking, male sex, blood hypertension, obesity, increased cholesterol concentration in blood serum and small physical activity. It was found that investigated groups were significantly different as to frequency of occurrence of ischemic heart disease risk factors.
Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne
Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...... is potentially mediated through comorbid conditions such as cancer, the modifiable traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors are not associated with increased VTE risk. Higher systolic blood pressure showed an inverse association with VTE....
Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wolke, Dieter
Preterm children have problems with mathematics but knowledge about the predictors of specific mathematic abilities in preterm populations is scarce. This study investigated neurodevelopmental pathways to children's general and specific mathematic abilities across the full gestational age range. Prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation in Germany. 947 children across the full gestational age range (23-41 weeks). Outcome measures. At 8 years, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured and residuals of a regression predicting mathematic scores by IQ were used to identify specific mathematic abilities. Neurodevelopmental cascade models revealed that adverse effects of preterm birth on mathematic abilities were mediated by neonatal risk. Specific mathematic abilities were uniquely predicted by the duration of hospitalization and ventilation. Prolonged neonatal medical treatment and, in particular, mechanical ventilation may lead to specific impairments in mathematic tasks. These findings have implications for the mode of respiratory support in neonates, routine follow-up and intervention planning as well as research about brain reorganization after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...
Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...
Paré, Arnaud; Joly, Aline
Oral cavity is the most frequent anatomical subsite of upper aero-digestive tract malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type and totalizes more than 95% of oral cancer. Main risk factors are tobacco and alcohol exposure and also potentially malignant lesions. These precancerous lesions are a chronic disease of oral mucosa and are responsible for about 20% of oral cancer. The treatment of oral cancer depends on clinical, radiological and endoscopic staging and according to the multidisciplinary tumor board decision. Indeed, tumor staging gives information about loco-regional and metastatic spread. Treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, the prognostic mainly depends on tumor resectability and patient comorbidities. Tumor removal is often associated with reconstruction procedures in order to restore phonation, swallowing and breathing functions with acceptable aesthetic outcomes. The usual delayed diagnosis explains the poor prognostic of oral cancer in spite of prevention attempt and therapeutic improvement. Indeed, the profile of tobacco and alcoholic patients outside of medical system, the high rate of recurrence and the frequency of second primary malignancies explain the stable incidence for years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Elflein, H M
Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease posing a significant burden on health-care resources and patients' quality of life. It is a complex disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and combinations of symptoms. AD affects up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults; recent data show that its prevalence is still increasing, especially in low-income countries. First manifestations of AD usually appear early in life and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individuals affected by AD usually have genetically determined risk factors affecting the skin barrier function or the immune system. However, genetic mutations alone might not be enough to cause clinical manifestations of AD, and it is merely the interaction of a dysfunctional epidermal barrier in genetically predisposed individuals with harmful effects of environmental agents which leads to the development of the disease. AD has been described as an allergic skin disease, but today, the contribution of allergic reactions to the initiation of AD is challenged, and it is proposed that allergy is rather a consequence of AD in subjects with a concomitant underlying atopic constitution. Treatment at best achieves symptom control rather than cure; there is thus a strong need to identify alternatives for disease prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.
Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two
Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.
Laatikainen, Tiina; Janus, Edward; Kilkkinen, Annamari; Heistaro, Sami; Tideman, Philip; Baird, Andrew; Tirimacco, Rosy; Whiting, Malcolm; Franklin, Lucinola; Chapman, Anna; Kao-Philpot, Anna; Dunbar, James
The aim of this article was to assess the level and prevalence of major chronic disease risk factors among rural adults. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the southeast of South Australia and the southwest of Victoria. Altogether 891 randomly selected persons aged 25 to 74 years participated in the studies. Surveys included a self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements, and a venous blood specimen for lipid analyses. Two thirds of participants had cholesterol levels>or=5.0 mmol/L. The prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (>or=90 mm Hg) was 22% for men and 10% for women in southeast of South Australia, and less than 10% for both sexes in southwest of Victoria. Two thirds of participants were overweight or obese (body mass index>or=25 kg/m2). About 15% of men and slightly less women were daily smokers. The abnormal risk factor levels underline the need for targeted prevention activities in the Greater Green Triangle region. Continuing surveillance of levels and patterns of risk factors is fundamentally important for planning and evaluating preventive activities.
Full Text Available It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups.Children born SGA (N = 1050 from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007 was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders.Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06] and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84] scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44], but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]. Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12] and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38] scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score.Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y.
Millan, Mark J
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by aberrant and delayed early-life development of the brain, leading to deficits in language, cognition, motor behaviour and other functional domains, often accompanied by somatic symptoms. Environmental factors like perinatal infection, malnutrition and trauma can increase the risk of the heterogeneous, multifactorial and polygenic disorders, autism and schizophrenia. Conversely, discrete genetic anomalies are involved in Down, Rett and Fragile X syndromes, tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis, the less familiar Phelan-McDermid, Sotos, Kleefstra, Coffin-Lowry and "ATRX" syndromes, and the disorders of imprinting, Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. NDDs have been termed "synaptopathies" in reference to structural and functional disturbance of synaptic plasticity, several involve abnormal Ras-Kinase signalling ("rasopathies"), and many are characterized by disrupted cerebral connectivity and an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission. However, at a different level of integration, NDDs are accompanied by aberrant "epigenetic" regulation of processes critical for normal and orderly development of the brain. Epigenetics refers to potentially-heritable (by mitosis and/or meiosis) mechanisms controlling gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. In certain NDDs, prototypical epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and covalent histone marking are impacted. Conversely, others involve anomalies in chromatin-modelling, mRNA splicing/editing, mRNA translation, ribosome biogenesis and/or the regulatory actions of small nucleolar RNAs and micro-RNAs. Since epigenetic mechanisms are modifiable, this raises the hope of novel therapy, though questions remain concerning efficacy and safety. The above issues are critically surveyed in this review, which advocates a broad-based epigenetic framework for understanding and ultimately treating a diverse assemblage of NDDs ("epigenopathies") lying at the
Furlong, Melissa A; Herring, Amy; Buckley, Jessie P; Goldman, Barbara D; Daniels, Julie L; Engel, Lawrence S; Wolff, Mary S; Chen, Jia; Wetmur, Jim; Barr, Dana Boyd; Engel, Stephanie M
Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been associated with different neurodevelopmental outcomes across different cohorts. A phenotypic approach may address some of these differences by incorporating information across scales and accounting for the complex correlational structure of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Additionally, Bayesian hierarchical modeling can account for confounding by collinear co-exposures. We use this framework to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OPs and behavior, executive functioning, and IQ assessed at age 6-9 years in a cohort of 404 mother/infant pairs recruited during pregnancy. We derived phenotypes of neurodevelopment with a factor analysis, and estimated associations between OP metabolites and these phenotypes in Bayesian hierarchical models for exposure mixtures. We report seven factors: 1) Impulsivity and Externalizing, 2) Executive Functioning, 3) Internalizing, 4) Perceptual Reasoning, 5) Adaptability, 6) Processing Speed, and 7) Verbal Intelligence. These, along with the Working Memory Index, were standardized and scaled so that positive values reflected positive attributes and negative values represented adverse outcomes. Standardized dimethylphosphate metabolites were negatively associated with Internalizing factor scores (β^ - 0.13, 95% CI - 0.26, 0.00) but positively associated with Executive Functioning factor scores (β^ 0.18, 95% CI 0.04, 0.31). Standardized diethylphosphate metabolites were negatively associated with the Working Memory Index (β^ - 0.17, 95% CI - 0.33, - 0.03). Associations with factor scores were generally stronger and more precise than associations with individual instrument-specific items. Factor analysis of outcomes may provide some advantages in etiological studies of childhood neurodevelopment by incorporating information across scales to reduce dimensionality and improve precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens
Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...
and market forces. Lifestyle changes have been implicated as risk factors for most of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) including diabetes. Some of the lifestyle factors, which have been identified as risk factors for diabetes are physical inactivity, obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use.[1-4] Prevalence and association of these ...
Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...
In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic
Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L
Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.
Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan
Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia often co-occur. Each of these factors has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, but it is uncertain which factor imposes the greatest risk. Moreover, the effect of age at time of exposure may differ
Acha, Joana; Pérez, Alejandro; Davidson, Doug J; Carreiras, Manuel
Dravet syndrome (DS) is an epilepsy of infantile onset, usually related to a mutation in gene sodium channel alpha 1 subunit, that leads to different typological seizures before the first year of life. Although most research has focused on the clinical description of the syndrome, some recent studies have focused on its impact on cognitive development, identifying both motor disorders and visual-processing deficits as basic factors affected in adults and children with DS. In this article, we designed a cross-sectional study to examine the cognitive phenotype of children affected by DS from a neurodevelopmental perspective. We report measures for both basic (auditory perception, visual and phonological processing, motor coordination) and higher order cognitive processes (verbal production, categorization, and executive function) in two age groups of DS children (M = 8.8 and M = 14.1) and control children of the same chronological age. Results showed an important cognitive delay in DS children with respect to controls in both basic and higher order cognitive abilities, with a better general outcome in tasks that required processing visual material (visual memory and categorization) than in tasks involving verbal material. In addition, performance of DS children in certain basic tasks (visual memory) correlated with performance on complex ones (categorization). These findings encourage promoting an early identification of not only clinical but also cognitive features in DS children from very early stages of development in order to optimize their neurodevelopmental outcome.
... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...
Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.
Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685
Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.
Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil
. Methodology: Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors......Introduction: Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP....... Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...
Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.
Mera-Gallego, Rocío; García-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Cordeiro, Marta; Rodríguez-Reneda, Ángeles; Vérez-Cotelo, Natalia; Andrés-Rodríguez, N Floro; Fornos-Pérez, J Antonio; Rica-Echevarría, Itxaso
The current guidelines for treatment of high blood pressure do not include any section dedicated to hypertension in children and adolescents or to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies in that age group. Our study was aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in an adolescent sample. A cross-sectional study of a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17years (n=630), conducted from October 2014 to February 2015 in four schools in Cangas do Morrazo (Pontevedra). Sociodemographic variables: age, sex, personal and family history of hypertension and diabetes (DM). Anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist/height index (WHI), blood pressure (mmHg). The study sample consisted of 295 female and 335 male adolescents (mean age: 13.8±1.4). CVR-related conditions: hypercholesterolemia (7.1%), CVD (1.7%), hypertension (0.8%) and diabetes (0.3%). BMI (22.0±3,8) was higher in males (22.4±3.8 vs. 21.0±3.2; PP90 and 23.7% had diastolic BP >P90. Waist circumference positively correlated with age (r=0.1669; PP75, and 7.5% >P90. Eighty-four (13.3%) adolescents had two CVRFs (overweight+another). Despite their young age, more than 10% of school children had two CVRFs. Abnormal SBP levels were seen in more than 50%, 20% were overweight, and only 75% had normal waist circumference values. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
García-Rodríguez, José Francisco; Álvarez-Díaz, Hortensia; Lorenzo-García, María Virginia; Mariño-Callejo, Ana; Fernández-Rial, Álvaro; Sesma-Sánchez, Pascual
To describe the epidemiology and risk factors associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Cases of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed from 1991 to 2008 in a Caucasian population were classified as EPTB or pulmonary TB (PTB). Of all cases, 63.7% were followed up in a specialist TB unit. A standardised protocol for data collection was used, including: gender, age, BCG vaccination, contact with PTB patient, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressive drugs/steroids and HIV-status. These variables were compared between EPTB and PTB groups. Statistical analysis was based on logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Among the 2,161 cases diagnosed, 1,186 were PTB and 705 EPTB. The overall TB incidence had fallen from 79.9/100,000 in 1992 to 27.1/100,000 in 2008, PEPTB cases decreased more slowly than PTB. EPTB increased from 30.6% of cases in 1991-1996 to 37.6% in 2003-2008 (lymphatic site increased 27%), by trend test PEPTB, while alcohol abuse (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.20-0.52), smoking habit (OR 0.45; 95%CI: 0.34-0.59), contact with PTB patients (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.76) and BCG vaccination (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.92) had a protective effect. The proportion of female gender and age of patients increased over time, whilst there was a decrease in BCG vaccinated patients. Whilst there has been a reduction in the overall incidence of TB, the proportion of EPTB increased. The proportional increase in EPTB could be explained by an increase in life expectancy and the predominance of women in the population, and by a decline in BCG vaccinated patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lara Gurgel Fernandes Távora
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of patients at risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND and identify factors possibly associated with its occurence. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study conducted at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Atendimento Especializado - SAE for HIV/Aids of the Integrated Medical Care Center (Núcleo de Atendimento Médico Integrado - NAMI of the University of Fortaleza (Universidade de Fortaleza - UNIFOR, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. We reviewed medical records of all 249 patients that started medical follow-up at SAE/NAMI since its foundation (August/2010 until January/2014, including in the analysis those who completed the international HIV dementia scale - IHDS during routine medical visits. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory variables were collected in addition to IHDS score and the sample was classified in two groups: patients with IHDS≥10 (Group 1 and IHDS<10 (Group 2. Chisquared test was used for categorical variables and student t test, mann whitney test and linear regression were used for numerical variables. Results: The study population consisted of 178 patients with mean IHDS score of 9.5 (+/- 1.6. HAND prevalence was 41.6% (74/178 (IHDS<10. These patients presented older mean age (37.4 years and longer mean time from HIV diagnosis to medical follow-up than the others (10.1 months when compared to Group 2 (31 years old and 4.6 months, respectively, suggesting that these two variables were possibly associated with HAND occurrence. Conclusion: The IHDS application showed a high prevalence of HAND in the study population. More advanced age and longer time from HIV diagnosis to medical follow-up are possibly associated with its occurence.
Opdahl, S.; Alsaker, M D K; Janszky, I; Romundstad, P R; Vatten, L J
Background: Pregnancy may reduce breast cancer risk through induction of persistent changes of the mammary gland that make the breast less susceptible to carcinogenic factors. It is not known to what extent the effects of parity are independent of other breast cancer risk factors. Methods: In a Norwegian cohort of 58 191 women (2890 breast cancers), we assessed whether the effects of parity on postmenopausal breast cancer risk may be modified by menstrual and anthropometric factors. We calcul...
Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.
Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...
Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient′s life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a, apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.
Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.
Armas Domínguez, J; Shor Pinsker, V; Mac Gregor, C; Karchmer, S
The study of high risk during pregnancy was undertaken to show the most viable ways for solving those problems affecting maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. The authors are hopeful that in the future, the 2 branches of medicine, perinatology and obstetrics, will no longer differentiate between high risk for mother and fetus or neonate but will direct attention to what is high risk for 1 society in particular. These professionals will undertake an interdisciplinary approach of the problem to benefit society. (author's)
Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...
Wachs, Sebastian; Wolf, Karsten D; Pan, Ching-Ching
.... The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of being cybergroomed, to identify various coping strategies and to explore the associations between being cyberbullied and cybergroomed...
Ruddy, K J; Winer, E P
...'. Relevant published data regarding risk factors, biological characteristics, presentation and prognosis, appropriate evaluation and treatment, and survivorship issues in male breast cancer patients are presented...
Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.
Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu
Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.
The risk of HIV was also signiﬁcantly higher arnong hotel workers (age-adjusted OR = 4.3; 95% CI. = 1.4—12.9} Women With laboratory evidence of sexually transmitted diseases were at increased risk of HIV. This study shows that HIV is a major public health problem among FP clients in Tanzania. Innovative HIV in-.
... Disease and Stroke email updates Enter email Submit Heart disease risk factors you can't control Some factors ... 2013). Hypertension in Pregnancy. Previous Page Next Page Heart disease resources Related information Heart-healthy eating Stress and ...
Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...
Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig
The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common critical syndrome, with high morbidity and mortality. Patients with AKI typically have an adverse prognosis, from incident chronic kidney disease (CKD, progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD, subsequent cardiovascular disease, and ultimately death. However, there is currently no effective therapy for AKI. Early detection of risk factors for AKI may offer a good approach to prevention or early intervention. Traditional risk factors include extreme age, many common comorbid diseases, such as preexisting CKD, some specific exposures, such as sepsis, and exposure to some nephrotoxic agents. Recently, several novel risk factors for AKI, such as hyperuricemia, hypoalbuminemia, obesity, anemia, and hyperglycemia, have been identified. The underlying mechanisms between these nontraditional risk factors and AKI and whether their correction can reduce AKI occurrence remain to be clarified. This review describes the current epidemiology of AKI, summarizes its outcome, outlines the traditional risk profile, and finally highlights some recently identified novel risk factors.
Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.
Osborn, D A
Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxinemia) and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone therapy might prevent this morbidity. To assess whether thyroid hormone therapy in preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism results in clinically important changes in neonatal and long term outcomes in terms of benefits and harms. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the English language. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation, in which thyroid hormone therapy (either treatment or prophylaxis) was compared to control in premature infants. Primary clinical outcomes included measures of neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Assessment of trial quality, data extraction and synthesis of data, using relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD), were performed using standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group. Nine studies were identified that compared thyroid hormone treatment to control. Four randomized and one quasi-randomized study met inclusion criteria. All studies enrolled preterm infants thyroid hormones. Four studies used thyroxine, whereas Amato 1989 used triiodothyronine. Only two studies with neurodevelopmental follow-up were of good methodology. All studies were of small size with the largest, van Wassenaer 1997, enrolling 200 infants. Meta-analysis of five studies found no significant difference in mortality to discharge (typical RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.42, 1.17) in infants who received thyroid hormone treatment compared to controls. Meta-analysis of two studies found no significant
Fernandez, Esteve; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia
We analyzed the joint effect of environmental risk factors and family history of colorectal cancer on colon cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1992 and 1996 including 1225 cases with colon cancer and 4154 controls. We created a weighed risk factor score for the main environmental risk factors in this population (positive family history, high education, low occupational physical activity, high daily meal frequency, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, and low intake of beta-carotene). Compared with the reference category (subjects with no family history of colorectal cancer and in the lowest tertile of the risk factor score), the odds ratios of colon cancer were 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.89-2.73] for subjects without family history and in the highest environmental risk factor score, 3.20 (95% CI = 2.05-5.01) for those with family history and low risk factor score, and 7.08 (95% CI = 4.68-10.71) for those with family history and high risk factor score. The pattern of risk was similar for men and women and no meaningful differences emerged according to subsite within the colon. Family history of colorectal cancer interacts with environmental risk factors of colon cancer.
Hwang, Seon Y; Ryan, Catherine J; Zerwic, Julie Johnson
This study assessed the knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors in a convenience sample of Korean immigrants. A total of 116 Korean immigrants in a Midwestern metropolitan area were recruited through Korean churches and markets. Knowledge was assessed using both open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Latent class cluster analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. About 76% of the sample had at least one self-reported risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Using an open-ended question, the majority of subjects could only identify one symptom. In the structured questionnaire, subjects identified a mean of 5 out of 10 heart attack symptoms and a mean of 5 out of 9 heart attack risk factors. Latent class cluster analysis showed that subjects clustered into two groups for both risk factors and symptoms: a high knowledge group and a low knowledge group. Subjects who clustered into the risk factor low knowledge group (48%) were more likely than the risk factor high knowledge group to be older than 65 years, to have lower education, to not know to use 911 when a heart attack occurred, and to not have a family history of heart attack. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors was variable, ranging from high to very low. Education should be focused on those at highest risk for a heart attack, which includes the elderly and those with risk factors.
AlJehani, Yousef A.
Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294
Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.
Amabile Vessoni Arias
Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.
Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J
A telemedicine program was developed between the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC, and the Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A needs assessment and a curriculum of on-site training conferences were devised preparatory to an ongoing telemedicine consultation program for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in the underserved eastern region of the UAE. Weekly telemedicine consultations are provided by a multidisciplinary faculty. Patients are presented in the UAE with their therapists and families. Real-time (video over Internet protocol; average connection, 768 kilobits/s) telemedicine conferences are held weekly following previews of medical records. A full consultation report follows each telemedicine session. Between February 29, 2012 and June 26, 2013, 48 weekly 1-h live interactive telemedicine consultations were conducted on 48 patients (28 males, 20 females; age range, 8 months-22 years; median age, 5.4 years). The primary diagnoses were cerebral palsy, neurogenetic disorders, autism, neuromuscular disorders, congenital anomalies, global developmental delay, systemic disease, and epilepsy. Common comorbidities were cognitive impairment, communication disorders, and behavioral disorders. Specific recommendations included imaging and DNA studies, antiseizure management, spasticity management including botulinum toxin protocols, and specific therapy modalities including taping techniques, customized body vests, and speech/language and behavioral therapy. Improved outcomes reported were in clinician satisfaction, achievement of therapy goals for patients, and requests for ongoing sessions. Weekly telemedicine sessions coupled with triannual training conferences were successfully implemented in a clinical program dedicated to patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities by the Center for Neuroscience at CNMC and the UAE government. International consultations in neurodevelopmental
Background: Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the factors associated ...
.... RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02...
Almeida, Carolina Lopes de
Trabalho de revisão do 6º ano médico com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre (área científica de pediatria) no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina. Although prognosis of Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) has been greatly modified since the introduction of newborn screening programs, persistent cognitive deficits are still reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CH and to determine whether severity of CH, age of...
Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal
Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advanced our understanding of UBE3A, MECP2, NF1 and FMR1 function, respectively, in genetic, biochemical, anatomical, physiological and behavioral contexts. Investigations in Drosophila continue to provide the essential mechanistic understanding required to facilitate the conception of rational therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, M. L.; Sagebiel, R W
Despite important advances in the treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for advanced disease remains discouraging. This fact, in combination with a worldwide epidemic of melanoma among persons of white skin type, has focused attention on identifying melanoma in its early, surgically curable stages. Attention has also been directed toward pinpointing which persons are at increased risk for melanoma to reduce risk where possible and to aid early diagnosis. Essentially all epidemiologic studies h...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.
Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya ... Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic. (East African ...
Schoenmakers, E.C.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Fokkema, T.
Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems
A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in smallholder dairy farms in Babati town council. Sixty three smallholder dairy farmers were administered with questionnaires to collect information on risk factors for ...
Full Text Available Background: Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are generally the same as those responsible for the ischemic heart disease and in both cases are overlapping risk factors involved in the etiology of atherosclerosis, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.
Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have identified modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors in stroke patients admitted in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital in ...
Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results: The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 ...
AJRH Managing Editor
Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...
Apr 20, 2015 ... Conclusion: Stroke risk factors such as hypertension and obesity were common among the participants of the world stroke day awareness program in an urban area of Nigeria. Community screening and modification of these risk factors should be intensified in order to reduce stroke morbidity and mortality.
In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…
Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...
... associated risk factors in the affected patients. There is therefore the need to consider prophylactic anticoagulation for puerperal and post-operative patients especially in those who are obese or older than 45 years. KEY WORDS: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Risk Factors Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.1(4) 2003: 9- ...
Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].
Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...
ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...
cervical cancer and identified other risk factors. Molecular epidemiologic evidence clearly indicates that certain types of. HPV are the principal cause of invasive cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus. Infection in Cervical Smears. Ojiyi EC, Dike IE, Okeudo C, ...
Thomsen, Line H.; Schnack, Tine H.; Buchardi, Kristina
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the published literature on epidemiologic risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a diagnosis of endometriosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Studies comparing epidemiologic risk factors...
van der Sluis, Frederik J.; Buisman, Pieter L.; Meerdink, Mark; aan de Stegge, Wouter B.; van Etten, Boudewijn; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Pol, Robert A.
Background. A clear understanding of risk factors for postoperative delirium helps in the selection of individuals who might benefit from targeted perioperative intervention. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative delirium after colorectal operation for malignancy.
Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo
To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....
Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng
PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denma...
of cerebrovascular accident, a history of congestive heart failure and a ... medical records relating to clinical risk factors in patients, preinduction BP measurements, and in-hospital strokes and death, following ... An association between a history of hypertension or other clinical risk factors and an in-hospital stroke and death ...
May 19, 2014 ... Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected ... 24 (11.7%), elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 99 (48.1%). ... Conclusion: This study suggests a very high prevalence of CV risk factors among University Staff in LAUTECH,.
Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...
Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...
Background: There is limited population based data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Nigeria, and Abia state in particular. Aims: The purpose of this survey was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the ...
Objective: Coronary heart disease risk factors tend to cluster in patients with hypertension. In works done in Nigeria, the hypertensive subjects studied were those receiving treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern of these risk factors in untreated hypertensive patients. Study design: Fifty untreated hypertensives and ...
Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...
BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Among the behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is 9.3%, alcohol consumption 7.3%, consumption of fruits ... The prevalence of physical risk factors is 9.3% for hypertension, 2.6% for overweight and 33.3% central obesity. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Background. In Western countries, incidence of thrombocytopenia in intensive care units (ICUs) has been found to be 13 - 44%. We chose to study the incidence, risk factors and transfusion requirements of thrombocytopenia in tertiary care ICUs in northern India. Objective. To study the incidence and risk factors of ...
Background: An understanding of risk factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal deaths. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods: The data source for the study was the ...
aggressive road safety campaigns. Injury prevention and safety promotion campaigns should focus more on the risk factors for motorcycle accidents. Key Words: Motorcycles, Crash, Risk factors, Rural. Background. It is estimated that every day, about 3000 people die and 30,000 are seriously injured in road crashes,.
Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne
Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…
The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...
Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M F; Gislason, Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Studies have suggested that several perinatal factors may influence the risk of AD in early childhood. We investigated possible neonatal risk factors such as jaundice, blue light...
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...
... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...
Background: Puerperal sepsis is a common pregnancy related complication and is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Sub Saharan Africa. There is paucity of regional data on the antibiogram and risk factors associated with this condition, Aim: To determine the risk factors, aetiological organisms ...
Recent studies have shown an increase in the rate of road traffic accident (RTA). Identifying the risk factors for this problem may provide a clue to possible effective intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for self reported RTA among drivers of educational institutions and make suggestions ...
Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially fatal form of heart failure and the recognition of its risk factors is important for prevention and treatment. Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and the risk factors for PPCM. Methods: Echocardiographic was used to examine the left ventricular ...
Risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia were studied in 348 pregnancies resulting in the delivery of an infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a mother in her 3rd decade of life, multiparity, maternal weight of 70 kg or more at the end of pregnancy, prolonged or ...
Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve
Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…
study aims to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with delivery of low birth weight singletons at term at UBTH, Benin City. ... mortality. All isolated risk factors but nulliparity are amenable to antenatal management. Key words: .... data was fed into the computer and analyzed using the Epi info statistical ...
Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%
Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...
Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and risk factors of Obesity and high blood pressure among healthy adults in a military settlement in Ibagwa, Southern Nigeria. The study also sought ...
Jun 25, 2010 ... c Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa. Correspondence to: CM Smuts, e-mail: email@example.com. Keywords: child malnutrition; risk factors; stunting; underweight; overweight; rural; South Africa. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in ...
Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...
The governate, locality, type of production, breeds, age, poultry population, husbandry system, body condition, source of poultry, floor type and vaccinations were the risk factors that significantly associated with CAV antibodies. These factors were analysed using logistic regression. It is found that, the increased risk of odds ...
Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...
Moen, M. H.; Bongers, T.; Bakker, E. W.; Zimmermann, W. O.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Backx, F. J. G.
The objective of the study was to examine the risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). In total, 35 subjects were included in the study. For the risk factor analysis, the following parameters were investigated: hip internal and external ranges of motion, knee
Albañil Ballesteros, María Rosa; Rogero Blanco, María Eloisa; Olivas Domínguez, Antonio; Sánchez Martín, Magdalena; Rabanal Basalo, Alejandro; Sanz Bayona, María Teresa
Obesity is a major concern in public health. The fact that most teenagers stop contacting the health system during this period of life prevents detection of this problem and its associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of obesity at 18. We also aimed to detect overweight, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and association with CVRF in parents and siblings. The research includes 153 children followed up to 18 years old in a community health center. Measures of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, CVRF, and familiar history were taken. The prevalence of obesity in our study group was 7.18%, (IC: 3.0-11.0), (6.25% male and 7.86% female). The prevalence of overweight was 18.3% (IC: 11.9-24.0), (26.56% male and 12.35% female). A familiy history of CVRF was found in 53.9% (IC: 46.1-61.9) of cases, including high blood pressure (25%), obesity (23.6%), dyslipemia (21.7%), and diabetes (7.2%). This finding was more prevalent in the obesity group (72.72%) than in those with overweight only (64.2%), or with normal weight (49.59%). A family history of obesity and diabetes in first-degree relatives was associated to obesity in the study group. Also, a family history of high blood pressure was associated to the presence of high blood pressure in this group. In order to detect obesity, overweight, and associated complications in young adults, specific attention to children and siblings of persons who present risk factors is recommended. Those with high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity have the higher risk. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity for pregnant women and newborns. Identifying pregnant women with risk factors for GDM based on the clinical suspicion is a popular approach. However, the effectiveness of the use of a structured checklist of risk ...
Thurn, L.; Lindqvist, P. G.; Jakobsson, M.
most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence...
van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.
Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A.; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T.
Objective Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Method Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Results Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. Discussion The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. PMID:25953812
Hupfeld, Line; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian
PURPOSE: Several factors may influence the risk of recurrence after an episode of acute colonic diverticulitis. Until now, a comprehensive systematic overview and evaluation of relevant risk factors have not been presented. This review aimed at assembling and evaluating current evidence on risk...... factors for recurrence after conservatively treated acute colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies evaluating risk factors for recurrence after acute diverticulitis treated non-surgically defined as antibiotic treatment, percutaneous abscess....../low, medium, high). RESULTS: Of 1153 screened records, 35 studies were included, enrolling 396,676 patients with acute diverticulitis. A total of 50,555 patients experienced recurrences. Primary diverticulitis with abscess formation and young age increased the risk of recurrence. Readmission risk was higher...
Rebolledo, Ever Agustín Osorio; Medina, Neris Marina Ortega de; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
This study aims to identify risk factors associated with licit and illicit drug abuse among adolescent students in various public institutions. A descriptive study was carried out in Naguanagua, Carabobo, Venezuela and applied the Test Drug Use Screening Inventory questionnaire to an age-stratified sample, involving students between 12 and 17 years old. High-risk areas associated with drugs abuse were family and mental health, while recreation, behavior and school are considered moderate risks. Peers, social abilities and drug use were identified as low-risk factors. The Total Severity Score is high, which may indicate that Venezuelan adolescents present higher risks for licit and illicit drugs abuse. At the same time, they present lower drug use rates, that is, the presence of protective factors interact with and modify the risk factors.
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...
Feltkamp, T.E.W.; Aarden, L.A.; Lucas, C.J.; Verweij, C.L.; Vries, R.R.P. de
In most autoimmune diseases multigenic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis. Progress in identifying these genetic factors, many of which are located outside the major histocompatibility complex, was the subject of a recent meeting. Chemicals/CAS: Interleukin-10, 130068-27-8; Transforming
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.
Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S
This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.
Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring
Children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza, including death. In April 2011, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC investigated an influenza outbreak that began in February 2011 in a residential facility for 130 children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. This report summarizes the characteristics and clinical courses of 13 severely ill residents with suspected or confirmed influenza; 10 were hospitalized, and seven died. Diagnosis is challenging in this population, and clinicians should consider influenza in patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions who have respiratory illness or a decline in baseline medical status when influenza is circulating in the community. Prompt testing, early and aggressive antiviral treatment, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis are important for these patients. When influenza is suspected, antiviral treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset, ideally within 48 hours. Treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. During outbreaks, antiviral chemoprophylaxis should be provided to all residents of institutional facilities (e.g., nursing homes and long-term- care facilities), regardless of vaccination status. Residential facilities for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are encouraged to vaccinate all eligible residents and staff members against influenza.
Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka
The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.
The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... implications for prevention of thyroid disease could be suggested. Discussion of smoking habits should be included in a consultation for goiter with a motivation to quit smoking. Iodine deficiency has particularly strong goitrogenic effects during pregnancy and for the sake of the mother as well as the fetus...
Ashraf Mohamed Elmoustafa
Full Text Available Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA describes any structured approach used to determine overall preferences among alternative options, where options accomplish certain or several objectives. The flood protection of properties is a highly important issue due to the damage, danger and other hazards associated to it to human life, properties, and environment. To determine the priority of execution of protection works for any project, many aspects should be considered in order to decide the areas to start the data collection and analysis with. Multi criteria analysis techniques were tested and evaluated for the purpose of flood risk assessment, hydro-morphological parameters were used in this analysis. Finally a suitable technique was chosen and tested to be adopted as a mark of flood risk level and results were presented.
Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. Objective: To review the risk ...
Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.
We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources
Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne
This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...