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Sample records for neurodevelopmental effects attributed

  1. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  2. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  3. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  4. Neurodevelopmental attributes of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: Update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibellini, Giulia; Brancati, Francesco; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, increasing attention has been devoted to the extra-articular and extra-cutaneous manifestations of joint hypermobility syndrome, also termed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT). Despite the fact that the current diagnostic criteria for both disorders remain focused on joint hypermobility, musculoskeletal pain and skin changes, medical practice and research have started investigating a wide spectrum of visceral, neurological and developmental complications, which represent major burdens for affected individuals. In particular, children with generalized joint hypermobility often present with various neurodevelopmental issues and can be referred for neurological consultation. It is common that investigations in these patients yield negative or inconsistent results, eventually leading to the exclusion of any structural neurological or muscle disorder. In the context of specialized clinics for connective tissue disorders, a clear relationship between generalized joint hypermobility and a characteristic neurodevelopmental profile affecting coordination is emerging. The clinical features of these patients tend to overlap with those of developmental coordination disorder and can be associated with learning and other disabilities. Physical and psychological consequences of these additional difficulties add to the chief manifestations of the pre-existing connective tissue disorder, affecting the well-being and development of children and their families. In this review, particular attention is devoted to the nature of the link between joint hypermobility, coordination difficulties and neurodevelopmental issues in children. Presumed pathogenesis and management issues are explored in order to attract more attention on this association and nurture future clinical research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Early Deprivation in Postinstitutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Schlaak, Mary F.; Roeber, Barbara J.; Wewerka, Sandi S.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Loman, Michelle M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental sequelae of early deprivation were examined by testing (N = 132) 8- and 9-year-old children who had endured prolonged versus brief institutionalized rearing or rearing in the natal family. Behavioral tasks included measures that permit inferences about underlying neural circuitry. Children raised in institutionalized…

  6. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  7. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  8. Effects of methylmercury and alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster: Potential risks in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2016-06-01

    Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effect of kangaroo care on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. As advances in neonatal care enable more preterm infants to survive, development of strategies to address high rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities and poor academic achievement in preterm infants are crucial. Evidence suggests that infants' brains are plastic in nature and, therefore, can be shaped by the environment. Kangaroo care has become popularized as a means of modifying the stress of the NICU environment. However, few studies have examined whether kangaroo care affects neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. This review examined available literature that investigated the effect of kangaroo care on cognition in preterm infants. Current evidence suggests that short-term benefits of kangaroo care are associated with improved neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the long-term impact of kangaroo care on cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. To address neurological disparities in children born preterm, research using kangaroo care as a strategy to improve neurodevelopment in preterm infants is warranted.

  10. Effects of Cannabis on Neurocognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Gonzalez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have examined the effects of cannabis on neurocognition. Recent advances in this field provide us with a better understanding of how cannabis use influences neurocognition both acutely (during intoxication) and non-acutely (after acute effects subside). Evidence of problems with episodic memory is one of the most consistent findings reported; however, several other neurocognitive domains appear to be adversely affected by cannabis use under various conditions. There is significant variability in findings across studies, thus a discussion of potential moderators is increasingly relevant. The purpose of this review was to 1) provide an update on research of cannabis’ acute and non-acute effects on neurocognition, with a focus on findings since 2007 and 2) suggest and discuss how neurodevelopmental issues and sex differences may influence cannabis effects on neurocognition. Finally we discuss how future investigations may lead to better understanding of the complex interplay among cannabis, stages of neurodevelopment, and sex on neurocognitive functioning. PMID:23129391

  11. Effect of co-twin gender on neurodevelopmental symptoms: a twin register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jonna Maria; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. It has been hypothesized that exposure to elevated levels of prenatal testosterone is associated with elevated traits of ASD and ADHD. Assuming that testosterone levels from a dizygotic male twin fetus may lead to enhanced testosterone exposure of its co-twins, we aimed to test the prenatal testosterone hypothesis by comparing same-sex with opposite-sex dizygotic twins with respect to neurodevelopmental symptoms. Neuropsychiatric traits were assessed in a population-based twin cohort from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parental interviews were conducted for 16,312 dizygotic twins, 9 and 12 years old, with the Autism-Tics, ADHD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC). Girls with a female co-twin had an increased risk of reaching the cut-off score for ADHD compared with girls with a male co-twin. Both boys and girls with a female co-twin displayed a larger number of traits related to attention deficit and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors than those with a male twin. In girls, this also extended to social interaction and the combined measures for ASD and ADHD, however, with small effect sizes. Our results are reverse to what would have been expected from the prenatal testosterone hypothesis but consistent with a previous study of ASD and ADHD traits in dizygotic twins. The seemingly protective effect for girls of having a twin brother may be an effect of parent report bias, but may also be an unexpected effect of sharing the intrauterine environment with a male co-twin.

  12. The adverse neuro-developmental effects of postnatal steroids in the preterm infant: a systematic review of RCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrington Keith J

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have raised concerns that postnatal steroids may cause neuro-developmental impairment in preterm infants. This systematic review was performed with the objective of determining whether glucocorticoid therapy, to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, impairs neuro-developmental outcomes in preterm infants. Method A systematic review of the literature was performed. Medline was searched and articles retrieved using predefined criteria. Data from randomized controlled trials with adequate neuro-developmental follow up (to at least one year were entered into a meta-analysis to determine the effects of postnatal treatment of preterm infants with glucocorticoids. Cerebral palsy rates, and neuro-developmental impairment (developmental score more than 2SD below the mean, or cerebral palsy or blindness were analyzed. The studies were divided into 2 groups according to the extent of contamination of the results by treatment of controls with steroids after the initial study period, those with less than 30% contamination, and those with more than 30% contamination or size of contamination not reported. Results Postnatal steroid therapy is associated with an increase in cerebral palsy and neuro-developmental impairment. The studies with less contamination show a greater effect of the steroids, consistent with a real direct toxic effect of steroids on the developing central nervous system. The typical relative risk for the development of cerebral palsy derived from studies with less than 30% contamination is 2.86 (95% CI 1.95, 4.19. The typical relative risk for the development of neuro-developmental disability among followed up infants from studies with less than 30% contamination is 1.66 (95% CI 1.26, 2.19. From this subgroup of studies, the number of premature infants who need to be treated to have one more infant with cerebral palsy (number needed to harm, NNH is 7; to have one more infant with neuro-developmental

  13. Effects of early nutrition and growth on brain volumes, white matter microstructure, and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Caterina; Keunen, Kristin; Kersbergen, Karina J; Groenendaal, Floris; Leemans, Alexander; Peels, Barbara; Isgum, Ivana; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Carnielli, Virgilio P; Benders, Manon J N L

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age (TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age (CA), in preterm infants.MethodsOne hundred thirty-one infants born at a gestational age (GA) brain development.

  14. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon

    2013-12-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Attribution as Effect: An Outsider Principal's Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    1988-01-01

    Administrator succession can have varied effects on organizational performance. Although most studies have focused on performance outcomes, this paper reports the personal sense making of a successor to the principalship. The successor found that leadership validation and attribution influenced her transformation from an interloper to an effective…

  16. Teaching Effectiveness Attributes in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simendinger, Earl; El-Kassar, Abdul-Nasser; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Alejandra; Crawford, John; Thomason, Stephanie; Reynet, Philippe; Kjellander, Björn; Edwards, Judson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Determining the attributes of effective business teachers is critical to schools as they strive to attract and retain students, assure learning, obtain and maintain reputation and accreditations, and place their alumni in the competitive job market. The purpose of this paper is to examine students and faculty perceptions of teaching…

  17. Teaching Effectiveness Attributes in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simendinger, Earl; El-Kassar, Abdul-Nasser; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Alejandra; Crawford, John; Thomason, Stephanie; Reynet, Philippe; Kjellander, Björn; Edwards, Judson

    Purpose: Determining the attributes of effective business teachers is critical to schools as they strive to attract and retain students, assure learning, obtain and maintain reputation and accreditations, and place their alumni in the competitive job market. The purpose of this paper is to examine students and faculty perceptions of teaching…

  18. The attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M J

    To identify the attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders. A grounded theory research approach was adopted, using two research techniques: observation and interview. The literature review revealed that the role of the clinical nurse leader was ill-defined and addressed only in sparse, opinion-based literature. Novel outcomes of the research included: Identifying five attributes of effective clinical nurse leaders--highlighting, respecting, influencing, creativity and supporting. Distinguishing five typologies of effective clinical nurse leaders--discoverer, valuer, enabler, shaper and modifier. Elucidating factors that constrain and facilitate the development of effective clinical nurse leadership. The results imply that to enhance clinical nursing, leadership factors that enable and constrain clinical nursing leadership have to be identified and acted upon by individuals and those who they report to professionally.

  19. [Effects of early neurodevelopmental treatment on motor and cognitive development of critically ill premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Kang, Lin-Min; Wang, Qiu; Yu, Tao; Ma, Dan; Luo, Rong

    2013-03-01

    To study the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on motor and cognitive development of critically ill premature infants. There were 203 infants, who were less than 32 week gestational age (GA), with very-low-birth weight, were included in the study. The infants were assigned to NDT group (n = 96) or control group (n = 107) according to the parent's decision. The infants in NDT group received NDT intervention once per week from corrected age (CA) 1 month to 3 months, and 3 to 5 times per week in the following 9 months. NDT intervention included elongation, establishing alignment, optimizing base of support, facilitation and inhibition, stimulation for activating muscle activity. Both groups received family intervention, such as massage and exercise based on early education. Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) score was assessed at 3,6,9,12 months CA for all the infants. NDT intervention achieved significant effects on motor and cognitive development. Mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of BSID-II were significant higher in NDT group (P children in NDT group (16.67%) and 12 (12.12%) in control group at 12 months CA, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). NDT intervention can improve motor and cognitive development in critically ill premature infants within 12 months CA.

  20. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    , orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study....

  1. Effect of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on the change of muscle strength, spasticity, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on muscle tone, strength, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy...

  2. The effect of musical attention control training (MACT) on attention skills of adolescents with neurodevelopmental delays: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiali, Varvara; LaGasse, A Blythe; Penn, Saundra L

    2014-01-01

    Given the effect of musical training on the rate and accuracy of processing auditory information, therapeutic uses of music may potentially have remedial benefits for individuals with neurodevelopmental deficits. However, additional studies are needed to establish efficacy of music therapy interventions for attention skills in children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities including those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). To establish feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a group music therapy protocol to improve attention skills (sustained, selective, attentional control/switching) in adolescents diagnosed with autism and/or developmental delays. This single group pretest/posttest study took place in a private school for high functioning adolescents with neurodevelopmental delays. Nine students (4 males, 5 females), ages 13 to 20, participated in the study. Autism severity was assessed using the CARS2-HF and indicated the following distribution for study participants: severe (n = 3), mild (n = 4), or minimal/no (n = 2) symptoms. We assessed feasibility of implementing a 45-min Musical Attention Control Training (MACT) intervention delivered by a board-certified music therapist eight times over 6 weeks in a school setting. We also examined preliminary efficacy of the MACT to improve attention skills using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Parental consent rate was 100%. All nine participants successfully completed testing measures and 6 weeks of the intervention. Average participation rate was 97%. Data analysis showed positive trends and improvements on measures of attentional control/switching and selective attention. The results showed that the intervention and testing measures were feasible to implement and acceptable to the participants who all completed the protocol. Data analysis demonstrated positive trends indicating that more research on the use of music therapy attention training in high-functioning adolescents with

  3. Effectiveness of Neuro-Developmental Treatment (bobath concept) on postural control and balance in Cerebral Palsied Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Fatih; Kavlak, Erdogan; Cavlak, Ugur; Altug, Filiz

    2017-11-17

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of an 8-week Neurodevelopmental Treatment based posture and balance training on postural control and balance in diparetic and hemiparetic Cerebral Palsied children (CPC). Fifteen CPC (aged 5-15 yrs) were recruited from Denizli Yağmur Çocukları Rehabilitation Centre. Gross Motor Function Classification System, Gross Motor Function Measure, 1-Min Walking Test, Modified Timed Up and Go Test, Paediatric Balance Scale, Functional Independence Measure for Children and Seated Postural Control Measure were used for assessment before and after treatment. An 8-week NDT based posture and balance training was applied to the CPC in one session (60-min) 2 days in a week. After the treatment program, all participants showed statistically significant improvements in terms of gross motor function (p< 0.05). They also showed statistically significant improvements about balance abilities and independence in terms of daily living activities (p< 0.05). Seated Postural Control Measure scores increased after the treatment program (p< 0.05). The results of this study indicate that an 8-week Neurodevelopmental Treatment based posture and balance training is an effective approach in order to improve functional motor level and functional independency by improving postural control and balance in diparetic and hemiparetic CPC.

  4. Risk and benefit assessment of potential neurodevelopmental effect resulting from consumption of marine fish from a coastal archipelago in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Xiong; Zhang, Hongxia; Yu, Xinwei; He, Jia-lu; Shang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2014-06-04

    The aim of this study was to assess net neurodevelopmental effect via maternal consumption of marine fish. A total of thirty-one species were collected from Zhoushan, China. The net IQ point gain was assessed by FAO/WHO deterministic approach and probabilistic computation (if necessary). Results of the deterministic assessment of two samples belonging to Scoliodon sorrakowah showed negative IQ point gain in both common and extreme consumption scenarios (175 and 450 g/week, respectively); the net IQ gain caused by both consumption scenarios of other species were positive. Both consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah showed beneficial neurodevelopmental effect according to probabilistic computation (95% CI for mean of net IQ gain: 0.0536-0.0554 and 0.1377-0.1425, respectively). Except for Scoliodon sorrakowah, this study indicates that both consumption scenarios of other studied species would be recommended according to the FAO/WHO approach. There would be no recommendation of consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah for the reason for carefulness.

  5. ACE: Health - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.

  6. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...

  7. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders: The burden and psychological effects on caregivers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Olagunju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (CNDs are a group requiring more attention as their care is often challenging, particularly for parents with primary caregiving roles in resource-restricted settings. This study had set out to investigate the burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental delays. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 caregivers were recruited during the 2013 annual autism health program organized by the College of Medicine, University of Lagos in collaboration with Guaranty Trust Bank, Nigeria and Blazing Trails, USA. Of these caregivers, 60 respondents (caregivers and children were included in the final analyses due to poorly completed questionnaires. The Zarit Caregivers Burden Scale (ZCBS and General Health Questionnaire version 12 (GHQ-12 were administered to elicit caregivers' experience with respect to burden and psychological distress, respectively. Results: Of the 60 participants included in the final analyses, the majority constituted parents (96.3% with mothers accounting for 71.7%; 28 (46.7% participants were government workers and 3 (5% were full-time housewives. The mean age of CNDs was 6.8 (±3.2 years, and 33 (55.0% were males. Delivery by cesarian section was reported in 19 (31.8%. The common presenting complaints by caregivers were inability to walk (32.7%, repetitive behavior (25.5%, difficulty with verbal communication (10.9%, nonsocialization (9.1%, seizures (9.1%, and hyperactivity (3.6%. Problems were noticed at ≤ 1 year in 46.7% while they were noticed after 2 years in more than half the children, and a little above one-eighth (14% had siblings with similar problems. On the ZCBS, nine (15.0% caregivers reported a significant burden. In addition, 23 (38.3% caregivers had psychological distress. Caregivers' burden was significantly related to the report of psychological distress in caregivers (P < 0.001 and there was a trend toward the presence of

  8. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P < 0.05). Kinematic data demonstrated that anterior tilt of the pelvis and hip flexion during a gait cycle was significantly ameliorated after rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). Gait deviation index also showed modest improvement in cerebral palsy patients treated with rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). However, neurodevelopmental treatment showed that internal and external rotations of hip joints were significantly improved, whereas rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P < 0.05). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  9. Packaging design as communicator of product attributes: Effects on consumers’ attribute inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation will focus on two types of attribute inferences that result from packaging design cues. First, the effects of product packaging design on quality related inferences are investigated. Second, the effects of product packaging design on healthiness related inferences are examined (See

  10. A three-center, randomized, controlled trial of individualized developmental care for very low birth weight preterm infants: medical, neurodevelopmental, parenting, and caregiving effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Als, H.; Gilkerson, L.; Duffy, F.H.; McAnulty, G.B.; Buehler, D.M.; Berg, K. van den; Sweet, N.; Sell, E.; Parad, R.B.; Ringer, S.A.; Butler, S.C.; Blickman, J.G.; Jones, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Medical, neurodevelopmental, and parenting effects of individualized developmental care were investigated in a three-center, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 92 preterm infants, weighing less than 1250 g and aged less than 28 weeks, participated. Outcome measures included medical,

  11. Effect of neuro-developmental therapy (NDT) on disability level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim and Objective: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders causing activity limitation which is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occur in the developing fetal or infant brain. The rehabilitation of children with CP has focused on increasing functionality in their daily activities. The objective of this study ...

  12. Teacher Judgment, Student Motivation, and the Mediating Effect of Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Based on Weiner's attributional theory of intrapersonal motivation, the mediating effect of attributions between teacher judgment and student motivation was examined. In two studies, 144 German and 272 Chinese fourth-grade elementary school students were tested on their mathematical achievement, causal ascriptions for success and failure,…

  13. Neurodevelopmental effects of chronic exposure to elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a developing visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthazer Edward S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbalances in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been increasingly correlated with a number of severe and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and Down syndrome. Although several studies have shown that cytokines have potent effects on neural function, their role in neural development is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between abnormal cytokine levels and neural development using the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system, a model frequently used to examine the anatomical and functional development of neural circuits. Results Using a test for a visually guided behavior that requires normal visual system development, we examined the long-term effects of prolonged developmental exposure to three pro-inflammatory cytokines with known neural functions: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We found that all cytokines affected the development of normal visually guided behavior. Neuroanatomical imaging of the visual projection showed that none of the cytokines caused any gross abnormalities in the anatomical organization of this projection, suggesting that they may be acting at the level of neuronal microcircuits. We further tested the effects of TNF-α on the electrophysiological properties of the retinotectal circuit and found that long-term developmental exposure to TNF-α resulted in enhanced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in tectal neurons, increased AMPA/NMDA ratios of retinotectal synapses, and a decrease in the number of immature synapses containing only NMDA receptors, consistent with premature maturation and stabilization of these synapses. Local interconnectivity within the tectum also appeared to remain widespread, as shown by increased recurrent polysynaptic activity, and was similar to what is seen in more immature, less refined tectal circuits. TNF-α treatment also enhanced the

  14. Mental state attribution and the gaze cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Smith, Daniel T; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Theory of mind is said to be possessed by an individual if he or she is able to impute mental states to others. Recently, some authors have demonstrated that such mental state attributions can mediate the "gaze cueing" effect, in which observation of another individual shifts an observer's attention. One question that follows from this work is whether such mental state attributions produce mandatory modulations of gaze cueing. Employing the basic gaze cueing paradigm, together with a technique commonly used to assess mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals, we manipulated whether the gazing agent could see the same thing as the participant (i.e., the target) or had this view obstructed by a physical barrier. We found robust gaze cueing effects, even when the observed agent in the display could not see the same thing as the participant. These results suggest that the attribution of "seeing" does not necessarily modulate the gaze cueing effect.

  15. Effects of Johnstone pressure splints combined with neurodevelopmental therapy on spasticity and cutaneous sensory inputs in spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, M; Livanelioglu, A; Topcu, M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Johnstone pressure splints (JPSs) on spasticity and cutaneous sensory inputs in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-four children with spastic diplegic CP participated in this study. Children whose motor development levels were similar were divided into a treatment and a control group. Each group consisted of 17 participants (six females and 11 males). Mean age of the treatment group was 48.82 months (SEM 4.42), and the control group, 47.52 months (SEM 5.27). The treatment group underwent Bobath's neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT) combined with JPSs. The control group underwent NDT alone five days a week for three months. Before and after treatments, lower-extremity passive range of motion (ROM) by goniometric measurements, spasticity by Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured. Passive ROM showed significant improvements in both groups (p<0.01). In the treatment group, all MAS scores increased. In the control group, the difference was significant except for values of internal rotator muscles. Improvements in passive ROM in the treatment group were significantly higher than the control group except in hip abduction and external rotation (p<0.05). MAS scores of the treatment group were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). SEP values increased in both groups but values of the treatment group were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05).

  16. Assessing the independent and joint effects of un-medicated prenatal depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoli, G; Coles, CD; Kable, JA; Wertelecki, W; Granovska, IV; Pashtepa, AO; Chambers, CD

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an established risk factor for neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring. Prenatal depression has been associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, although investigations into un-medicated prenatal depression have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that un-medicated prenatal depressive symptoms would independently and jointly with PAE predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in infant offspring. Methods We studied 344 participants from a randomized clinical trial of multivitamin supplements in pregnant women in Ukraine. Women were recruited based upon peri-conceptional alcohol use and followed up to 12 months postpartum. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed at approximately 32 weeks of gestation using the Beck Depression Scale. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales for Infant Development II Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Generalized linear regression models were constructed to assess the independent and joint effects of prenatal depressive symptoms and PAE in models adjusted for sociodemographic and pregnancy characteristics. Results PAE was independently associated with deficits in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months, however, level of prenatal depressive symptoms was not. We found marginal evidence of synergism of depressive symptoms and PAE, with larger deficits in those with both exposures observed for the PDI-6 months (p=0.05) and MDI-12 months (p=0.09). Additionally, there was a suggestion of sexual dimorphism; females had stronger deficits from joint exposures than males (depressive symptom (MDI-6 months) female: −8.28, 95% CI −13.06, −3.49; male: 0.68, 95% CI −4.58, 5.94; p for interaction 0.04). While not statistically significant for the MDI or PDI at 12 months, the trend persisted. Conclusion Infants exposed to PAE and prenatal depression may be at an increased risk of

  17. The Effects of Live Music as the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcer on the Skill Acquisition of Learners with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders are challenged with memory and language deficits that impact their skills acquisition (Martin, Klusek, Estigarriba, & Roberts, 2009; Turner & Alborz, 2003). The value of music when applied as an antecedent and a reinforcer has long been established to address such memory and language deficits…

  18. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theunissen, P.T., E-mail: Peter.Theunissen@rivm.nl [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Robinson, J.F. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pennings, J.L.A. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Herwijnen, M.H. van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kleinjans, J.C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Piersma, A.H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  19. Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Thurston, Sally W; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Duffy, Emeir M; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 g of fish (nine meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children's scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  20. Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ricardo; McCauley, Brandon; Szczech Moser, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Over 70 years ago Dr. Karel Bobath and his wife Bertha Bobath began to craft the therapeutic intervention now known as neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT). This edition of Reviews, Tools, and Resources will highlight a historical review of research studies that have been completed, current websites, books, and blogs focusing on NDT.

  1. Effect of cold temperature storage on the quality attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cold temperature storage on the quality attributes of pawpaw and guava leathers was evaluated. Pawpaw leather was significantly higher than guava leather in calorific content, water activity, pH and total mould count throughout the duration of storage. However Guava leather was higher in texture. Sensory ...

  2. Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi soda and bean debris-ash used in cooking African traditional dishes. ... profile, alkalinity, decreased cooking time and lowered mineral uptake by magadi soda and bean debris-ash explain similar functionality in foods they are added to during cooking.

  3. The Effects of Location and Neighbourhood Attributes on Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    The Effects of Location and Neighbourhood Attributes on Housing Values in Metropolitan Lagos. Aluko, O. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v4i2.8. Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyse and determine the relative roles of location and neighbourhood characteristics in the determination of housing values/prices. In order ...

  4. Effects of cooking methods on yields and organoleptic attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of three cooking methods (deep-fat frying, microwave and oven roasting) on yields, cooking loss, moisture, of fat contents and some sensory attributes of local chicken. The thighs and breast parts were used. Deep fat frying resulted in the lowest yield of the chicken ...

  5. Sleep in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience sleep problems at higher rates than the general population. Although individuals with IDD are a heterogeneous group, several sleep problems cluster within genetic syndromes or disorders. This review summarizes the prevalence of sleep problems experienced by individuals with Angelman syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du Chat syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and idiopathic IDD. Factors associated with sleep problems and the evidence for sleep treatments are reviewed for each neurodevelopmental disorder. Sleep research advancements in neurodevelopmental disorders are reviewed, including the need for consistency in defining and measuring sleep problems, considerations for research design and reporting of results, and considerations when evaluating sleep treatments. PMID:28503406

  6. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural effects of polybrominated and perfluorinated chemicals: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature using a quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Wilks, M F

    2014-10-15

    Concerns over effects of halogenated persistent environmental contaminants on the developing brain have been expressed for many years, and human biomonitoring has confirmed that low-level, prenatal and/or postnatal exposure of children to these chemicals is ubiquitous. Over the last decade there have been increasing reports in the epidemiological literature of the potential association of exposure to polybromo diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) with neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects in infants and children, such as adverse birth outcomes, cognitive deficits, developmental delay and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). However, direct evidence from epidemiology studies has been limited and contradictory. Given the general lack of comparability across studies in terms of design, conduct, methodology and reporting, we developed a checklist-type quality assessment scheme based on the STROBE guidelines and the proposed HONEES criteria, and conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological peer-reviewed literature published since 2006 on neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects following prenatal and postnatal exposure to PBDEs and PFCs. We rated 7 of the 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria as being of high quality, 7 of moderate quality and 4 of low quality. Frequently observed shortcomings were the lack of consideration of confounding factors; uncertainties regarding exposure characterization; inadequate sample size; the lack of a clear dose-response; and the representativeness/generalizability of the results. Collectively, the epidemiological evidence does currently not support a strong causal association between PBDEs and PFCs and adverse neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes in infants and children. However, despite their limitations, the studies raise questions that require further investigation through hypothesis-driven studies using more harmonized study designs and methodologies

  8. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnders, Margot R F; Leventer, Richard J; Lee, Boo Hon; Baralle, Diana; Selber, Paulo; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Hunt, David

    2017-01-01

    Clinical characteristics. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders include PURA syndrome, caused by a heterozygous pathogenic sequence variant in PURA, and 5q31.3 deletion syndrome, caused by a genomic 5q31.3 deletion encompassing all or part of PURA. PURA-related neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay with absence of speech in most and lack of independent ambulation in many. Early-onset problems can include hypotonia, hypothermia, hyper...

  9. Reversing Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ehninger, Dan; Li, Weidong; Fox, Kevin; Stryker, Michael P; Silva, Alcino J

    2008-01-01

    .... Surprisingly, a number of recent animal model studies of neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate that reversing the underlying molecular deficits can result in substantial improvements in function...

  10. Effect of Neuroinflammation on Synaptic Organization and Function in the Developing Brain: Implications for Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mottahedin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a plastic organ where both the intrinsic CNS milieu and extrinsic cues play important roles in shaping and wiring neural connections. The perinatal period constitutes a critical time in central nervous system development with extensive refinement of neural connections, which are highly sensitive to fetal and neonatal compromise, such as inflammatory challenges. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells in the brain such as microglia and astrocytes are pivotal in regulating synaptic structure and function. In this article, we will review the role of glia cells in synaptic physiology and pathophysiology, including microglia-mediated elimination of synapses. We propose that activation of the immune system dynamically affects synaptic organization and function in the developing brain. We will discuss the role of neuroinflammation in altered synaptic plasticity following perinatal inflammatory challenges and potential implications for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Neurodevelopmental treatment after stroke : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. T.B. Hafsteinsdóttir; A Algra; M.H.F. Grypdonck; L.J. Kappelle

    2005-01-01

    Background: Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) is a rehabilitation approach increasingly used in the care of stroke patients, although no evidence has been provided for its efficacy. Objective: To investigate the effects of NDT on the functional status and quality of life (QoL) of patients

  12. Lifestyle during pregnancy: neurodevelopmental effects at 5 years of age. The design and implementation of a prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that even mild exposure to alcohol, caffeine, smoking, and poor diet may have adverse long-term neurodevelopmental effects. In addition, there is evidence that timing of high exposures (e.g. binge drinking) can have particularly negative effects. This paper...... describes the design and implementation of The Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study addressing major methodological challenges for studies in this field. The study examines the effects of lifestyle during pregnancy on offspring neurodevelopment. METHODS: In 2003, we initiated a prospective follow-up of 1750...... alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy, caffeine intake, smoking, diet, and other lifestyle, medical, and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: At the age of 5 years, the children and their mothers participated in a comprehensive assessment of neurobehavioural development focusing on global...

  13. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Khare

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3. We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental

  14. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Swati; Nick, Jerelyn A; Zhang, Yalan; Galeano, Kira; Butler, Brittany; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Hathorn, Tyisha; Ranum, Laura P W; Smithson, Lisa; Golde, Todd E; Paucar, Martin; Morse, Richard; Raff, Michael; Simon, Julie; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Lewis, Jada; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Nick, Harry S; Waters, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3). We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr) results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental consequences of

  15. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly......-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We found that the majority of claims about treatment safety and efficacy were unsubstantiated. Instead, a range of rhetorical strategies were used to imply scientific support. When peer-reviewed publications were cited, 20...... % were incorrect or irrelevant. We call for new partnerships between advocacy and experts in developmental disorders to ensure better accuracy and higher transparency about how treatment information is selected and evidenced on advocacy websites....

  16. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  17. Prospective study of the effect of sensory integration, neurodevelopmental treatment, and perceptual-motor therapy on the sensorimotor performance in children with mild mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of sensory integrative (SI) therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), and perceptual-motor (PM) approach on children with mild mental retardation. Children (N = 120) were randomly assigned to intervention with SI, NDT, or PM; another 40 children served as control participants. All children were assessed with measures of sensorimotor function. After intervention, the treatment groups significantly outperformed the control group on almost all measures. The SI group demonstrated a greater pretest-posttest change on fine motor, upper-limb coordination, and SI functioning. The PM group showed significant gains in gross motor skills, whereas the NDT group had the smallest change in most measures. SI, NDT, and PM improved sensorimotor function among children with mild mental retardation. The choice of sensorimotor approaches should be determined on the basis of the child's particular needs because each approach may have an advantage in certain aspects of sensorimotor function.

  18. Assessing Effective Attributes of Followers in a Leadership Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelo, Absael; Prilipko, Evgenia V.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Followership, being an understudied concept, raises fundamental questions: How did followership develop? Why do people submit into becoming followers? The developmental trajectory for the development of individual attributes is as yet, uncharted. Current study provides an overview of assessed attributes of followers, as proposed by Antelo (2010).…

  19. Effect of HMM Glutenin Subunits on Wheat Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutenin is a group of polymeric gluten proteins. Glutenin molecules consist of glutenin subunits linked together with disulphide bonds and having higher (HMM-GS and lower (LMM-GS molecular mass. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the influence of HMM-GS on flour processing properties. Seven bread wheat genotypes with contrasting quality attributes and different HMM-GS composition were analyzed during three years. The composition and quantity of HMM-GS were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. The quality diversity among genotypes was estimated by the analysis of wheat grain, and flour and bread quality parameters. The presence of HMM glutenin subunits 1 and 2* at Glu-A1 and the subunits 5+10 at Glu-D1 loci, as well as a higher proportion of total HMM-GS, had a positive effect on wheat quality. Cluster analysis of the three groups of data (genotype and HMM-GS, flour and bread quality, and dough rheology yielded the same hierarchical structure for the first top three levels, and similarity of the corresponding dendrograms was proved by the principal eigenvalues of the corresponding Euclidian distance matrices. The obtained similarity in classification based on essentially different types of measurements reflects strong natural association between genetic data, product quality and physical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to effectively reduce large data set into lower dimensions of latent variables amenable for the analysis. PCA analysis of the total set of data (15 variables revealed a very strong interrelationship between the variables. The first three PCA components accounted for 96 % of the total variance, which was significant to the level of 0.05 and was considered as the level of experimental error. These data imply that the quality of wheat cultivars can be contributed to HMM-GS data and should be taken into account in breeding programs assisted by computer models with the aim to

  20. The effect of smoking on changes in functional attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking of cheeses significantly modifies not only sensory attributes, but also determines the form of their further utilisation, packaging method and shelf life. The aim of thIS study was to evaluate functional characteristics of smoked and unsmoked Mozzarella cheeses subjected to 4-week storage. It was found that smoked ...

  1. India heat wave attribution considering effects of anthropogenic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather event attribution, now a well-established field within the Detection and Attribution community, slowly incorporates all regions of the globe. Here we present heat wave results for India in 2015, using pre-conditioned (SST driven) large ensemble RCM simulations provided by weather@home. Apart from the presentation of a thoroughly validated set of hydrometeorological model variables for the South Asian region, the novelty in this study is that we include a GHG-only ensemble in our analysis. Rather than relying on actual and counterfactual data for 2015 to investigate the event-specific dynamic contribution, we make also use of an ensemble where the SST forcing corresponds to a world in which anthropogenic aerosols have been removed (AA). Since AAs have far-reaching implications for the Asian monsoon system (e.g. Bollasina et al. 2011; Li et al 2016), the changing risk of certain extreme weather events occurring due to a variable load of AAs can potentially be attributed for the first time. Since we are now in the possession a fully consistent 30 year climatology (200 ensemble member per year) for actual, counterfactual and GHG only conditions as well, we can try and answer the question whether circulation changes or trends due to anthropogenic climate change are detectable already. In addition, we demonstrate how these results can be used in our fast track attribution framework, including evidence for the robustness of the analogue method utilised to determine event-specific dynamic contributions.

  2. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  3. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  4. Emerging pharmacotherapies for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Daniel Z; Garner, Craig C

    2010-09-01

    A growing and interdisciplinary translational neuroscience research effort for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is investigating the mechanisms of dysfunction and testing effective treatment strategies in animal models and, when possible, in the clinic. NDDs with a genetic basis have received particular attention. Transgenic animals that mimic genetic insults responsible for disease in man have provided insight about mechanisms of dysfunction, and, surprisingly, have shown that cognitive deficits can be addressed in adult animals. This review will present recent translational research based on animal models of genetic NDDs, as well as pharmacotherapeutic strategies under development to address deficits of brain function for Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, neurofibromatosis-1, tuberous sclerosis, and autism. Although these disorders vary in underlying causes and clinical presentation, common pathways and mechanisms for dysfunction have been observed. These include abnormal gene dosage, imbalance among neurotransmitter systems, and deficits in the development, maintenance and plasticity of neuronal circuits. NDDs affect multiple brain systems and behaviors that may be amenable to drug therapies that target distinct deficits. A primary goal of translational research is to replace symptomatic and supportive drug therapies with pharmacotherapies based on a principled understanding of the causes of dysfunction. Based on this principle, several recently developed therapeutic strategies offer clear promise for clinical development in man.

  5. Is there a relationship between the rise in thyroid and neurodevelopmental health effects in North America and the rise in concentrations of PBDEs in the environment? An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, T. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    In a previous paper on this question, data on an apparently rising prevalence of hypothyroidism, and neurodevelopmental deficits in children was presented. In this context, the issue of the potential for the observed, exponentially increasing levels of PBDEs in the environment to contribute to this expressed clinical burden of disease was raised. This potential contribution was raised because of evidence that the toxicological endpoints of concern for PBDEs include thyroid hormone disruption and neurodevelopmental deficits, and are similar to those seen earlier for PCBs, and DDT. As well, structural and toxicological similarities to PBBs, PCDDs, PCDFs are also part of the concern. Also raised as issues for further research were two things. First, there is a need in risk assessment to move beyond the focus on the average or median body burden, tissue or human milk concentrations, to account for the population distribution of the concentrations, and the percentiles in the tails of the distribution, particularly the high exposure portion. Second, interactions and additive exposures to and effects of the above mentioned, and other compounds or substances, (e.g. perchlorate, mercury, lead) need to be considered when talking about the ''safety'' of individual compounds. The aim of this paper is to examine - using Monte Carlo methods applied to the reported human milk (lipid weight) concentrations - the probability distributions, and the population percentiles, of the times required for PBDEs to reach a critical value of 1250 ng/g found by the Jacobsons, for PCBs, to be associated with learning impairments, intellectual deficits, and IQ loss in the offspring. In addition, historical body burdens of PCBs and DDT will be taken from the literature, and using estimates derived here of the distribution of the 2002 human milk levels of these compounds, the times required for PBDEs, plus PCBs and DDT, to reach 1250 ng/g will be simulated. Finally, note will

  6. Country of Origin as a Stereotype: Effects of Consumer Expertise and Attribute Strength on Product Evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswaran, Durairaj

    1994-01-01

    This research identifies consumer expertise and the type of attribute information as moderating the effects of country of origin on product evaluations. When attribute information was unambiguous, experts based their evaluations on attribute strength, whereas novices relied on country of origin. When attribute information was ambiguous, both experts and novices used country of origin in evaluations. Also, experts and novices used county of origin differently in evaluations. Experts used count...

  7. Lifestyle during pregnancy: neurodevelopmental effects at 5 years of age. The design and implementation of a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Bakketeig, Leiv; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Landrø, Nils Inge; Schendel, Diana; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Grove, Jakob; Ebrahim, Shahul; Thorsen, Poul

    2010-03-01

    It has been suggested that even mild exposure to alcohol, caffeine, smoking, and poor diet may have adverse long-term neurodevelopmental effects. In addition, there is evidence that timing of high exposures (e.g. binge drinking) can have particularly negative effects. This paper describes the design and implementation of The Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study addressing major methodological challenges for studies in this field. The study examines the effects of lifestyle during pregnancy on offspring neurodevelopment. In 2003, we initiated a prospective follow-up of 1750 mother-child pairs, sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol drinking patterns from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a study of 101,042 pregnancies enrolled 1997-2003. Data collection in the DNBC involved four prenatal and postnatal maternal interviews, providing detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy, caffeine intake, smoking, diet, and other lifestyle, medical, and sociodemographic factors. At the age of 5 years, the children and their mothers participated in a comprehensive assessment of neurobehavioural development focusing on global cognition, specific cognitive functions, and behaviour. Two new tests assessing attention and speed of information processing among children were developed, and data on important potential confounders such as maternal intelligence quotient, vision, and hearing abilities were collected. Efforts were made to standardise procedures and obtain high inter-rater reliability. We expect that the study will illuminate the significance or lack of significance of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy and contribute to better understanding the effects of alcohol drinking during pregnancy at low to moderate consumption levels.

  8. Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Lindemann, Lothar; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal gene...

  9. Behavioral effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetto, Juliet; Labouesse, Marie A; Poe, Michael M; Cook, James M; Grace, Anthony A; Riva, Marco A; Meyer, Urs

    2015-01-30

    Impaired γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling may contribute to the emergence of cognitive deficits and subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Against this background, it has been proposed that pharmacological interventions targeting GABAergic dysfunctions may prove useful in correcting such cognitive impairments and dopaminergic imbalances. Here, we explored possible beneficial effects of the benzodiazepine-positive allosteric modulator SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃, with partial selectivity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model. The model is based on prenatal administration of the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid [poly(I:C)] in mice, which is known to capture various GABAergic, dopamine-related, and cognitive abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the expected alterations in GABAA receptor α subunit gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortices and ventral hippocampi of adult poly(I:C) offspring relative to control offspring. Systemic administration of SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ failed to normalize the poly(I:C)-induced deficits in working memory and social interaction, but instead impaired performance in these cognitive and behavioral domains both in control and poly(I:C) offspring. In contrast, SH-053-2'F-S-CH₃ was highly effective in mitigating the poly(I:C)-induced amphetamine hypersensitivity phenotype without causing side effects in control offspring. Our preclinical data suggest that benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulators with activity at the α2, α3, and α5 subunits of the GABAA receptor may be particularly useful in correcting pathological overactivity of the dopaminergic system, but they may be ineffective in targeting multiple pathological domains that involve the co-existence of psychotic, social, and cognitive

  10. Student and tutor perceptions on attributes of effective problems in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to identify the attributes that students and tutors associated with effective PBL problems, and assess the extent to which these attributes related to the actual effectiveness of problems. To this end, students and tutors in focus groups were asked to discuss about

  11. Effects of the Attributes of Educational Interventions on Students’ Academic Performance : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Donker, Anouk S.; van der Werf, Margaretha P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the influence of attributes related to the implementation of learning strategy instruction interventions on students’ academic performance, and also examined how the attributes related to the method of testing the intervention effects affected the actual effects measured.

  12. Pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez, Inmaculada; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Parrón, Tesifón; Lacasaña, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Childrens exposure to neurotoxic compounds poses a major problem to public health because oftheir actively developing brain that makes them highly vulnerable. However, limited information is available on neuropsychological effects in children associated with pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides. To evaluate the association between current and pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and their effects on neurodevelopment in children aged 6–11 years living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain. An ambispective study was conducted on 305 children aged 6–11 years randomly selected from public schools of the study area. Current exposure to organophosphate pesticides was assessed measuring children's urinary levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs). Both prenatal and postnatal residential exposure to pesticides was estimated by developing a geographical information system (GIS) technology-based index that integrated distance-weighted measure of agricultural surface, time-series of crop areas per municipality and year, and land-use maps. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The association of pre- and postnatal and current pesticide exposure with WISC-IV scale scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, respectively. Greater urinary DAP levels were associated with a poorer performance on intelligence quotient and verbal comprehension domain, with effects being more prominent in boys than in girls. The influence of an increase in 10 ha per year in crop surface around the child's residence during the postnatal period was associated with decreased intelligence quotient, processing speed and verbal comprehension scores. As regards prenatal exposure to pesticides, a poor processing speed performance was observed. These effects were also more prominent in boys than in girls. Our results suggest that

  13. Effects of information on intentionality attributions and judgments: Punishing negligence and praising the caring for information

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Andreas; Uske, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how observers attribute intentionality to people in the focus of their atten- tion helps in shedding light on punishment behavior. In this paper we approach impartial observers' attributions of intentionality and the attachment of praise and blame to perpe- trators of external effects. In line with ndings of Joshua Knobe (Knobe, 2003, 2006) , we argue that intentionality attributions to these perpetrators are more likely, if observers consider the externality as ...

  14. Attributions for sexual orientation vs. stereotypes : How beliefs about value violations account for attribution effects on anti-gay discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.

    Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we

  15. Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jobair AM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asma M Al-Jobair, Maha A AlSarheed Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in the 2013/2014 academic year. The questionnaire contained 43 items regarding students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of a good dental teacher. The attributes were grouped into two main categories: performance and personality. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for each item and then for the whole category. Performance and personality were compared between male and female students and between junior and senior students using Mann–Whitney U test.Results: Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 79%. Performance attributes were significantly more important than personality attributes to Saudi dental students (P<0.001. Perceptions of performance and personality attributes did not differ between male and female students; however, junior students put more emphasis on personality attributes than senior students.Conclusion: Saudi dental students consider performance attributes more important than personality attributes for their successful learning. Teachers’ educational skills are valued more than the attributes, which do not connect directly to students’ learning process. Keywords: perceptions, dental students, characteristics, dental teacher

  16. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  17. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  18. Effects of Donor Breastmilk Feeding on Growth and Early Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Laura S; Bora, Samudragupta; Erdei, Carmina; Jumani, Tina; Dengos, Allison R; Sen, Sarbattama

    2017-06-01

    Donor breastmilk (DBM) has gained popularity as an alternative to formula when mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a predominantly DBM diet on growth and subsequent neurodevelopment in preterm infants at a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This single-center, observational cohort study compared data from preterm infants supplemented with predominantly (>50%) DBM to those from age- and weight-matched infants fed only MOM or supplemented with predominantly (>50%) preterm formula (PF). The primary outcome was in-hospital weight gain, and the secondary outcome was neurodevelopment, as assessed by the Bayley III scale at 1 and 2 years' corrected age. Exclusion criteria were major congenital defects, death prior to discharge from the NICU, or supplementation volumes of <50% over the first month of life. We compared the outcomes among the 3 feeding groups with the χ 2 test, ANOVA, and ANCOVA, with post hoc pairwise comparisons after adjustment for the following confounders: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, multiple births, and social work involvement. In the entire cohort, the mean gestational age was 27.1 weeks and the mean birthweight was 914 g. The DBM (n = 27) and PF (n = 25) groups were similar with regard to socioeconomic characteristics. DBM infants regained birthweight more slowly over the first month of life compared with infants fed MOM (n = 29) or PF (mean [SD], 17.9 [5.7], 22.0 [6.8], and 20.3 [5.7] g/kg/d, respectively; P = 0.05); however, this growth difference was attenuated at later time points. In a fully adjusted model, the DBM group scored significantly lower in cognition at both 1 year (P = 0.005) and 2 years (P = 0.03) of age compared with the infants fed non-DBM diets. The findings from this study suggest that in this NICU, preterm infants supplemented with predominantly DBM had compromised early in-hospital weight gain and, possibly, early cognitive delays compared with infants

  19. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  20. Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and Quality Attributes | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effect of the two bioregulators; Accel and Carbaryl, sprayed two weeks before bloom on Apple fruit set, yield and quality and to relate the degree of fruit set reduction to the yield of three Apple cultivars namely, \\'Empire`, \\'Jon-A-Red\\' and `Braeburn\\'.

  1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Environmental Toxicants: Epigenetics as an Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, calls for more research into the identification of etiologic and risk factors. The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD hypothesizes that the environment during fetal and childhood development affects the risk for many chronic diseases in later stages of life, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetics, a term describing mechanisms that cause changes in the chromosome state without affecting DNA sequences, is suggested to be the underlying mechanism, according to the DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, many neurodevelopmental disorders are also related to epigenetic abnormalities. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal environmental toxicants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, there is also evidence that environmental toxicants can result in epigenetic alterations, notably DNA methylation. In this review, we first focus on the relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and environmental toxicants, in particular maternal smoking, plastic-derived chemicals (bisphenol A and phthalates, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals. We then review studies showing the epigenetic effects of those environmental factors in humans that may affect normal neurodevelopment.

  2. Consumer Choice of Hotel Experiences: The Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Sensory Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohee

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the choice behavior of customers is crucial for effective service management and marketing in the hospitality industry. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the differential effects that cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes have on consumer hotel choice. The second purpose is to examine the moderating effects of consumer choice context on the relationship between the cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes and hotel choice. To achieve these two ...

  3. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations--even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion--play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies--making negative assumptions about others--can be caused by the better angels of our nature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alecia C; Gutmann, David H; Morris, Stephanie M

    2017-11-01

    Over the past several decades, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has become increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder conferring increased risk for several important neurodevelopmental problems. In this review, we summarize the specific neurodevelopmental problems encountered in the context of NF1. These include impairments in general cognitive function, deficits in specific cognitive domains such as executive function and visuospatial processing and risk for specific learning disorders, impairments in attention and social skills and the overlap with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, and the risk of developing other psychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. Early recognition of these developmental impairments is important for the effective treatment of children with NF1, and further characterization is essential to improve our understanding of how mutations in the NF1 gene create the diversity of clinical neuropsychiatric symptomatology observed in this at-risk population. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Attribution of spring snow water equivalent (SWE) changes over the northern hemisphere to anthropogenic effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi; Naveed Khaliq, M

    2017-01-01

    ...–attribution analysis is then performed to demonstrate anthropogenic and natural effects on spring SWE changes for different regions, by comparing observations with six CMIP5 model simulations...

  6. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  7. Molecular Basis of Neurodegeneration and Neurodevelopmental Defects in Menkes Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatic, Stephanie; Comstra, Heather Skye; Gokhale, Avanti; Petris, Michael J.; Faundez, Victor

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A mutations impair copper metabolism resulting in three distinct genetic disorders in humans. These diseases are characterized by neurological phenotypes ranging from intellectual disability to neurodegeneration. Severe ATP7A loss-of function alleles trigger Menkes disease, a copper deficiency condition where systemic and neurodegenerative phenotypes dominate clinical outcomes. The pathogenesis of these manifestations has been attributed to hypoactivity of a limited number of copper-dependent enzymes, a hypothesis that we refer as the oligoenzymatic pathogenic hypothesis. This hypothesis, which has dominated the field for 25 years, only explains some systemic Menkes phenotypes. However, we argue that this hypothesis does not fully account for the Menkes neurodegeneration or neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Here, we propose revisions of the oligoenzymatic hypothesis that could illuminate the pathogenesis of Menkes neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental defects through unsuspected overlap with other neurological conditions including Parkinson’s, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. PMID:25583185

  8. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapoport, J L; Giedd, J N; Gogtay, N

    2012-01-01

    ... greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis...

  9. On being happy and mistaken: mood effects on the fundamental attribution error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgas, J P

    1998-08-01

    Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.

  10. The Effects of Attribution Retraining on Optimism and Pessimism of Elementary School Students in Ahwaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kh Ramezani; M Shehni yaelagh; G Maktabi; N Behrozi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Optimism, due to its impact on mental and physical health, is of utmost importance. Finding practical and scientific methods to increase optimism and alleviate pessimism are essential. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of attribution retraining on optimism, and pessimism of female six-grade elementary students in Ahwaz primary schools, Iran. The attribution retraining was considered as independent variable and optimism and pessimism were considered ...

  11. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  12. Simulating conditions of learned helplessness: the effects of interventions and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, W L; Leavitt, L A

    1985-06-01

    We report 2 experiments that assess factors potentially responsible for a proactive interference with the sensitivity of a mother's response to infant signals. Using a version of the "learned helplessness" paradigm, mothers' performance on a solvable task was assessed following pretreatments that involved exposure to an infant cry but that differed in the mothers' ability to exert control over the termination of the cry. Each experiment explored the role of varying attributions made by a mother in the development of, or the reversal of, the helplessness phenomenon. The first experiment addressed the question of whether a specific intervention (i.e., providing the mother an attribution for failure) can reduce the debilitating effect of prior experience with failure. The results indicated that the debilitating effects associated with previous failure were reversed for the 16 mothers assigned to the intervention group. 40 mothers participated in the second experiment, which varied attributions assigned to an identical cry stimulus (i.e., the cry was produced by an "easy" vs. a "difficult" infant). This experiment assessed the effect of varying attributions on the mothers' ability to terminate the cry. We found that mothers pretreated with inescapable cries and those receiving the experimental manipulation of attributing the cry to a "difficult" infant showed debilitated performance in stopping the cry when given the opportunity. We propose that models based on learned helplessness theory have value in the study of caregiver-infant relationships, in particular, caregivers' perceived and objective effectiveness in responding to an infant's signals.

  13. The effects of attribution tendencies, academic stress, and coping efficacy on academic adjustment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yune, So-Joung; Park, Kwi Hwa; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship among types of attribution tendencies, academic stress, coping efficacy, and academic adjustment in medical students and identified the means by which the academic adjustment of medical students can improve. Four hundred forty-two subjects from 2 medical schools in Korea were analyzed; 202 were male, 206 were female, and 34 did not identify their gender. We surveyed their academic adjustment, attribution tendencies, academic stress, and coping efficacy. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The male group scored higher on academic adjustment, internal attribution tendency, and coping efficacy but lower on academic stress than the female group. Coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency affected the academic adjustment positively while academic stress influenced it negatively. The study indicates that students with higher scores on coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and who have lower scores on academic stress tend to adjust better academically in medical school. Therefore, these findings may be helpful for medical schools in designing effective academic adjustment programs to improve coping efficacy and internal attribution tendency and reduce academic stress. Further, these findings have important implications for planning learning consultation programs, especially in Year 1.

  14. Perceived effects of setting attributes on visitor experiences in wilderness: Variation with situational context and visitor characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Troy E. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how setting attributes influence the nature of the visitor experience is crucial to effective recreation management. Highly influential attributes are useful indicators to monitor within a planning framework, such as Limits of Acceptable Change. This study sought to identify the setting attributes perceived to have the most profound effect on the ability...

  15. The Effects of Attribution Retraining on Optimism and Pessimism of Elementary School Students in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Ramezani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Optimism, due to its impact on mental and physical health, is of utmost importance. Finding practical and scientific methods to increase optimism and alleviate pessimism are essential. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of attribution retraining on optimism, and pessimism of female six-grade elementary students in Ahwaz primary schools, Iran. The attribution retraining was considered as independent variable and optimism and pessimism were considered as dependent variables. Methods: In the present experimental study, 54 sixth-grade primary school students were randomly selected and then divided to two groups of experiment and control groups. The present study was a field experimental research, including pretest-posttest and control group. The research instrument was the Children's Attribution Styles Questionnaire (CASQ and was presented by Seligman, translated by ShehniYailagh and Ramezani, and adapted to Iranian students’ Culture. . Before starting the retraining, two groups were tested in pre-tests of optimism, pessimism and then, the experiment group was taught attribution retraining, and the control group nothing. At the end of the training course, two groups were tested in post-tests of optimism and pessimism. Results: Results showed that attribution retraining (as independent variables, had a great effect on the dependent variables. The results showed that attribution retraining had increased the meaningful (p= 0/001 amount of optimism and it had decreased pessimism (p = 0/001 significantly. Conclusion: Attribution retraining with increased optimism and pessimism can prevent and reduce the mental and physical health.

  16. How abusive supervisors influence employees' voice and silence: the effects of interactional justice and organizational attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this research we investigated the influence of abusive supervision on employees' prosocial voice and silence, as well as clarified the roles of interactional justice (as a mediator) and organizational attribution (as a moderator). Moreover, we examined a mediated moderating model stipulating that interactional justice mediated the moderating effect of organizational attribution on the focal relationship. A scenario experiment was employed in Study 1, and after analyzing data from 196 employees, we found that abusive supervision influenced employees' prosocial voice and silence via interactional justice. In Study 2, data were collected from 379 employees in two waves separated by 1 week. The results not only replicated the findings of Study 1 but also indicated that organizational attribution buffered the abusive supervision-voice and silence relationship, and that interactional justice mediated this moderating effect.

  17. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were expl...

  18. Effect of substrates on the yield, yield attribute and dietary values of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the effect of substrates on the yield, yield attributes and dietary values of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was conducted to identify the best substrates. The experiment included 23 treatments with three replications. The substrates were sawdust, rice straw, cottonseed hull & maize cob with 100%, 75%, ...

  19. The Value and Attributes of an Effective Preparatory English Program: Perceptions of Saudi University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Maram George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of gender and geographical location on the perceptions of Saudi university students regarding the value of preparatory English programs and their attributes. Data was collected during the fall of 2013 from three sample universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using an online survey as the instrument.…

  20. Attribution of Team Members' Responsibility: The Effect of Temporal Pattern of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Donn L.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1978-01-01

    Assessed effects of an individual's temporal pattern of success on attributions of responsibility for winning or losing simulated free throw contests. The player on a winning team who scored at the end was judged responsible for the outcome. (Author/BEF)

  1. Does Asking Make a Difference? Effects of Initiator, Possible Gain, and Risk on Attributed Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Barbara; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates three variables related to attributed altruism: (1) the effects of initiating prosocial behavior; (2) the potential gain or loss for the prosocial actor; and (3) the possible risk for the prosocial actor. Determines that any evidence of selfish motivation detracts from perceived altruism, and that no evidence of selfish motivation…

  2. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  3. On the effects of search attributes on price variability: An empirical investigation on quality wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seccia Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a bottle of wine is affected by the presence of attributes that are searched by consumers and can be evaluated before the purchase. The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of some search attributes on wine price variability applying the Hedonic Price Model. It allows explaining how the price of wine varies depending on its main quality attributes. The analysis has been based on a sample of wines made in Puglia, Italian region characterized by a tradition in wine production and consumption. Data have been collected from a wine guidebook considering the years 2008–2013. The study provided a measure of the market value of some search attributes for wines produced in Puglia. Attributes as alcoholic content, age and score given by experts, influence price variability allowing wines to obtain a premium price, such as the most known Protected Designation of Origin (PDO and some Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. The name of the variety seems not to have high influence with the exception of less known and locally grown varieties. Results may be of interest for marketers and policy makers of wine industry. Managerial implications could refer to the importance of differentiation strategies aimed to market segmentation and to the pricing strategy. Policymakers could also find interesting hints about the influence of the different appellations and the importance of minor autochthonous grape varieties.

  4. Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: The Effects of Gender, Age and Perceived Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze Turkish tertiary level EFL learners' attributions to success and failure and the effects of gender, age, and perceived success on their attributions. The results indicated that EFL learners respectively attributed interest, ability, task difficulty, effort, luck and the influence of teacher and school…

  5. Effects of Manipulation on Attributions of Causation, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dylan; Lombrozo, Tania

    2017-03-01

    If someone brings about an outcome without intending to, is she causally and morally responsible for it? What if she acts intentionally, but as the result of manipulation by another agent? Previous research has shown that an agent's mental states can affect attributions of causal and moral responsibility to that agent, but little is known about what effect one agent's mental states can have on attributions to another agent. In Experiment 1, we replicate findings that manipulation lowers attributions of responsibility to manipulated agents. Experiments 2-7 isolate which features of manipulation drive this effect, a crucial issue for both philosophical debates about free will and attributions of responsibility in situations involving social influence more generally. Our results suggest that "bypassing" a manipulated agent's mental states generates the greatest reduction in responsibility, and we explain our results in terms of the effects that one agent's mental states can have on the counterfactual relations between another agent and an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Sleep in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2015-06-01

    There is a close relationship between sleep and childhood neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the sleep issues may provide greater insight into pathophysiology and treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed visual maturation: ophthalmic and neurodevelopmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresidder, J; Fielder, A R; Nicholson, J

    1990-10-01

    Delayed visual maturation (DVM) can present as an isolated anomaly (type 1A), but can be compounded by perinatal problems (type 1B), severe neurodevelopmental delay (type 2), or ocular anomalies/nystagmus (type 3), in which group the common feature appears to be nystagmus. The neurodevelopmental and ophthalmic aspects of 26 infants with DVM were studied. Onset of visual improvement, rate of acquisition of normal vision and eventual outcome were studied quantitatively, using an adaptation of the acuity card procedure. Neurodevelopmental assessment was performed after visual improvement. The results support the long-held clinical impression that if blindness is the presenting feature, neurodevelopmental outlook is excellent. DVM could represent a defect in the extrageniculostriate visual system, and the onset of vision in all types--and the development of nystagmus in type 3--could herald the emergence of geniculostriate function.

  8. The effect of self-serving attribution on attraction in additive- and conjunctive-task groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraz, G; Aydin, O

    1995-04-01

    The prediction that the effect of self-serving attribution on personal attraction will vary according to task type was tested. Twenty-four groups of Turkish students, each consisting of 1 participant and 3 confederates, received success feedback after having performed either an additive or a conjunctive task. Two of the confederates made either self-serving or group-serving attributions, whereas the 3rd confederate attributed success to the collective efforts of all group members. Following these attributions, the participants filled out a form to indicate the degree to which they preferred each member as a friend and a work mate. Self-serving attributors in the conjunctive-task condition were less preferred as friends than the self-serving attributors in the additive-task condition. Also, the additive-task participants' ratings for other group members were systematically higher than those of the conjunctive-task participants. Thus, there was a main effect of task type for both friends and workmates.

  9. The Effect of Psychological Immunization on Pessimistic Attribution of Female Students with Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Pahlavanneshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed to determine the effect of psychological immunization on pessimistic attribution in Female students with dyslexia. Methods: The study was an experimental one, in which 60 Female students with dyslexia were selected randomly from Learning Disabilities Centers in Isfahan. Subjects  were  assigned to experimental and control groups (15 individuals in each group. All students completed the Children Attributional Style Questionnaire before and after training sessions. The experimental group participated in 10 intervention sessions (twice a week 60 minutes per session and were trained by psychological immunization program. Six weeks later, the experimental group answered the questionnaire again. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: The results of the analysis of covariance showed that the intervention program significantly decreased the pessimistic attribution style of the experimental group in comparison to the control group (P<0.001.  Discussion: It seems that the application of a psychological immunization program has influenced pessimistic beliefs of Female students with dyslexia and is probably useful as a rehabilitation program for modifying the style of attribution (P<0.001.

  10. Distinguishing between Perceiver and Wearer Effects in Clothing Color-Associated Attributions

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Roberts, S.; Roy C. Owen; Jan Havlicek

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have noted positive effects of red clothing on success in competitive sports, perhaps arising from an evolutionary predisposition to associate the color red with dominance status. Red may also enhance judgments of women's attractiveness by men, perhaps through a similar association with fertility. Here we extend these studies by investigating attractiveness judgments of both sexes and by contrasting attributions based on six different colors. Furthermore, by photographing targe...

  11. The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

  12. The mediating effects of attribution styles on the relationship between overt-covert narcissism and forgiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ra, Young Sun; Cha, Sung Yi; Hyun, Myoung-Ho; Bae, Sung Man

    2013-01-01

      This paper aims to investigate the causal relationships among the variables of covert-overt narcissism, causal attribution, responsibility attribution and forgiveness based on the entailment model...

  13. The effect of alcoholic beverage excise tax on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chong Hwan; Topyan, Kudret

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the effect of state excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine, and beer) on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities--deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, and falls--in the United States between 1995 and 2004, using state-level panel data. There is evidence that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to changes in state excise taxes on alcohol-specific beverages. This study examines the direct relationship between injury deaths and excise taxes without testing the degree of the association between excise taxes and alcohol consumption. The study finds that beer taxes are negatively related to motor vehicle accident mortality, while wine taxes are negatively associated with suicides and falls. The positive coefficient of the spirit taxes on falls implies a substitution effect between spirits and wine, suggesting that an increase in spirit tax will cause spirit buyers to purchase more wine. This study finds no evidence of a relationship between homicides and state excise taxes on alcohol. Thus, the study concludes that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to the excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages.

  14. The Effectiveness of Attribution Retraining on Health Enhancement of Epileptic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAJAFI FARD, Tahereh; POURMOHAMADREZATAJRISHI, Masoume; SAJEDI, Firoozeh; Pouria, Pouria; DELAVAR KASMAEI, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease. Evidence has indicated that epilepsy has an impact on mental and physical health of children. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of attribution retraining on health enhancement of epileptic children. Materials & Methods This was an experimental study with a pre-test and a post-test design with a control group. Thirty students with epilepsy (11 female and 19 male students) were selected in convenience from Iranian Epilepsy Association. They were assigned to experimental and control groups and their mothers completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF.28) before and after the intervention. The experimental group attended to eleven sessions (each session 45 minutes; twice a week). Subjects were trained by attribution retraining program, but control group was not. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used for analyzing the data. Results Health (both psychosocial and physical) of experimental group enhanced significantly after the intervention sessions compared to control group. Conclusion Attribution retraining is an effective intervention to enhance the psychosocial and physical health of epileptic children. PMID:27247584

  15. Antisocial Personality as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-25

    Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. Epigenetic and transgenerational mechanisms in infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Stadlbauer, U

    2017-05-02

    Prenatal infection is an environmental risk factor for various brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Modeling this association in animals shows that maternal immune activation negatively affects fetal brain development and leads to the emergence of behavioral disturbances later in life. Recent discoveries in these preclinical models suggest that epigenetic modifications may be a critical molecular mechanism by which prenatal immune activation can mediate changes in brain development and functions, even across generations. This review discusses the potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal infections, thereby highlighting how infection-mediated epigenetic reprogramming may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of pathological traits. The identification of epigenetic and transgenerational mechanisms in infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders appears relevant to brain disorders independently of existing diagnostic classifications and may help identifying complex patterns of transgenerational disease transmission beyond genetic inheritance. The consideration of ancestral infectious histories may be of great clinical interest and may be pivotal for developing new preventive treatment strategies against infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Effects of the Coastal Park Environment Attributes on Its Admission Fee Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Erda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effect of those recognized nature-and-activity-based attributes on the level of park’s admission fee charges using a panel data of 29 coastal recreation parks in Dalian city of China. A total of seven different Hedonic pricing model specifications are used in the estimating process. The results indicate that a numerous attributes have statistically significant effects (α≤ 0.10 on the level of park admission fee charges. In terms of the economic valuation, the marine sightseeing results in the highest value of Marginal Willingness to Pay (MWTP of $6.4 as its quality rank improves to a designated higher level. As expected that the park congestion has a negative effect on the MWTP (-$0.47 and overall park’s rankings have a positive effect ($0.05 on park’s MWTP. However, many recreation activities accommodated by the park sites exhibit a relatively weak effect on the park entrance fee charges. One possible reason is perhaps owing to the single admission package fee policy adopted by the park management..

  18. Attributes for effective nurse management within the health services of Western Australia, Singapore and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldy, Duncan; Della, Phillip; Michael, Rene; Jones, Mark; Gower, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptions of nurse managers in Western Australia, Singapore and Tanzania regarding desirable attributes for effective management of their health services, and to identify and discuss the implications for health-management education provided by Australian universities. Nurse managers completed a questionnaire covering four key dimensions: personality characteristics, knowledge and learning, skills, and beliefs and values. Each of 75 items were rated as to their effect on management effectiveness, according to a 5-point Likert scale. Skills were considered the most important for management effectiveness by each group. Tanzanian respondents rated knowledge and learning almost as highly, and significantly higher than Western Australian respondents. They also rated personality characteristics and beliefs and values significantly higher than Western Australian respondents. No significant differences were found between Singapore and Western Australia. Participants desired a different relative mix of attributes in their nurse managers, with Western Australian respondents most likely to indicate that transformational leadership contributed most to managerial effectiveness. Tanzanian nurse managers were most likely to advocate transactional leadership, whereas Singaporean nurse managers' views were located somewhere between. Given that these perceptions are valid, the content and curricula of management-development courses need to be cognisant of the cultural backgrounds of participants. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Views differ as to the extent to which the criteria for management effectiveness are broadly universal or contingent on culture. This applies to the area of nurse management as it does to healthcare management in general. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? It is demonstrated that each of the three quite different countries or states considered identified a distinctive combination of attributes as desirable, with the nurse managers of Western Australia

  19. The role of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and leadership style as attributes of leadership effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Ramchunder

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researching the impact of psychological constructs on police leadership may add value when appointing people in leadership positions or developing people for leadership roles in the police environment.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three constructs, namely emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness in a policing context.Motivation for this study: In the police sector, there are difficulties in linking leadership to organisational outcomes since common police-leadership measures are affected by multiple contributory factors. This study explores the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the leadership effectiveness of the police.Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as attributes of leadership effectiveness. A total of 107 police personnel in commanding positions made up the sample. The measuring instruments used were the Assessing Emotions Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. The correlations were significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed.Practical/managerial implications: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy should be considered as attributes during the selection of leaders in police organisations or used for developmental purposes to enhance these attributes in police leaders.Contribution/value-add: The insights gained from the findings may be used to guide the selection of future leaders in the policing environment, and they could also be used to establish future developmental programmes and research initiatives.

  20. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin; Zulkefli Idris

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural) attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The ...

  1. GABAergic circuit dysfunctions in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidisha eChattopadhyaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneurons control neuronal excitability, integration, and plasticity. Further, they regulate the generation of temporal synchrony and oscillatory behavior among networks of pyramidal neurons. Such oscillations within and across neural systems are believed to serve various complex functions, such as perception, movement initiation, and memory. Alterations in the development of GABAergic circuits have been implicated in various brain diseases with neurodevelopmental origin. Here, we highlight recent studies suggesting a role for alterations of GABA transmission in the pathophysiology of two neurodevelopmental diseases, schizophrenia and autism. We further discuss how manipulations of GABA signaling may be used for novel therapeutic interventions.

  2. Joint effect of modifying selected risk factors on attributable burden of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few published studies that consider the joint effect of multiple risk factors on avoidable burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. This study aimed to estimate the joint effect of avoidable burden of multiple risk factors to CVDs. Methods : Estimates of avoidable burden to CVDs were made using potential impact fraction (PIF. In order to calculate PIF, data on the Prevalence of the risk factors include diabetes, hypertension, central obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were obtained from 3 rd national Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases-2007 in Iran and data on corresponding measures of effect were derived from a cohort study with multivariate adjusted hazard ratios. Then, joint effect of risk factors was calculated. Results : About 37% (95% uncertainty interval: 21.7-50.2 of attributable disability adjusted life years (DALYs to CVDs in adult males and 59.4% (95% uncertainty interval: 30-76 in adult females due to selected risk factors are avoidable in theoretical minimum risk levels. After changing the current prevalence of these risk factors to the plausible minimum risk levels, 17.8% (95% uncertainty interval: 10.1-25.1 of CVDs′ attributable DALYs among adult males and 34% (95% uncertainty interval: 20-46.7 in adult females can be avoided. Conclusions : To better priority setting as well as reporting the magnitude of avoidable DALYs rather than the percentage of avoidable burden, PIF should be applied to updated and revised burden of CVDs.

  3. Perceived effects of setting attributes on visitor experiences in wilderness: variation with situational context and visitor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N; Hall, Troy E

    2009-07-01

    Understanding how setting attributes influence the nature of the visitor experience is crucial to effective recreation management. Highly influential attributes are useful indicators to monitor within a planning framework, such as Limits of Acceptable Change. This study sought to identify the setting attributes perceived to have the most profound effect on the ability to have "a real wilderness experience" and to assess the degree to which attribute importance varied with situational context and visitor characteristics. To this end, exiting hikers were surveyed at moderate and very high use trailheads in Alpine Lakes Wilderness, WA (USA), and Three Sisters Wilderness, OR (USA). They were asked about the degree to which encountering varying levels of different setting attributes would add to or detract from their experience. Attributes with the largest range of effect on experience, based on evaluations of different levels, were considered most important. The most influential attributes were litter and several types of campsite interaction--people walking through camp and number of other groups camping close by. The perceived importance of setting attributes did not vary much between wilderness locations with substantially different use levels, suggesting that conclusions are robust and generalizable across wilderness areas. There also was little difference in the perceptions of day and overnight visitors. In contrast, we found substantial variation in the perceived importance of setting attributes with variation in wilderness experience, knowledge, attachment, and motivation. Our results validate the emphasis of many wilderness management plans on indicators of social interaction, such as number of encounters.

  4. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  5. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  6. The effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of flavor and texture attributes of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of texture and flavor attributes. A trained panel assessed 21 texture and flavor attributes in one high-fat and one low-fat product of two semi-solids: custard dessert and mayonnaise. The products were evaluated at 10,

  7. Life years lost attributable to late effects after radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura Ann; Maraldo, Maja Vestmø; Vogelius, Ivan Richter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to the long life expectancy after treatment, the risk of late effects after radiotherapy (RT) is of particular importance for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Both deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and proton therapy have been shown to reduce the dose to normal......, and proton therapy in FB and DIBH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plans for each technique were created for 22 patients with HL. Doses were extracted and the risk of late effects and LYL were estimated. RESULTS: We found that the use of DIBH, proton therapy, and the combination significantly reduced the LYL compared...... tissues for mediastinal HL, but the impact of these techniques in combination is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the life years lost (LYL) attributable to late effects after RT for mediastinal HL using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in free breathing (FB) and DIBH...

  8. Neurodevelopmental consequences of being born SGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wassenaer, Aleid

    2005-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation is associated with postnatal growth retardation and cardio-vascular and metabolic problems later on in life. Less well described are the consequences of neurodevelopmental outcome. The term SGA is associated with mild to moderate school problems, still present in late

  9. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Imamura

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Most children with grade 2 or 3 PVL had severe neurodevelopmental delays, but attention should also be paid to the 56% of children with grade 1 PVL who presented with normal psychomotor development. Further studies of larger populations, including long-term follow-up, are necessary to evaluate the outcomes of children with PVL.

  10. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  11. Drosophila Modeling of Heritable Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-01-01

    Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advance...

  12. Blaming the victim: the effects of extraversion and information disclosure on guilt attributions in cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.

  13. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-06

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  14. Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low-birth-weight infants randomly assigned to restrictive or liberal hemoglobin thresholds for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Robin K

    2012-08-01

    Surviving extremely low-birth-weight infants are at risk of severe neurodevelopmental disability. Transfusion with packed red cells is almost universal in the care of these infants, but the hemoglobin threshold at which these transfusions should be given is unclear. Different clinical trials of restrictive (low hemoglobin) versus liberal (high hemoglobin) thresholds have addressed either neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-21 months of corrected gestational age or psychological tests and brain imaging at 8-15 years of age. Early follow-up shows differences in cognitive outcome favoring the liberal strategy, but as a post hoc secondary outcome. The childhood studies favor the restrictive strategy, but include major methodological problems of secondary recruitment. No firm conclusion can be reached, other than to report that serious adverse effects may be attributable to one or other of these strategies, that prudent practice is to remain within trial protocols, and that further redesigned clinical trials are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Agent-Based Intervention to Assist Drivers Under Stereotype Threat: Effects of In-Vehicle Agents' Attributional Error Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee-Won, Roselyn J

    2016-10-01

    For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype. Specifically, we investigated how in-vehicle voice agents offering error feedback based on responsibility attribution (internal vs. external) and outcome attribution (ability vs. effort) influence female drivers' performance under stereotype threat. In addressing this question, we conducted an experiment in a virtual driving simulation environment that provided moment-to-moment error feedback messages. Participants performed a challenging driving task and made mistakes preprogrammed to occur. Results showed that the agent's error feedback with outcome attribution moderated the stereotype threat effect on driving performance. Participants under stereotype threat had a smaller number of collisions when the errors were attributed to effort than to ability. In addition, outcome attribution feedback moderated the effect of responsibility attribution on driving performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. High effective cytosolic H+ buffering in mouse cortical astrocytes attributable to fast bicarbonate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-09-01

    Cytosolic H(+) buffering plays a major role for shaping intracellular H(+) shifts and hence for the availability of H(+) for biochemical reactions and acid/base-coupled transport processes. H(+) buffering is one of the prime means to protect the cell from large acid/base shifts. We have used the H(+) indicator dye BCECF and confocal microscopy to monitor the cytosolic H(+) concentration, [H(+)]i, in cultured cortical astrocytes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (NBCe1-KO) or in carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII-KO). The steady-state buffer strength was calculated from the amplitude of [H(+)]i transients as evoked by CO2/HCO3(-) and by butyric acid in the presence and absence of CO2/HCO3(-). We tested the hypotheses if, in addition to instantaneous physicochemical H(+) buffering, rapid acid/base transport across the cell membrane contributes to the total, "effective" cytosolic H(+) buffering. In the presence of 5% CO2/26 mM HCO3(-), H(+) buffer strength in astrocytes was increased 4-6 fold, as compared with that in non-bicarbonate, HEPES-buffered solution, which was largely attributable to fast HCO3 (-) transport into the cells via NBCe1, supported by CAII activity. Our results show that within the time frame of determining physiological H(+) buffering in cells, fast transport and equilibration of CO2/H(+)/HCO3(-) can make a major contribution to the total "effective" H(+) buffer strength. Thus, "effective" cellular H(+) buffering is, to a large extent, attributable to membrane transport of base equivalents rather than a purely passive physicochemical process, and can be much larger than reported so far. Not only physicochemical H(+) buffering, but also rapid import of HCO3(-) via the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), was identified to enhance cytosolic H(+) buffer strength substantially. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of yellow-tinted lenses on visual attributes related to sports activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yoshimitsu; Murakami, Shigeki; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of colored lenses on visual attributes related to sports activities. The subjects were 24 students (11 females, 13 males; average age 21.0 ±1.2 years) attending a sports university. Lenses of 5 colors were used: colorless, light yellow, dark yellow, light gray, and dark gray. For each lens, measurements were performed in a fixed order: contrast sensitivity, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity. The conditions for the measurements of visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity were in the order of Evening, Evening+Glare, Day, and Day+Glare. There were no significant differences among lenses in dynamic visual acuity and depth perception. For hand-eye coordination, time was significantly shorter with colorless than dark gray lenses. Contrast sensitivity was significantly higher with colorless, light yellow, and light gray lenses than with dark yellow and dark gray lenses. The low-contrast visual acuity test in the Day+Glare condition showed no significant difference among the lenses. In the Evening condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless and light yellow lenses than with dark gray lenses, and in the Evening+Glare condition, low-contrast visual acuity was significantly higher with colorless lenses than with the other colors except light yellow. Under early evening conditions and during sports activities, light yellow lenses do not appear to have an adverse effect on visual attributes.

  18. When does charisma matter for top-level leaders? Effect of attributional ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquart, P.; Antonakis, J.

    2015-01-01

    One stream of leadership theory suggests leaders are evaluated via inferential observer processes that compare the fit of the target to a prototype of an ideal (charismatic) leader. Attributional theories of leadership suggest that evaluations depend on knowledge of past organizational performance, which is attributed to the leader's skills. We develop a novel theory showing how inferential and attributional processes simultaneously explain top-level leader evaluation and ultimately leader re...

  19. Histone Lysine Methylation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis. However, given the functional diversity and complexity of histone methylation within the cell, the study of the molecular basis of histone methylation-related neurodevelopmental disorders is currently still in its infancy. Here, we review the latest studies that revealed the pathological implications of alterations in histone methylation status in the context of various neurodevelopmental disorders and propose possible therapeutic application of epigenetic compounds regulating histone methylation status for the treatment of these diseases.

  20. Effect of ethylene and temperature conditioning on sensory attributes and chemical composition of 'Comice' pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkumrai, Warangkana; Sivertsen, Hanne; Sugar, David; Ebeler, Susan E; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-06-04

    'Comice' is among the pear varieties most difficult to ripen after harvest. Ethylene, cold temperature, and intermediate (10 °C) temperature conditioning have been successfully used to stimulate the ability of 'Comice' pears to ripen. However, the sensory quality of pears stimulated to ripen by different conditioning treatments has not been evaluated. In this study, a descriptive sensory analysis of 'Comice' pears conditioned to soften to 27, 18, and 9 N firmness with ethylene exposure for 3 or 1 days, storage at 0 °C for 25 or 15 days, or storage at 10 °C for 10 days was performed. Sensory attributes were then related to changes in chemical composition, including volatile components, water-soluble polyuronides, soluble solids content (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA). The sensory profile of fruit conditioned with ethylene was predominant in fibrous texture and low in fruity and pear aroma. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C was described as crunchy at 27 and 18 N firmness and became juicy at 9 N firmness. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C produced the highest quantity of alcohols and fewer esters than fruit conditioned at 10 °C, and they had higher fruity and pear aroma than fruit conditioned with ethylene, but lower than fruit conditioned at 10 °C. Fruit held at 10 °C were predominant in fruity and pear aroma and had the highest concentration of esters. Water-soluble polyuronides were strongly, positively correlated (r > 0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with ripeness, including juiciness, butteriness, and sweetness and negatively correlated (r > -0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with the unripe stage, such as firmness and crunchiness. However, water-soluble polyuronides were not significantly different among conditioning treatments. Sensory sweetness was not significantly correlated with SSC, but TA and SSC/TA were significantly correlated with sensory tartness. However, there were no significant differences among the conditioning

  1. Postnatal dexamethasone, respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years in babies born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gordon; Lo, Jessica W; Marlow, Neil; Calvert, Sandy A; Greenough, Anne; Peacock, Janet L

    2017-01-01

    Postnatal dexamethasone is associated with reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There remains, however, concern that its short-term benefits are accompanied by long-term adverse effects e.g. poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our aim was to determine the effects of administration of postnatal dexamethasone on respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age after adjusting for neonatal and infant risk factors. The study included 412 infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation, 29% had received postnatal dexamethasone. Two outcomes were examined, respiratory hospital admissions in the past 12 months and neurodevelopmental impairment. Logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birthweight z-score, gestation, maternal smoking, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks, airleak, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary haemorrhage, major ultrasound abnormality, mode of ventilation and age at assessment, was undertaken. After adjustment, postnatal dexamethasone was associated with significantly increased proportions of both respiratory hospital readmission: (0.35 vs 0.15, difference = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.31) and neurodevelopmental impairment (0.59 vs 0.45, difference = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26). Postnatal dexamethasone use in extremely preterm infants is associated with increased risks of respiratory hospital admissions and neurodevelopmental impairment. These associations were not explained by excess neonatal morbidities.

  2. Effect of soaking and germination on physicochemical and functional attributes of horsegram flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Vanshika; Kumar, Vikas; Panghal, Anil; Suri, Sheenam; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2017-12-01

    Horsegram is an underutilized pulse, traditionally used for treating various disorders like kidney stones, diabetes and joint pain. The present study was undertaken to optimize the soaking and germination conditions, to decrease the anti-nutritional factors and at the same time maintaining the nutritional properties of horsegram. Horsegram seeds were soaked for 6, 12 and 18 h followed by germination for 0, 24 and 48 h under different illumination conditions i.e., light and dark respectively. The soaked and germinated samples were dried in laboratory drier at 55 °C until constant moisture was achieved and was further analyzed for various quality attributes. Almost all the physicochemical and functional characteristics were significantly affected by both soaking and germination, whereas, germination done in light and dark conditions, exerted significant effect on the ascorbic acid content, total protein, total phenols, antioxidant activity and tannin content only. Based on the quality attributes, it was found that treatment having 18 h soaking and 48 h germination in the presence of light was the best where maximum decrease in the anti-nutritional factors was observed. Moreover, there was an increase in ascorbic acid, total protein content and a decrease in the anti-nutritional factors such as oxalate and tannin content. Thus, it is concluded that 18 h soaking and 48 h germination in the presence of light can be considered as the optimum conditions to increase the nutritional content of horsegram flour, which can further be utilized for the preparation of different value-added food products.

  3. Detection and attribution of urbanization effect on flood extremes using nonstationary flood‐frequency models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, T. R.; Miller, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates whether long‐term changes in observed series of high flows can be attributed to changes in land use via nonstationary flood‐frequency analyses. A point process characterization of threshold exceedances is used, which allows for direct inclusion of covariates in the model; as well as a nonstationary model for block maxima series. In particular, changes in annual, winter, and summer block maxima and peaks over threshold extracted from gauged instantaneous flows records in two hydrologically similar catchments located in proximity to one another in northern England are investigated. The study catchment is characterized by large increases in urbanization levels in recent decades, while the paired control catchment has remained undeveloped during the study period (1970–2010). To avoid the potential confounding effect of natural variability, a covariate which summarizes key climatological properties is included in the flood‐frequency model. A significant effect of the increasing urbanization levels on high flows is detected, in particular in the summer season. Point process models appear to be superior to block maxima models in their ability to detect the effect of the increase in urbanization levels on high flows. PMID:26877559

  4. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20–55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604

  5. Hostile attributional bias, negative emotional responding, and aggression in adults: moderating effects of gender and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20-55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Value of College Education Mediating the Predictive Effects of Causal Attributions on Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Obade, Masela; Gerszewski, Tammy; Ruthig, Joelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Causal attributions (explanations for outcomes) have been found to predict college students' academic success; however, not all students attributing success or failure to adaptive (i.e., controllable) causes perform well in university. Eccles et al.'s ("Achievement and achievement motives." W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 75-145, 1983)…

  7. Effects of Causal Attributions for Success on First-Term College Performance: A Covariance Structure Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Craig W.

    1988-01-01

    A structural model of the consequences of success attributions--derived from B. Weiner's attribution model--was tested using 208 first-term college students. Although the hypothesized model was rejected based on a chi-square, goodness-of-fit test, a specification search yielded a model that fit the data and was consistent with Weiner's theory.…

  8. Threshold Effects of Creative Problem-Solving Attributes on Creativity in the Math Abilities of Taiwanese Upper Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for this study, with the aim of measuring students’ perceptions on their motivation, knowledge, and skills, both in general and in specific domains. Divergent and convergent thinking were also measured. Cluster analyses yielded three creative problem-solving typologies: High, Medium, and Low. The High Attribute group scored significantly higher in the Math Creative Problem-Solving Ability Test than did the Medium Attribute and Low Attribute groups. The results suggest a threshold effect from several attributes—divergent thinking, convergent thinking, motivation, general knowledge and skills, domain-specific knowledge and skills, and environment—on students’ creative problem-solving abilities. Balanced development of attributes may be an important consideration in nurturing creativity in children.

  9. Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides and childhood neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Melissa A; Herring, Amy; Buckley, Jessie P; Goldman, Barbara D; Daniels, Julie L; Engel, Lawrence S; Wolff, Mary S; Chen, Jia; Wetmur, Jim; Barr, Dana Boyd; Engel, Stephanie M

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been associated with different neurodevelopmental outcomes across different cohorts. A phenotypic approach may address some of these differences by incorporating information across scales and accounting for the complex correlational structure of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Additionally, Bayesian hierarchical modeling can account for confounding by collinear co-exposures. We use this framework to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OPs and behavior, executive functioning, and IQ assessed at age 6-9 years in a cohort of 404 mother/infant pairs recruited during pregnancy. We derived phenotypes of neurodevelopment with a factor analysis, and estimated associations between OP metabolites and these phenotypes in Bayesian hierarchical models for exposure mixtures. We report seven factors: 1) Impulsivity and Externalizing, 2) Executive Functioning, 3) Internalizing, 4) Perceptual Reasoning, 5) Adaptability, 6) Processing Speed, and 7) Verbal Intelligence. These, along with the Working Memory Index, were standardized and scaled so that positive values reflected positive attributes and negative values represented adverse outcomes. Standardized dimethylphosphate metabolites were negatively associated with Internalizing factor scores (β^ - 0.13, 95% CI - 0.26, 0.00) but positively associated with Executive Functioning factor scores (β^ 0.18, 95% CI 0.04, 0.31). Standardized diethylphosphate metabolites were negatively associated with the Working Memory Index (β^ - 0.17, 95% CI - 0.33, - 0.03). Associations with factor scores were generally stronger and more precise than associations with individual instrument-specific items. Factor analysis of outcomes may provide some advantages in etiological studies of childhood neurodevelopment by incorporating information across scales to reduce dimensionality and improve precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of attributional retraining on writing performance and perceived competence of Taiwanese university nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hung-Cheng; Pan, Mei-Yu; Lee, Bih-O

    2016-09-01

    Attributional retraining (AR) has been applied in various professional fields. The application of AR in nursing education is rarely seen. This study explores the effects of AR on university nursing students' writing performance, perceived competence, and the relationship between writing performance and perceived competence using a blended platform of online and face-to-face approaches. A single-group experimental study was used. A total of 187 students participated in this study. The setting was the two-year vocational nursing course in a university. The Scale for Rating Composition Tasks and the Perceived Competence Scale were used before and after the AR intervention. The students' writing performance showed significant improvement after the intervention. AR had effectively influenced the students' perceived competence. The perceived competence of the students interacted with the writing performance improvements after the AR intervention. The AR intervention suggests an alternative teaching approach that can help enhance students' English writing performance as well as perceived competence. The AR programme may be applied in English language teaching and professional courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attribution of declining Western U.S. Snowpack to human effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Das, T.; Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Bala, G.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Mirin, A.; Wood, A.W.; Nozawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    Observations show snowpack has declined across much of the western United States over the period 1950-99. This reduction has important social and economic implications, as water retained in the snowpack from winter storms forms an important part of the hydrological cycle and water supply in the region. A formal model-based detection and attribution (D-A) study of these reductions is performed. The detection variable is the ratio of 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) to water-year-to-date precipitation (P), chosen to reduce the effect of P variability on the results. Estimates of natural internal climate variability are obtained from 1600 years of two control simulations performed with fully coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Estimates of the SWE/P response to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, ozone, and some aerosols are taken from multiple-member ensembles of perturbation experiments run with two models. The D-A shows the observations and anthropogenically forced models have greater SWE/P reductions than can be explained by natural internal climate variability alone. Model-estimated effects of changes in solar and volcanic forcing likewise do not explain the SWE/P reductions. The mean model estimate is that about half of the SWE/P reductions observed in the west from 1950 to 1999 are the result of climate changes forced by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, ozone, and aerosols. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

  12. Identifying attributes of care that may improve cost-effectiveness in the youth mental health service system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew P; Hetrick, Sarah E; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Baker, David; Browne, Vivienne; Chanen, Andrew M; Pennell, Kerryn; Purcell, Rosemary; Stavely, Heather; McGorry, Patrick D

    2017-11-20

    To identify attributes of youth mental health care for which there is evidence of potential cost-effectiveness. We performed a literature review of economic evaluations that examined both costs and outcomes for attributes of youth mental health care other than pharmacological or individual psychological therapies for full-threshold disorders. We searched the United Kingdom National Health Service Economic Evaluations Database for evaluations published to the end of 2014; and MEDLINE, Google Scholar and the citation lists of relevant publications for peer-reviewed studies published in English since 1997. Forty economic evaluations met inclusion criteria. Psychosis was the mental disorder with the most developed economic evidence base, with good evidence of cost-effectiveness for first-episode psychosis services. There was a developing cost-effectiveness evidence base for other disorders. The most common attributes of the interventions examined in the included studies were the location of services, engagement and support of families, assessment, prevention, early intervention, group delivery format and information provision. We used our findings to formulate a list of attributes of youth mental health care that may be acceptable to young people and potentially cost-effective. There is at least suggestive cost-effectiveness evidence for a range of attributes of youth mental health care. Further economic research is needed to substantiate most cost-effectiveness findings and to improve targeting of care among young people. Future economic evaluations should examine costs from both societal and health care perspectives and incorporate evidence regarding young people's preferences.

  13. The cerebellum and neurodevelopmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction is evident in several developmental disorders, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and developmental dyslexia, and damage to the cerebellum early in development can have long-term effects on movement, cognition, and affective regulation. Early cerebellar damage is often associated with poorer outcomes than cerebellar damage in adulthood, suggesting that the cerebellum is particularly important during development. Differences in cerebellar development and/or early cerebellar damage could impact a wide range of behaviors via the closed-loop circuits connecting the cerebellum with multiple cerebral cortical regions. Based on these anatomical circuits, behavioral outcomes should depend on which cerebro-cerebellar circuits are affected. Here, we briefly review cerebellar structural and functional differences in autism, ADHD, and developmental dyslexia, and discuss clinical outcomes following pediatric cerebellar damage. These data confirm the prediction that abnormalities in different cerebellar subregions produce behavioral symptoms related to the functional disruption of specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits. These circuits might also be crucial to structural brain development, as peri-natal cerebellar lesions have been associated with impaired growth of the contralateral cerebral cortex. The specific contribution of the cerebellum to typical development may therefore involve the optimization of both the structure and function of cerebro-cerebellar circuits underlying skill acquisition in multiple domains; when this process is disrupted, particularly in early development, there could be long-term alterations of these neural circuits, with significant impacts on behavior. PMID:26298473

  14. The Cerebellum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Catherine J

    2016-02-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction is evident in several developmental disorders, including autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and developmental dyslexia, and damage to the cerebellum early in development can have long-term effects on movement, cognition, and affective regulation. Early cerebellar damage is often associated with poorer outcomes than cerebellar damage in adulthood, suggesting that the cerebellum is particularly important during development. Differences in cerebellar development and/or early cerebellar damage could impact a wide range of behaviors via the closed-loop circuits connecting the cerebellum with multiple cerebral cortical regions. Based on these anatomical circuits, behavioral outcomes should depend on which cerebro-cerebellar circuits are affected. Here, we briefly review cerebellar structural and functional differences in autism, ADHD, and developmental dyslexia, and discuss clinical outcomes following pediatric cerebellar damage. These data confirm the prediction that abnormalities in different cerebellar subregions produce behavioral symptoms related to the functional disruption of specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits. These circuits might also be crucial to structural brain development, as peri-natal cerebellar lesions have been associated with impaired growth of the contralateral cerebral cortex. The specific contribution of the cerebellum to typical development may therefore involve the optimization of both the structure and function of cerebro-cerebellar circuits underlying skill acquisition in multiple domains; when this process is disrupted, particularly in early development, there could be long-term alterations of these neural circuits, with significant impacts on behavior.

  15. Explaining the effects of symptom attribution by carers on help-seeking for individuals living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lisa; Wilcock, Jane; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Iliffe, Steve

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of carer attributions on help-seeking behaviour for people with dementia using interviews with 84 carers recruited through general practice. Memory loss was the most commonly reported first symptom but psychological and behavioural symptoms were also common at onset. In over a third of individuals help-seeking was delayed for a mean of 25 months (range 6-69, SD 19.3). Help-seeking between those who attributed symptoms to dementia, or to unknown causes, and those who attributed symptoms to personality, ageing, life events or other illnesses was statistically significant ( p characteristics were found. There is a need to raise public awareness about the range of symptoms suggestive of dementia. Assumptions that age and other conditions may be the likely cause of an individual's cognitive decline needs to be challenged by practitioners. Attribution of symptoms to characteristics other than dementia delays help-seeking.

  16. Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Miyake

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stress can alter the epigenetic status in neuronal cells, environmental factors may alter brain function through epigenetic changes. However, one advantage of epigenetic changes is their reversibility. Therefore, diseases due to abnormal epigenetic regulation are theoretically treatable. In fact, several drugs for treating mental diseases are known to have restoring effects on aberrant epigenetic statuses, and a novel therapeutic strategy targeting gene has been developed. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms of congenital and acquired neurodevelopmental disorders, drugs with epigenetic effects, novel therapeutic strategies for epigenetic diseases, and future perspectives in epigenetic medicine.

  17. Attribution of spring snow water equivalent (SWE) changes over the northern hemisphere to anthropogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi; Naveed Khaliq, M.

    2017-06-01

    Snow is an important component of the cryosphere and it has a direct and important influence on water storage and supply in snowmelt-dominated regions. This study evaluates the temporal evolution of snow water equivalent (SWE) for the February-April spring period using the GlobSnow observation dataset for the 1980-2012 period. The analysis is performed for different regions of hemispherical to sub-continental scales for the Northern Hemisphere. The detection-attribution analysis is then performed to demonstrate anthropogenic and natural effects on spring SWE changes for different regions, by comparing observations with six CMIP5 model simulations for three different external forcings: all major anthropogenic and natural (ALL) forcings, greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing only, and natural forcing only. The observed spring SWE generally displays a decreasing trend, due to increasing spring temperatures. However, it exhibits a remarkable increasing trend for the southern parts of East Eurasia. The six CMIP5 models with ALL forcings reproduce well the observed spring SWE decreases at the hemispherical scale and continental scales, whereas important differences are noted for smaller regions such as southern and northern parts of East Eurasia and northern part of North America. The effects of ALL and GHG forcings are clearly detected for the spring SWE decline at the hemispherical scale, based on multi-model ensemble signals. The effects of ALL and GHG forcings, however, are less clear for the smaller regions or with single-model signals, indicating the large uncertainty in regional SWE changes, possibly due to stronger influence of natural climate variability.

  18. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Richard V; Bovy, Arnaud; Bava, Christina; Jaeger, Sara R; Tomes, Sumathi; Norling, Cara; Crawford, Jonathan; Rowan, Daryl; McGhie, Tony K; Brendolise, Cyril; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-05-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Main Quality Attributes of Monoclonal Antibodies and Effect of Cell Culture Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    The culture media optimization is an inevitable part of upstream process development in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) production. The quality by design (QbD) approach defines the assured quality of the final product through the development stage. An important step in QbD is determination of the main quality attributes. During the media optimization, some of the main quality attributes such as glycosylation pattern, charge variants, aggregates, and low-molecular-weight species, could be significantly altered. Here, we provide an overview of how cell culture medium components affects the main quality attributes of the mAbs. Knowing the relationship between the culture media components and the main quality attributes could be successfully utilized for a rational optimization of mammalian cell culture media for industrial mAbs production.

  20. Effect of Presentation Flaw Attribution on Website Quality, Trust, and Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Everard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scenario-based experiments we examine how users’ perceptions of online store quality and trustworthiness are affected by their attribution of website flaws. The attribution of online store website flaws can be internal (i.e., an action taken by the online store's site developer or external (i.e., an action taken on the part of the site’s service provider to the website. Perceived quality of the online store was found to be lower for users who attributed the flaws to internal factors. Findings also showed that the presence of a flaw, regardless of whether it was attributed to an internal or external condition, negatively affected the users’ level of trust in the website

  1. The relationship between transformational leadership psychodynamic attributes, behaviour and effectiveness: towards authentic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Comm. The globalisation of the South African economy since 1994 has emphasised the need for a new form of leadership, with specific emphasis on authentic and transformational leadership. By understanding the psychodynamic aspects that drive the transformational leader organisations will be able to identify and develop transformational leaders. A real need exists to understand the psychodynamic attributes of transformational leaders and how these attributes affect their behaviour and effe...

  2. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria

    2015-08-11

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Green Space and Deaths Attributable to the Urban Heat Island Effect in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Doan Quang; Kusaka, Hiroyuki; Seposo, Xerxes T; Honda, Yasushi

    2017-10-26

    To quantify heat-related deaths in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, caused by the urban heat island (UHI) and explore factors that may alleviate the impact of UHIs. We estimated district-specific meteorological conditions from 2010 to 2013 using the dynamic downscaling model and calculated the attributable fraction and number of mortalities resulting from the total, extreme, and mild heat in each district. The difference in attributable fraction of total heat between the central and outer districts was classified as the attributable fraction resulting from the UHI. The association among attributable fraction, attributable number with a green space, population density, and budget revenue of each district was then explored. The temperature-mortality relationship between the central and outer areas was almost identical. The attributable fraction resulting from the UHI was 0.42%, which was contributed by the difference in temperature distribution between the 2 areas. Every 1-square-kilometer increase in green space per 1000 people can prevent 7.4 deaths caused by heat. Green space can alleviate the impacts of UHIs, although future studies conducting a heath economic evaluation of tree planting are warranted. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304123).

  4. The sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, embryo as a "bioethical" model for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing: effects of diazinon on the intracellular distribution of OTX2-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluigi, M G; Angelini, C; Corte, G; Falugi, C

    2008-12-01

    Presently, a large effort is being made worldwide to increase the sustainability of industrial development, while preserving not only the quality of the environment but also that of animal and human life. In this work, sea urchin early developmental stages were used as a model to test the effects of the organophosphate pesticide (diazinon) on the regulation of gene expression by immunohistochemical localization of the human regulatory protein against the human OTX2. Egg exposure to diazinon did not affect fertilization; however, at concentrations 10(-5)-10(-6) M, it did cause developmental anomalies, among which was the dose-dependent alteration of the intracellular distribution of a regulatory protein that is immunologically related to the human OTX2. The severe anomalies and developmental delay observed after treatment at 10(-5) M concentration are indicators of systemic toxicity, while the results after treatment at 10(-6) M suggest a specific action of the neurotoxic compound. In this second case, exposure to diazinon caused partial delivery of the protein into the nuclei, a defective translocation that particularly affected the blastula and gastrula stages. Therefore, the possibility that neurotoxic agents such as organophosphates may damage embryonic development is taken into account. Specifically, the compounds are known to alter cytoplasmic dynamics, which play a crucial role in regulating the distribution of intracellular structures and molecules, as well as transcription factors. Speculatively, basing our assumptions on Fura2 experiments, we submit the hypothesis that this effect may be due to altered calcium dynamics, which in turn alter cytoskeleton dynamics: the asters, in fact, appear strongly positive to the OTX2 immunoreaction, in both control and exposed samples. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments seem to supply evidence to the hypothesis.

  5. Assessing quality of nursing care as a confounding variable in an outcome study on Neurodevelopmental treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Weide; M.H.F. Grypdonck; Dr. T.B. Hafsteinsdóttir; K. Strijker; C. Kruitwagen

    2007-01-01

    When planning a study measuring the effects of a neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), we were confronted with the methodological problem that while measuring the effects of NDT, a rival hypothesis is that the decision to implement the NDT might be related to the quality of nursing care. Therefore, we

  6. Practitioner Review: Multilingualism and neurodevelopmental disorders - an overview of recent research and discussion of clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Katsos, Napoleon; Hudry, Kristelle; Gibson, Jenny L

    2016-11-01

    Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications. We conducted systematic searches for studies on multilingualism in neurodevelopmental disorders. Keywords for neurodevelopmental disorders were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition categories as follows; Intellectual Disabilities, Communication Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder, Motor Disorders, Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. We included only studies based on empirical research and published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight studies explored multilingualism in Communication Disorders, 10 in ASD and two in Intellectual Disability. No studies on multilingualism in Specific Learning Disorder or Motor Disorders were identified. Studies which found a disadvantage for multilingual children with neurodevelopmental disorders were rare, and there appears little reason to assume that multilingualism has negative effects on various aspects of functioning across a range of conditions. In fact, when considering only those studies which have compared a multilingual group with developmental disorders to a monolingual group with similar disorders, the findings consistently show no adverse effects on language development or other aspects of functioning. In the case of ASD, a positive effect on communication and social functioning has

  7. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michele C; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Martin, Camilia R; Cnaan, Avital; Keller, Roberta L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Martin, Richard J; Truog, William E; Ballard, Philip L; Zadell, Arlene; Wadlinger, Sandra R; Coburn, Christine E; Ballard, Roberta A

    2010-04-01

    In a randomized multi-center trial, we demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide begun between 7 and 21 days and given for 24 days significantly increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in ventilated premature infants weighing score <70 on the Bayley Scales II), compared with 114 of 234 (49%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.75-1.12; P = .39). No differences on any subcomponent of neurodevelopmental impairment or growth variables were found between inhaled nitric oxide or placebo. Inhaled nitric oxide improved survival free of BPD, with no adverse neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years of age. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurodevelopmental pathways to preterm children's specific and general mathematic abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    Preterm children have problems with mathematics but knowledge about the predictors of specific mathematic abilities in preterm populations is scarce. This study investigated neurodevelopmental pathways to children's general and specific mathematic abilities across the full gestational age range. Prospective geographically defined longitudinal investigation in Germany. 947 children across the full gestational age range (23-41 weeks). Outcome measures. At 8 years, children's cognitive and mathematic abilities were measured and residuals of a regression predicting mathematic scores by IQ were used to identify specific mathematic abilities. Neurodevelopmental cascade models revealed that adverse effects of preterm birth on mathematic abilities were mediated by neonatal risk. Specific mathematic abilities were uniquely predicted by the duration of hospitalization and ventilation. Prolonged neonatal medical treatment and, in particular, mechanical ventilation may lead to specific impairments in mathematic tasks. These findings have implications for the mode of respiratory support in neonates, routine follow-up and intervention planning as well as research about brain reorganization after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits

  10. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  11. Gender specific differences in neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to very low-lead levels: the prospective cohort study in three-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Skarupa, Anita; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2009-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-level of prenatal lead exposure measured in the cord blood (Development Index (MDI). The study sample consisted of 457 children born to non-smoking women living in the inner city and the outlying residential areas of Krakow. The relationship between prenatal lead exposure and MDI scores measured at 12, 24 and 36 months of age and adjusted to a set of important covariates (gender of child, maternal education, parity, breastfeeding, prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke) was evaluated with linear multivariate regression, and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) longitudinal panel model. The median of lead level in cord blood was 1.21 microg/dL with the range of values from 0.44 to 4.60 microg/dL. Neither prenatal BLL (dichotomized by median) nor other covariates affected MDI score at 12 months of age. Subsequent testing of children at 24 months of age showed a borderline significant inverse association of lead exposure and mental function (beta coefficient=-2.42, 95%CI: -4.90 to 0.03), but the interaction term (BLL x male gender) was not significant. At 36 months, prenatal lead exposure was inversely and significantly associated with cognitive function in boys (Spearman correlation coefficient=-0.239, p=0.0007) but not girls (r=-0.058, p=0.432) and the interaction between BLL and male gender was significant (beta coefficient=-4.46; 95%CI: -8.28 to -0.63). Adjusted estimates of MDI deficit in boys at 36 months confirmed very strong negative impact of prenatal lead exposure (BLL>1.67 microg/dL) compared with the lowest quartile of exposure (beta coefficient=-6.2, p=0.002), but the effect in girls was insignificant (beta coefficient=-0.74, p=0.720). The average deficit of cognitive function in the total sample over the first three years of life (GEE model) associated with higher prenatal lead exposure was also significant (beta coefficient=-3.00; 95%CI: -5.22 to -0

  12. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopmental genes in response to in utero exposure to phthalate plastic chemicals: How can we delineate causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Symeonides, Christos; Vuillermin, Peter; Mueller, Jochen; Sly, Peter D; Saffery, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence, from animal models and human observational studies, implicates the in utero (and early postnatal) environment in the 'programming' of risk for a variety of adverse outcomes and health trajectories. The modern environment is replete with man-made compounds such as plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates. Evidence from several human cohorts implicates exposure to these chemicals in adverse offspring neurodevelopment, though a direct causal relationship has not been firmly established. In this review we consider a potential causal pathway that encompasses epigenetic human variation, and how we might test this mechanistic hypothesis in human studies. In the first part of this report we outline how PPCs induce epigenetic change, focusing on the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a key regulator of neurodevelopment. Further, we discuss the role of the epigenetics of BDNF and other genes in neurodevelopment and the emerging human evidence of an association between phthalate exposure and adverse offspring neurodevelopment. We discuss aspects of epidemiological and molecular study design and analysis that could be employed to strengthen the level of human evidence to infer causality. We undertake this using an exemplar recent research example: maternal prenatal smoking, linked to methylation change at the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene at birth, now shown to mediate some of the effects of maternal smoking on birth weight. Characterizing the relationship between the modern environment and the human molecular pathways underpinning its impact on early development is paramount to understanding the public health significance of modern day chemical exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. International telemedicine consultations for neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    A telemedicine program was developed between the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC, and the Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A needs assessment and a curriculum of on-site training conferences were devised preparatory to an ongoing telemedicine consultation program for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in the underserved eastern region of the UAE. Weekly telemedicine consultations are provided by a multidisciplinary faculty. Patients are presented in the UAE with their therapists and families. Real-time (video over Internet protocol; average connection, 768 kilobits/s) telemedicine conferences are held weekly following previews of medical records. A full consultation report follows each telemedicine session. Between February 29, 2012 and June 26, 2013, 48 weekly 1-h live interactive telemedicine consultations were conducted on 48 patients (28 males, 20 females; age range, 8 months-22 years; median age, 5.4 years). The primary diagnoses were cerebral palsy, neurogenetic disorders, autism, neuromuscular disorders, congenital anomalies, global developmental delay, systemic disease, and epilepsy. Common comorbidities were cognitive impairment, communication disorders, and behavioral disorders. Specific recommendations included imaging and DNA studies, antiseizure management, spasticity management including botulinum toxin protocols, and specific therapy modalities including taping techniques, customized body vests, and speech/language and behavioral therapy. Improved outcomes reported were in clinician satisfaction, achievement of therapy goals for patients, and requests for ongoing sessions. Weekly telemedicine sessions coupled with triannual training conferences were successfully implemented in a clinical program dedicated to patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities by the Center for Neuroscience at CNMC and the UAE government. International consultations in neurodevelopmental

  14. Effects of technology on nursing care and caring attributes of a sample of Iranian critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Behnaz; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Ravari, Ali

    2017-04-01

    To examine the association between attitudes of critical care nurses about influences of technology and their caring attributes. In a cross-sectional study, firstly the psychometric properties of caring attributes questionnaire, which was developed to examine caring attributes of a sample of international nurses, was refined in a sample of 200 critical care nurses working in educational hospitals of a city in the southwest of Iran. Results of factor analysis with Varimax rotation decreased 60 items of caring attributes to 47 items which loaded under five subscales of caring negation, caring compassionate, caring advocacy, caring essence and caring communication. Secondly, attitudes of these nurses toward influences of technology on nursing care were assessed using a 22-item questionnaire, developed by the study researchers. Finally, the association between scores of caring attributes and attitudes toward influences of technology of this sample was determined. There was a positive association between caring attributes and influences of technology among our study nurses. Caring attributes scores were higher in female single nurses. Although caring attributes' scores had decreased along with age and work experience, caring commitment was higher in older more experienced nurses. Furthermore, female nurses had a better attitude toward influences of technology on their care. In contrast, younger and less experienced nurses had negative views on the effects of technology on nursing care. Continuing education and life-long learning on application of new technological equipment in nursing care and harmonising their use with caring values are necessary for nursing students and registered nurses to ensure delivering a patient-centred care, in a technologically driven environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Carolina Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho de revisão do 6º ano médico com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre (área científica de pediatria) no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina. Although prognosis of Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) has been greatly modified since the introduction of newborn screening programs, persistent cognitive deficits are still reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CH and to determine whether severity of CH, age of...

  16. Drosophila modeling of heritable neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-12-01

    Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advanced our understanding of UBE3A, MECP2, NF1 and FMR1 function, respectively, in genetic, biochemical, anatomical, physiological and behavioral contexts. Investigations in Drosophila continue to provide the essential mechanistic understanding required to facilitate the conception of rational therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attributes of an effective trainer: implications of the views of UK dermatology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, P; Cohen, S N; Burge, S M

    2008-03-01

    Trainers have a critical influence on the education of specialist registrars (SpRs) and the quality of training programmes. This study gathered the opinions of U.K. dermatology SpRs on the attributes they felt were important in a trainer. The questionnaire was sent to all U.K. dermatology SpRs (n=216). It comprised the stem: 'A good trainer (supervising consultant or educational supervisor)', followed by statements such as '...has realistic expectations of the trainee'. Respondents ranked each statement in importance using a five-point Likert scale. A free-text box was also included for respondents to list the least desirable attributes. Completed questionnaires were received from 146 trainees (68%). Four attributes were identified as most important: having an encouraging and supportive attitude, using feedback to identify specific areas for attention, being approachable, and being willing to answer questions. Least important attributes included openness to criticism of teaching skills, auditing of own clinical practice, sense of humour and place of work (district general vs. teaching hospital). Eighty-seven respondents indicated the least desirable attributes of a trainer. Most comments related to being uninterested in training, being unapproachable or unavailable, or undermining the trainee and using unconstructive criticism. The results highlight the importance to trainees of constructive feedback, and dialogue with trainers. Some of the stated undesirable characteristics in a trainer appeared to derive from personal experience. This is of serious concern, and ways in which the trainer-trainee relationship can be improved are discussed.

  18. Effect of node attributes on the temporal dynamics of network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Naghmeh; Fotouhi, Babak

    2017-03-01

    Many natural and social networks evolve in time and their structures are dynamic. In most networks, nodes are heterogeneous, and their roles in the evolution of structure differ. This paper focuses on the role of individual attributes on the temporal dynamics of network structure. We focus on a basic model for growing networks that incorporates node attributes (which we call "quality"), and we focus on the problem of forecasting the structural properties of the network in arbitrary times for an arbitrary initial network. That is, we address the following question: If we are given a certain initial network with given arbitrary structure and known node attributes, then how does the structure change in time as new nodes with given distribution of attributes join the network? We solve the model analytically and obtain the quality-degree joint distribution and degree correlations. We characterize the role of individual attributes in the position of individual nodes in the hierarchy of connections. We confirm the theoretical findings with Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Moisture content effect in the relationship between apparent electrical conductivity and soil attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To map the spatial variability of a field to define the variable rate application, an intensive sampling of the soil-plant system is necessary. The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa has been used for soil mapping because it correlates well with soil attributes, allows for dense sampling and can be obtained at low cost. However, ECa is influenced by soil moisture content, and the variability of this attribute can reduce the reliability of the ECa maps to explain the physical and chemical soil attributes. The objective of this study was to identify conditions that maximize the correlations between the ECa and the soil attributes. The results show that the mean soil moisture content of soil sampled on different dates was correlated with the mean of the ECa. The ideal time for measuring ECa occurred when the mean moisture content of the soil was higher. In this condition, the coefficient of variation for the soil moisture content was lower, there was no correlation between ECa and soil moisture content, and ECa was more correlated with other soil attributes evaluated in this work.

  20. Effectiveness of preventive family intervention in improving cognitive attributions among children of depressed parents: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Paavonen, Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Solantaus, Tytti

    2013-08-01

    Our randomized trial examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions in increasing positive cognitive attributions and reducing negative cognitive attributions in children of depressed parents. In addition, it tested the role of attribution changes in mediating the intervention effects on children's depressive and emotional symptoms. The participants were 109 Finnish families with at least one parent in treatment for affective disorder, for a total of 145 children, 8-16 years of age. Families were randomized into two groups: the "family talk intervention" (FTI, a whole-family approach enhancing communication and child resilience, Beardslee et al., 1997) group, and an active control, the "let's talk about the children" (LTC, a parent-only psycho-educational approach, Solantaus, Paavonen, Toikka, & Punamäki, 2010) group. Children reported their cognitive attributions (CASQ-R, Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (Thompson, Kaslow, Weiss, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1998)), depressive (CDI/BDI, Child Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1981)/Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Steer, & Garbin, 1988)) and emotional (SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997)) symptoms, and mothers reported their children's emotional symptoms (SDQ at baseline (T1) and 10-month (T2) and 18-month (T3)) follow-ups. Contrary to our hypothesis, no beneficial attribution changes were found in the FTI group across the follow-ups. Instead, positive cognitive appraisals increased in the LTC group, especially from T2 to T3. The increase of positive attribution further served as a mediator for changes in children's emotional and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that a short preventive intervention can enhance beneficial cognitive processes in high-risk families in routine adult psychiatric care. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  1. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  2. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  3. I control therefore I am: effects of mortality salience on control attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Guillermo B; Tapia-V, Alejandro; Martínez, Rocío

    2011-11-01

    Terror Management Theory posits that when individuals are faced with their own mortality, they use several defense mechanisms to reduce the existential anxiety caused by the thought of their own death. In this paper, we examined one such mechanism: Control attributions. To do so, we ran an experiment (n = 140) in which we manipulated mortality salience and type of failure (relevant vs. irrelevant consequences) with which participants were faced. Participants were then instructed to evaluate the possible causes of their failure. The results indicated that participants assigned to the mortality salience condition, compared to those assigned to the control group, were more prone to making controllable attributions. That is, even in situations in which individuals are motivated to avoid responsibility (i.e., a relevant failure), mortality salience increased perceived controllability. These results suggest that attributions might serve as a control mechanism to compensate for the sheer uncontrollability of death.

  4. The creation and validation of the Measure of Effective Attributes of Trainers (MEAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Meredith R; Lewis, Cara C; Scott, Kelli; Krendl, Anne; Lyon, Aaron R

    2017-06-02

    Training is a core component in the implementation of empirically supported treatments, especially in the case of psychosocial interventions targeting mental illness. However, common forms of training are relatively ineffective in producing behavioral changes in providers. Trainers are in a strategic position to influence the success of training, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether personal characteristics of trainers (e.g., enthusiasm, charisma) increase effectiveness of training empirically supported treatments in the field of mental health. To address this gap, the current study created a measure of trainer characteristics (the Measure of Effective Attributes of Trainers (MEAT)) and assessed preliminary evidence for its reliability and validity by following gold standard measure development procedures. Measure development consisted of three steps: (1) An initial pool of items was generated based on extant literature, input from the target population, and expert input; (2) target users of the measure interacted with the initial item pool to ensure face validity as well as clarity of measure instructions, response options, and items; and (3) a convenience sample viewed training videos and completed the measure resulting from step 2 to establish preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on the measure to determine whether latent factors (i.e., subscales of characteristics) underlie the data. The final solution consisted of two factors that demonstrated preliminary evidence for structural validity of the measure. The first factor, labeled "Charisma," contained items related to characteristics that facilitate a positive personal relationship with the trainee (e.g., friendly, warm), and the second factor, labeled "Credibility," contained items related to characteristics that emphasize the qualification of the trainer (e.g., professional, experienced). There was also evidence for face validity

  5. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  6. Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R A; Markman, G D; Hirsa, A

    2001-10-01

    It was hypothesized that perceptions of women who become entrepreneurs are enhanced by attributional augmenting because they adopt this role despite major obstacles to doing so. In contrast, attributional augmenting was expected to operate to a lesser degree for men who become entrepreneurs because they presumably face weaker obstacles. Three studies offered support for these hypotheses; all of these investigations used between-subjects designs in which women and men shown in standard-format photos were described to different groups of raters as being either entrepreneurs or managers. As predicted, raters assigned significantly higher scores to women, but not to men, when they were described as entrepreneurs.

  7. No association between transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity and neurodevelopmental outcome in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Israëls, J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Verkerk, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.; Hille, E.T.M.; Groot, C.H. de; Kloosterboer-Boerrigter, H.; Ouden, A.L. den; Rijpstra, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Vogelaar, J.A.; Kok, J.H.; Ilsen, A.; Lans, M. van der; Boelen-Van Der Loo, W.J.C.; Lundqvist, T.; Heymans, H.S.A.; Duiverman, E.J.; Geven, W.B.; Duiverman, M.L.; Geven, L.I.; Vrijlandt, E.J.L.E.; Mulder, A.L.M.; Gerver, A.; Kollée, L.A.A.; Reijmers, L.; Sonnemans, R.; Wit, J.M.; Dekker, F.W.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Heijden, A.J. van der; Goudoever, J.B. van; Weissenbruch, M.M. van; Cranendonk, A.; Delemarre-Van De Waal, H.A.; Groot, L. de; Samsom, J.F.; Vries, L.S. de; Rademaker, K.J.; Moerman, E.; Voogsgeerd, M.; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Andriessen, P.; Dielissen-Van Helvoirt, C.C.M.; Mohamed, I.; Straaten, H.L.M. van; Baerts, W.; Veneklaas Slots-Kloosterboer, G.W.; Tuller-Pikkemaat, E.M.J.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Steenbrugge, G.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Context: Transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THoP) has been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in infancy and childhood. It is not known whether these relations persist into adulthood. Objective: To examine whether there is an effect of THoP on intelligence quotient (IQ) score and

  8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children with Severe to Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Anna M.; Comparini, Alessandro; Scusa, Maria F.; Berrettini, Stefano; Forli, Francesca; Battini, Roberta; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The effects of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are often complicated by additional disabilities, but the epidemiology of associated disorders is not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of additional neurodevelopmental disabilities in a sample of children with SNHL and to investigate the relation…

  9. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Using Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Leei Tey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Aminophylline therapy for apnea of prematurity had no apparent and additional risk on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBW infants at a corrected age of 18 months. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the adverse neurological effects of aminophylline treatment.

  10. Effects of age and causal attribution to aging on health-related behaviors associated with urinary incontinence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L; Burgio, Kathryn L; Goode, Patricia S; Roth, David L; Rodriguez, Eric

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and patients' attribution of incontinence to aging on health-related behaviors associated with incontinence. Participants in this study were 74 women who either sought treatment for urinary incontinence at a multidisciplinary continence program or volunteered for a randomized clinical trial of behavioral and drug therapy for incontinence. As part of their clinical evaluation, women were interviewed about how they managed their incontinence and their perceptions of what had caused the condition. Self-management of incontinence was defined as behaviors used to cope with incontinence, rather than treat or cure incontinence. Self-treatment was defined as self-implementation of Kegel exercises, and formal treatment was defined as interaction with a health care provider. Over half of the respondents attributed their incontinence to aging. In multivariate analyses, age was associated with self-management of incontinence, but not self-treatment or formal treatment. In contrast, attribution of incontinence to aging was associated with self-management and self-treatment of incontinence. There was also a trend for attribution of incontinence to aging to be associated with formal treatment for incontinence. Women who attributed their incontinence to aging were less likely to have engaged in self-management strategies and to have received a previous evaluation or treatment; but, they were more likely to have engaged in self-treatment for incontinence. When other relevant variables were added to the regression models, perception that incontinence restricted one's activities became the most significant predictor of performing self-management strategies and performing Kegel exercises. Attribution to aging may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Education to promote understanding of the actual causes and treatment of urinary incontinence may encourage people to seek appropriate intervention. Additionally, whereas

  11. Plotting an Emerging Relationship Schema of Effective Leadership Attributes for Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; Deng, Meng

    2017-01-01

    The significance of principal leadership to build inclusive schools has long been recognised. Studies to plot their leadership attributes that mobilise, facilitate, and sustain inclusive education specific to Hong Kong are however scarce. This qualitative study investigated teacher leaders' experiences of what their principals did to cultivate…

  12. Women and Computers: Effects of Stereotype Threat on Attribution of Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabine C.; Muller, Stephanie M.; Sieverding, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether stereotype threat can influence women's attributions of failure in a computer task. Male and female college-age students (n = 86, 16-21 years old) from Germany were asked to work on a computer task and were hinted beforehand that in this task, either (a) men usually perform better than women do (negative threat…

  13. Effect of Therapist Color-Blindness on Empathy and Attributions in Cross-Cultural Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Alan W.; Knox, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Empathy and attributions of client responsibility for the cause of and solution to a problem were examined for 247 psychologists who were identified as having low, moderate, and high color-blind racial attitudes. Participants responded to 1 of 4 vignettes that controlled for client race (i.e., African American, European American) and client…

  14. Effect of Teaching of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Attribution Styles in Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Qavam, Soghra Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, self-regulated learning has become an important focus in research and a large number of studies have been undergone about self-regulation, school achievement and motivation of learning, but few researches has been done in the field of self-regulated leaning and motivational variables and attributions. This research has…

  15. The Effect of Reciprocity Norms on Moral Judgment and Causal Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    Kindergarten children and adults were shown slides with an accompanying taped soundtrack which portrayed reciprocal and nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial interactions. Following each episode, subjects' evaluations of the actor and their attributions concerning the cause of his behavior were obtained. (Author/JMB)

  16. Early Adolescent Depressive Mood: Direct and Indirect Effects of Attributional Styles and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…

  17. Effects of Androgyny, Attribution, and Success or Failure on Women's Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Renate L.

    Using Seligman's "learned helplessness" paradigm, androgynous and feminine women (as defined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) either succeeded (contingent feedback) or failed (non-contingent feedback) at a concept formation task and were provided with internal (ability, effort), external (task difficulty, luck), or no causal attributions for their…

  18. Children's Hostile Attribution Bias Is Reduced after Watching Realistic Playful Fighting, and the Effect Is Mediated by Prosocial Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Hostile attribution bias (HAB) has been found to characterize aggressive children. Watching prosocial media has been shown to have positive effects on children, and the general learning model has been used to account for these observations. This study tested the hypotheses derived from this theory that exposure to playful fighting would lead to a…

  19. Effects of aging and freezing/thawing sequence on quality attributes of bovine and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of aging and freezing/thawing sequence on color, physicochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of two beef muscles (Mm. gluteus medius, GM and biceps femoris, BF were evaluated. Methods Beef muscles at 3 d postmortem were assigned to four different combinations of aging and freezing/thawing sequence as follows; aging at 2°C for 3 wk (A3, never-frozen control, freezing at −28°C for 2 wk then thawing (F2, frozen/thawed-only, aging at 2°C for 3 wk, freezing at −28°C for 2 wk then thawing (A3F2, and freezing at −28°C for 2 wk, thawing then further aging at 2°C for 3 wk (F2A3. Results No significant interactions between different aging/freezing/thawing treatments and muscle type on all measurements were found. Postmortem aging, regardless of aging/freezing/thawing sequence, had no impact on color stability of frozen/thawed beef muscles (p<0.05. F2A3 resulted in higher purge loss than F2 and A3F2 treatments (p<0.05. A3F2 and F2A3 treatments resulted in lower shear force of beef muscles compared to F2 (p<0.05. Although there was no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, F2A3 had the highest β-N-acetyl glucominidase (BNAG activity in purge, but the lowest BNAG activity in muscle (p<0.05. GM muscle exhibited higher total color changes and purge loss, and lower GSH-Px activity than BF muscle. Conclusion The results from this present study indicate that different combinations of aging/freezing/thawing sequence would result in considerable impacts on meat quality attributes, particularly thaw/purge loss and tenderness. Developing a novel freezing strategy combined with postmortem aging will be beneficial for the food/meat industry to maximize its positive impacts on tenderness, while minimizing thaw/purge loss of frozen/thawed meat.

  20. Yield of additional metabolic studies in neurodevelopmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, Hannelie M; Berger, Ruud; van Hasselt, Peter; de Koning, Tom; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Kroes, Hester Y; Visser, Gepke

    The timing and yield of metabolic studies for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders is a matter of continuing debate. We determined the yield of additional or repeated metabolic studies in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Patients referred to a tertiary diagnostic center for patients

  1. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  3. Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes: review of the epidemiologic and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J; McIntosh, Laura J; Mink, Pamela J; Jurek, Anne M; Li, Abby A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  4. [Neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia--preclinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Taracha, Ewa; Wisłowska, Aleksandra; Zienowicz, Małgorzata; Maciejak, Piotr; Skórzewska, Anna; Płaźnik, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder of unknown origin, characterised by abnormalities in the realms of perception, thinking and the experience of emotions that onset is restricted to young adulthood. Many techniques that range from neuropathology to neuroimaging identified subtle brain abnormalities particularly in frontal, temporal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia test hypotheses that this disease is caused by a defect in cerebral development which results in altered neural connectivity, brain neurochemistry and aberrant behaviour observed in adult life. Recent evidence indicates that neonatal hippocampal damage may affect prefrontal neuronal integrity. The developmental lesion model appears to have predictive validity because treatment with antipsychotic drugs normalises some abnormal behaviour changes. Therefore it will be a useful paradigm in the work on new therapies and in providing new insights about pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia.

  5. Sleep in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Marco; Caravale, Barbara; Novelli, Luana; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2015-06-01

    This review describes recent research in pediatric sleep disorders associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs) and their treatment. NDDs affect more than 2% of the general population and represent more than 35% of the total cases of children referred to a neuropsychiatric center for sleep problems. Specific clinical and therapeutic aspects of sleep disorders associated with Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, cerebral palsy, and autism spectrum disorders are described. Furthermore, the drugs commonly used for sleep disorders in children with NDDs are described. The review clearly highlighted that children with NDDs are often affected by sleep disorders that require appropriate clinical and therapeutic approach to improve quality of life in both patients and families. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Neurodevelopmental processes and psychological functioning in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, C

    1999-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with variable severity, occurring at all levels of cognitive ability and having a number of slightly different clinical presentations. It is associated with neuropsychological deficits that occur in other conditions also, but its pattern may be specific to autism. Genetic and environmental early insults to brain development are etiological determinants of the disorder. Brain circuitries important for social, communicative, and integrational purposes have been suggested to be dysfunctional in autism. There could be at least two different pathways to autism, one connected with primary temporofrontal dysfunction (and late prenatal-early postnatal origins) and another linked to primary brain-stem dysfunction (and early prenatal origins). Further study of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological processes in autism will help elucidate not only the pathological mechanisms involved in the specific syndromes but also the underpinnings of normal brain development.

  7. Complex Neurodevelopmental Disorders And Their Genetic Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Batool

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex Neurodevelopmental disorders NDDs exhibit complex etiological and genetic features and the mutations have a fundamental role in this complexity including common polymorphisms and rare variations in a single gene or cluster of genes. The analysis of complex NDDs have shown that the genetics has the major role in causation of such complex diseases. Interestingly both mutations and polymorphisms are involved occurring in a single gene or clusters of genes. Likewise a single gene variation may also be involved in multiple neurological disorders making the diagnosis of neurological diseases more difficult. Many candidate genes and chromosomal regions have been identified that are widely involved in neurological symptoms which necessitates the genotypic approach for describing the phenotype.

  8. Neurobiology of depression: A neurodevelopmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C

    2017-03-03

    The main aims of this paper are to review and evaluate the neurobiology of the depressive syndrome from a neurodevelopmental perspective. An English language literature search was performed using PubMed. Depression is a complex syndrome that involves anatomical and functional changes that have an early origin in brain development. In subjects with genetic risk for depression, early stress factors are able to mediate not only the genetic risk but also gene expression. There is evidence that endocrine and immune interactions have an important impact on monoamine function and that the altered monoamine signalling observed in the depressive syndrome has a neuro-endocrino-immunological origin early in the development. Neurodevelopment is a key aspect to understand the whole neurobiology of depression.

  9. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities: a population-based study of healthcare service utilization using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Miller, Anton R; Guèvremont, Anne; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify children with neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and compare their healthcare service utilization to children without NDD/D using provincial linked administrative data. The sample included children aged 6 to 10 years (n=183 041), who were registered with the British Columbia Medical Services Plan. Diagnostic information was used for the identification and classification of NDD/D in six functional domains. Healthcare service utilization included outcomes based on physician claims, prescription medication use, and hospitalization. Overall, 8.3% of children were identified with NDD/D. Children with NDD/D had higher healthcare service utilization rates than those without NDD/D. Effect sizes were: very large for the number of days a prescription medication was dispensed; large for the number of prescriptions; medium for the number of physician visits, different specialists visited, number of different prescription medications, and ever hospitalized; and small for the number of laboratory visits, X-ray visits, and number of days hospitalized. The findings have policy implications for service and resource planning. Given the high use of psychostimulants, specialized services for both NDD/D and psychiatric conditions may be the most needed services for children with NDD/D. Future studies may examine patterns of physician behaviours and costs attributable to healthcare service utilization for children with NDD/D. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) have higher healthcare service utilization than those without. Based on provincial population-based linked administrative health data, a sizeable number of children are living with NDD/D. Given the high use of psychostimulants, specialized services for children with both NDD/D and psychiatric conditions may be the most needed services for children with NDD/D. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Estimation of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk from multiple head CT scans in ventriculoperitoneal shunted children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aw-Zoretic, J., E-mail: Jaw@luriechildrens.org [Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Seth, D.; Katzman, G.; Sammet, S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to determine the averaged effective dose and lifetime attributable risk factor from multiple head computed tomography (CT) dose data on children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS). Method and materials: A total of 422 paediatric head CT exams were found between October 2008 and January 2011 and retrospectively reviewed. The CT dose data was weighted with the latest IRCP 103 conversion factor to obtain the effective dose per study and the averaged effective dose was calculated. Estimates of the lifetime attributable risk were also calculated from the averaged effective dose using a conversion factor from the latest BEIR VII report. Results: Our study found the highest effective doses in neonates and the lowest effective doses were observed in the 10–18 years age group. We estimated a 0.007% potential increase risk in neonates and 0.001% potential increased risk in teenagers over the base risk. Conclusion: Multiple head CTs in children equates to a slight potential increase risk in lifetime attributable risk over the baseline risk for cancer, slightly higher in neonates relative to teenagers. The potential risks versus clinical benefit must be assessed.

  11. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  12. Brain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, Mirthe J; Kooi, Elisabeth M W; Bilardo, Catherina M; Bos, Arend F

    2017-07-01

    Brain injury during prenatal and preoperative postnatal life might play a major role in neurodevelopmental impairment in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) who require corrective or palliative surgery during infancy. A systematic review of cerebral findings during this period in relation to neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO), however, is lacking. To assess the association between prenatal and postnatal preoperative cerebral findings and NDO in infants with CHD who require corrective or palliative surgery during infancy. PubMed, Embase, reference lists. We conducted 3 different searches for English literature between 2000 and 2016; 1 for prenatal cerebral findings, 1 for postnatal preoperative cerebral findings, and 1 for the association between brain injury and NDO. Two reviewers independently screened sources and extracted data on cerebral findings and neurodevelopmental outcome. Quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Abnormal cerebral findings are common during the prenatal and postnatal preoperative periods. Prenatally, a delay of cerebral development was most common; postnatally, white matter injury, periventricular leukomalacia, and stroke were frequently observed. Abnormal Doppler measurements, brain immaturity, cerebral oxygenation, and abnormal EEG or amplitude-integrated EEG were all associated with NDO. Observational studies, different types of CHD with different pathophysiological effects, and different reference values. Prenatal and postnatal preoperative abnormal cerebral findings might play an important role in neurodevelopmental impairment in infants with CHD. Increased awareness of the vulnerability of the young developing brain of an infant with CHD among caregivers is essential. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Output Effect Evaluation Based on Input Features in Neural Incremental Attribute Learning for Better Classification Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is a very important approach to pattern classification. This paper provides a better insight into Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL with further analysis as to why it can exhibit better performance than conventional batch training. IAL is a novel supervised machine learning strategy, which gradually trains features in one or more chunks. Previous research showed that IAL can obtain lower classification error rates than a conventional batch training approach. Yet the reason for that is still not very clear. In this study, the feasibility of IAL is verified by mathematical approaches. Moreover, experimental results derived by IAL neural networks on benchmarks also confirm the mathematical validation.

  14. Women and computers: effects of stereotype threat on attribution of failure

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Sabine C.; Müller, Stephanie M; Sieverding, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether stereotype threat can influence women’s attributions of failure in a computer task. Male and female college-age students (n = 86, 16–21 years old) from Germany were asked to work on a computer task and were hinted beforehand that in this task, either (a) men usually perform better than women do (negative threat condition), or (b) women usually perform better than men do (positive condition), or (c) they received no threat or gender-related information (contr...

  15. The effect of leader outcomes on influence, attributions, and perceptions of charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorges, S L; Weiss, H M; Strickland, O J

    1999-06-01

    This study addressed how various outcomes to a leader might influence not only how that leader is perceived but also the degree of influence that leader might subsequently obtain. On the basis of recent charismatic leadership theories, it was expected that leaders who appeared willing to endure hardship for the expression of their beliefs would be perceived differently than leaders who appeared to benefit in some way. The relationship between outcomes and subsequent leader influence was confirmed. Sacrificing resulted in greater influence, whereas benefiting reduced it. This relationship was mediated by attributions made about leader motives. The relationship between outcomes and influence was also mediated by perceptions of charisma.

  16. Treatments and services for neurodevelopmental disorders on advocacy websites: Information or evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Illes, Judy

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has quickly gained popularity as a major source of health-related information, but its impact is unclear. Here, we investigate the extent to which advocacy websites for three neurodevelopmental disorders—cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fetal alcohol spectrum...... disorder (FASD)—inform stakeholders about treatment options, and discuss the ethical challenges inherent in providing such information online. We identified major advocacy websites for each disorder and assessed website accountability, the number, attributes, and accessibility of treatments described...

  17. Effect of barium sulfate contrast medium on rheology and sensory texture attributes in a model food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Bulow, M; Ekman, S; Hall, G; Stading, M; Wendin, K

    2009-03-01

    The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO(4)), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango purée were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. This study evaluated four food samples based on mango purée, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. The sensory texture properties of mango purée were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO(4) as extensional viscosity. Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango purée has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  18. Paradoxical Benzodiazepine Response: A Rationale for Bumetanide in Neurodevelopmental Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruining, Hilgo; Passtoors, Laurien; Goriounova, Natalia; Jansen, Floor; Hakvoort, Britt; de Jonge, Maretha; Poil, Simon-Shlomo

    2015-08-01

    The diuretic agent bumetanide has recently been put forward as a novel, promising treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related conditions. Bumetanide can decrease neuronal chloride concentrations and may thereby reinstate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibition in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, strategies to select appropriate candidates for bumetanide treatment are lacking. We hypothesized that a paradoxical response to GABA-enforcing agents such as benzodiazepines may predict the efficacy of bumetanide treatment in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe a case of a 10-year-old girl with ASD, epilepsy, cortical dysplasia, and a 15q11.2 duplication who had exhibited marked behavioral arousal after previous treatment with clobazam, a benzodiazepine. We hypothesized that this response indicated the presence of depolarizing excitatory GABA and started bumetanide treatment with monitoring of behavior, cognition, and EEG. The treatment resulted in a marked clinical improvement in sensory behaviors, rigidity, and memory performance, which was substantiated by questionnaires and cognitive assessments. At baseline, the girl's EEG showed a depression in absolute α power, an electrographic sign previously related to ASD, which was normalized with bumetanide treatment. The effects of bumetanide on cognition and EEG seemed to mirror the "nonparadoxical" responses to benzodiazepines in healthy subjects. In addition, temporal lobe epilepsy and cortical dysplasia have both been linked to disturbed chloride homeostasis and seem to support our assumption that the observed paradoxical response was due to GABA-mediated excitation. This case highlights that a paradoxical behavioral response to GABA-enforcing drugs may constitute a framework for targeted treatment with bumetanide. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  20. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Ppregnancies, only early onset of symptoms (prior to 5 weeks gestation) was significantly linked to neurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Age and Causal Attribution to Aging on Health-Related Behaviors Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Roth, David L.; Rodriguez, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and patients’ attribution of incontinence to aging on health-related behaviors associated with incontinence. Design and Methods Participants in this study were 74 women who either sought treatment for urinary incontinence at a multidisciplinary continence program or volunteered for a randomized clinical trial of behavioral and drug therapy for incontinence. As part of their clinical evaluation, women were interviewed about how they managed their incontinence and their perceptions of what had caused the condition. Self-management of incontinence was defined as behaviors used to cope with incontinence, rather than treat or cure incontinence. Self-treatment was defined as self-implementation of Kegel exercises, and formal treatment was defined as interaction with a health care provider. Results Over half of the respondents attributed their incontinence to aging. In multivariate analyses, age was associated with self-management of incontinence, but not self-treatment or formal treatment. In contrast, attribution of incontinence to aging was associated with self-management and self-treatment of incontinence. There was also a trend for attribution of incontinence to aging to be associated with formal treatment for incontinence. Women who attributed their incontinence to aging were less likely to have engaged in self-management strategies and to have received a previous evaluation or treatment; but, they were more likely to have engaged in self-treatment for incontinence. When other relevant variables were added to the regression models, perception that incontinence restricted one’s activities became the most significant predictor of performing self-management strategies and performing Kegel exercises. Implications Attribution to aging may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Education to promote understanding of the actual causes and treatment of urinary incontinence may encourage people to seek

  2. How consumers are affected by product descriptions in online shopping: Event-related potentials evidence of the attribute framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross Talk: The Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Kelly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans evolved within a microbial ecosystem resulting in an interlinked physiology. The gut microbiota can signal to the brain via the immune system, the vagus nerve or other host-microbe interactions facilitated by gut hormones, regulation of tryptophan metabolism and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA, to influence brain development, function and behavior. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may play a role in shaping cognitive networks encompassing emotional and social domains in neurodevelopmental disorders. Drawing upon pre-clinical and clinical evidence, we review the potential role of the gut microbiota in the origins and development of social and emotional domains related to Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Small preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated gut microbiota alterations in both ASD and schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. However, we await the further development of mechanistic insights, together with large scale longitudinal clinical trials, that encompass a systems level dimensional approach, to investigate whether promising pre-clinical and initial clinical findings lead to clinical relevance.

  4. Which neurodevelopmental disorders get researched and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-11-30

    There are substantial differences in the amount of research concerned with different disorders. This paper considers why. Bibliographic searches were conducted to identify publications (1985-2009) concerned with 35 neurodevelopmental disorders: Developmental dyslexia, Developmental dyscalculia, Developmental coordination disorder, Speech sound disorder, Specific language impairment, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autistic spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, Intellectual disability, Angelman syndrome, Cerebral palsy, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du chat syndrome, Down syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Galactosaemia, Klinefelter syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Phenylketonuria, Prader-Willi syndrome, Rett syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Trisomy 18, Tuberous sclerosis, Turner syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Williams syndrome, XXX and XYY. A publication index reflecting N publications relative to prevalence was derived. The publication index was higher for rare than common conditions. However, this was partly explained by the tendency for rare disorders to be more severe. Although research activity is predictable from severity and prevalence, there are exceptions. Low rates of research, and relatively low levels of NIH funding, characterise conditions that are the domain of a single discipline with limited research resources. Growth in research is not explained by severity, and was exceptionally steep for autism and ADHD.

  5. Cross Talk: The Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R.; Minuto, Chiara; Cryan, John F.; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Humans evolved within a microbial ecosystem resulting in an interlinked physiology. The gut microbiota can signal to the brain via the immune system, the vagus nerve or other host-microbe interactions facilitated by gut hormones, regulation of tryptophan metabolism and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), to influence brain development, function and behavior. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may play a role in shaping cognitive networks encompassing emotional and social domains in neurodevelopmental disorders. Drawing upon pre-clinical and clinical evidence, we review the potential role of the gut microbiota in the origins and development of social and emotional domains related to Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Small preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated gut microbiota alterations in both ASD and schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. However, we await the further development of mechanistic insights, together with large scale longitudinal clinical trials, that encompass a systems level dimensional approach, to investigate whether promising pre-clinical and initial clinical findings lead to clinical relevance. PMID:28966571

  6. Which neurodevelopmental disorders get researched and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy V M Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are substantial differences in the amount of research concerned with different disorders. This paper considers why.Bibliographic searches were conducted to identify publications (1985-2009 concerned with 35 neurodevelopmental disorders: Developmental dyslexia, Developmental dyscalculia, Developmental coordination disorder, Speech sound disorder, Specific language impairment, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autistic spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, Intellectual disability, Angelman syndrome, Cerebral palsy, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du chat syndrome, Down syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Galactosaemia, Klinefelter syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Phenylketonuria, Prader-Willi syndrome, Rett syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Trisomy 18, Tuberous sclerosis, Turner syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Williams syndrome, XXX and XYY. A publication index reflecting N publications relative to prevalence was derived.The publication index was higher for rare than common conditions. However, this was partly explained by the tendency for rare disorders to be more severe.Although research activity is predictable from severity and prevalence, there are exceptions. Low rates of research, and relatively low levels of NIH funding, characterise conditions that are the domain of a single discipline with limited research resources. Growth in research is not explained by severity, and was exceptionally steep for autism and ADHD.

  7. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409

  8. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Neonatal Surgery for Major Noncardiac Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Lisanne J.; Lemmers, P. M A; Harmsen, Marissa; Groenendaal, Floris; De Vries, Linda S.; Van Der Zee, David C.; Benders, Manon J N; Van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, M. Y A

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Increasing concerns have been raised about the incidence of neurodevelopmental delay in children with noncardiac congenital anomalies (NCCA) requiring neonatal surgery. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the incidence and potential risk factors for developmental delay after neonatal

  9. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Physical, Microbial, and Chemical Attributes of Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham, Talaysha; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang; Chintapenta, Lathadevi Karuna; Handy, Eunice; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Changqing; Ozbay, Gulnihal

    2016-05-01

    The change in the quality attributes (physical, microbial, and chemical) of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at 300 MPa at room temperature (RT, 25 °C) 300, 450, and 500 MPa at 0 °C for 2 min and control oysters without treatment were evaluated over 3 wk. The texture and tissue yield percentages of oysters HHP treated at 300 MPa, RT increased significantly (P control. Aerobic and psychrotrophic bacteria in control oysters reached the spoilage point of 7 log CFU/g after 15 d. Coliform counts (log MPN/g) were low during storage with total and fecal coliforms less than 3.5 and 1.0. High pressure treated oysters at 500 MPa at 0 °C were significantly higher (P control. The glycogen content of control oysters at 3 wk was significantly higher (P control. Based on our results, HHP prolongs the physical, microbial, and chemical quality of oysters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effects of incorporation of ground mustard on quality attributes of chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Tanwar, V K

    2011-12-01

    Chicken nuggets were prepared from spent hen meat using ground mustard as phyto-preservative without impairing the sensory attributes of the product and also the antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of mustard on keeping quality of the product was assessed. The emulsion stability (%), cooking yield (%) and moisture content (%) of the product containing ground mustard differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from the control. Nuggets containing ground mustard maintained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher sensory scores throughout the storage period (at 4 ± 1 °C for 15 days). The pH as well as thiobarbituric acid value increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with advancement of storage period. Ground mustard maintained significantly lower thiobarbituric acid values throughout the observation period than the control. Microbiological studies revealed significant increase in total plate count and lipolytic count with the length of storage period. Microbial counts were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in control than in nuggets containing ground mustard.

  11. The effect of nonlinearity in CO2 heating rates on the attribution of stratospheric ozone and temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Shepherd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the attribution of past and future changes in stratospheric ozone and temperature to anthropogenic forcings is presented. The analysis is an extension of the study of Shepherd and Jonsson (2008 who analyzed chemistry-climate simulations from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM and attributed both past and future changes to changes in the external forcings, i.e. the abundances of ozone-depleting substances (ODS and well-mixed greenhouse gases. The current study is based on a new CMAM dataset and includes two important changes. First, we account for the nonlinear radiative response to changes in CO2. It is shown that over centennial time scales the radiative response in the upper stratosphere to CO2 changes is significantly nonlinear and that failure to account for this effect leads to a significant error in the attribution. To our knowledge this nonlinearity has not been considered before in attribution analysis, including multiple linear regression studies. For the regression analysis presented here the nonlinearity was taken into account by using CO2 heating rate, rather than CO2 abundance, as the explanatory variable. This approach yields considerable corrections to the results of the previous study and can be recommended to other researchers. Second, an error in the way the CO2 forcing changes are implemented in the CMAM was corrected, which significantly affects the results for the recent past. As the radiation scheme, based on Fomichev et al. (1998, is used in several other models we provide some description of the problem and how it was fixed.

  12. Mevalonate Cascade and Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Future Targets for Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaodan; Ashtari, Niloufar; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Chen, Qi Min; Badbezanchi, Ilnaz; Shojaei, Shahla; Marzban, Adel; Mirzaei, Nima; Chung, Seunghyuk; Guan, Teng; Li, Jiasi; Vriend, Jerry; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Kong, Jiming; Marzban, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The mevalonate cascade is a key metabolic pathway that regulates a variety of cellular functions and is thereby implicated in the pathophysiology of most brain diseases, including neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging lines of evidence suggest that statins and Rho GTPase inhibitors are efficacious and have advantageous properties in treatment of different pathologic conditions that are relevant to the central nervous system. Beyond the original role of statins in lowering cholesterol synthesis, they have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and modulatory effects on signaling pathways. Additionally, Rho GTPase inhibitors and statins share the mevalonate pathway as a common target of their therapeutic actions. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms through which these drugs, via their role in the mevalonate pathway, exert their neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Efficacy of Intensive Neurodevelopmental Treatment for Children With Developmental Delay, With or Without Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung-Hwan; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hojun; Nam, Kiyeun; Park, Tae June; Kim, Hee Jae; Kwon, Bumsun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on gross motor function for the children having developmental delay (DD), with or without cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Forty-two children had intensive NDT three times weekly, 60 minutes a day, for 3 months, immediately followed by conventional NDT once or twice a week, 30 minutes a day, for another 3 months. We assessed Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) over three time points: before conventional NDT, b...

  14. Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Training on Clinical Psychology Trainee Stress, Therapist Skills and Attributes, and ACT Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing uptake of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) by mental health practitioners, few studies have investigated the effects of ACT training on trainees. Clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) are susceptible to high stress such that their training represents a teachable moment for personal application of the therapy skills they learn for clinical practice. This study investigates the effects of ACT training on stress, therapist skills and attributes, and the personal acquisition of ACT strategies in CPTs. Thirty-two CPTs completed questionnaires before and after university-based ACT training that consisted of 12 2-h weekly workshops. Pairwise t-tests showed that CPTs reported improvements from before to after training on measures of counselling self-efficacy, client-therapist alliance, self-kindness, acceptance, defusion, mindfulness and values, and a marginally significant improvement on somatic symptoms, despite a trend towards increased work-related stress. As predicted, each of the ACT process variables was related to one or more of the therapist stress, skill and attribute variables, such that greater levels of mindfulness, values and acceptance, and less thought suppression were related to better trainee outcomes. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for CPTs related to receiving ACT training that interweaves instruction in competencies acquisition with self-care. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for clinical psychology trainees related to receiving ACT training that integrates training in competencies acquisition with self-care. The ACT training offers a framework for integrating the acquisition of clinical competencies and self-care skills and positive therapist attributes in trainees. Findings support a strong positive union between the ACT processes and better trainee personal and professional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John

  15. Investigating Effects of Resolution on Landslide Identification and Landscape Attributes in the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, D.; Martin, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Two exceptional mass wasting inventories (Rood, 1984; Gimbarzevsky, 1988) have been collected and analyzed for the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. These islands are located about 80 km off the coast of British Columbia, have a mild, wet climate and are seismically active. These factors contribute to a high frequency of landsliding. The Gimbarzevsky database consists of about 8000 debris slides, debris avalanches and debris flows over the entire 10,000 km2 of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Events were identified from 1:50,000 panchromatic aerial photographs. Large grid cells (1 km2) were used to classify landslide attributes, such as gradient and aspect. The Rood database consists of about a thousand events covering a total area of 350 km2 in both logged and unlogged terrain. Failures were identified from 1:11,000 and 1:13,000 aerial photographs. Terrain attributes, such as initiation gradient, were obtained using photogrammetric techniques. The present study explores the effects of topographic data (DEM) resolution and air photo resolution on landsliding analysis. For the former, landscape attributes associated with mass movements, such as initiation gradient and aspect, are compared for the original Gimbarzevsky results (based on 1-km grid cells) and new results for this database derived from 100-m DEM data. For the latter, we explore the effects of aerial photograph scale on landslide identification for the Rood and Gimbarzevsky databases. In addition, we explore the benefits in deriving initiation gradients from detailed, yet time-consuming, photogrammetric techniques versus more automated approaches using existing DEM data. References: Gimbarzevsky, P. (1988) Mass Wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: A Regional Inventory, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Land Management Report 29; Rood, K. (1984) An Aerial Photograph Inventory of the Frequency and Yield of Mass Wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Land Management Report

  16. Are the Effects of Homeopathy Attributable to a Statistical Artefact? A Reanalysis of an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lüdtke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cohort studies have reported that patients improve considerably after individualised homeopathic treatment. However, these results may be biased by regression to the mean (RTM. Objective. To evaluate whether the observed changes in previous cohort studies are due to RTM and to estimate RTM adjusted effects. Methods. SF-36 quality-of-life (QoL data from a German cohort of 2827 chronically diseased adults treated by a homeopath were reanalysed by Mee and Chua’s modified t-test. Results. RTM adjusted effects, standardized by the respective standard deviation at baseline, were 0.12 (95% CI: 0.06–0.19, P<0.001 in the mental and 0.25 (0.22–0.28, P<0.001 in the physical summary score. Small-to-moderate effects were confirmed for the most individual diagnoses in physical, but not in mental component scores. Under the assumption that the true population mean equals the mean of all actually diseased patients, RTM adjusted effects were confirmed for both scores in most diagnoses. Conclusions. Changes in QoL after treatment by a homeopath are small but cannot be explained by RTM alone. As all analyses made conservative assumptions, true RTM adjusted effects are probably larger than presented.

  17. Lack of evidence for neonatal misoprostol neurodevelopmental toxicity in C57BL6/J mice.

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    Claire M Koenig

    Full Text Available Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c. with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth.

  18. The Attributes of an Effective Teacher Differ between the Classroom and the Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Jolene; Rannelli, Luke; Schaefer, Jeffrey P.; Zarnke, Kelly; Coderre, Sylvain; Ravani, Pietro; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Most training programs use learners' subjective ratings of their teachers as the primary measure of teaching effectiveness. In a recent study we found that preclinical medical students' ratings of classroom teachers were associated with perceived charisma and physical attractiveness of the teacher, but not intellect. Here we explored whether the…

  19. Effects of sowing dates on grain yield and yield attributes of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of a suitable sowing date has often been identified as the main constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) cv. ICSV111 (Kapaala) production in Ghana. Field experiments were, therefore, used on-station at the Manga Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the effects of five sowing dates on yield and yield ...

  20. Life years lost attributable to late effects after radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura Ann; Maraldo, Maja Vestmø; Vogelius, Ivan Richter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to the long life expectancy after treatment, the risk of late effects after radiotherapy (RT) is of particular importance for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Both deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and proton therapy have been shown to reduce the dose to normal...

  1. Attribute Segmentation and Communication Effects on Healthy and Sustainable Consumer Diet Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, Muriel; Sijtsema, Siet; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    A shift towards more sustainable consumer diets is urgently needed. Dietary guidelines state that changes towards less animal-based and more plant-based diets are beneficial in terms of sustainability and, in addition, will have a positive effect on public health. Communication on these guidelines

  2. An Integrative Model of Scholastic Judgments: Pupils' Characteristics, Class Context, Halo Effect and Internal Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompnier, Benoit; Pansu, Pascal; Bressoux, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a model that integrates some of the determinants of scholastic judgment. The model is based on the assumption that a teacher's judgment in a particular discipline is influenced by different variables: the pupil's actual performance in the discipline, his/her actual performance in other disciplines (halo effect), the average…

  3. Genes, Gender, Environment, and Novel Functions of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Susceptibility to Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Varshney

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many neurological disorders affect men and women differently regarding prevalence, progression, and severity. It is clear that many of these disorders may originate from defective signaling during fetal or perinatal brain development, which may affect males and females differently. Such sex-specific differences may originate from chromosomal or sex-hormone specific effects. This short review will focus on the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ signaling during perinatal brain development and put it in the context of sex-specific differences in neurodevelopmental disorders. We will discuss ERβ’s recent discovery in directing DNA de-methylation to specific sites, of which one such site may bear consequences for the susceptibility to the neurological reading disorder dyslexia. We will also discuss how dysregulations in sex-hormone signaling, like those evoked by endocrine disruptive chemicals, may affect this and other neurodevelopmental disorders in a sex-specific manner through ERβ.

  4. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  5. Attributes of effective and efficient kindergarten reading intervention: an examination of instructional time and design specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah C; Kame'enui, Edward J; Harn, Beth; Coyne, Michael D; Stoolmiller, Mike; Santoro, Lana Edwards; Smith, Sylvia B; Beck, Carrie Thomas; Kaufman, Noah K

    2007-01-01

    A randomized experimental design with three levels of intervention was used to compare the effects of beginning reading interventions on early phonemic, decoding, and spelling outcomes of 96 kindergartners identified as at risk for reading difficulty. The three instructional interventions varied systematically along two dimensions--time and design of instruction specificity--and consisted of (a) 30 min with high design specificity (30/H), (b) 15 min with high design specificity plus 15 min of non-code-based instruction (15/H+15), and (c) a commercial comparison condition that reflected 30 min of moderate design specificity instruction (30/M). With the exception of the second 15 min of the 15/H+15 condition, all instruction focused on phonemic, alphabetic, and orthographic skills and strategies. Students were randomly assigned to one of the three interventions and received 108 thirty-minute sessions of small-group instruction as a supplement to their typical half-day kindergarten experience. Planned comparisons indicated findings of statistical and practical significance that varied according to measure and students' entry-level performance. The results are discussed in terms of the pedagogical precision needed to design and provide effective and efficient instruction for students who are most at risk.

  6. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Bawa, A S; Raju, P S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter L (*) value decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  7. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Bulb Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%. The lightness in terms of hunter L* value decreased significantly (P<0.05 during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  8. Social Stigma Toward Suicide: Effects of Group Categorization and Attributions in Korean Health News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah; An, Soontae

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of health news content on the stigma of suicide. In particular, this study tested whether the onset controllability and group categorization had a causal effect on people's stigma toward suicide. The results indicated that stigma scores were lower for those who read an article explaining the causes of suicide as uncontrollable than for those who read an article explaining the causes as controllable. Also, lower stigma scores were observed for those who read an article depicting suicidal people as the in-group compared to those who read an article depicting suicidal people as the out-group. Furthermore, stigma scores were the highest for those exposed to an article with the out-group categorization combined with the controllable causes of suicide.

  9. The Effects of Trust Transference, Mobile Attributes and Enjoyment on Mobile Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Junqueira Giovannini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential in building relationships. In mobile commerce, as in electronic commerce, trust is even more valuable given the absence of human contact and direct observation of the service provider. Despite the importance of trust for mobile commerce, there has been little academic effort to study the relationships between mobile devices unique components of interactivity and customer trust, or the relationship between offline, online and mobile trust. This study proposes a trust-mediated model for customer attitude and transaction intentions in mobile commerce contexts that incorporates trust transference and unique factors present in mobile commerce. Data were collected in an online survey and analyzed via structural equations modeling. Results suggest that trust transferred from online contexts and ease of use have significant effects on mobile trust formation, while also indicating that mobile trust influences consumers’ attitudes and intentions to purchase using mobile devices.

  10. Effect of Amidated Low Methoxyl Pectin on the Mechanical Properties and Colour Attributes of Fish Mince

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    Rocio M. Uresti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectins have been unsuccessfully applied to improve functionality of meat and fish products. Effect of amidated low methoxyl pectin (ALM pectin levels on functionality of Mexican flounder (Cyclopsetta chittendenii mince was studied. Changes in the firmness and work of extrusion of pastes, texture profile analysis (TPA of gels, and colour parameters were determined. ALM pectin at 1 % decreased firmness and work of extrusion of fish pastes but increased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness of the gels (P<0.05. The addition of ALM pectin increased slightly the whiteness and yellowness of mince gels. Chrome parameter indicated that gels remained in the grayish achromatic region. Therefore ALM pectin at 1 % could be employed to modify the textural properties of fish mince.

  11. Sex-specific effects of posture on the attribution of handedness to an imagined agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Lucafò, Chiara; Rescigno, Carmine; Mussini, Elena; Padulo, Caterina; Prete, Giulia; D'Anselmo, Anita; Malatesta, Gianluca; Tommasi, Luca

    2017-04-01

    In a series of previous studies, we found that when participants were required to imagine another person performing a manual action, they imagined a significantly higher proportion of actions performed with their dominant rather than non-dominant hand, which indicates that shared motor representations between the self and the other are involved also during the imagination of others' actions. Interestingly, the activation of lateralized body-specific motor representations (as indexed by the congruence between the participant's handedness and the imagined person's handedness) appeared to be affected by the visual perspective adopted and participants' handedness. Given that past literature indicates that incongruent or unnatural postures interfere with motor imagery, we tested 480 right-handed participants to investigate whether subjects holding their right hand behind their back would have imagined right-handed actions less frequently than those holding their left hand behind their back. Moreover, we examined the effects of participant's sex, action category (simple or complex) and hand shape (open or fist). Contrary to our prediction, female participants holding their right hand behind their back imagined right-handed actions more frequently than those holding their left hand behind their back, whereas no significant effect was observed in male participants. We propose that the muscle contraction needed to keep a hand behind the back could activate the motor representations of that hand so as to increase the likelihood of imagining an action performed with the corresponding hand. Moreover, the sex difference observed is consistent with the greater use of embodied strategies by females than by males.

  12. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Zhang, Yian; Meza, Rafael; Cummings, K Michael; Levy, David T

    2015-10-01

    To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  13. The effect of age, genotype and sex on carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlířová, Linda; Tůmová, Eva; Chodová, Darina; Vlčková, Jana; Ketta, Mohamed; Volek, Zdeněk; Skřivanová, Věra

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG) breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES) hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings) were undertaken. The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (P value and significant effect of sex on a* value. The meat fat content was higher (P = 0.002) in ES. Higher score for overalll acceptance of goose meat was detected in ES at both ages than in CG. ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.

  14. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  15. The effects of apology and perspective taking on interpersonal forgiveness: a dissonance-attribution model of interpersonal forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, S

    2001-08-01

    The author investigated (a) the effects of a victim's perspective taking and a transgressor's apology on interpersonal forgiveness and (b) forgiveness as a mode of dissonance reduction. Before the participants read a scenario describing a situation in which they imagined being mistreated by a classmate, the author randomly assigned them to 1 of 4 perspective-taking conditions: (a) recalling times when they had mistreated or hurt others (i.e., the recall-self-as-transgressor condition); (b) imagining how they would think, feel, and behave if they were the classmate (i.e., the imagine-self condition); (c) imagining how the classmate would think, feel, and behave (i.e., the imagine-other condition); or (d) imagining the situation from their own (i.e., the victim's/control) perspective. After reading the scenario, the participants read an apology from the classmate. The participants in the recall-self-as-transgressor condition were significantly more likely than those in the control condition to (a) make benevolent attributions, (b) experience benevolent emotional reactions, and (c) forgive the transgressor. The relationship between the perspective-taking manipulation and forgiveness was mediated by the benevolent attributions and positive emotional reactions experienced by the victims.

  16. Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubab G. Arim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare rates of participation for children (4–9 years of age with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs with and without externalizing behavior problems (EBPs with children without disability and to examine mediators of the relation between disability and physical activity participation. Data for this study were drawn from Cycle 7 (2006-07 of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY. The frequency of children’s participation in organized sports or physical activities varied depending on the child’s health condition with children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs participating least in organized sports or physical activities followed by children with EBPs only. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences by health group for children’s participation in unorganized sports or physical activities. These differences remained even after controlling for the effects of other child and family sociodemographic characteristics, except for children with EBPs only. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s primary and other existing health conditions as well as family sociodemographic characteristics in order to better understand the factors that influence participation in organized physical activities for children with disabilities.

  17. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Boyce, W Thomas; Belsky, Jay; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-02-01

    Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person x Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial--ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions.

  18. The effect of choir formation on the acoustical attributes of the singing voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Debra Sue

    Research shows that many things can influence choral tone and choral blend. Some of these are vowel uniformity, vibrato, choral formation, strategic placement of singers, and spacing between singers. This study sought to determine the effect that changes in choral formation and spacing between singers would have on four randomly selected voices of an ensemble as revealed through long-term average spectra (LTAS) of the individual singers. All members of the ensemble were given the opportunity to express their preferences for each of the choral formations and the four randomly selected choristers were asked specific questions regarding the differences between choral singing and solo singing. The results indicated that experienced singers preferred singing in a mixed-spread choral formation. However, the graphs of the choral excerpts as compared to the solo recordings revealed that the choral graphs for the soprano and bass were very similar to the graphs of their solos, but the graphs of the tenor and the alto were different from their solo graphs. It is obvious from the results of this study that the four selected singers did sing with slightly different techniques in the choral formations than they did while singing their solos. The members of this ensemble were accustomed to singing in many different formations. Therefore, it was easy for them to consciously think about how they sang in each of the four formations (mixed-close, mixed-spread, sectional-close, and sectional-spread) and answer the questionnaire accordingly. This would not be as easy for a group that never changed choral formations. Therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalized to choirs who only sing in sectional formation. As researchers learn more about choral acoustics and the effects of choral singing on the voice, choral conductors will be able to make better decisions about the methods used to achieve their desired choral blend. It is up to the choral conductors to glean the

  19. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrothermal treatment of rough rice: effect of processing conditions on product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Marcelo O; Loubes, María A; Aguerre, Roberto J; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-08-01

    A method involving hydration, tempering and heating steps is presented to process rough rice as alternative to traditional parboiling with pressure steam. The effects of temperature (66-84 °C), tempering time (60-420 min) and heating time (30-180 min) on gelatinization degree and milling yield were analyzed by response surface method (RSM). A maximum value of gelatinization degree (37.0 %) and milling yield of 67.7 % were reached with a process temperature of 84 °C using tempering and heating times of 178 and 104 min respectively. A slight reduction of crystallinity (14 %) and a significant improvement of nutritional value with increments of 150 and 60 % in riboflavin and calcium contents were obtained in comparison with control (untreated rice). Hardness and adhesiveness of processed rice were intermediate between those of control and completely gelatinized rice. The proposed method, with lower temperature requirements than traditional parboiling, is presented to obtain an alternative product, expanding consumer choices.

  1. Spectroscopic attributes of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass: Effects of silver nanoparticles inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hussin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    We report the modified optical properties of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass system with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inclusion. Three glass samples were prepared using melt quenching method and characterized. TEM images revealed the nucleation of Ag NPs with average diameter ≈12.50 nm. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed thirteen absorption bands. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs was manifested at 446 nm. FTIR spectra disclosed the bonding vibrations for P-O bonds, P-O-P linkages, and PO2 units. Ag NPs concentration dependent bonding parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated. The JO parameter Ω2 was reduced with the increase of Ag NPs contents, indicating the ionicity and symmetry enhancement between Sm3+ ions with their surrounding ligands. The emission spectra of all samples under the excitation wavelength of 402 nm exhibited four significant peaks centered at 562, 599, 644 and 702 nm which are allocated to 4G5/2 →6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions, respectively. Inclusion of Ag NPs was discerned to augment the luminescence intensity by a factor of two, which was majorly ascribed to the local field effect of Ag NPs and subsequent energy transfer from the NPs to Sm3+ ions.

  2. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  3. Effect of Various Pretreatments on Quality Attributes of Vacuum-Fried Shiitake Mushroom Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pretreatments on the quality of vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom slices. Four different pretreatments addressed in this study were (1 blanching as control, (2 blanching and osmotic dehydration with maltodextrin (MD solution, (3 blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, (4 blanching and osmotic dehydration, followed by freezing. All samples were pretreated and then fried in palm oil at 90°C with vacuum degree of −0.095 MPa for 30 min. The results showed that pretreatments significantly (p0.05 differences of fried chip in the texture among the four different pretreatments. The aw values of all the fried chips were less than 0.38, indicating that the products had a long shelf life. Therefore, the blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating pretreatment before vacuum frying was the most suitable pretreatment for vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom chips.

  4. Alterations in the expression of a neurodevelopmental gene exert long-lasting effects on cognitive-emotional phenotypes and functional brain networks: translational evidence from the stress-resilient Ahi1 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, A; Lifschytz, T; Mernick, B; Lory, O; Levi, E; Ben-Shimol, E; Goelman, G; Lerer, B

    2017-06-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and may represent the clinical outcome of early aberrations in the formation of neural networks. The placement of brain connectivity as an 'intermediate phenotype' renders it an attractive target for exploring its interaction with genomics and behavior. Given the complexity of genetic make up and phenotypic heterogeneity in humans, translational studies are indicated. Recently, we demonstrated that a mouse model with heterozygous knockout of the key neurodevelopmental gene Ahi1 displays a consistent stress-resilient phenotype. Extending these data, the current research describes our multi-faceted effort to link early variations in Ahi1 expression with long-term consequences for functional brain networks and cognitive-emotional phenotypes. By combining behavioral paradigms with graph-based analysis of whole-brain functional networks, and then cross-validating the data with robust neuroinformatic data sets, our research suggests that physiological variation in gene expression during neurodevelopment is eventually translated into a continuum of global network metrics that serve as intermediate phenotypes. Within this framework, we suggest that organization of functional brain networks may result, in part, from an adaptive trade-off between efficiency and resilience, ultimately culminating in a phenotypic diversity that encompasses dimensions such as emotional regulation and cognitive function.

  5. Effects of dynamic-range compression on the spatial attributes of sounds in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Ian M; Seeber, Bernhard U

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic-range compression is routinely used in bilaterally fitted hearing devices. The objective of this study was to investigate how compression applied independently at each ear affects spatial perception in normal-hearing listeners and to relate the effects to changes in binaural cues caused by the compression for different types of sound. A semantic-differential method was used to measure the spatial attributes of sounds. Eleven normal-hearing participants responded to questions addressing certainty of location, diffuseness, movement, image splits, and externalization of sounds. Responses were given on seven-point scales between pairs of opposing terms. Stimuli included speech and a range of synthetic sounds with varying characteristics. Head-related transfer functions were used to simulate a source at an azimuth of -60° or +60°. Three processing conditions were compared: (1) an unprocessed reference condition; (2) fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression operating independently at each ear; and (3) imposition of a static bias in interaural level difference (ILD) equivalent to that generated by the compression under steady state conditions. All processing was applied in a high-frequency channel above 2 kHz. The three processing conditions were compared separately in two bandwidth conditions: a high-pass condition in which the high-frequency channel was presented to listeners in isolation and a full-bandwidth condition in which the high-frequency channel was recombined with the unprocessed low-frequency channel. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group related questions based on similarity of participants' responses. This led to the calculation of composite scores for four spatial attributes: "diffuseness," "movement," "image split," and "externalization." Compared with the unprocessed condition, fast-acting compression significantly increased diffuseness, movement, and image-split scores and significantly reduced externalization scores. The effects

  6. Effects of light-diffusing plastic film on lettuce production and quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Riga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, plants grown under diffuse light yield higher biomass than those grown under direct light as a result of a more uniform distribution of the light across the plant canopy. We compared the effects of a light-diffusing plastic film and a clear plastic film on growth of Batavia lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in two greenhouses during five growth periods. Lettuce grown under the light-diffusing film were smaller (up to 36% than control plants grown under the clear film, due to the fewer leaves per plant (up to 22% and lower mean values of individual leaf area (up to 29%. The photosynthetically active radiations use efficiency was sometimes lower (up to 23% in lettuces grown under the light-diffusing film. The pigment contents tended to be lower in plants grown under the light-diffusing plastic. The total macroelement contents of the lettuces grown under the light-diffusing plastic were up to 10% higher than in the lettuces grown under clear plastic, mainly as a result of higher leaf K contents (up to 19% higher. In addition, use of the light-diffusing plastic tended to increase leaf nitrate contents (by up to 23%. The leaf solid soluble content and acidity values were higher in the lettuces grown under the light-diffusing plastic, while leaf pH values were lower than in the control plants. The findings showed that the light-diffusing plastic was detrimental to production of compact heads of lettuce, and to some quality parameters such as nitrate and pigment contents. Nevertheless, open-leaf cultivars would likely show a different response to the diffuse light.

  7. [Thujone-attributable effects of absinthe are only an urban legend--toxicology uncovers alcohol as real cause of absinthism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2008-03-01

    In the discussion about thujone as possible toxic constituent of the wormwood-containing alcoholic beverage absinthe, the dose-response-relationship is frequently ignored. The effects of absinthe are very often attributed only to thujone, an association that is not scientifically proven. Especially the alleged psychotropic effects of thujone are scientifically unproven. However, the question about thujone effects in absinthe is irrelevant, because thujone is contained in both modern commercial absinthes and historic pre-ban products in such low amounts that a pharmacological effect can be excluded per se. The effects of the spirit that are summarized under the term absinthism observed in late 19th century's France, can be explained by chronic alcohol misuse and dependence alone according to today's standards of knowledge. Especially from the perspective of youth and public health protection, an ambiguous and biased reporting about absinthe should be avoided. For example, the alleged antagonistic effects of thujone on the action of ethanol might lead to a trivialization of alcohol-related harms. Scientifically unproven speculations about the influence of certain drinking rituals of absinthe on its toxicity must be rebutted. A return to more evidence and less conjecture in the reporting about absinthe would be desirable.

  8. Knowledge of neurodevelopmental profile as one of the XXI century manager’s basic competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kowalczyk-Kassyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of situations which man participates in are social situations, which other people attend directly or indirectly. Members of a group are connected with each other by mutual relationships system, which come into existence and change via continuous mutual influencing each other on the feedback rule. It is important to remember that the way how people behave does not only depend on their social group status. It most importantly is dependent on the type of mind they possess, as well as how they proceed with the learning process and which factors determine their individual neurodevelopmental functions. Human brain is responsible also for some disturbances in their behaviour such as: mastering the skills, assimilating facts or knowledge, carrying out defined actions, working systematical and maintaining in accurate speed, accommodation to scope of requirements, conflicts solving, reading of social information and reacting to them. Premises which are mentioned above show the fact that if we want to be an acting manager in modern company we should know the role of eight neurodevelopmental systems and treat them seriously. We are able to define and create optimal conditions for functioning of every mind and following on to form this friendly, effective organisation in which every employee can work at his own pace, using his own unique knowledge, interests and avocations by knowing his and his associates neurodevelopmental functions and having awareness of existing differences in this scope. In conclusion we can state that the XXIc manager’s role reaches far beyond the tasks which are the essence of the profession (management. It concerns such problems as: interaction optimalization between individual human and his work (good individual preferential accommodation to objective environmental requirements, thus creating advantageous organisational climate, reducing psychological costs of work, decreasing tensions, conflicts and also responsibility

  9. Adaptation of the "ten questions" to screen for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ssebyala, Keron; Karamagi, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Smith, Karen; Anderson, Meredith C; Croen, Lisa A; Trevathan, Edwin; Hansen, Robin; Smith, Daniel; Grether, Judith K

    2014-05-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener and additional questions on autism spectrum disorder behaviors. We then conducted household screening of 1169 children, 2-9 years of age, followed by clinical assessment of children who screened positive and a sample of those who screened negative to evaluate the validity of the screener. We found that 320 children (27% of the total) screened positive and 68 children received a clinical diagnosis of one or more moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; cognitive, speech and language, hearing, or vision impairment), including 8 children with autism spectrum disorders. Prevalence and validity of the screener were evaluated under different statistical assumptions. Sensitivity of the 23Q ranged from 0.55 to 0.80 and prevalence for ≥1 neurodevelopmental disorders from 7.7/100 children to 12.8/100 children depending on which assumptions were used. The combination of screening positive on both autism spectrum disorders and Ten Questions items was modestly successful in identifying a subgroup of children at especially high risk of autism spectrum disorders. We recommend that autism spectrum disorders and related behavioral disorders be included in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders in low-resource settings to obtain essential data for planning local and global public health responses.

  10. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, S G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, C B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...... spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those...

  11. The Effect of Lycopene Addition on the Chemical Composition, Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Properties of Steamed and Grilled Turkey Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Skiepko

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition to the curing mixture for steamed and grilled breast muscles on the chemical composition, sensory attributes and physicochemical parameters of the final products. The experimental material comprised a total of 48 breast muscles of Hybrid XL turkeys aged 15 weeks and fed commercial pelleted diets. The material was divided into three groups (control, experimental groups I and II. Sixteen breast muscles (8 left and 8 right were assigned to each group. Control group samples were immediately transported to a laboratory. The remaining 32 muscles were steamed and grilled, where 16 samples were cured before heat treatment. The curing brine contained tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. The results of the study indicate that the lycopene increased vitamin E levels and decreased the ash and vitamin A content of the final products. Lycopene also lowered the aroma and flavour scores, and increased the shear force values of the final products. The addition of lycopene lowered the pH of the products measured in a water homogenate and deteriorated the hydration properties of meat. Lycopene increased the darkness and the contribution of redness, which led to an increase in colour saturation and hue values of the evaluated samples. It can be concluded that lycopene exerted antioxidant effects and improved the colour parameters on the external surface and along the cross-section of processed meat. However, the specific flavour of tomatoes deteriorated the sensory attributes of the final products.

  12. Social cognition and neural substrates of face perception: implications for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Steven M; Evans, David W; Myers, Scott M; Moreno-De Luca, Andres; Moore, Gregory J

    2014-04-15

    Social cognition is an important aspect of social behavior in humans. Social cognitive deficits are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we examine the neural substrates of social cognition and face processing in a group of healthy young adults to examine the neural substrates of social cognition. Fifty-seven undergraduates completed a battery of social cognition tasks and were assessed with electroencephalography (EEG) during a face-perception task. A subset (N=22) were administered a face-perception task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Variance in the N170 EEG was predicted by social attribution performance and by a quantitative measure of empathy. Neurally, face processing was more bilateral in females than in males. Variance in fMRI voxel count in the face-sensitive fusiform gyrus was predicted by quantitative measures of social behavior, including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Empathizing Quotient. When measured as a quantitative trait, social behaviors in typical and pathological populations share common neural pathways. The results highlight the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders as spectrum phenomena that may be informed by studies of the normal distribution of relevant traits in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours.

  14. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of thermal exposure on physiological adaptability and seminal attributes of rams under semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Balaganur, Krishnappa; Kumar Saxena, Vijay; Thirumurugan, Palanisamy; Khursheed Naqvi, Syed Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stress in hot semi-arid environment is a major limitation of sheep production in tropical and sub-tropical climatic condition. The animals tend to maintain homeostasis through physiological adjustments in a hot environment (maximum temperature reaches up to 47.5°C). Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of thermal exposure on physiological adaptability and seminal attributes of rams under semi-arid environment. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks involving sixteen Malpura crossbred rams (GMM: Garole X Malpura X Malpura). The rams were divided equally into two groups, designated as G1 and G2, respectively. The rams in G1 (Control) group were kept in a sheep shed under naturally prevailing environment without artificial manipulation of ambient temperature (Temperature 30.48±0.38°C; Relative Humidity 28.59±1.15%). The rams of G2 group were exposed to different temperature at different hours of the day (38°C at 1000-1100h; 40°C at 1100-1200h; 42°C at 12:00-1300h; 43°C at 1300-1400h; 44°C at 1400-1500h and 42°C at 1500-1600h) in a climatic chamber for thermal exposure. Physiological responses, blood biochemical profile, blood endocrine profile, sexual behavior and seminal attributes were measured for both the groups. Thermal exposure significantly (Psemi-arid tropical climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exposure misclassification on the mean squared error of population attributable risk and prevented fraction estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S D; Hsieh, C C; Liu, Qin

    2007-11-20

    Previous work has considered the effect of exposure misclassification on the bias of population attributable risk (AR) estimates, but little is known about the corresponding effects on their precision or mean squared error (MSE). This paper considers AR estimation in typical scenarios for case-control and cohort studies. The analogous index used when exposure reduces the risk--the prevented fraction (PF)--is also investigated. It is shown, through both theoretical and simulation results, that even with quite modest levels of exposure misclassification, the MSE can increase substantially, relative to the variance of AR estimated without measurement error. When exposure assessment is perfectly sensitive, there is no bias in AR but lack of measurement specificity can still cause a substantial loss of precision. In a few cases, the AR or PF with misclassified exposure can actually have smaller MSE; these exceptional cases arise when sensitivity is poor and the bias in AR or PF is relatively large. We conclude that while bias can be reduced by defining exposure on a highly sensitive basis, one must also consider the deleterious effect on precision by doing so. Loss of precision in the AR and PF estimates can be safely ignored only when the exposure measure is very accurate.

  17. Effects of Stress, Attributional Style and Perceived Parental Support on Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2011-01-01

    This study prospectively examined the role of attributional style and perceived parental support as intrapersonal and interpersonal risk and resilience factors to increases in depressive symptoms in the face of stress with a sample of 497 middle school students. Results demonstrated that boys with a pessimistic attributional style and low or…

  18. The Impact of Peer Victimization on Later Maladjustment: Mediating and Moderating Effects of Hostile and Self-Blaming Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that being a victim of bullying or peer aggression has negative short- and long-term consequences. In this study, we investigated the mediating and moderating role of two types of attributional mechanisms (hostile and self-blaming attributions) on children's maladjustment (externalizing and internalizing problems).…

  19. Social Learning versus Attributional Interpretations: The Effect of Task Familiarity on Task Performance Perceptions and Future Success Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Rodney G.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to assess whether social learning or attributional theory best accounts for expectancies of future success in college students (N=159) with a modification of a task used by Weiner and Kukla (1970). Results indicated partial support for elements of both the social learning and attribution theories. (LLL)

  20. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-01-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower…

  1. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico; Aziz, Muhammed I.; Nagel, Helene T.; Blom, Nico A.; Rozendaal, Lieke; Kanhai, Humphrey H. H.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in fetuses with severe tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a follow-up study to assess the neurologic, mental, and psychomotor development in cases with fetal cardiac arrhythmia. RESULTS: A

  2. Neurodevelopmental Problems in Maltreated Children Referred with Indiscriminate Friendliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovska, Eva; Puckering, Christine; Follan, Michael; Smillie, Maureen; Gorski, Charlotta; Barnes, James; Wilson, Philip; Young, David; Lidstone, Emma; Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Minnis, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to explore the extent of neurodevelopmental difficulties in severely maltreated adopted children. We recruited 34 adopted children, referred with symptoms of indiscriminate friendliness and a history of severe maltreatment in their early childhood and 32 typically developing comparison children without such a history, living in biological…

  3. Update on the Role of Environmental Toxins in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Toxic exposures during pregnancy and early childhood continue to play an important role as a preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in the U.S. and around the world. Identifying and eliminating these toxins should be a priority, but the task is made exceedingly difficult due to the severe limits of scientific knowledge in this area…

  4. Neurodevelopmental Treatment (NDT): Therapeutic Intervention and Its Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Francine Martin; Gorga, Delia

    1988-01-01

    Use of neurodevelopmental treatment, also known as the Bobath method, is discussed, including its history, philosophy, goals, and treatment emphasis with infants and children with movement disorders. Examples of children before and after therapeutic intervention illustrate use of the technique, and controversies in measuring therapy efficacy are…

  5. Pharmacogenetics of the Neurodevelopmental Impact of Anticancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaey, Philippe; Krajinovic, Maja; Marcoux, Sophie; Moghrabi, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics holds the promise of minimizing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of cancer patients by identifying patients at risk, enabling the individualization of treatment and the planning of close follow-up and early remediation. This review focuses first on methotrexate, a drug often implicated in neurotoxicity, especially when used in…

  6. Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, Caroline G M; Bavelaar, Bas M.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, Sijmen Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in

  7. Conceptualising compensation in neurodevelopmental disorders: Reflections from autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Lucy Anne; Happé, Francesca

    2017-06-19

    Within research into neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning changes in symptom severity across development. When the behavioural presentation of a condition improves/symptoms lessen, this may be because core underlying atypicalities in cognition/neural function have ameliorated. An alternative possibility is 'compensation'; that the behavioural presentation appears improved, despite persisting deficits at cognitive and/or neurobiological levels. There is, however, currently no agreed technical definition of compensation or its behavioural, cognitive and neural characteristics. Furthermore, its workings in neurodevelopmental disorders have not been studied directly. Here, we review current evidence for compensation in neurodevelopmental disorders, using Autism Spectrum Disorder as an example, in order to move towards a better conceptualisation of the construct. We propose a transdiagnostic framework, where compensation represents the processes responsible for an observed mismatch between behaviour and underlying cognition in a neurodevelopmental disorder, at any point in development. Further, we explore potential cognitive and neural mechanisms driving compensation and discuss the broader relevance of the concept within research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive Profiles in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouga, Susana; Almeida, Joana; Café, Cátia; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in learning adaptive behaviour, besides intelligence quotient (IQ). Participated 217 school-aged: ASD (N = 115), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (OND) groups (N = 102) matched by Full-Scale IQ. We compared standard scores of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale…

  9. Neurodevelopmental status of HIV-exposed but uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurodevelopmental status of HIV-exposed but uninfected children: A pilot study. P Springer, B Laughton, M Tomlinson, J Harvey, M Esser. Abstract. Introduction. HIV affects children both directly and indirectly, with evidence of increased infectious mortality and morbidity in the HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infant.

  10. Extreme hyperbilirubinaemia in Zimbabwean neonates: neurodevelopmental outcome at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M. J.; Beunen, G.; Casaer, P.; Wolf, B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a prospective study of severely jaundiced Zimbabwean infants, the relationship between maximum total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentration in the neonatal period and neurodevelopmental outcome at the corrected age of 4 months was studied. Fifty infants with a TSB of > 400 micromol/l (23.4

  11. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. With recent renewed interest in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, postnatal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) has been proposed as a model that can mimic aspects of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the current review is to examine the validity of this model and compare it with the adult subchronic PCP model. We review the ability of postnatal PCP administration to produce behaviours (specifically cognitive deficits) and neuropathology of relevance to schizophrenia and their subsequent reversal by pharmacological treatments. We review studies investigating effects of postnatal PCP on cognitive domains in schizophrenia in rats. Morris water maze and delayed spontaneous alternation tasks have been used for working memory, attentional set-shifting for executive function, social novelty discrimination for selective attention and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle for sensorimotor gating. In addition, we review studies on locomotor activity and neuropathology. We also include two studies using dual hit models incorporating postnatal PCP and two studies on social behaviour deficits following postnatal PCP. Overall, the evidence we provide supports the use of postnatal PCP to model cognitive and neuropathological disturbances of relevance to schizophrenia. To date, there is a lack of evidence to support a significant advantage of postnatal PCP over the adult subchronic PCP model and full advantage has not been taken of its neurodevelopmental component. When thoroughly characterised, it is likely

  12. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the quality and physiological attributes of China jujube fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g(-1) and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g(-1), 14.53 U·g(-1), and 63.6 U·g(-1) at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g(-1) and 19.43 μmol·g(-1) for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time.

  14. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yage Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time.

  15. Neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in children

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    Aymen N Naguib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1 st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5 th edition. Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF + dexmedetomidine (DEX (LDF + DEX group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046. The bispectral index (BIS value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011. For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R 2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027. Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental

  16. Neurodevelopmental origins of lifespan changes in brain and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Krogsrud, Stine K; Amlien, Inge K; Bartsch, Hauke; Bjørnerud, Atle; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Grydeland, Håkon; Hagler, Donald J; Håberg, Asta K; Kremen, William S; Ferschmann, Lia; Nyberg, Lars; Panizzon, Matthew S; Rohani, Darius A; Skranes, Jon; Storsve, Andreas B; Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Tamnes, Christian K; Thompson, Wesley K; Reuter, Chase; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2016-08-16

    Neurodevelopmental origins of functional variation in older age are increasingly being acknowledged, but identification of how early factors impact human brain and cognition throughout life has remained challenging. Much focus has been on age-specific mechanisms affecting neural foundations of cognition and their change. In contrast to this approach, we tested whether cerebral correlates of general cognitive ability (GCA) in development could be extended to the rest of the lifespan, and whether early factors traceable to prenatal stages, such as birth weight and parental education, may exert continuous influences. We measured the area of the cerebral cortex in a longitudinal sample of 974 individuals aged 4-88 y (1,633 observations). An extensive cortical region was identified wherein area related positively to GCA in development. By tracking area of the cortical region identified in the child sample throughout the lifespan, we showed that the cortical change trajectories of higher and lower GCA groups were parallel through life, suggesting continued influences of early life factors. Birth weight and parental education obtained from the Norwegian Mother-Child Cohort study were identified as such early factors of possible life-long influence. Support for a genetic component was obtained in a separate twin sample (Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging), but birth weight in the child sample had an effect on cortical area also when controlling for possible genetic differences in terms of parental height. Our results provide novel evidence for stability in brain-cognition relationships throughout life, and indicate that early life factors impact brain and cognition for the entire life course.

  17. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

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    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  18. Effect of A-TIG Welding Process on the Weld Attributes of Type 304LN and 316LN Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, M.

    2017-03-01

    The specific activated flux has been developed for enhancing the penetration performance of TIG welding process for autogenous welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels through systematic study. Initially single-component fluxes were used to study their effect on depth of penetration and tensile properties. Then multi-component activated flux was developed which was found to produce a significant increase in penetration of 10-12 mm in single-pass TIG welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels. The significant improvement in penetration achieved using the activated flux developed in the present work has been attributed to the constriction of the arc and as well as reversal of Marangoni flow in the molten weld pool. The use of activated flux has been found to overcome the variable weld penetration observed in 316LN stainless steel with TIG welds compared to that of the welds produced by conventional TIG welding on the contrary the transverse strength properties of the 304LN and 316LN stainless steel welds produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base metals. Improvement in toughness values were observed in 316LN stainless steel produced by A-TIG welding due to refinement in the weld microstructure in the region close to the weld center. Thus, activated flux developed in the present work has greater potential for use during the TIG welding of structural components made of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels.

  19. Labelling people as having personality disorder: Effects upon the attributions and intended behaviours of student mental health nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Magness, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate whether there are differences in the attributions, emotional reactions and intended behaviours of student mental health nurses towards individuals with personality disorder, compared to those with schizophrenia. The relationships between attributions, emotional reactions and intended behaviours were also investigated. Method An experimental mixed design was used. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: one viewing the label of perso...

  20. The effect of different stimulus attributes on the attentional performance of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Tsai, Huang-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2013-11-01

    While teachers have traditionally used the interesting objects to increase student attention in the classroom, evidence supporting the effectiveness of this method is lacking. The present study investigated the influence of different stimulus attributes for typical developing students and for students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. Thirty children with ADHD, 30 children with dyslexia, and 30 typical developing students were tested using a measuring tool that was constructed by the authors to assess their sustained attention and selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment and the interesting-figure assessment. The geometric-figure assessment included a square, circle, trapezium, and triangle; and the interesting-figure assessment included a house, cat, hand, and tree. While the typical developing group showed better selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment, there was no difference between the dyslexic group and the ADHD group with respect to selective attention. Furthermore, the typical developing and dyslexic groups did not differ in the geometric-figure assessment in sustained attention and were both better in this area than the ADHD group. In the interesting-figure assessment, the typical developing and dyslexic groups performed similarly in sustained attention, but selective attention of the dyslexic group improved more than the ADHD group, similar to the typical developing group. Both selective attention of the dyslexic group and sustained attention of the ADHD group showed positive significant differences in the interesting-figure assessment, but sustained attention of the dyslexic group and selective attention of the ADHD group showed little difference in the interesting-figure assessment. Surprisingly, the typical developing group did not show any significant difference in the interesting-figure assessment, possibly because they had previously demonstrated a ceiling effect in the geometric

  1. Effects of Dietary Beta-Adrenergic Agonist, Terbutaline, on Carcass Characteristics and Blood Attributes in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Boostan MJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary Terbutaline, a beta adrenergic agonist, on carcass characteristics and blood attributes in 288 Japanese quails was studied from 21 through 49 days of age. Dietary treatments included four levels of Terbutaline [0 (T0, 1 (T1, 3 (T3, and 5 (T5 mg/Kg of the diet]. Quails were bled at the end of the trial for biochemical assays and the carcass characteristics were then measured. The relative weights of breast and drumstick muscles were increased in birds treated with 3 and 5 mg/Kg diet of Terbutaline (P. Regardless of Terbutaline dietary levels included, the weight of subcutaneous and abdominal fat pad was significantly decreased in treated birds (P. The relative weight of heart was increased in T3 treatment group and that of liver was increased in all birds receiving Terbutaline as compared with the control group (P. Irrespective of the dosing level, the percentage of protein in breast muscle was higher in Terbutaline-treated birds (P. However, the fat percentage in drumstick muscle was reduced in birds treated with 3 and 5 mg/Kg diet of Terbutaline, but its protein percentage was increased in T1, T3, and T5 (P. A significant increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids was found in all birds that received Terbutaline (P as compared with the control. Overally, the data suggested that dietary Terbutaline had a profound positive effect on carcass composition, but a minimal one on the plasma metabolites (glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride of Japanese quails.

  2. Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Bavelaar, Bas M; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, Sijmen Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD and ADHD. Allergic immune reactions, in prenatal and postnatal phases, are examples of these environmental factors, and adverse reactions to foods are reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings of (food) allergy in ASD and ADHD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, opportunities for nutritional interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Thyroid hormone for preventing of neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D A

    2000-01-01

    Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxemia) and an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone therapy might prevent this morbidity. To assess whether thyroid hormone therapy in preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism results in clinically important changes in neonatal and long term outcomes in terms of both benefits and harms. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the English language. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation, in which thyroid hormone therapy (either treatment or prophylaxis) was compared to a control in premature infants. Primary clinical outcomes included measures of neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Assessment of trial quality, data extraction and synthesis of data, using relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD), were performed using standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group. Eight studies were identified that compared thyroid hormone treatment to control. Four randomized or quasi-randomized studies met inclusion criteria (Chowdhry 1984, Amato 1989, van Wassenaer 1997 and Vanhole 1997). All studies enrolled preterm infants thyroid hormones. Three studies used thyroxine, whereas Amato 1989 used triiodothyronine. Only two studies with neurodevelopmental follow-up were of good methodology (van Wassenaer 1997 and Vanhole 1997). All studies were of small size with the largest, van Wassenaer 1997, enrolling 200 infants. A lack of comparability of data (neurodevelopmental test or timing of follow-up) prevented meta-analytic pooling of the studies for

  4. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

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    C. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  6. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  7. Probiotic attributes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashri, G; Krishna, G; Muralidhara; Prapulla, S G

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria play a vital role in modulating various aspects integral to the health and well-being of humans. In the present study, probiotic attributes and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory potential of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 were investigated by employing suitable model systems. E. faecium exhibited robust resistance to gastrointestinal stress conditions as it could withstand acid stress at pH 1.5, 2 and 3. The bacterium also survived at a bile salt concentration of 0.45 %, and better tolerance was observed towards pepsin and trypsin. E. faecium produced lactic acid as a major metabolic product, followed by butyric acid. Lyophilized cell-free supernatant (LCS) of E. faecium exhibited significant antioxidant capacity evaluated against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, ascorbate auto-oxidation, oxygen radical absorbance and reducing power. Interestingly, E. faecium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG MTCC 1408 and LCS showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by negatively modulating TNF-α production and upregulating IL-10 levels in LPS-stimulated macrophage cell lines. In an in vivo mice model, the propensity of probiotic supplements to modulate endogenous oxidative markers and redox status in brain regions was assessed. Young mice provided with oral supplements (daily for 28 days) of E. faecium and L. rhamnosus exhibited diminished oxidative markers in the brain and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine levels. Collectively, our findings clearly suggest the propensity of these bacteria to protect against tissue damage mediated through free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms need further studies, it is tempting to speculate that probiotics confer a neuroprotective advantage in vivo against oxidative damage-mediated neurodegenerative conditions.

  8. The Neurodevelopmental Impact of Neonatal Morphine Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Attarian, Stephanie; Tran, Lan Chi; Moore, Aimee; Stanton, George; Meyer, Eric; Moore, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit) sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit). A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associat...

  9. Neurodevelopmental problems in maltreated children referred with indiscriminate friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Kocovska, E.; Puckering, C; Follan, M.; Smillie, M.; Gorski, C.; Lidstone, E; Pritchett, R.; Hockaday, H.; Minnis, H.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to explore the extent of neurodevelopmental difficulties in severely maltreated adopted children. We recruited 34 adopted children, referred with symptoms of indiscriminate friendliness and a history of severe maltreatment in their early childhood and 32 typically developing comparison children without such a history, living in biological families. All 66 children, aged 5–12 years, underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric assessment. The overwhelming majority of the adopted/indiscrimina...

  10. Epigenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Takeo; Takae, Hirasawa; Miyake, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    The number of children with mild neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, has been recently increasing in advanced countries. This increase is probably caused by environmental factors rather than genetic factors, because it is unlikely that genetic mutation rates suddenly increased within a short period. Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression, depending not on the underlying DNA sequence but on the chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins. Because mental stre...

  11. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception. Systematic review. Not applicable. Children born after medically assisted reproduction vs. reference groups of spontaneously conceived children. Data were reviewed from worldwide published articles, without restrictions as to publication year or language. A total of 80 studies included between 31 and 2,446,044 children. Child neurodevelopmental outcomes categorized as cognitive, behavioral, emotional or psychomotor development, or diagnoses of mental disorders. For infants, studies on psychomotor development showed no deficits, but few investigated cognitive or behavioral development. Studies on toddlers generally reported normal cognitive, behavioral, socio-emotional, and psychomotor development. For children in middle childhood, development seems comparable in children born after assisted reproduction and controls, although fewer studies have been conducted with follow-up to this age. Very few studies have assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes among teens, and the results are inconclusive. Studies investigating the risk of diagnoses of mental disorders are generally large, with long follow-up, but the results are inconsistent. It may tentatively be concluded that the neurodevelopment of children born after fertility treatment is overall comparable to that in children born after spontaneous conception. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine eSouchay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.

  13. Are media warnings about the adverse health effects of modern life self-fulfilling? An experimental study on idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthöft, Michael; Rubin, G James

    2013-03-01

    Medically unsubstantiated 'intolerances' to foods, chemicals and environmental toxins are common and are frequently discussed in the media. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is one such condition and is characterized by symptoms that are attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). In this experiment, we tested whether media reports promote the development of this condition. Participants (N=147) were randomly assigned to watch a television report about the adverse health effects of WiFi (n=76) or a control film (n=71). After watching their film, participants received a sham exposure to a WiFi signal (15 min). The principal outcome measure was symptom reports following the sham exposure. Secondary outcomes included worries about the health effects of EMF, attributing symptoms to the sham exposure and increases in perceived sensitivity to EMF. 82 (54%) of the 147 participants reported symptoms which they attributed to the sham exposure. The experimental film increased: EMF related worries (β=0.19; P=.019); post sham exposure symptoms among participants with high pre-existing anxiety (β=0.22; P=.008); the likelihood of symptoms being attributed to the sham exposure among people with high anxiety (β=.31; P=.001); and the likelihood of people who attributed their symptoms to the sham exposure believing themselves to be sensitive to EMF (β=0.16; P=.049). Media reports about the adverse effects of supposedly hazardous substances can increase the likelihood of experiencing symptoms following sham exposure and developing an apparent sensitivity to it. Greater engagement between journalists and scientists is required to counter these negative effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preterm birth–associated neurodevelopmental impairment estimates at regional and global levels for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Lee, Anne CC; Cousens, Simon; Bahalim, Adil; Narwal, Rajesh; Zhong, Nanbert; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Modi, Neena; Katz, Joanne; Vos, Theo; Marlow, Neil; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, there were an estimated 15 million preterm births worldwide (preterm babies according to the level of care. A compartmental model was used to estimate the number of impaired postneonatal survivors following preterm birth in 2010. A separate model (DisMod-MR) was used to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs) for the global burden of disease 2010 study. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of YLDs and years of life lost (YLLs). Results: In 2010, there were an estimated 13 million preterm births who survived beyond the first month. Of these, 345,000 (2.7%, uncertainty range: 269,000–420,000) were estimated to have moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment, and a further 567,000 (4.4%, (445,000–732,000)) were estimated to have mild neurodevelopmental impairment. Many more have specific learning or behavioral impairments or reduced physical or mental health. Fewest data are available where the burden is heaviest. Preterm birth was responsible for 77 million DALYs, 3.1% of the global total, of which only 3 million were YLDs. Conclusion: Most preterm births (>90%) survive without neurodevelopmental impairment. Developing effective means of prevention of preterm birth should be a longer term priority, but major burden reduction could be made immediately with improved coverage and quality of care. Improved newborn care would reduce mortality, especially in low-income countries and is likely to reduce impairment in survivors, particularly in middle-income settings. PMID:24366461

  15. Biological mechanisms associated with increased perseveration and hyperactivity in a genetic mouse model of neurodevelopmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Simon; Dean, Rachel; Veit, Bonnie; Cassano, Tommaso; Bedse, Gaurav; Ojarikre, Obah A; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2013-08-01

    Chromosomal deletions at Xp22.3 appear to influence vulnerability to the neurodevelopmental disorders attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. 39,X(Y*)O mice, which lack the murine orthologue of the Xp22.3 ADHD candidate gene STS (encoding steroid sulfatase), exhibit behavioural phenotypes relevant to such disorders (e.g. hyperactivity), elevated hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels, and reduced serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here we initially show that 39,X(Y*)O mice are also deficient for the recently-characterised murine orthologue of the Xp22.3 autism candidate gene ASMT (encoding acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase). Subsequently, to specify potential behavioural correlates of elevated hippocampal 5-HT arising due to the genetic lesion, we compared 39,X(Y*)O MF1 mice to 40,XY MF1 mice on behavioural tasks taxing hippocampal and/or 5-HT function (a 'foraging' task, an object-location task, and the 1-choice serial reaction time task of impulsivity). Although Sts/Asmt deficiency did not influence foraging behaviour, reactivity to familiar objects in novel locations, or 'ability to wait', it did result in markedly increased response rates; these rates correlated with hippocampal 5-HT levels and are likely to index behavioural perseveration, a frequent feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. Additionally, we show that whilst there was no systematic relationship between serum DHEA levels and hippocampal 5-HT levels across 39,X(Y*)O and 40,XY mice, there was a significant inverse linear correlation between serum DHEA levels and activity. Our data suggest that deficiency for genes within Xp22.3 could influence core behavioural features of neurodevelopmental disorders via dissociable effects on hippocampal neurochemistry and steroid hormone levels, and that the mediating neurobiological mechanisms may be investigated in the 39,X(Y*)O model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Facial Symmetry and Gaze Direction on Perception of Social Attributes: A Study in Experimental Art History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olav Folgerø

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibility of testing hypotheses about art production in the past by collecting data in the present. We call this enterprise experimental art history. Why did medieval artists prefer to paint Christ with his face directed towards the beholder, while profane faces were noticeably more often painted in different degrees of profile? Is a preference for frontal faces motivated by deeper evolutionary and biological considerations? Head and gaze direction is a significant factor for detecting the intentions of others, and accurate detection of gaze direction depends on strong contrast between a dark iris and a bright sclera, a combination that is only found in humans among the primates. One uniquely human capacity is language acquisition, where the detection of shared or joint attention, for example through detection of gaze direction, contributes significantly to the ease of acquisition. The perceived face and gaze direction is also related to fundamental emotional reactions such as fear, aggression, empathy and sympathy. The fast-track modulator model presents a related fast and unconscious subcortical route that involves many central brain areas. Activity in this pathway mediates the affective valence of the stimulus. In particular different sub-regions of the amygdala show specific activation as response to gaze direction, head orientation, and the valence of facial expression.We present three experiments on the effects of face orientation and gaze direction on the judgments of social attributes. We observed that frontal faces with direct gaze were more highly associated with positive adjectives. Does this help to associate positive values to the Holy Face in a Western context? The formal result indicates that the Holy Face is perceived more positively than profiles with both direct and averted gaze. Two control studies, using a Brazilian and a Dutch database of photographs, showed a similar but weaker effect with a

  17. Effects of Facial Symmetry and Gaze Direction on Perception of Social Attributes: A Study in Experimental Art History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgerø, Per O; Hodne, Lasse; Johansson, Christer; Andresen, Alf E; Sætren, Lill C; Specht, Karsten; Skaar, Øystein O; Reber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of testing hypotheses about art production in the past by collecting data in the present. We call this enterprise "experimental art history". Why did medieval artists prefer to paint Christ with his face directed towards the beholder, while profane faces were noticeably more often painted in different degrees of profile? Is a preference for frontal faces motivated by deeper evolutionary and biological considerations? Head and gaze direction is a significant factor for detecting the intentions of others, and accurate detection of gaze direction depends on strong contrast between a dark iris and a bright sclera, a combination that is only found in humans among the primates. One uniquely human capacity is language acquisition, where the detection of shared or joint attention, for example through detection of gaze direction, contributes significantly to the ease of acquisition. The perceived face and gaze direction is also related to fundamental emotional reactions such as fear, aggression, empathy and sympathy. The fast-track modulator model presents a related fast and unconscious subcortical route that involves many central brain areas. Activity in this pathway mediates the affective valence of the stimulus. In particular, different sub-regions of the amygdala show specific activation as response to gaze direction, head orientation and the valence of facial expression. We present three experiments on the effects of face orientation and gaze direction on the judgments of social attributes. We observed that frontal faces with direct gaze were more highly associated with positive adjectives. Does this help to associate positive values to the Holy Face in a Western context? The formal result indicates that the Holy Face is perceived more positively than profiles with both direct and averted gaze. Two control studies, using a Brazilian and a Dutch database of photographs, showed a similar but weaker effect with a larger contrast

  18. Effects of Facial Symmetry and Gaze Direction on Perception of Social Attributes: A Study in Experimental Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgerø, Per O.; Hodne, Lasse; Johansson, Christer; Andresen, Alf E.; Sætren, Lill C.; Specht, Karsten; Skaar, Øystein O.; Reber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of testing hypotheses about art production in the past by collecting data in the present. We call this enterprise “experimental art history”. Why did medieval artists prefer to paint Christ with his face directed towards the beholder, while profane faces were noticeably more often painted in different degrees of profile? Is a preference for frontal faces motivated by deeper evolutionary and biological considerations? Head and gaze direction is a significant factor for detecting the intentions of others, and accurate detection of gaze direction depends on strong contrast between a dark iris and a bright sclera, a combination that is only found in humans among the primates. One uniquely human capacity is language acquisition, where the detection of shared or joint attention, for example through detection of gaze direction, contributes significantly to the ease of acquisition. The perceived face and gaze direction is also related to fundamental emotional reactions such as fear, aggression, empathy and sympathy. The fast-track modulator model presents a related fast and unconscious subcortical route that involves many central brain areas. Activity in this pathway mediates the affective valence of the stimulus. In particular, different sub-regions of the amygdala show specific activation as response to gaze direction, head orientation and the valence of facial expression. We present three experiments on the effects of face orientation and gaze direction on the judgments of social attributes. We observed that frontal faces with direct gaze were more highly associated with positive adjectives. Does this help to associate positive values to the Holy Face in a Western context? The formal result indicates that the Holy Face is perceived more positively than profiles with both direct and averted gaze. Two control studies, using a Brazilian and a Dutch database of photographs, showed a similar but weaker effect with a larger contrast

  19. The Neurodevelopmental Impact of Neonatal Morphine Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Attarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit. A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid therapy. Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. This comprehensive review examines existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the long-term impacts of neonatal pain and opioid therapy.

  20. Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

  1. Quantifying the effect of interannual ocean variability on the attribution of extreme climate events to human influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Mark D.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wehner, Michael F.; Angélil, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the climate change research community has become highly interested in describing the anthropogenic influence on extreme weather events, commonly termed "event attribution." Limitations in the observational record and in computational resources motivate the use of uncoupled, atmosphere/land-only climate models with prescribed ocean conditions run over a short period, leading up to and including an event of interest. In this approach, large ensembles of high-resolution simulations can be generated under factual observed conditions and counterfactual conditions that might have been observed in the absence of human interference; these can be used to estimate the change in probability of the given event due to anthropogenic influence. However, using a prescribed ocean state ignores the possibility that estimates of attributable risk might be a function of the ocean state. Thus, the uncertainty in attributable risk is likely underestimated, implying an over-confidence in anthropogenic influence. In this work, we estimate the year-to-year variability in calculations of the anthropogenic contribution to extreme weather based on large ensembles of atmospheric model simulations. Our results both quantify the magnitude of year-to-year variability and categorize the degree to which conclusions of attributable risk are qualitatively affected. The methodology is illustrated by exploring extreme temperature and precipitation events for the northwest coast of South America and northern-central Siberia; we also provides results for regions around the globe. While it remains preferable to perform a full multi-year analysis, the results presented here can serve as an indication of where and when attribution researchers should be concerned about the use of atmosphere-only simulations.

  2. Targeted treatments for cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Petrus J

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, the neuropsychiatric phenotype of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) was presumed to be caused by the structural brain abnormalities and/or seizures seen in the disorder. However, advances in the molecular biology of the disorder have shown that TSC is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) overactivation syndrome, and that direct molecular pathways exist between gene mutation and cognitive/neurodevelopmental phenotype. Molecularly-targeted treatments using mTOR inhibitors (such as rapamycin) are showing great promise for the physical and neurological phenotype of TSC. Pre-clinical and early-phase clinical studies of the cognitive and neurodevelopmental features of TSC suggest that some of the neuropsychiatric phenotypes might also be reversible, even in adults with the disorder. TSC, fragile X, neurofibromatosis type 1, and disorders associated with phosphatase and tensin homo (PTEN) mutations, all signal through the mTOR signaling pathway, with the TSC1-TSC2 protein complex as a molecular switchboard at its center. Together, these disorders represent as much as 14% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we suggest that this signaling pathway is a key to the underlying pathophysiology of a significant subset of individuals with ASD. The study of molecularly targeted treatments in TSC and related disorders, therefore, may be of scientific and clinical value not only to those with TSC, but to a larger population that may have a neuropsychiatric phenotype attributable to mTOR overactivation or dysregulation. (c) 2010 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Who deserves health care? The effects of causal attributions and group cues on public attitudes about responsibility for health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lynch, Julia

    2011-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of cues about ascriptive group characteristics (race, class, gender) and the causes of ill health (health behaviors, inborn biological traits, social systemic factors) on beliefs about who deserves society's help in paying for the costs of medical treatment. Drawing on data from three original vignette experiments embedded in a nationally representative survey of American adults, we find that respondents are reluctant to blame or deny societal support in response to explicit cues about racial attributes--but equally explicit cues about the causal impact of individual behaviors on health have large effects on expressed attitudes. Across all three experiments, a focus on individual behavioral causes of illness is associated with increased support for individual responsibility for health care costs and lower support for government-financed health insurance. Beliefs about social groups and causal attributions are, however, tightly intertwined. We find that when groups suffering ill health are defined in racial, class, or gender terms, Americans differ in their attribution of health disparities to individual behaviors versus biological or systemic factors. Because causal attributions also affect health policy opinions, varying patterns of causal attribution may reinforce group stereotypes and undermine support for universal access to health care.

  4. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg-1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  5. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jyoti; Koley, K M; Sahu, B D

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control) received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard) received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed). The birds of group T3 (Test) received Cassia tora extract (CSE) at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds. Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05) lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1. Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative to antibiotic growth

  6. Estimation of reservoir fluid saturation from 4D seismic data: effects of noise on seismic amplitude and impedance attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rafael; Lumley, David; Shragge, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse (4D) seismic data sets have proven to be extremely useful for reservoir monitoring. Seismic-derived impedance estimates are commonly used as a 4D attribute to constrain updates to reservoir fluid flow models. However, 4D seismic estimates of P-wave impedance can contain significant errors associated with the effects of seismic noise and the inherent instability of inverse methods. These errors may compromise the geological accuracy of the reservoir model leading to incorrect reservoir model property updates and incorrect reservoir fluid flow predictions. To evaluate such errors and uncertainties we study two time-lapse scenarios based on 1D and 3D reservoir model examples, thereby exploring a number of inverse theory concepts associated with the instability and error of coloured inversion operators and their dependence on seismic noise levels. In the 1D example, we show that inverted band-limited impedance changes have a smaller root-mean-square (RMS) error in comparison to their absolute broadband counterpart for signal-to-noise ratios 10 and 5 while for signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)  =  3 both inversion methods present similarly high errors. In the 3D example we use an oilfield benchmark case based on the Namorado Field in Campos Basin, Brazil. We introduce a histogram similarity measure to quantify the impact of seismic noise on maps of 4D seismic amplitude and impedance changes as a function of S/N levels, which indicate that amplitudes are less sensitive to 4D seismic noise than impedances. The RMS errors in the estimates of water saturation changes derived from 4D seismic amplitudes are also smaller than for 4D seismic impedances, over a wide range of typical seismic noise levels. These results quantitatively demonstrate that seismic amplitudes can be more accurate and robust than seismic impedances for quantifying water saturation changes with 4D seismic data, and emphasize that seismic amplitudes may be more reliable to update fluid flow

  7. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sahu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90 were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed. The birds of group T3 (Test received Cassia tora extract (CSE at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds. Results: Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05 lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05 higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1. Conclusion: Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity

  8. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Central tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 is a naturally occurring cofactor essential for critical metabolic pathways. Studies suggest that BH4 supplementation may ameliorate autism symptoms; the biological mechanism for such an effect is unknown. To help understand the relation between central BH4 concentration and systemic metabolism and to develop a biomarker of central BH4 concentration, the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid BH4 concentration and serum amino acids was studied. BH4 concentration was found to be distributed in two groups, a lower and higher BH4 concentration group. Two serum amino acids, citrulline and methionine, differentiated these groups, and the ratio of serum citrulline-to-methionine was found to correlate with the cerebrospinal fluid BH4 concentration (r = -0.67, p < 0.05. Both citrulline and methionine are substrates in inflammation and oxidative stress pathways - two pathways that utilize BH4 and are abnormally activated in autism. These data suggests that central BH4 concentration may be related to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress pathways.

  10. Family adjustment and interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2015-03-01

    Developmental disabilities are increasingly recognized, and remarkable progress is being made on the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of many disorders. Yet, only a tiny percentage of the disability literature addresses families of children with disabilities. A review of recently published family studies reveals salient trends and gaps. Consistent with previous work, high levels of parent stress, illness, anxiety, and depression are apparent. Studies in the USA focused on parents of children with autism; in contrast, studies on parents of children with intellectual disabilities were almost always conduced abroad. Compared to other disabilities, families of children with psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes are understudied. The majority of family studies are descriptive, with very few trials or interventions aimed at reducing parental stress. Of these, mindfulness practices and a peer-mentor model of treatment delivery hold much promise for effective stress reduction. Psychoeducational programs and respite care are differentially beneficial. A new era of family intervention research is in order. This work can take advantage of many advances in telemedicine, peer-mentor models, smart technology, and biomarkers as indices of change. Benefit could also stem from group interventions with parents who share similar concerns, regardless of their child's diagnostic label.

  11. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  12. Chronic vortioxetine treatment in rodents modulates gene expression of neurodevelopmental and plasticity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jessica A; Tamm, Joseph A; Abdourahman, Aicha; Pehrson, Alan L; Li, Yan; Cajina, Manuel; Sánchez, Connie

    2017-02-01

    The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity. However, the effect of chronic vortioxetine treatment on expression of neuroplasticity and neurodevelopmental biomarkers in naïve rats has not been evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that vortioxetine at a range of doses regulates expression of genes associated with plasticity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, region encompassing the amygdala, as well as in blood, and displays similar effects relative to the SSRI fluoxetine in adult naïve rats. These genes encode immediate early genes (IEGs), translational regulators, and the neurodevelopmental marker Sema4g. Similar findings detected in brain regions and in blood provide a potential translational impact, and vortioxetine appears to consistently regulate signaling in these networks of neuroplasticity and developmental markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Categorizing moving objects into film genres: the effect of animacy attribution, emotional response, and the deviation from non-fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visch, Valentijn T; Tan, Ed S

    2009-02-01

    The reported study follows the footsteps of Heider, and Simmel (1944) [Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-249] and Michotte (1946/1963) [Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T.R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen (Original work published 1946)] who demonstrated the role of object movement in attributions of life-likeness to figures. It goes one step further in studying the categorization of film scenes as to genre as a function of object movements. In an animated film scene portraying a chase, movements of the chasing object were systematically varied as to parameters: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail, and deformation. The object movements were categorized by viewers into genres: non-fiction, comedy, drama, and action. Besides this categorization, viewers rated their animacy attribution and emotional response. Results showed that non-expert viewers were consistent in categorizing the genres according to object movement parameters. The size of its deviation from the unmanipulated movement scene determined the assignment of any target scene to one of the fiction genres: small and moderate deviations resulted in categorization as drama and action, and large deviations as comedy. The results suggest that genre classification is achieved by, at least, three distinct cognitive processes: (a) animacy attribution, which influences the fiction versus non-fiction classification; (b) emotional responses, which influences the classification of a specific fiction genre; and (c) the amount of deviation from reality, at least with regard to movements.

  14. Microglial Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling in Synaptic Development and its Alterations in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Monji, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Microglia are resident innate immune cells which release many factors including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when they are activated in response to immunological stimuli. Recent in vivo imaging has shown that microglia sculpt and refine the synaptic circuitry by removing excess and unwanted synapses and be involved in the development of neural circuits or synaptic plasticity thereby maintaining the brain homeostasis. BDNF, one of the neurotrophins, has various important roles in cell survival, neurite outgrowth, neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and the maintenance of neural circuits in the CNS. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is important for microglial functions including ramification, de-ramification, migration, phagocytosis and release of cytokines, NO and BDNF. BDNF induces a sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation through the upregulation of the surface expression of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels in rodent microglia. BDNF might have an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of microglial activation and TRPC3 could play important roles in not only inflammatory processes but also formation of synapse through the modulation of microglial phagocytic activity in the brain. This review article summarizes recent findings on emerging dual, inflammatory and non-inflammatory, roles of microglia in the brain and reinforces the importance of intracellular Ca2+ signaling for microglial functions in both normal neurodevelopment and their potential contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASDs.

  15. Novel roles for immune molecules in neural development: Implications for neurodevelopmental disoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A Garay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the brain has classically been considered "immune-privileged," current research suggests extensive communication between the nervous and the immune systems in both health and disease. Recent studies demonstrate that immune molecules are present at the right place and time to modulate the development and function of the healthy and diseased CNS. Indeed, immune molecules play integral roles in the CNS throughout neural development, including affecting neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation, activity-dependent refinement of circuits, and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, the roles of individual immune molecules in the nervous system may change over development. This review focuses on the effects of immune molecules on neuronal connections in the mammalian central nervous system—specifically the roles for MHCI and its receptors, complement, and cytokines on the function, refinement, and plasticity of cortical and hippocampal synapses and their relationship to neurodevelopmental disorders. These functions for immune molecules during neural development suggest that they could also mediate pathological responses to chronic elevations of cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia.

  16. Translational animal models of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2012-09-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose diagnosis is based on three behavioral criteria: unusual reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A large number of de novo single gene mutations and chromosomal deletions are associated with autism spectrum disorders. Based on the strong genetic evidence, mice with targeted mutations in homologous genes have been generated as translational research tools. Mouse models of autism have revealed behavioral and biological outcomes of mutations in risk genes. The field is now poised to employ the most robust phenotypes in the most replicable mouse models for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics.

  17. Genetics and Function of Neocortical GABAergic Interneurons in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rossignol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A dysfunction of cortical and limbic GABAergic circuits has been postulated to contribute to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. In the current paper, I summarize the characteristics that underlie the great diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons and explore how the multiple roles of these cells in developing and mature circuits might contribute to the aforementioned disorders. Furthermore, I review the tightly controlled genetic cascades that determine the fate of cortical interneurons and summarize how the dysfunction of genes important for the generation, specification, maturation, and function of cortical interneurons might contribute to these disorders.

  18. Defects in autophagosome-lysosome fusion underlie Vici syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikumi Hori; Takanobu Otomo; Mitsuko Nakashima; Fuyuki Miya; Yutaka Negishi; Hideaki Shiraishi; Yutaka Nonoda; Shinichi Magara; Jun Tohyama; Nobuhiko Okamoto; Takeshi Kumagai; Konomi Shimoda; Yoshiya Yukitake; Daigo Kajikawa; Tomohiro Morio; Ayako Hattori; Motoo Nakagawa; Naoki Ando; Ichizo Nishino; Mitsuhiro Kato; Tatsuhiko Tsunoda; Hirotomo Saitsu; Yonehiro Kanemura; Mami Yamasaki; Kenjiro Kosaki; Naomichi Matsumoto; Tamotsu Yoshimori; Shinji Saitoh

    2017-01-01

    Vici syndrome (VICIS) is a rare, autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency...

  19. Effect of Hot-Attribute Aged Ginger Tea on Chinese Medical Pulse Condition of Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Ping Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Young individuals typically have a dry-heat (燥熱 zào rè constitution and feel overly stimulated. This study observes specialties on the right-bar (右關 yòu guān section of the radial-arterial pulse of healthy young subjects, and investigates pulse variations induced by different attribute foods. Chinese medical doctors grouped thirty subjects into heat and non-heat constitutions. Each subject took water, aged ginger tea, and coconut water, well recognized as neutral, hot, and cold drinks, on different visits. The current study observed physiological signals induced by the samples using novel noninvasive sphygmography and a blood pressure monitor. As the baseline bigger percussion wave, dicrotic wave, and area in the sphygmogram of the non-heat constitution subjects, this work suggests that blood vessels of these subjects may be more relaxed than that of the heat constitution ones. Stroke volume increased and pulse pressure decreased in the non-heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea, which may elevate arterial compliance corresponding to maintaining an estimated radial-arterial diameter in our study. However, the percussion wave widened and the valley increased in the heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea. This corresponds to the markedly reduced radial-arterial diameter, indicating tighter blood vessels than the baseline status. Accordingly, this study confirms that selecting foods with attributes opposite to personal constitutions is important for reestablishing a healthy cold-heat balance within the human body. Moreover, novel noninvasive sphygmography may be a useful instrument to classify scientifically the heat personal constitution and the responses to different attribute foods.

  20. Effect of Gibberellic Acid under Deficit Irrigation on Physicochemical and Shelf Life Attributes of Pomegranate Fruit (cv. Shahvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya selahvarzi

    2017-02-01

    C and RH= 65-70% to evaluate physiochemical traits at 2 different storage periods (9 and 18 weeks. Weight loss and chilling index were determined during 3 weeks intervals of storage. Weight loss was evaluated by a gravimetric method and results were expressed as percent of initial fresh weight. Chilling index was quantified by 5 point scale of fruit husk injury: (1: without disorder, 2: slight disorder signs 3: moderate signs 4: severe signs and 5: unmarketable. Results and Discussion: In present research the effects of deficit irrigation treatments on all the measured attributes was significant at harvest time (p≤ 0.01. But Gibberellic acid spray had significant effect only on Fruit weight, juice percent and fruit cracking disorder. Likewise, deficit irrigation and Gibberellic acid interaction showed significant difference for fruit weight and cracking disorder. The results indicated that fruit weight, total yield and fruit juice in regulated deficit irrigation increased by 39.6, 17.1 and 16.6 percent in compare with control, respectively. Fruit numbers in control trees (108.3 was more than sustained (93.6 and regulated (87 deficit irrigation. It is possible that sustained (SDI and regulated (RDI deficit irrigation have decreased sprouting growth and consequently second or third waves of pomegranate flowers that forming on these shoots was lower by water restricting. Pomegranate peel percent in studied deficit irrigation strategies were less than control and naturally aril percent was more in these treatments. In other hand, the highest fruit cracking (9.1% and lowest fruit weight (205.8 g occurred in sustained deficit irrigation. However Gibberellic acid application could increase fruit weight and alleviate cracking disorder. The results of cold storage experiment showed that maturity index, antioxidant activity, total anthocyanin and chilling index improved by Sustained deficit irrigation. Variations of ripening index during cold storage occurred because of sugar

  1. Effect of Maize Starch Substitution on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Gluten-Free Cookies Produced from Nixtamalized Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Pérez-Carrillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nixtamalized corn flour (NCF has a good dietary fiber profile that makes it an alternative to produce gluten-free cookies because upon hydration and mixing it yields a cohesive and machinable dough. In order to improve the texture and acceptance of cookies, five different experimental treatments were devised and compared with a cookie made with refined wheat flour. A waxy native maize or pregelatinized cross-linked starches in concentrations of 5% and 10% were evaluated. Results showed that the spread factor, diameter, and thickness of the different types of cookies were not statistically different (p>0.05. With the exception of the control and cookies made with 10% waxy starch which were rated with lower scores, the rest of the treatments were not significantly different in terms of sensory attributes. The texture of cookies evaluated by panelists related to the objective texture was determined with the texture analyzer. Cookies made from the composite flour containing 10% pregelatinized cross-linked were softer or had lower maximum positive force after 5 days of storage. This particular gluten-free cookie contained 65% more dietary fiber compared to the wheat flour counterpart and had the best sensory attributes among all treatments including the cookie made with refined wheat flour.

  2. Effect of Intentional Bias on Agency Attribution of Animated Motion: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing information about social interaction. PMID:23155450

  3. A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders, IQ and Subsequent Risk of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (p<0.0001). The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without ND; adjusted OR for definite PEs 1.76 (95% CI 1.11- 2.79). IQ (but not working memory) deficit partly explained this association. Conclusion Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026

  4. Cognitive characterization of children with Dravet syndrome: A neurodevelopmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Joana; Pérez, Alejandro; Davidson, Doug J; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is an epilepsy of infantile onset, usually related to a mutation in gene sodium channel alpha 1 subunit, that leads to different typological seizures before the first year of life. Although most research has focused on the clinical description of the syndrome, some recent studies have focused on its impact on cognitive development, identifying both motor disorders and visual-processing deficits as basic factors affected in adults and children with DS. In this article, we designed a cross-sectional study to examine the cognitive phenotype of children affected by DS from a neurodevelopmental perspective. We report measures for both basic (auditory perception, visual and phonological processing, motor coordination) and higher order cognitive processes (verbal production, categorization, and executive function) in two age groups of DS children (M = 8.8 and M = 14.1) and control children of the same chronological age. Results showed an important cognitive delay in DS children with respect to controls in both basic and higher order cognitive abilities, with a better general outcome in tasks that required processing visual material (visual memory and categorization) than in tasks involving verbal material. In addition, performance of DS children in certain basic tasks (visual memory) correlated with performance on complex ones (categorization). These findings encourage promoting an early identification of not only clinical but also cognitive features in DS children from very early stages of development in order to optimize their neurodevelopmental outcome.

  5. Management of sleep disorders in neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussler, Helen S

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disorders in individuals with developmental difficulties continue to be a significant challenge for families, carers, and therapists with a major impact on individuals and carers alike. This review is designed to update the reader on recent developments in this area. A systematic search identified a variety of studies illustrating advances in the regulation of circadian rhythm and sleep disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. Specific advances are likely to lead in some disorders to targeted therapies. There is strong evidence that behavioural and sleep hygiene measures should be first line therapy; however, studies are still limited in this area. Nonpharmacological measures such as exercise, sensory interventions, and behavioural are reported. Behavioural regulation and sleep hygiene demonstrate the best evidence for improved sleep parameters in individuals with neurodisability. Although the mainstay of management of children with sleep problems and neurodevelopmental disability is similar to that of typically developing children, there is emerging evidence of behavioural strategies being successful in large-scale trials and the promise of more targeted therapies for more specific resistant disorders.

  6. A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, G M; Stochl, J; Zammit, S; Lewis, G; Jones, P B

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Nevertheless, longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with NDs are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood NDs, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six NDs (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaires at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated the mean difference in cognitive scores between children with and without NDs. Associations between NDs and PEs were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father's social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Out of 8220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have NDs at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without, NDs performed worse on all cognitive measures; the adjusted mean difference in total IQ was 6.84 (95% CI 5.00-8.69). The association between total IQ and NDs was linear (p memory) deficit partly explained this association. Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Children after Fetal Cardiac Intervention for Aortic Stenosis with Evolving Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraja, Kristin; Sadhwani, Anjali; Tworetzky, Wayne; Marshall, Audrey C; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Freud, Lindsay; Hass, Cara; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ware, Janice; Lafranchi, Terra; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-01

    To characterize neurodevelopmental outcomes after fetal aortic valvuloplasty for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome and determine the risk factors for adverse neurodevelopment. Questionnaires were mailed to families of children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty from 2000 to 2012, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcome was the General Adaptive Composite score of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Questionnaire-Second Edition. Other questionnaires included the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Among 69 eligible subjects, 52 (75%) completed questionnaires at median age of 5.5 (range 1.3-12) years; 30 (58%) had biventricular status circulation. The General Adaptive Composite mean score (92 ± 17) was lower than population norms (P Children, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Ages and Stages, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), most subscale scores for patients with biventricular and single ventricular status were similar. Children who underwent fetal aortic valvuloplasty have neurodevelopmental delay, similar to patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome without fetal intervention. Achievement of biventricular circulation was not associated with better outcomes. We infer that innate patient factors and morbidity during infancy have the greatest effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyroid hormones for preventing neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D A

    2001-01-01

    Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxinemia) and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone therapy might prevent this morbidity. To assess whether thyroid hormone therapy in preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism results in clinically important changes in neonatal and long term outcomes in terms of benefits and harms. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the English language. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation, in which thyroid hormone therapy (either treatment or prophylaxis) was compared to control in premature infants. Primary clinical outcomes included measures of neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Assessment of trial quality, data extraction and synthesis of data, using relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD), were performed using standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group. Nine studies were identified that compared thyroid hormone treatment to control. Four randomized and one quasi-randomized study met inclusion criteria. All studies enrolled preterm infants thyroid hormones. Four studies used thyroxine, whereas Amato 1989 used triiodothyronine. Only two studies with neurodevelopmental follow-up were of good methodology. All studies were of small size with the largest, van Wassenaer 1997, enrolling 200 infants. Meta-analysis of five studies found no significant difference in mortality to discharge (typical RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.42, 1.17) in infants who received thyroid hormone treatment compared to controls. Meta-analysis of two studies found no significant

  9. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...

  10. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  11. The effects of a novel psychological attribution and emotional awareness and expression therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A preliminary, uncontrolled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Amanda J; Lumley, Mark A; Carty, Jennifer N; Latsch, Deborah V; Thakur, Elyse R; Hyde-Nolan, Maren E; Hijazi, Alaa M; Schubiner, Howard

    2016-02-01

    Current psychological and behavioral therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pain only modestly reduce pain, disability, and distress. These limited effects may be due to the failure of current therapies: a) to help patients learn that their pain is influenced primarily by central nervous system psychological processes; and b) to enhance awareness and expression of emotions related to psychological trauma or conflict. We developed and conducted a preliminary, uncontrolled test of a novel psychological attribution and emotional awareness and expression therapy that involves an initial individual consultation followed by 4 group sessions. A series of 72 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain had the intervention and were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Participation and satisfaction were high and attrition was low. Intent-to-treat analyses found significant improvements in hypothesized change processes: psychological attributions for pain, emotional awareness, emotional approach coping, and alexithymia. Pain, interference, depression, and distress showed large effect size improvements at post-treatment, which were maintained or even enhanced at 6 months. Approximately two-thirds of the patients improved at least 30% in pain and other outcomes, and one-third of the patients improved 70%. Changes in attribution and emotional processes predicted outcomes. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted greater improvements, and outcomes were comparable for patients with widespread vs. localized pain. This novel intervention may lead to greater benefits than available psychological interventions for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, but needs controlled testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  13. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.

  14. Effect of Artificial Feed on Sensory Attributes of Flesh of Indian Major Carps (Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala Fed in Monoculture and Polyculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan*, N. A. Qureshi1, M. Nasir2, G. W. Vandenberg3, M. S. Mughal, A. Maqbool4, M. A. Jabbar and N. Zikria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the impact of artificial feeding on sensory attributes of steamed fish at fingerling stage reared in monoculture while at grow-out stage reared both in mono and polyculture. The fingerlings of Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala fed on 40% protein feed showed non-significant effect on sensory attributes compared with control. Similar results were obtained in grow-out monoculture when fed on 35% protein. In polyculture the C. mrigala showed significantly (P<0.05 higher scores for color, oiliness and overall acceptability compared to control and other two species. All three species showed significant differences for flavor, and tenderness in polyculture compared to monoculture. The control fish in polyculture were slightly more yellowish resulting in increased hue angle values. It is concluded that the artificial feed can be used to enhance the growth performance at fingerling stage without interfering the overall sensory quality of fish.

  15. Schatzki's Ring in Angelman Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma in Neurodevelopmentally Disabled Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Sammy; Sachar, David Scott

    2009-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental condition with a characteristic phenotype that includes epilepsy and lack of communication. We describe its first reported association with Schatzki's ring that presented as a life-long history of intermittent retching. Because of associated cognitive dysfunction, careful diagnostic consideration is required to detect this underlying condition. Keywords Schatzki's ring; Angelman Syndrome; Esophageal "B" ring; Barium esophagogram; Neurodevelopmental de...

  16. Piece Work: Fabric Collage as a Neurodevelopmental Approach to Trauma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Eliza S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of collaborative fabric collage based on a neurodevelopmental adaptation for an adult who was being treated for trauma. The case demonstrates the value of thinking about neurodevelopmental factors when creating art therapy interventions. A biologically respectful treatment that offers relational, relevant,…

  17. Effects of undergraduate medical students' individual attributes on perceptions of encounters with positive and negative role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Masami

    2016-06-23

    The use of role models (RMs) is a successful educational strategy. In formal training and other settings during undergraduate education, students have the opportunity to recognize numerous traits and behaviors of their RMs, such as teaching skills, professionalism in the clinical setting, and personal qualities. Encountering both positive and negative RMs allows medical students to learn a variety of professional norms and values. This learning process is likely influenced by a student's developmental status, which itself is related to that student's personal attributes and experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine graduating medical students' perceptions of their RM encounters and their learning processes, and how these perceptions and processes are affected by their own personal attributes. Sixth-year medical students were asked to complete questionnaires in 2013 and 2014 regarding encounters with positive or negative RMs, in terms of patient relationships, clinical expertise, teaching ability, and other factors, during clinical training and other situations. Associations between gender, age, admission status, and recognition of self-achievement and joy of learning in relation to RM encounters were then analyzed. Among 115 students (75 males, 40 females) who completed the questionnaires, 113 (98.3 %) and 85 (73.9 %) reported encountering positive and negative RMs, respectively. The majority of students reported encountering both positive and negative RMs in terms of relationships with patients, humanity, and teaching ability, and fewer negative RMs in terms of clinical expertise and contributions to the community. Older students, males, and those who had passed an entrance examination for bachelors reported encountering more negative RMs in terms of relationships with patients, humanity, and teaching ability than younger students, females, and general admission students. These results suggested an association between positive and negative RM

  18. Russia-specific relative risks and their effects on the estimated alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-05-10

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the burden of disease globally. This burden is estimated using Relative Risk (RR) functions for alcohol from meta-analyses that use data from all countries; however, for Russia and surrounding countries, country-specific risk data may need to be used. The objective of this paper is to compare the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using Russia-specific alcohol RRs with the estimated burden of alcohol consumption calculated using alcohol RRs from meta-analyses. Data for 2012 on drinking indicators were calculated based on the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Data for 2012 on mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived with Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost by cause were obtained by country from the World Health Organization. Alcohol Population-Attributable Fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on a risk modelling methodology from Russia. These PAFs were compared to PAFs calculated using methods applied for all other countries. The 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs) for the alcohol PAFs were calculated using a Monte Carlo-like method. Using Russia-specific alcohol RR functions, in Russia in 2012 alcohol caused an estimated 231,900 deaths (95% UI: 185,600 to 278,200) (70,800 deaths among women and 161,100 deaths among men) and 13,295,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 11,242,000 to 15,348,000) (3,670,000 DALYs lost among women and 9,625,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age. This compares to an estimated 165,600 deaths (95% UI: 97,200 to 228,100) (29,700 deaths among women and 135,900 deaths among men) and 10,623,000 DALYs lost (95% UI: 7,265,000 to 13,754,000) (1,783,000 DALYs lost among women and 8,840,000 DALYs lost among men) among people 0 to 64 years of age caused by alcohol when non-Russia-specific alcohol RRs were used. Results indicate that if the Russia-specific RRs are used when estimating the health burden attributable to alcohol consumption in

  19. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.

  20. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution. John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. London & .... theory) does. Husserl says,. Rather phenomenology wants to establish itself, not as a science of matters of fact, but as a science of essences (as an “eidetic” ...

  1. Administrative Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    1981-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…

  2. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  3. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  4. Soil factors effects on life history attributes of Leiothrix spiralis and Leiothrix vivipara (Eriocaulaceae) on rupestrian grasslands in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, F F; Martins, R P; Figueira, J E C; Demetrio, G R

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the life history traits of Leiothrix spiralis and L. vivipara would be linked to soil factors of the rupestrian grasslands and that rosette size would be influenced by soil moisture. Soil analyses were performed from five populations of L. spiralis and four populations of L. vivipara. In each area, three replicates were employed in 19 areas of occurrence of Leiothrix species, and we quantified the life history attributes. The microhabitats of these species show low favorability regarding to soil factors. During the dry season, their rosettes decreased in diameter due the loss of its most outlying leaves. The absence of seedlings indicated the low fecundity of both species. However, both species showed rapid population growth by pseudovivipary. Both L. spiralis and L. vivipara exhibit a kind of parental care that was quantified by the presence of connections between parental-rosettes and ramets. The findings of the present study show that the life history traits are linked to soil factors.

  5. Processed beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: Effects on physical stability, texture and sensory attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Raikos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative and physical stability of the reformulated mayonnaise with processed beetroot was investigated and compared with a control (mayonnaise without beetroot and a commercially available product. Processing of beetroot had an impact on the structural integrity of the antioxidants present. Microwaving (960 W for 7 min was advantageous for preserving the betalain and polyphenol content of beetroot compared to roasting (180 °C for 90 min and boiling (100 °C for 30 min. The oxidative stability of mayonnaise samples was determined by Rancimat and the thiobarbituric (TBA assay. The addition of microwaved beetroot significantly enhanced the oxidative stability of mayonnaise at the end of a storage period of 4 weeks (4 °C. Although no significant differences (P > 0.05 were detected between the mayonnaise samples containing beetroot and the commercial control, the latter was less susceptible to oxidation during storage. The turbiscan stability index (TSI revealed that the commercial mayonnaise was less prone to destabilization phenomena. All the textural parameters increased with the incorporation of beetroot. The sensory evaluation revealed that, with the exception of graininess and uniformity, most of the sensory attributes are preserved if not improved with the addition of beetroot.

  6. The effect of sucrose addition at dosage stage on the foam attributes of a bottle-fermented English sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Mark; Rice, Christopher J; Atkinson, Andrew; Taylor, Geoff; Marangon, Matteo

    2017-07-24

    Approximately two-thirds of wine produced in the UK is bottle-fermented sparkling wine. Effervescence and foamability are key features used to assess English sparkling wine (ESW) quality. A critical, yet understudied, area of research is the potential for dosage to influence foam behaviour via associated changes in wine viscosity. In this study, dosage treatments of five increasing levels of sucrose (from 0 to 31 g L(-1) ) were added to an ESW. After storage, the foamability attributes of the wines were analysed via an adapted Mosalux method and a novel image analysis method combined with free pour of the wine. Results indicate that increasing sucrose concentration improved foam formation, but reduced foam stability, likely due to the sucrose added causing a modification in wine viscosity. These results highlight the impact that dosage treatments can have on the quality of foam produced upon pouring, and therefore have the potential to inform future sparkling winemaking practices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Do Parental Attributions Affect Treatment Outcome in a Parenting Program? An Exploration of the Effects of Parental Attributions in an RCT of Stepping Stones Triple P for the ASD Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in conjunction with a randomised controlled trial of the parenting program Stepping Stones Triple P for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Fifty-nine families with a child with ASD participated. This study focussed upon the role of parental attributions in predicting treatment outcome. Stepping…

  8. Spatial correlations in attribute communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Community detection is an important tool for exploring and classifying the properties of large complex networks and should be of great help for spatial networks. Indeed, in addition to their location, nodes in spatial networks can have attributes such as the language for individuals, or any other socio-economical feature that we would like to identify in communities. We discuss in this paper a crucial aspect which was not considered in previous studies which is the possible existence of correlations between space and attributes. Introducing a simple toy model in which both space and node attributes are considered, we discuss the effect of space-attribute correlations on the results of various community detection methods proposed for spatial networks in this paper and in previous studies. When space is irrelevant, our model is equivalent to the stochastic block model which has been shown to display a detectability-non detectability transition. In the regime where space dominates the link formation process, most methods can fail to recover the communities, an effect which is particularly marked when space-attributes correlations are strong. In this latter case, community detection methods which remove the spatial component of the network can miss a large part of the community structure and can lead to incorrect results.

  9. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ. Methods CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80, enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  10. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Tang

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  11. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: neurodevelopmental screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Vessoni Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.

  12. The genetic relationship between handedness and neurodevelopmental disorders☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, William M.; Paracchini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia and schizophrenia. The genetic nature of this correlation is not understood. Recent discoveries have shown handedness is determined in part by the biological pathways that establish left/right (LR) body asymmetry during development. Cilia play a key role in this process, and candidate genes for dyslexia have also been recently shown to be involved in cilia formation. Defective cilia result not only in LR body asymmetry phenotypes but also brain midline phenotypes such as an absent corpus callosum. These findings suggest that the mechanisms for establishing LR asymmetry in the body are reused for brain midline development, which in turn influences traits such as handedness and reading ability. PMID:24275328

  13. Angelman Syndrome: Insights into Genomic Imprinting and Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabb, Angela M.; Judson, Matthew C.; Zylka, Mark J.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe genetic disorder caused by mutations or deletions of the maternally inherited UBE3A gene. UBE3A encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is expressed biallelically in most tissues but is maternally expressed in almost all neurons. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the expression and function of UBE3A in the brain and the etiology of AS. We highlight current AS model systems, epigenetic mechanisms of UBE3A regulation, and the identification of potential UBE3A substrates in the brain. In the process, we identify major gaps in our knowledge that, if bridged, could move us closer to identifying treatments for this debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21592595

  14. Behavioral Phenotyping Assays for Genetic Mouse Models of Neurodevelopmental, Neurodegenerative, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2017-02-08

    Animal models offer heuristic research tools to understand the causes of human diseases and to identify potential treatments. With rapidly evolving genetic engineering technologies, mutations identified in a human disorder can be generated in the mouse genome. Phenotypic outcomes of the mutation are then explicated to confirm hypotheses about causes and to discover effective therapeutics. Most neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders are diagnosed primarily by their prominent behavioral symptoms. Mouse behavioral assays analogous to the human symptoms have been developed to analyze the consequences of mutations and to evaluate proposed therapeutics preclinically. Here we describe the range of mouse behavioral tests available in the established behavioral neuroscience literature, along with examples of their translational applications. Concepts presented have been successfully used in other species, including flies, worms, fish, rats, pigs, and nonhuman primates. Identical strategies can be employed to test hypotheses about environmental causes and gene × environment interactions.

  15. Neurodevelopmental profile in Angelman syndrome: more than low intelligence quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, S; Palestra, F; Martelli, P; Accorsi, P; Galli, J; Giordano, L; Trebeschi, V; Fazzi, E

    2016-10-21

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopment disorder resulting from deficient expression or function of the maternally inherited allele of UBE3A gene. The aim of the study is to attempt at providing a detailed definition of neurodevelopmental profile in AS, with particular regard to motor, cognitive, communicative, behavioural and neurovisual, features by using standardized instruments. A total of ten subjects aged from 5 to 11 years (4 males and 6 females) with molecular confirmed diagnosis of AS (7 15q11.2-q13 deletion and 3 UBE3A mutation) were enrolled in our study. All of them underwent an assessment protocol including neurological and neurovisual examination and the evaluation of motor (Gross Motor Function Measure Scale), cognitive (Griffiths Mental Development Scale and Uzgiris-Hunt Scale); adaptive (Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale); communication (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory and video-recordings children's verbal expression), behavioural aspects (IPDDAG Scale) and neurovisual aspects. All children presented motor function involvement. A severe cognitive impairment was detected with different profiles according to the test applied. In all cases, communicative disability (phonemic inventory, word/gesture comprehension and production) and symptoms of inattention disorder were revealed. Neurovisual impairment was characterized by refractive errors, fundus oculi anomalies, strabismus and/or oculomotor dysfunction. AS presents a complex neurodevelopmental profile in which several aspects play a negative role in global development leading to a severe functional impairment. Intellectual disability is not the only component because neurovisual functions and behavioural disorders may worsen the global function and are needed of specific rehabilitation programs.

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcome of 31 patients with borderline fetal ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlı, Burak; Özer, Irmak; Ekici, Barış; Kalelioğlu, Ibrahim; Has, Recep; Eraslan, Emine; Yüksel, Atıl

    2012-09-01

    We present the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with isolated borderline fetal ventriculomegaly. The present study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University in July-December 2010. Prenatal second trimester detailed ultrasound examinations were performed by obstetricians at the Prenatal Diagnosis Department of Istanbul Medical School, and 31 consecutive patients aged 8-33 months have been included in the study. Four patients with atrial diameters of over 15 mm and three patients with central nervous system development anomalies were excluded from the study. In order to assess the neuromotor development of patients, neurologic examinations and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) were used. Nine patients were female (29%) and 22 were male (71%). In the postnatal period, tuberous sclerosis was found in one patient, Down syndrome in one, and equinovarus foot deformity in one. Atrial diameter was patients and >12 mm in 13. Cranial ultrasounds done in the first postnatal month revealed persisting ventriculomegaly in nine patients. The two patients who scored significantly low in all areas on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were the patients with Down syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. The one scoring low in the motor area was the patient with the equinovarus foot deformity. The BSID-III scores of the patients whose prenatal ventricle diameter was patients showing slight developmental delay were the ones whose cranial ultrasound in the first postnatal month showed persisting ventriculomegaly. In patients with borderline fetal ventriculomegaly, atrial diameter being more than 12 mm, the condition persisting in the first postnatal month and the presence of accompanying syndromes and malformations all constitute clear risk factors for neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Markers of neurodevelopmental impairments in early-onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruzzelli MG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli,1 Lucia Margari,1 Francesco Craig,1 Maria Gloria Campa,1 Domenico Martinelli,2 Adriana Pastore,3 Marta Simone,1 Francesco Margari3 1Child and Adolescence Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences; University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and neurobiological markers of neurodevelopmental impairments and early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Methods: A sample of 36 patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis was compared to a control sample of 36 patients with migraine. We assessed early childhood neurodevelopmental milestones using a modified version of the General Developmental Scale, general intellectual ability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Revised or Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised for patients with speech and language abnormalities, and neurological soft signs with specific regard to subtle motor impairment. Results: Subjects with early-onset psychosis had a higher rate of impaired social development (P=0.001, learning difficulties (P=0.04, enuresis (P=0.0008, a lower intelligence quotient (P<0.001, and subtle motor impairments (P=0.005 than control subjects. Conclusion: We suggest that neurodevelopment in early-onset psychosis is characterized by a global impairment of functional and adaptive skills that manifests from early childhood, rather than a delay or limitation in language and motor development. The current evidence is based on a small sample and should be investigated in larger samples in future research. Keywords: early-onset psychosis, early-onset schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, social cognition

  18. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  19. When values and attributions collide: liberals' and conservatives' values motivate attributions for alleged misdeeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G Scott; Mullen, Elizabeth; Skitka, Linda J

    2010-09-01

    Conservatives tend to make dispositional whereas liberals make situational attributions for social problems and alleged misconduct (the "ideo-attribution effect"). Three studies demonstrated a reversal of the ideo-attribution effect. Conservatives made stronger situational attributions than liberals for the behavior of Marines accused of killing Iraqi civilians (Studies 1 and 2) and police officers accused of wrongly killing a cougar running loose in a Chicago neighborhood (Study 3). Reversals of the ideo-attribution effect occurred because conservative values were more consistent with excusing the Marines' and police officers' behavior, whereas liberal values were more consistent with blaming the Marines and police officers. These results suggest that the ideo-attribution effect-and attributions more generally-are shaped by whether people's attributional conclusions are consistent or inconsistent with their salient values.

  20. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Randomized to Stress Dose Hydrocortisone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of stress dose hydrocortisone therapy with placebo on survival without neurodevelopmental impairments in high-risk preterm infants.We recruited 64 extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g infants between the ages of 10 and 21 postnatal days who were ventilator-dependent and at high-risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Infants were randomized to a tapering 7-day course of stress dose hydrocortisone or saline placebo. The primary outcome at follow-up was a composite of death, cognitive or language delay, cerebral palsy, severe hearing loss, or bilateral blindness at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Secondary outcomes included continued use of respiratory therapies and somatic growth.Fifty-seven infants had adequate data for the primary outcome. Of the 28 infants randomized to hydrocortisone, 19 (68% died or survived with impairment compared with 22 of the 29 infants (76% assigned to placebo (relative risk: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.14. The rates of death for those in the hydrocortisone and placebo groups were 31% and 41%, respectively (P = 0.42. Randomization to hydrocortisone also did not significantly affect the frequency of supplemental oxygen use, positive airway pressure support, or need for respiratory medications.In high-risk extremely low birth weight infants, stress dose hydrocortisone therapy after 10 days of age had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months. These results may inform the design and conduct of future clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00167544.

  1. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second-generation antipsychotics) or too limited (first-generation antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, lithium, and lamotrigine) to inform the decision-making process. For all classes of psychotropics, new and/or further studies are warranted to answer definitively the urgent question about the impact of prenatal exposure to such medications on infant development. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Neurodevelopmental effects of insulin-like growth factor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Kusky, John; Ye, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling greatly impacts the development and growth of the central nervous system (CNS). IGF-I and IGF-II, two ligands of the IGF system, exert a wide variety of actions both during development and in adulthood, promoting the survival and proliferation of neural cells. The IGFs also influence the growth and maturation of neural cells, augmenting dendritic growth and spine formation, axon outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and myelination. Specific IGF actions, however, likely depend on cell type, developmental stage, and local microenvironmental milieu within the brain. Emerging research also indicates that alterations in IGF signaling likely contribute to the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. This review summarizes experimental studies and shed light on the critical roles of IGF signaling, as well as its mechanisms, during CNS development. PMID:22710100

  3. The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Findings from the Netherlands SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Levy, David T; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura; Clancy, Luke; Willemsen, Marc C

    2012-02-01

    To develop a simulation model projecting the effect of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Netherlands SimSmoke-an adapted version of the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy-uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for the Netherlands to predict the effect of seven types of policies: taxes, smoke-free legislation, mass media, advertising bans, health warnings, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcome measures were smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. With a comprehensive set of policies, as recommended by MPOWER, smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 21% in the first year, increasing to a 35% reduction in the next 20 years and almost 40% by 30 years. By 2040, 7706 deaths can be averted in that year alone with the stronger set of policies. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost a million lives will be lost to tobacco-related diseases between 2011 and 2040. Of those, 145,000 can be saved with a comprehensive tobacco control package. Smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in the Netherlands can be reduced substantially through tax increases, smoke-free legislation, high-intensity media campaigns, stronger advertising bans and health warnings, comprehensive cessation treatment and youth access laws. The implementation of these FCTC/MPOWER recommended policies could be expected to show similar or even larger relative reductions in smoking prevalence in other countries which currently have weak policies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Visualizing multifactorial and multi-attribute effect sizes in linear mixed models with a view towards sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Brockhoff et al (2016), the close link between Cohen's d, the effect size in an ANOVA framework, and the so-called Thurstonian (Signal detection) d-prime was used to suggest better visualizations and interpretations of standard sensory and consumer data mixed model ANOVA results. The basic...... mechanisms inherently challenging effect size measure estimates in ANOVA settings....

  5. Visualising detection and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.

  6. Goodness: Attributive and predicative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael-John Turp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little consensus concerning the truth or reference conditions for evaluative terms such as “good” and “bad.” In his paper “Good and Evil,” Geach (1956 proposed that we distinguish between attributive and predicative uses of “good.” Foot (2001, Thomson (2008, Kraut (2011, and others have put this distinction to use when discussing basic questions of value theory. In §§1-2, I outline Geach’s proposal and argue that attributive evaluation depends on a prior grasp of the kind of thing that is evaluated, which is another way of saying a prior grasp of a thing’s nature. In §§3-4, I discuss the evaluation of artifacts, which provide the clearest examples of attributive evaluation. This allows me to address a series of problems apparently facing the idea of attributive goodness. In §5, I consider the neo-Aristotelian idea that we can extend attributive accounts of goodness to human lives, and I pay attention to Foot’s account of natural goodness. This leads me to consider the goodness of human life as a whole in §6. At this point. I depart from Geach’s approach and argue that questions of attributive goodness finally give rise to questions of predicative or absolute goodness.

  7. Targeting neural synchrony deficits is sufficient to improve cognition in a schizophrenia-related neurodevelopmental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung eLee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a ‘discoordination’ hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation-inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that 1 interhippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; 2 the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; 3 ethosuximide normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; 4 the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and 5 olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia.

  8. Determining farm effects attributable to the introduction and use of a dairy management information system in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and reproduction data on dairy farms in The Netherlands were obtained to determine whether management information systems significantly improved herd performance variables (management information systems (MIS) effects). The analysis included 357 adopters of a management information

  9. Neurodevelopmental disorders are highly over-represented in children with obesity: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elisabet; Björk, Anna; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2017-01-01

    To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires. Neurodevelopmental diagnoses were collected retrospectively in medical records. BMI ranged between 1.9 and 5.9 SDS and age between 5.1 and 16.5 years. In 13.2% and 18.4% ASD and ADHD was assigned, respectively. In addition, 25% screened positive for DCD, 31.6% had at least one neurodevelopmental disorder, and 18.4% had a parent who screened positive for adult ADHD. Girls with ASD/ADHD had higher BMI SDS than girls without neurodevelopmental disorder (P = 0.006). One third of children with obesity referred to specialist centers have a neurodevelopmental disorder including deviant motor skills, and these problems may deteriorate weight status. One fifth of the parents exhibit ADHD symptomatology which could partly explain the poor adherence by some families in obesity units. Future obesity therapy could benefit from incorporating a neurodevelopmental treatment approach. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. EPG5-related Vici syndrome: a paradigm of neurodevelopmental disorders with defective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan; Jansen, Lara; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Siddiqui, Ata; Lidov, Hart G W; Bodi, Istvan; Smith, Luke; Mein, Rachael; Cullup, Thomas; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Bruwer, Zandre; Al Thihli, Khalid; El-Garhy, Rana; Flanigan, Kevin M; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Zmuda, Erik; Banks, Wesley; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Mandel, Hanna; Dagan, Efrat; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Barash, Hila; Filloux, Francis; Creel, Donnell; Harris, Michael; Hamosh, Ada; Kölker, Stefan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Hoffmann, Georg F; Manchester, David; Boyer, Philip J; Manzur, Adnan Y; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Pilz, Daniela T; Kamath, Arveen; Prabhakar, Prab; Rao, Vamshi K; Rogers, R Curtis; Ryan, Monique M; Brown, Natasha J; McLean, Catriona A; Said, Edith; Schara, Ulrike; Stein, Anja; Sewry, Caroline; Travan, Laura; Wijburg, Frits A; Zenker, Martin; Mohammed, Shehla; Fanto, Manolis; Gautel, Mathias; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    Vici syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy gene EPG5. We report genetic, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropathological features of 50 children from 30 families, as well as the neuronal phenotype of EPG5 knock-down in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified 39 different EPG5 mutations, most of them truncating and predicted to result in reduced EPG5 protein. Most mutations were private, but three recurrent mutations (p.Met2242Cysfs*5, p.Arg417*, and p.Gln336Arg) indicated possible founder effects. Presentation was mainly neonatal, with marked hypotonia and feeding difficulties. In addition to the five principal features (callosal agenesis, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, and immune dysfunction), we identified three equally consistent features (profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and failure to thrive). The manifestation of all eight of these features has a specificity of 97%, and a sensitivity of 89% for the presence of an EPG5 mutation and will allow informed decisions about genetic testing. Clinical progression was relentless and many children died in infancy. Survival analysis demonstrated a median survival time of 24 months (95% confidence interval 0-49 months), with only a 10th of patients surviving to 5 years of age. Survival outcomes were significantly better in patients with compound heterozygous mutations (P = 0.046), as well as in patients with the recurrent p.Gln336Arg mutation. Acquired microcephaly and regression of skills in long-term survivors suggests a neurodegenerative component superimposed on the principal neurodevelopmental defect. Two-thirds of patients had a severe seizure disorder, placing EPG5 within the rapidly expanding group of genes associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Consistent neuroradiological features comprised structural abnormalities, in particular callosal agenesis and pontine hypoplasia, delayed

  11. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  12. Does Exogenous Application of Kinetin and Spermine Mitigate the Effect of Seawater on Yield Attributes and Biochemical Aspects of Grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldesuquy, Heshmat S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain presoaking in kinetin ( 0.1 mM, spermine (0.3 mM and their interaction on yield components and biochemical aspects of yielded grains of wheat plants irrigated with 25% seawater . Seawater induced marked reduction in biochemical aspects of yielded grains especially carbohydrates content, nitrogenous constituents, total protein and nucleic acids contents as well as proline and organic acids (citric and keto-acids content. Conversely, seawater stress increased phosphorus and ions (Na+, K+ and Cl- content. Application of kinetin or spermine appeared to mitigate the effect of seawater stress on wheat yield and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with kinetin + spermine treatment.

  13. Effect of different irrigation regimes on the quality attributes of mono varietal virgin olive oil from cv. Cobrancosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Gouveia, J. B.; Vasconcelos, P.; Ferreira, T. C.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies in virgin olive oil (VOO) composition and quality of cv. Cobrancosa, integrated in a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: T2-full irrigation that received a seasonal water equivalent to 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc), T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Irrigation regimes had a minor effect on standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K{sub 2}32 and K{sub 2}70) of VOO and in fatty acid composition. Total polyphenols decreased up to treatment T2, and were strongly related to the water stress integral, suggesting that the effect of irrigation on this variable occurs along the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. A strategy of continuous deficit irrigation with only 30% of maximum ETc may have an advantageous effect, as it increased oil yield to more than double that of rainfed conditions while VOO quality was similar. (Author) 49 refs.

  14. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  15. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  16. Sustained High Effectiveness of RotaTeq on Hospitalizations Attributable to Rotavirus-Associated Gastroenteritis During 4 Years in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming-Harlo, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Uhari, Matti; Renko, Marjo; Salminen, Marjo; Torcel-Pagnon, Laurence; Hartwig, Susanne; Simondon, Francois; Bricout, Hélène

    2017-11-24

    The effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was more than 90% 4 years after introduction into the national immunization program in Finland. A major impact on hospitalization for all-cause gastroenteritis was observed also. Rotavirus vaccination with exclusive use of RotaTeq was added to the National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Finland in September 2009. The objective of our study was to estimate the effectiveness and impact of RotaTeq after 4 years of follow-up. Between 2009 and 2013, we conducted a prospective surveillance study of children aged 95%) has led to a major reduction in RV-AGE and AC-AGE hospitalizations without a resurgence of rotavirus activity. However, rotavirus continues to circulate in older unvaccinated children.

  17. Just like a woman? Effects of gender-biased perceptions of friendship network brokerage on attributions and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, R. A.; kilduff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Do women face bias in the social realm in which they are purported to excel? Across two different studies (one organizational and one comprising MBA teams), we examined whether the friendship networks around women tend to be systematically misperceived and whether there were effects of these misperceptions on the women themselves and their teammates. Thus, we investigated the possibility (hitherto neglected in the network literature) that biases in friendship networks are triggered not just b...

  18. Determining farm effects attributable to the introduction and use of a dairy management information system in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and reproduction data on dairy farms in The Netherlands were obtained to determine whether management information systems significantly improved herd performance variables (management information systems (MIS) effects). The analysis included 357 adopters of a management information system and 357 herds were used as controls. The data comprised years 1987 through 1996, and included for the adopters both the 'before' and 'after' period. Panel data analysis enabled to estimate ...

  19. The effects of egg albumin incorporation on quality attributes of pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) turkey rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2017-05-01

    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) poultry phenomenon has been a growing problem in meat industry in terms of quality and economic losses, thus data is required to evaluate PSE raw material in product formulations. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of egg albumin (EA) utilization on quality characteristics of PSE-like turkey rolls. Turkey Pectoralis major muscles were exposed to either 40 °C to stimulate typical processing causing PSE or 0 °C to reduce PSE and keep the muscles "normal". Turkey rolls were prepared in nine different formulations; using 100% normal (N), 50% normal + 50% PSE (NP) or 100% PSE meat (P). Treatments also included 0, 1 or 2% EA. Addition of EA increased protein content of all samples. L*, a* and b* values were affected by PSE level. Increased levels of PSE caused decreased processing yields, while EA incorporation increased processing yield of the samples. Addition of 1% EA increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of the samples, while higher level of EA (2%) caused decrement in the same. Addition of either 1% or 2% EA was effective in reducing purge loss in P samples. Texture profile analysis showed that EA addition rather had considerable effects on N samples. Sensory scores showed that 1% EA utilization has the potential to increase mostly the mouthfeel of PSE-like products. Results showed that EA could be used as a promising ingredient that improved overall quality of PSE-like turkey rolls.

  20. Feasibility, relevance and effectiveness of teaching and assessment of ethical status and communication skills as attributes of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Abid; Noor, Sahibzada Mahmood; Ayub, Shahid; Ali, Sobia Sabir; Park, Yoon Soo; Tekian, Ara

    2015-07-01

    To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of teaching and assessing professionalism in a developing country. The pre-intervention and post-intervention study was conducted from January to August 2012 and comprised 7 workshops of three days each that were held at four teaching hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Overall, there were 10 Objective Structured Clinical Examination stations and 10 written scenarios. After the pre-test, workshop was held on various aspects of professionalism which was considered 'intervention', and it was followed by a post-test similar to the pre-test at the end of day 3. Stata 12 was used for all statistical analyses. There were 136 postgraduate residents in the study. The correlation between Objective Structured Clinical Examination stations and written exam for pre-test was 0.42 (p0.05).The standardised effect size for the adjusted regression was 0.37 for both comparisons (pprofessionalism was found relevant, effective and feasible in resource-constrained countries. Teaching and assessment of professionalism has become globally relevant and is recommended to be included in the curricula of medical institutions.

  1. Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J W; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Haub, M D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of sodium citrate (CIT) or acetate (ACE) to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, pH decline, and quality attributes of pork. Previous studies have shown that CIT has the potential to inhibit phosphofructokinase (PFK), a key enzyme in postmortem muscle glycolysis. In Exp. 1, CIT, ACE, or water was orally administered (0.75 g/kg of BW) to 24 pigs. After a 30-min rest, pigs were exercised, and blood samples were taken at 45 and 75 min after oral treatment. Citrate and ACE tended (P = 0.08) to increase blood pH and increased (P = 0.02) bicarbonate levels immediately after exercise. After a 30-min rest, blood pH of pigs administered ACE tended (P = 0.09) to remain higher, whereas blood pH of CIT-treated pigs was similar to that of control pigs. Bicarbonate levels in ACE- and CIT-treated pigs were still greater (P 0.10) on muscle pH or postmortem concentrations of the glycolytic metabolites of glucose-6 phosphate, fructose-6 phosphate, fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, or lactate. Minor, but inconsistent, differences in quality attributes were found in LM chops, and no differences in quality attributes were found between control and CIT- or ACE-treated pigs for inside and outside semimembranosus muscles (P > 0.10). There was no significant inhibition of the PFK enzyme by orally administered CIT or ACE; however, the PFK glycolytic metabolite data analysis indicated that PFK was a main regulatory enzyme in postmortem muscle.

  2. Effect of actinidin on the protein solubility, water holding capacity, texture, electrophoretic pattern of beef, and on the quality attributes of a sausage product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Shekarforoush, S S; Gheisari, H R; Golestan, L

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of actinidin, a sulfhydryl protease from kiwi fruit, on the protein solubility (nitrogen solubility index [NSI]), water holding capacity (WHC), texture, and SDS-PAGE pattern of beef and to evaluate the effect of pretreatment of beef with actinidin on the quality attributes of a sausage product. Actinidin was partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. Actinidin significantly (P actinidin at 37 degrees C for 2 h. SDS-PAGE results indicated appearance of several low molecular weight bands (actinidin for 30 or 60 min. Slight changes in protein band in the range of 100 to 120 kDa and 13 to 25 kDa were also observed. Use of actinidin-tenderized beef significantly improved emulsion stability, texture, and organoleptic properties of the sausage product.

  3. The Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale: Study Protocol and Validation in Infants with Neurodevelopmental Impairments and Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cavallini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA reliable and accurate evaluation of oral-motor skills in newborns at risk for swallowing and feeding disorders is key to set the goals of effective early interventions. Although many tools are available to assess oral-motor skills in newborns, limited evidence exists for what pertains their reliability and their effectivity in predicting short- and long-term developmental outcomes in at-risk infants. The aim of the present study is to develop and provide a preliminary validation of a new clinically grounded tool [i.e., the Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale (FEEDS] specifically designed to be used with at-risk newborns and infants. The paper describes the steps of tool development and information on the reliability of the tool are provided.Methods/analysisThe FEEDS has been developed according to clinical evidence and expertise by a multidisciplinary team of professionals dealing with feeding problems in at-risk infants diagnosed with neurodevelopmental impairments and disabilities. The steps of FEEDS development are reported, together with a detailed description of items, scoring procedure, and clinical cutoff. The FEEDS has been applied to a relatively large sample of 0- to 12-month-old infants (N = 136 with neurodevelopmental disability, enrolled consecutively between 2004 and 2016 at the Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea (Bosisio Parini, Italy, which is the main rehabilitation hospital for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in Italy. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha and reliability (inter-rater agreement have been assessed.Ethics and disseminationAll the procedures are consistent with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (2013 and the FEEDS has been approved by the clinical committee of the Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea. Further psychometric characteristics and evidence of the predictive validity of the FEEDS will be obtained on a larger sample and they

  4. The Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale: Study Protocol and Validation in Infants with Neurodevelopmental Impairments and Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Anna; Provenzi, Livio; Sacchi, Daniela; Longoni, Laura; Borgatti, Renato

    2017-01-01

    A reliable and accurate evaluation of oral-motor skills in newborns at risk for swallowing and feeding disorders is key to set the goals of effective early interventions. Although many tools are available to assess oral-motor skills in newborns, limited evidence exists for what pertains their reliability and their effectivity in predicting short- and long-term developmental outcomes in at-risk infants. The aim of the present study is to develop and provide a preliminary validation of a new clinically grounded tool [i.e., the Functional Evaluation of Eating Difficulties Scale (FEEDS)] specifically designed to be used with at-risk newborns and infants. The paper describes the steps of tool development and information on the reliability of the tool are provided. The FEEDS has been developed according to clinical evidence and expertise by a multidisciplinary team of professionals dealing with feeding problems in at-risk infants diagnosed with neurodevelopmental impairments and disabilities. The steps of FEEDS development are reported, together with a detailed description of items, scoring procedure, and clinical cutoff. The FEEDS has been applied to a relatively large sample of 0- to 12-month-old infants ( N  = 136) with neurodevelopmental disability, enrolled consecutively between 2004 and 2016 at the Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea (Bosisio Parini, Italy), which is the main rehabilitation hospital for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in Italy. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reliability (inter-rater agreement) have been assessed. All the procedures are consistent with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (2013) and the FEEDS has been approved by the clinical committee of the Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea. Further psychometric characteristics and evidence of the predictive validity of the FEEDS will be obtained on a larger sample and they will be reported in future publications from this group.

  5. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  7. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  8. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcome in Angelman syndrome: genotype-phenotype correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Line Granild Bie; Thaulov, Per; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida; Hertz, Jens Michael; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-07-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, lack of speech, and epileptic seizures. Previous studies have indicated that children with AS due to 15q11.2-q13 deletions have a more severe developmental delay and present more often autistic features than those with AS caused by other genetic etiologies. The present study investigated the neurodevelopmental profiles of the different genetic etiologies of AS, and examined the evolution of mental development and autistic features over a 12-year period in children with a 15q11.2-q13 deletion. This study included 42 children with AS. Twelve had a Class I deletion, 18 had Class II deletions, three showed atypical large deletions, five had paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) and four had UBE3A mutations. Children with a deletion (Class I and Class II) showed significantly reduced developmental age in terms of visual perception, receptive language, and expressive language when compared to those with a UBE3A mutation and pUPD. Within all subgroups, expressive language performance was significantly reduced when compared to the receptive performance. A follow-up study of seven AS cases with 15q11.2-q13 deletions revealed that over 12 years, the level of autistic features did not change, but both receptive and expressive language skills improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL CARE OF PRETERM BABIES AND ITS KEY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sarapuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the advancements in the perinatal and neonatal intensive care have led to a significant survival of premature infants. However neurodevelopmental outcome still remains the topical issues of concern. Developmental care is an approach that is aimed to reduce the mismatches between extra- and intra-uterine environments, decrease the stress of preterm newborns in neonative intensive care units, and thus promote optimal neurobehavioral development of the infant. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP model was developed as a clinical framework for the implementation of developmental care. The model focuses on detailed reading of each individual infant’s behavioral cues. By observing the child during the routine manipulation performance (before, during and after and a detailed description of his/her behavioral responses, a professional can assess the ability of the infant’s immature nervous system to tolerate the environment and care manipulations. Such evaluation will enable to determine the adequacy of environmental conditions and care manipulations to baby’s opportunities and needs, with their subsequent correction and adaptation. NIDCAP’s aim is to support the child in its increasing tolerance to stimuli and to minimize stressful events and manipulation. With the help of NIDCAP approaches in neonatal care, medical staff study how to read infants’ behavior, hear their voice and understand them.

  12. Neurodevelopmental profile of Down syndrome in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, K L; Wong, V

    1996-04-01

    To give an overall appraisal of the clinical features of Down syndrome (DS) in Chinese children with emphasis on the neurodevelopmental outcome, and to compare the related complications with that of other races. The records of 124 Chinese children with DS assessed at the Child Assessment Centre of the University Department of Paediatrics in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital from 1985 to 1993 were reviewed. Thirty-one per cent of patients had microcephaly. Eighty-five percent (33/39) when assessed in the first year of life had a developmental quotient (DQ) above 50 but only 29% (2/7) had DQ above 50 when assessed after the age of 5. Only two patients (1.6%) had epilepsy: infantile spasms (1) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (1). Hearing impairment was found in 45% of children with mild conductive hearing impairment being the most common. Chinese children with DS, when compared with other races, were similarly intellectually disabled, but were less likely to develop epilepsy.

  13. Role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Lopez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Together, these human developmental and intellectual disability disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.

  14. Understanding autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders through experimental translational neurobehavioral models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Kyzar, E.J.; Nguyen, M; Norton, W.H.; Pittman, J.; Poudel, M.K.; Gaikwad, S.; Nakamura, S.; Koshiba, M.; Yamanouchi, H.; Scattoni, M.L.; Ullman, J.F.; Diamond, D.M.; Kaluyeva, A.A.; Parker, M.O.; Klimenko, V.M.; Apryatin, S.A.; Brown, R.E.; Song, C.; Gainetdinov, R.R.; Gottesman, II; Kalueff, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are highly prevalent and severely debilitating brain illnesses caused by aberrant brain growth and development. Resulting in cognitive, social, motor, language and affective disabilities, common NDDs include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability,

  15. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  16. Rapamycin Prevents Seizures After Depletion of STRADA in a Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, Whitney E.; Orlova, Ksenia A.; Parker, William H.; Birnbaum, Jacqueline F.; Krymskaya, Vera P.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Baybis, Marianna; Helfferich, Jelte; Okochi, Kei; Strauss, Kevin A.; Crino, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    A rare neurodevelopmental disorder in the Old Order Mennonite population called PMSE (polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome; also called Pretzel syndrome) is characterized by infantile-onset epilepsy, neurocognitive delay, craniofacial dysmorphism, and histopathological

  17. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Effect of preformed konjac gels, with and without olive oil, on the technological attributes and storage stability of merguez sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, M; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ruiz-Capillas, C

    2013-03-01

    In order to improve the fat content of fresh sausages (merguez), the effects of both reducing beef fat level (by konjac gel-KG) and incorporing olive oil (in a konjac matrix-OKM) on nutritional, quality characteristic and refrigerated storage stability were studied. Fat reductions in merguez sausages of between 53 and 76% were achieved when beef fat was replaced with KG; the proportion reached 34-49% using OKM as a beef fat replacer, where 23 to 36% of total fat in the merguez was from olive oil. The merguez contained substantial amounts of some minerals (Mg and Fe). Sensory analysis revealed no significant differences between the control and the reformulated products, which had relatively low levels of lipid oxidation. Shelf life and biogenic amines of merguez sausage were not affected by formulation during refrigerated storage. Therefore, the use of konjac materials as fat replacers could reduce total caloric energy by replacing/reducing beef fat and improving sausage formulation to achieve healthier merguez products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of copper-glycine complexes on chemical composition and sensory attributes of raw, cooked and grilled chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    To determine the influence of glycine-Cu chelates (Gly-Cu) on chemical composition and sensory characteristic of chickens meat, two hundred of Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing 16 mg kg(-1) of copper sulfate (S-Cu; control group) or 16, 8 and 4 mg/kg of Cu-glycine chelate (Gly-Cu). The chemical composition was determined in crude and prepared (cooked and grilled) breast and thigh samples. No significant influence of Gly-Cu on the content of the protein, fat and ash in the breast meat was found. Substituting S-Cu with Gly-Cu at different doses in feed did not significantly modify the fatty acids profile of the meat. The breast meat from chickens administered with Gly-Cu contained significantly less cholesterol than that in S-Cu. No different effect of the experimental agent was observed regarding the content of Cu, Zn and Ca in the breast meat, while in chickens from all the groups administered Gly-Cu there was more significantly Fe (P meat revealed significantly (P meat was observed.

  20. Soybean Nitrogen Fixing Attributes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive unit and nitrogen fixing attributes (Carruthers er. al., 2000). In combination with various lupin and forages, these authors showed that soybean grain yield was decreased by most treatments. In order to limit over population and pollution risks, low nitrogen fertilizer agricultural systems are likely to be advocated.

  1. The effect of obesity, abdominal obesity and joint effect of them on high blood pressure in men of Mazandaran Province, Iran (population attributable fraction study): brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Mohammadi; Masoud Mirzaei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is one of the most important chronic illness worldwide and one the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Obesity and abdominal obesity are risk factors for high blood pressure. Population attributable fraction (PAF) answers the question of how much of the disease burden in a certain population may be reduced if a risk factor like obesity is removed from the population. It implies that reducing prevalence of obesity as a risk factor of hypertension, may reduc...

  2. Prognosis and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in conservatively treated twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Masayuki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amnioreduction remains a treatment option for pregnancies with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS not meeting criteria for laser surgery or those in which it is not feasible. Amnioreduction is a relatively simple treatment which does not require sophisticated technical equipment. Previous reports of conservative management have indicated that major neurodevelopmental impairment occurs in 14.3-26% of survivors. The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in conservatively treated TTTS. Methods During the nine-year study period from January 1996 to December 2004, all pregnancies with TTTS who were admitted to our center were investigated. TTTS was diagnosed by using standard prenatal ultrasound criteria, and staged according to the criteria of Quintero et al. We reviewed gestational age at diagnosis, gestational age at delivery, the stage of TTTS at diagnosis, and diagnosis to delivery interval. Neonatal cranial ultrasound findings were reviewed and the neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated. Results Twenty-one pregnancies with TTTS were included. Thirteen pregnancies (62% were treated with serial amnioreduction. The mean gestational age at delivery was 28 weeks (22 - 34 weeks. The perinatal mortality rate was 42.9%. Twenty survivors were followed up until at least 3 years of age. The mean age at follow-up was 6.3 years (3 - 12 years. Six children (30% had neurodevelopmental impairment. Four children (20% had major neurodevelopmental impairment and two children (10% had minor neurodevelopmental impairment. Children with neurodevelopmental impairment were delivered before 29 weeks of gestation. Conclusions Our study showed a high rate of perinatal mortality and a high rate of major neurodevelopmental impairment in conservatively treated TTTS. The long-term outcomes for the survivors with TTTS were good when survivors were delivered after 29 weeks of gestation.

  3. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.

  4. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  5. Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants resuscitated with air or 100% oxygen: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Vento, Maximo; Ramji, Siddarth; Howard, Diantha; Soll, Roger F

    2012-01-01

    The use of air for the initial resuscitation of newborn infants has been shown to reduce neonatal mortality. However, a precise estimate of the neurodevelopmental status upon follow-up of infants resuscitated in air is lacking. To perform a meta-analysis of all studies reporting resuscitation of newborn infants with air or 100% oxygen that included follow-up data. Bibliographic databases were searched. In addition, we estimated the effect of loss to follow-up on our analysis of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. We identified 10 studies in which newborn infants had been randomly or quasi-randomly assigned to resuscitation with air or 100% oxygen. Three of these 10 studies had available follow-up data. A total of 678 infants were enrolled at centers that performed follow-up of these infants. Of these, 113 died, leaving 565 infants potentially eligible for follow-up. A total of 414 children were evaluated (73% of eligible children; 195 resuscitated with air and 219 with 100% oxygen). In the air group, 12.8% of infants had an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome, compared with 10.5% in the 100% oxygen group [typical relative risk (RR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval 0.73-2.10]. This is consistent with an RR of abnormal development as low as 0.41 or as high as 2.28. Long-term follow-up did not detect any significant differences in these two groups regarding abnormal development. However, the results are imprecise and could be consistent with significant harm or benefit. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Neurodevelopmental problems at 18 months among children exposed to paracetamol in utero: a propensity score matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlenterie, Richelle; Wood, Mollie E; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Roeleveld, Nel; van Gelder, Marleen Mhj; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies showed that children exposed to paracetamol during fetal life might have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental problems. Since paracetamol is one of the most commonly used medications during pregnancy, even small increases in the risk of neurodevelopmental problems may have considerable implications for public health. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, we applied propensity score (PS) matching to examine associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and neurodevelopmental problems among children at 18 months of age. Paracetamol use was classified into short-term (< 28 days) and long-term (≥ 28 days) of exposure. Of the 51 200 pregnancies included in our study, 40.5% of mothers ( n  = 20 749) used paracetamol at least once during pregnancy. In the PS-matched analyses, long-term paracetamol exposure during pregnancy was associated with communication problems [odds ratio (OR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.95) and delayed motor milestone attainment (OR: 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70). We did not observe increased risks after short-term exposure. Sensitivity analyses for several indications showed similar effects as the PS-matched analyses, suggesting no confounding by indication. Long-term exposure to paracetamol in utero was associated with modestly increased risks of motor milestone delay and impaired communication skills among children at 18 months. Caution is warranted when considering long-term use of paracetamol during pregnancy; however, women with severe pain conditions should not be deprived of appropriate pharmacotherapy.

  7. The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Early Childhood Disruptive Behavior: Irritable and Callous Phenotypes as Exemplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S

    2017-11-17

    The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium.

  8. Molecular underpinnings of prefrontal cortex development in rodents provide insights into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, D; Martens, G J M; Kolk, S M

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC), seat of the highest-order cognitive functions, constitutes a conglomerate of highly specialized brain areas and has been implicated to have a role in the onset and installation of various neurodevelopmental disorders. The development of a properly functioning PFC is directed by transcription factors, guidance cues and other regulatory molecules and requires the intricate and temporal orchestration of a number of developmental processes. Disturbance or failure of any of these processes causing neurodevelopmental abnormalities within the PFC may contribute to several of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we elaborate on the specific processes underlying prefrontal development, such as induction and patterning of the prefrontal area, proliferation, migration and axonal guidance of medial prefrontal progenitors, and their eventual efferent and afferent connections. We furthermore integrate for the first time the available knowledge from genome-wide studies that have revealed genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders with experimental molecular evidence in rodents. The integrated data suggest that the pathogenic variants in the neurodevelopmental disorder-associated genes induce prefrontal cytoarchitectonical impairments. This enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prefrontal (mis)development underlying the four major neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, that is, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may thus provide clues for the development of novel therapies. PMID:25450230

  9. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Influenza vaccination in children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Peacock, Georgina; Uyeki, Timothy M; Moore, Cynthia

    2015-05-11

    Children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDDs) are at increased risk of complications from influenza. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recognized NNDDs as high-risk conditions for influenza complications since 2005, little is known about influenza vaccination practices in this population. CDC collaborated with Family Voices, a national advocacy group for children with special healthcare needs, to recruit parents of children with chronic medical conditions. Parents were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding influenza vaccination. The primary outcome of interest was parental report of vaccination, or intent to vaccinate, at the time of survey participation. CDC also collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics to recruit primary care and specialty physicians who provide care for high-risk children, specifically those with neurologic conditions. The primary outcome was physician recognition of ACIP high-risk influenza conditions. 2138 surveys were completed by parents of children with high-risk conditions, including 1143 with at least one NNDD. Overall, 50% of children with an NNDD were vaccinated, or their parents planned to have them vaccinated against influenza. Among all 2138 children, in multivariable analysis, the presence of a respiratory condition and prior seasonal influenza vaccination was significantly associated with receipt or planned current season influenza vaccination, but the presence of an NNDD was not. 412 pediatricians completed the provider survey. Cerebral palsy was recognized as a high-risk influenza condition by 74% of physician respondents, but epilepsy (51%) and intellectual disability (46%) were less commonly identified. Our estimates of influenza vaccination in children with NNDDs are comparable to published reports of vaccination in healthy children, which continue to be suboptimal. Education of parents of children with NNDDs and healthcare

  11. Neurodevelopmental origins of bipolar disorder: iPSC models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, K Sue; McInnis, Melvin G

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BP) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition characterized by pathological fluctuations in mood from mania to depression. Adoption, twin and family studies have consistently identified a significant hereditary component to BP, yet there is no clear genetic event or consistent neuropathology. BP has been suggested to have a developmental origin, although this hypothesis has been difficult to test since there are no viable neurons or glial cells to analyze, and research has relied largely on postmortem brain, behavioral and imaging studies, or has examined proxy tissues including saliva, olfactory epithelium and blood cells. Neurodevelopmental factors, particularly pathways related to nervous system development, cell migration, extracellular matrix, H3K4 methylation, and calcium signaling have been identified in large gene expression and GWAS studies as altered in BP. Recent advances in stem cell biology, particularly the ability to reprogram adult somatic tissues to a pluripotent state, now make it possible to interrogate these pathways in viable cell models. A number of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from BP patient and healthy control (C) individuals have been derived in several laboratories, and their ability to form cortical neurons examined. Early studies suggest differences in activity, calcium signaling, blocks to neuronal differentiation, and changes in neuronal, and possibly glial, lineage specification. Initial observations suggest that differentiation of BP patient-derived neurons to dorsal telencephalic derivatives may be impaired, possibly due to alterations in WNT, Hedgehog or Nodal pathway signaling. These investigations strongly support a developmental contribution to BP and identify novel pathways, mechanisms and opportunities for improved treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social neuroscience, empathy, brain integration, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James C

    2003-08-01

    Paul MacLean has investigated integrated brain functioning through selected brain lesions in animals that disturb circuits necessary for complex behaviors, such as social displays. MacLean is unique in his comparative neurobehavioral approach that emphasizes the evolutionary origins of parenting and social behaviors and the implications of brain changes in the evolution from reptiles (social displays) to mammals (nursing, audiovocal communication, play) to man (self-awareness, intentionality, social context) that link affect and cognition. Subjectively, how "looking with feeling toward others," the basic element in empathy, evolved has been a central concern of his. Neuroimaging studies of social cognition, mother-infant communication, moral behavior, forgiveness, and trust are consistent with particular brain systems being activated in cooperative social behaviors. The identification of mirror neurons is pertinent to MacLean's model of isopraxis and studies of thalamocortical resonances may be pertinent to his neurobehavioral models. Studies of behavioral phenotypes in human neurodevelopmental disorders are consistent with MacLean's model of brain circuits being linked to complex behaviors during development. In autistic disorder, the behavioral phenotype involves disrupted social communication, deviant imaginative play, and motor stereotypies. In Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS), self-injury occurs in individuals with normal sensory systems intact who require and request physical restraint to prevent self-injury; they ask for assistance from others to prevent them from harming themselves. Autism involves the lack of subjective awareness of others intentions and LNS involves a failure in self-regulation and self-control of self-injurious behavior. MacLean's models laid the groundwork for studies focused on understanding brain functioning in these conditions.

  13. Pediatric neuroenhancement: ethical, legal, social, and neurodevelopmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Nagel, Saskia K; Epstein, Leon G; Miller, Geoffrey; Nass, Ruth; Larriviere, Dan

    2013-03-26

    The use of prescription medication to augment cognitive or affective function in healthy persons-or neuroenhancement-is increasing in adult and pediatric populations. In children and adolescents, neuroenhancement appears to be increasing in parallel to the rising rates of attention-deficit disorder diagnoses and stimulant medication prescriptions, and the opportunities for medication diversion. Pediatric neuroenhancement remains a particularly unsettled and value-laden practice, often without appropriate goals or justification. Pediatric neuroenhancement presents its own ethical, social, legal, and developmental issues, including the fiduciary responsibility of physicians caring for children, the special integrity of the doctor-child-parent relationship, the vulnerability of children to various forms of coercion, distributive justice in school settings, and the moral obligation of physicians to prevent misuse of medication. Neurodevelopmental issues include the importance of evolving personal authenticity during childhood and adolescence, the emergence of individual decision-making capacities, and the process of developing autonomy. This Ethics, Law, and Humanities Committee position paper, endorsed by the American Academy of Neurology, Child Neurology Society, and American Neurological Association, focuses on various implications of pediatric neuroenhancement and outlines discussion points in responding to neuroenhancement requests from parents or adolescents. Based on currently available data and the balance of ethics issues reviewed in this position paper, neuroenhancement in legally and developmentally nonautonomous children and adolescents without a diagnosis of a neurologic disorder is not justifiable. In nearly autonomous adolescents, the fiduciary obligation of the physician may be weaker, but the prescription of neuroenhancements is inadvisable because of numerous social, developmental, and professional integrity issues.

  14. Impact of clinical exomes in neurodevelopmental and neurometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Christina; Staufner, Christian; Granzow, Martin; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Kaufmann, Lilian; Fischer, Christine; Thiel, Christian; Opladen, Thomas; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Wiemann, Stefan; Schlesner, Matthias; Eils, Roland; Kölker, Stefan; Bartram, Claus R; Hoffmann, Georg F; Moog, Ute

    2017-08-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) is well established in research and is now being introduced into clinically indicated diagnostics (so-called clinical exomes). We evaluated the diagnostic yield and clinical implications of WES in 72 patients from 60 families with undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), neurometabolic disorders, and dystonias. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants leading to a molecular diagnosis could be identified in 21 of the 60 families (overall 35%, in 36% of patients with NDD, in 43% of patients with neurometabolic disorders, in 25% of patients with dystonias). In one family two coexisting autosomal recessive diseases caused by homozygous pathogenic variants in two different genes were diagnosed. In another family, a homozygous frameshift variant in STRADA was found to cause a severe NDD with early onset epilepsy, brain anomalies, hypotonia, heart defect, nephrocalcinosis, macrocephaly and distinctive facies so far designated as PMSE (polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy) syndrome. In 7 of the 21 families with a molecular diagnosis the pathogenic variants were only identified by clinical follow-up, manual reevaluation of the literature, a change of filter setting, and/or reconsideration of inheritance pattern. Most importantly, clinical implications included management changes in 8 cases and impact on family planning in 20 families with a molecular diagnosis. This study shows that reevaluation and follow-up can improve the diagnostic rate and that WES results have important implications on medical management and family planning. Furthermore, we could confirm STRADA as a gene associated with syndromic ID but find it questionable if the current designation as PMSE depicts the most important clinical features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  16. Disease proportions attributable to environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2007-11-28

    Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Ambient PM2.5on Hypertension and Blood Pressure and Attributable Risk Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Di, Qian; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Zeng, Weilin; Cummings-Vaughn, Lenise A; Howard, Steven W; Vaughn, Michael G; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Ma, Wenjun; Wu, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, has also been hypothesized to be linked to PM 2.5 However, epidemiological evidence has been mixed. We examined long-term association between ambient PM 2.5 and hypertension and blood pressure. We interviewed 12 665 participants aged 50 years and older and measured their blood pressures. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations were estimated for each community using satellite data. We applied 2-level logistic regression models to examine the associations and estimated hypertension burden attributable to ambient PM 2.5 For each 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 , the adjusted odds ratio of hypertension was 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.22). Stratified analyses found that overweight and obesity could enhance the association, and consumption of fruit was associated with lower risk. We further estimated that 11.75% (95% confidence interval, 5.82%-18.53%) of the hypertension cases (corresponding to 914, 95% confidence interval, 453-1442 cases) could be attributable to ambient PM 2.5 in the study population. Findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient PM 2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension and is responsible for significant hypertension burden in adults in China. A higher consumption of fruit may mitigate, whereas overweight and obesity could enhance this effect. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  19. Help Giving in Achievement Contexts: A Developmental and Cultural Analysis of the Effects of Children's Attributions and Affects on Their Willingness to Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom R.; Flores, Margaret S.

    1998-01-01

    This developmental and cultural study investigates the impact children's attributions and affects have on their willingness to help in achievement contexts. Findings support Weiner's (1980) attribution-emotion-action model, although interesting developmental and cultural differences were revealed. Classroom implications and directions for future…

  20. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  1. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  2. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  3. Child functional characteristics explain child and family outcomes better than diagnosis: Population-based study of children with autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anton; Shen, Jane; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-06-15

    Allocation of resources for services and supports for children with neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities (NDD/D) is often based on the presence of specific health conditions. This study investigated the relative roles of a child's diagnosed health condition and neurodevelopmental and related functional characteristics in explaining child and family health and well-being. The data on children with NDD/D (ages 5 to 14; weighted n = 120,700) are from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS), a population-based Canadian survey of parents of children with functional limitations/disabilities. Direct and indirect effects of child diagnosis status-autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/not ASD-and functional characteristics (particularly, ASD-related impairments in speech, cognition, and emotion and behaviour) on child participation and family health and well-being were investigated in a series of structural equation models, while controlling for covariates. All models adequately fitted the data. Child ASD diagnosis was significantly associated with child participation and family health and well-being. When ASD-related child functional characteristics were added to the model, all direct effects from child diagnosis on child and family outcomes disappeared; the effect of child diagnosis on child and family outcomes was fully mediated via ASD-related child functional characteristics. Children's neurodevelopmental functional characteristics are integral to understanding the child and family health-related impact of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD. These findings have implications for the relative weighting given to functional versus diagnosis-specific factors in considering needs for services and supports.

  4. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and...

  5. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction: evidence of fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Carlé, Allan; Karmisholt, Jesper; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Andersen, Stig

    2017-07-01

    Fetal programming is a long-standing, but still evolving, concept that links exposures during pregnancy to the later development of disease in the offspring. A fetal programming effect has been considered within different endocrine axes and in relation to different maternal endocrine diseases. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the hypothesis of fetal programming by maternal thyroid dysfunction in the context of fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of early brain development, and evidence from experimental and observational human studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in the brain caused by the lack or excess of thyroid hormone during fetal brain development. The hypothesis that such abnormalities introduced during early fetal brain development increase susceptibility for the later onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring is biologically plausible. However, epidemiological studies on the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and long-term child outcomes are observational in design, and are challenged by important methodological aspects. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. The effect of titanium amendment in N-withholding nutrient solution on physiological and photosynthesis attributes and micronutrient uptake of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Maryam; Heidarian, Salman; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2012-12-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a beneficial element that promotes growth and biomass production although the mechanism by which this improvement takes place is still unclear, as are other effects on plants, although it is believed that Ti can compensate for N deficiency. To prove this hypothesis, a hydroponic experiment was designed to investigate the effect of adding Ti to a nutrient solution on the nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) by withholding N within the nutrient solution (NS) by 25 % (NS2) and by 50 % (NS1). Ti was added at 1 and 2 mg L⁻¹. When Ti was added to nutrient solution, the elemental concentration in tomato changed significantly: K, Ca, Fe, and Zn decreased while Ti increased. As the concentration of N in nutrient solution decreased, the Ca and Ti concentration of tomato leaves decreased and the K, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration increased. As the N concentration in nutrient solution increased, the Ca concentration decreased although the application of Ti compensated for Ca concentration in NS1. All the photosynthetic attributes and physiological characteristics, including flower induction, decreased when the N concentration of NS decreased by 50 %, although this decrease could be compensated by applying 1 mg L⁻¹ Ti. This has valuable and practical applications and implications for tomato hydroponic culture.

  7. Simultaneous Inoculation of Malbec (Vitis vinifera Musts with Yeast and Bacteria: Effects on Fermentation Performance, Sensory and Sanitary Attributes of Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Massera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malolactic fermentation has important consequences for the quality of wine. The present study analyzes the effect of timing of inoculation with bacteria on the performance of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation in Malbec musts from a warm climate wine growing region during two consecutive vintages, with a specific consideration for the sensory and sanitary wine parameters. In this study traditional vinification, where malolactic bacteria were inoculated after the completion of alcoholic fermentation, was compared with a simultaneous inoculation with yeast and bacteria. The experiment was made on pilot scale which closely reproduces winery conditions. The obtained results point out that simultaneous inoculation resulted in a reduction of total time of fermentation and a better control of the malolactic fermentation due to the early dominance of a selected bacterial strain. There were no negative effects on yeast population and alcoholic fermentation performance observed. Differences between the wine sensory attributes were no significant or they were in favour of simultaneous inoculations. No statistical differences in the biogenic amine levels between different timings of inoculation were found.

  8. Conceptualizing neurodevelopmental disorders through a mechanistic understanding of fragile X syndrome and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Haas, Brian W; Reiss, Allan L

    2012-04-01

    The overarching goal of this review is to compare and contrast the cognitive-behavioral features of fragile X syndrome (FraX) and Williams syndrome and to review the putative neural and molecular underpinnings of these features. Information is presented in a framework that provides guiding principles for conceptualizing gene-brain-behavior associations in neurodevelopmental disorders. Abnormalities, in particular cognitive-behavioral domains with similarities in underlying neurodevelopmental correlates, occur in both FraX and Williams syndrome including aberrant frontostriatal pathways leading to executive function deficits, and magnocellular/dorsal visual stream, superior parietal lobe, inferior parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus abnormalities contributing to deficits in visuospatial function. Compelling cognitive-behavioral and neurodevelopmental contrasts also exist in these two disorders, for example, aberrant amygdala and fusiform cortex structure and function occurring in the context of contrasting social behavioral phenotypes, and temporal cortical and cerebellar abnormalities potentially underlying differences in language function. Abnormal dendritic development is a shared neurodevelopmental morphologic feature between FraX and Williams syndrome. Commonalities in molecular machinery and processes across FraX and Williams syndrome occur as well - microRNAs involved in translational regulation of major synaptic proteins; scaffolding proteins in excitatory synapses; and proteins involved in axonal development. Although the genetic variations leading to FraX and Williams syndrome are different, important similarities and contrasts in the phenotype, neurocircuitry, molecular machinery, and cellular processes in these two disorders allow for a unique approach to conceptualizing gene-brain-behavior links occurring in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, É; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fombonne, É; Platt, R W; Bernatsky, S

    2014-10-01

    Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus seem to have a potentially increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children born to healthy women. Recent experimental data suggest in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, women with systemic lupus erythematosus display high levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, which have been shown, in animal models, to alter fetal brain development and induce behavioral anomalies in offspring. Furthermore, subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and neurodevelopmental disorders share a common genetic predisposition, which could impair the fetal immune response to in utero immunologic insults. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes and medication exposures, which have been implicated as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on neurodevelopmental disorders and their potential determinants in systemic lupus erythematosus offspring. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Prenatal and postnatal animal models of immune activation: relevance to a range of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has established links between immune activation during the prenatal or early postnatal period and increased risk of developing a range of neurodevelopment disorders in later life. Animal models have been used to great effect to explore the ramifications of immune activation during gestation and neonatal life. A range of behavioral, neurochemical, molecular, and structural outcome measures associated with schizophrenia, autism, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy have been assessed in models of prenatal and postnatal immune activation. However, the epidemiology-driven disease-first approach taken by some studies can be limiting and, despite the wealth of data, there is a lack of consensus in the literature as to the specific dose, timing, and nature of the immunogen that results in replicable and reproducible changes related to a single disease phenotype. In this review, we highlight a number of similarities and differences in models of prenatal and postnatal immune activation currently being used to investigate the origins of schizophrenia, autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. However, we describe a lack of synthesis not only between but also within disease-specific models. Our inability to compare the equivalency dose of immunogen used is identified as a significant yet easily remedied problem. We ask whether early life exposure to infection should be described as a disease-specific or general vulnerability factor for neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss the implications that either classification has on the design, strengths and limitations of future experiments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Efficacy of Intensive Neurodevelopmental Treatment for Children With Developmental Delay, With or Without Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Ho Jun; Nam, Ki Yeun; Park, Tae June; Kim, Hee Jae; Kwon, Bum Sun

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on gross motor function for the children having developmental delay (DD), with or without cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-two children had intensive NDT three times weekly, 60 minutes a day, for 3 months, immediately followed by conventional NDT once or twice a week, 30 minutes a day, for another 3 months. We assessed Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) over three time points: before conventional NDT, before and after intensive NDT, and after 3 months of additional conventional NDT. The GMFM score in DD children significantly improved after intensive NDT, and the improvement maintained after 3 months of conventional NDT (pintensive NDT (ptreatment efficacy between the two groups. When we calculate the absence rate for comparing the compliance between intensive and conventional NDT, the absence rate was lower during the intensive NDT. Intensive NDT showed significantly improved gross motor function and higher compliance than conventional NDT. Additionally, all improvements were maintained through subsequent short-term conventional NDT. Thus, we recommend the intensive NDT program by day-hospital centers for children with DD, irrespective of accompanying CP.

  12. The effect of material attributes and process parameters on the powder bed uniformity during a low-dose dosator capsule filling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Dreu, R; Šibanc, R; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2017-01-10

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of process parameters of a dosator nozzle machine on the powder bed uniformity of inhalation powders with various characteristics during a low-dose dosator capsule filling process. Three grades of lactose excipients were extensively characterized and filled into size 3 capsules using different dosing chamber lengths (2.5, 5mm), nozzle diameters (1.9, 3.4mm), powder bed heights (5, 10mm) and filling speeds (500, 3000capsules/h). The fill weight and the weight variability of Lactohale 100 (large particles, good flowability, low cohesion) remained almost the same, regardless of the process parameters throughout the capsule filling run time. Moreover, for this powder an increase in the fill weight at a higher filling speed was observed in all cases. Fill weight variability was significantly higher for lower dosing chamber volumes at a filling speed of 3000 capsules per hour. Lactohale 220 (small particles, poor flowability, high cohesion) delivered entirely different results. After a certain run time, depending on instrumental settings, a 'steady-state' with constant fill weights and low weight variability was achieved. For this highly cohesive powder, a high dosing chamber volume requires a low filling speed in order for the powder to completely fill the dosator nozzle. Moreover, it was established that a dosing chamber length of 2.5mm and a powder bed height of 10mm were required due to the powder's high fill weight variability over time, while the dosator size had no effect on it. In summary, the layer uniformity, the fill weight and the weight variability strongly depend on the powder characteristics and the instrumental settings. The results indicate that Lactohale 220 requires special attention during low-dose capsule filling. The study presents excellent insights into the effect of material attributes and process parameters on the layer uniformity and the quality of end product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  13. Evaluating and modeling the effects of surface sampling factors on the recovery of organic chemical attribution signatures using the accelerated diffusion sampler and solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kai-For; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an experimental design matrix was created and executed in order to test the effects of various real-world factors on the ability of the (1) accelerated diffusion sampler with solid phase micro-extraction (ADS-SPME) and (2) solvent extraction to capture organic chemical attribution signatures (CAS) from dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) spiked onto painted wall board (PWB) surfaces. The DMMP CAS organic impurities sampled by ADS-SPME and solvent extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The number of detected DMMP CAS impurities and their respective GC/MS peak areas were determined as a function of DMMP stock, DMMP spiked volume, exposure time, SPME sampling time, and ADS headspace pressure. Based on the statistical analysis of experimental results, several general conclusions are made: (1) ADS-SPME with vacuum (i.e., reduced pressure) increased the amount of detected CAS impurity, as measured by GC/MS peak area, by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 for PWB under certain experimental conditions, (2) the amount of detected CAS impurity was most influenced by spiked volume, stock, and ADS headspace pressure, (3) the ADS had no measurable effect on the number of detected DMMP impurities, that is, the ADS (with and without reduced pressure) had no practical effect on the DMMP impurity profile collected from spiked PWB, and (4) solvent extraction out performed ADS-SPME in terms of consistently capturing all or most of the targeted DMMP impurities from spiked PWB.

  14. Evaluating and modeling the effects of surface sampling factors on the recovery of organic chemical attribution signatures using the accelerated diffusion sampler and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kai-For; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Fraga, Carlos G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an experimental design matrix was created and executed to test the effects of various real-world factors on the ability of (1) the accelerated diffusion sampler with solid phase micro-extraction (ADS-SPME) and (2) solvent extraction to capture organic chemical attribution signatures (CAS) from dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) spiked onto painted wall board (PWB) surfaces. The DMMP CAS organic impurities sampled by ADS-SPME and solvent extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The number of detected DMMP CAS impurities and their respective GC/MS peak areas were determined as a function of DMMP stock, DMMP spiked volume, exposure time, SPME sampling time, and ADS headspace pressure. Based on the statistical analysis of experimental results, several general conclusions are made: (1) the amount of CAS impurity detected using ADS-SPME and GC/MS was most influenced by spiked volume, stock, and ADS headspace pressure, (2) reduced ADS headspace pressure increased the amount of detected CAS impurity, as measured by GC/MS peak area, by up to a factor of 1.7-1.9 compared to ADS at ambient headspace pressure, (3) the ADS had no measurable effect on the number of detected DMMP impurities, that is, ADS (with and without reduced pressure) had no practical effect on the DMMP impurity profile collected from spiked PWB, and (4) solvent extraction out performed ADS-SPME in terms of consistently capturing all or most of the targeted DMMP impurities from spiked PWB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated hot-melt extrusion - injection molding continuous tablet manufacturing platform: Effects of critical process parameters and formulation attributes on product robustness and dimensional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Hogan, Rachael C; Brancazio, David; Puri, Vibha; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-05

    This study provides a framework for robust tablet development using an integrated hot-melt extrusion-injection molding (IM) continuous manufacturing platform. Griseofulvin, maltodextrin, xylitol and lactose were employed as drug, carrier, plasticizer and reinforcing agent respectively. A pre-blended drug-excipient mixture was fed from a loss-in-weight feeder to a twin-screw extruder. The extrudate was subsequently injected directly into the integrated IM unit and molded into tablets. Tablets were stored in different storage conditions up to 20 weeks to monitor physical stability and were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, DSC, SEM, XRD and dissolution analysis. Optimized injection pressure provided robust tablet formulations. Tablets manufactured at low and high injection pressures exhibited the flaws of sink marks and flashing respectively. Higher solidification temperature during IM process reduced the thermal induced residual stress and prevented chipping and cracking issues. Polarized light microscopy revealed a homogeneous dispersion of crystalline griseofulvin in an amorphous matrix. DSC underpinned the effect of high tablet residual moisture on maltodextrin-xylitol phase separation that resulted in dimensional instability. Tablets with low residual moisture demonstrated long term dimensional stability. This study serves as a model for IM tablet formulations for mechanistic understanding of critical process parameters and formulation attributes required for optimal product performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of pulsed electric field treatments at various stages during conditioning on quality attributes of beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Cristina; Lascorz, Diana; O'Dowd, Louise; Noci, Francesco; Arimi, Joshua; Lyng, James G

    2015-01-01

    Beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle was used to evaluate the effect of PEF treatments (1.4 kV/cm, 10 Hz, 20 μs, 300 and 600 pulses) on meat quality attributes (weight loss, colour, cook loss and texture) and its evolution at various stages during ageing (2, 10, 18 and 26 days post-mortem). The length of meat ageing before and after PEF application exerted no influence on weight loss, colour and cook loss. Results also demonstrated that PEF treatments applied at different times post-mortem (2, 10, 18 and 26 days) showed a tendency towards reducing toughness of beef samples but that the application of PEF did not affect the tenderization process provided by ageing itself. 60% of the sensory panellists scored PEF treated samples as tender (≥6.0 points out of 9.0) whereas only 27.5% did so for untreated samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Transplanting Dates and Spacing on Yield Attributing Character, Productivity and Economics of Potato Cultivation Through True Potato Seed (TPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in split plot design was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Potato Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Anandapur,West Midnapore,West Bengal to study the effect of dates of transplanting and spacing on yield attributing character, productivity and economics of potato cultivation through true potato seed (TPS technology. The highest number of tubers per plant was recorded in early transplanted (December 3 crop, while, crop spacing did not produce any significant differences in recording tuber number per plant. Early established crop also produced significantly higher tuber weight per plant as compared to intermediate (December 11 and late (December 19 transplanted crops and widely spaced (60 x 15 cm crop recorded higher weight of tuber per plant as compared to the narrowly spaced crop. Early transplanting and wider spacing also showed its superiority in respect of recording harvest index of potato. As such, early transplanted and densely planted crops produced significantly higher yield of seedling tuber, marketable tuber and total tuber than their counterparts. Though cost of production of early transplanted and closely spaced crop was higher, but net profit and return per rupee investment was also higher in those cases.

  18. Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Reolon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been indications that intrauterine and early extrauterine growth can influence childhood mental and motor function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and early extrauterine head growth on the neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins. Thirty-six monozygous twin pairs were evaluated at the corrected age of 12 to 42 months. Intrauterine growth restriction was quantified using the fetal growth ratio. The effects of birth weight ratio, head circumference at birth and current head circumference on mental and motor outcomes were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression models. Separate estimates of the between (interpair and within (intrapair effects of each measure on development were thus obtained. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, by a psychologist blind to the exposure. A standardized neurological examination was performed by a neuropediatrician who was unaware of the exposures under investigation. After adjustment, birth weight ratio and head circumference at birth were not associated with motor or mental outcomes. Current head circumference was associated with mental but not with motor outcomes. Only the intrapair twin effect was significant. An increase of 1 cm in current head circumference of one twin compared with the other was associated with 3.2 points higher in Mental Developmental Index (95%CI = 1.06-5.32; P < 0.03. Thus, no effect of intrauterine growth was found on cognition and only postnatal head growth was associated with cognition. This effect was not shared by the co-twin.

  19. The predictive validity of neonatal MRI for neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Thompson, Deanne K

    2015-03-01

    Very preterm children are at a high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments, but there is variability in the pattern and severity of outcome. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhances the capacity to detect brain injury and altered brain development and assists in the prediction of high-risk children who warrant surveillance and early intervention. This review describes the application of conventional and advanced MRI with very preterm neonates, specifically focusing on the relationship between neonatal MRI findings and later neurodevelopmental outcome. Research demonstrates that conventional MRI is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood. Further studies are needed to examine the role of advanced MRI techniques in predicting outcome in very preterm children, but early research findings are promising. In conclusion, neonatal MRI is predictive of later neurodevelopment but is dependent on appropriately trained specialists and should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of speech production in two boys with neurodevelopmental disorders who received communication intervention with a speech-generating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laura; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Schlosser, Ralf W; Stevens, Michelle; van der Meer, Larah; Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora; James, Ruth; Carnett, Amarie; Hodis, Flaviu; Green, Vanessa A; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Machalicek, Wendy; Marschik, Peter B

    2014-11-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often present with little or no speech. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aims to promote functional communication using non-speech modes, but it might also influence natural speech production. To investigate this possibility, we provided AAC intervention to two boys with neurodevelopmental disorders and severe communication impairment. Intervention focused on teaching the boys to use a tablet computer-based speech-generating device (SGD) to request preferred stimuli. During SGD intervention, both boys began to utter relevant single words. In an effort to induce more speech, and investigate the relation between SGD availability and natural speech production, the SGD was removed during some requesting opportunities. With intervention, both participants learned to use the SGD to request preferred stimuli. After learning to use the SGD, both participants began to respond more frequently with natural speech when the SGD was removed. The results suggest that a rehabilitation program involving initial SGD intervention, followed by subsequent withdrawal of the SGD, might increase the frequency of natural speech production in some children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This effect could be an example of response generalization. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amelioration of fetal alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders in rats: exploring pharmacological and environmental treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, J H; Berman, R F

    2000-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARNDs) in children are characterized by life-long compromises in learning, memory, and adaptive responses. Until the advent of effective prevention measures, it will remain necessary to seek ways to treat the life-long neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. To date, there are no clinical remedies to recommend for either specific or global fetal alcohol effects. This article reviews our basic research in animal models that assesses the potential of global environmental manipulations or specific psychopharmacological treatments to ameliorate the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Postweaning environmental enrichment can improve behavioral performance and ameliorate or even eliminate deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats, although there is persistent impairment in neuronal plasticity, as indicated by the failure of hippocampal pyramidal cells to increase dendrite spine density. Behavioral and neural responses to CNS stimulants differ in rats exposed prenatally to alcohol, although it is not clear that these shifts in dose-response curves would predict benefit to children. Although the present results may sound a note of optimism for the development of effective treatment strategies for children with FAS or ARNDs, it is important to consider that application of these findings in rodents may not be straightforward. We also need to know the critical features of specific environments that influence brain development, and the limits of pharmacotherapy, as well as critical periods of exposure. Continued study of the beneficial, ameliorative effects of environmental enrichment, rehabilitative training, and of pharmacological therapies in animal models, will remain a valuable source of information for eventually devising treatments specific for children with FAS and ARNDs.

  2. Generating Attributed Networks with Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Largeron, Christine; Mougel, Pierre-Nicolas; Rabbany, Reihaneh; Zaïane, Osmar R

    2015-01-01

    .... When nodes are described with a set of attributes we have an attributed network. Nodes and their relationships tend to naturally form into communities or clusters, and discovering these communities is paramount to many applications...

  3. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  4. An Attributional Perspective on Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing from the attributional investigations of Bernard Weiner and colleagues in the area of achievement motivation, this review addresses attribution theory and its implications for labeling of handicapped children. It is concluded that attributions, not the presence or absence of formal labels, may be the critical variable of concern.…

  5. Modeling long-term effects attributed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on asthma morbidity in a nationwide cohort in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, N; Carel, R S; Derazne, E; Tiktinsky, A; Tzur, D; Portnov, B A

    2017-01-01

    Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollutants. The effects of annual NO2 and SO2 exposures on asthma prevalence were determined in 137,040 17-year-old males in Israel, who underwent standard health examinations before induction to military service during 1999-2008. Three alternative models of cumulative exposure were used: arithmetic mean level (AM), average peak concentration (APC), and total number of air pollution exposure episodes (NEP). Air pollution data for NO2 and SO2 levels were linked to the residence of each subject and asthma prevalence was predicted using bivariate logistic regression. There was significant increased risk for asthma occurrence attributed to NO2 exposure in all models with the highest correlations demonstrated using the APC model. Data suggested that exposure-response is better correlated with NO2 peak concentration than with average exposure concentration in subjects with asthma. For SO2, there was a weaker but still significant exposure response association in all models. These differences may be related to differences in physiological responses including effects on different regions of the airways following exposure to these pollutants. NO2, which is poorly soluble in water, penetrates deep into the bronchial tree, producing asthmatic manifestations such as inflammation and increased mucus production as a result of high gaseous

  6. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Sebastián

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. Methods An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. Results An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved, and lowering cholesterol with

  7. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Colantonio, Lisandro; Bardach, Ariel; Caporale, Joaquín; Martí, Sebastián García; Kopitowski, Karin; Alcaraz, Andrea; Gibbons, Luz; Augustovski, Federico; Pichón-Rivière, Andrés

    2010-10-20

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL). The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved), mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved), and lowering cholesterol with statin drug therapy (I$ 14,432 per DALY saved

  8. Lifetime attributable risk as an alternative to effective dose to describe the risk of cancer for patients in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Eckerman, Keith; Mattsson, Sören

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to implement lifetime attributable risk (LAR) predictions of cancer for patients of various age and gender, undergoing diagnostic investigations or treatments in nuclear medicine and to compare the outcome with a population risk estimate using effective dose and the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk coefficients. The radiation induced risk of cancer occurrence (incidence) or death from four nuclear medicine procedures are estimated for both male and female between 0 and 120 years. Estimations of cancer risk are performed using recommended administered activities for two diagnostic (18F-FDG and 99mTc-phosphonate complex) and two therapeutic (131I-iodide and 223Ra-dichloride) radiopharmaceuticals to illustrate the use of cancer risk estimations in nuclear medicine. For 18F-FDG, the cancer incidence for a male of 5, 25, 50 and 75 years at exposure is 0.0021, 0.0010, 0.0008 and 0.0003, respectively. For 99mTc phosphonates complex the corresponding values are 0.000 59, 0.000 34, 0.000 27 and 0.000 13, respectively. For an 131I-iodide treatment with 3.7 GBq and 1% uptake 24 h after administration, the cancer incidence for a male of 25, 50 and 75 years at exposure is 0.041, 0.029 and 0.012, respectively. For 223Ra-dichloride with an administration of 21.9 MBq the cancer incidence for a male of 25, 50 and 75 years is 0.31, 0.21 and 0.09, respectively. The LAR estimations are more suitable in health care situations involving individual patients or specific groups of patients than the health detriment based on effective dose, which represents a population average. The detriment consideration in effective dose adjusts the cancer incidence for suffering of non-lethal cancers while LAR predicts morbidity (incidence) or mortality (cancer). The advantages of these LARs are that they are gender and age specific, allowing risk estimations for specific patients or subgroups thus better representing individuals in health care

  9. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years after Initial Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I. Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had "never" met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and…

  10. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: early characteristics and evolution of a neurodevelopmental syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Silver, Kenneth; Gerard-Blanluet, Marion; Pedespan, Jean-Michel; Renault, Francis; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Schlesinger-Massart, Mylynda; Lewelt, Aga J; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2009-03-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a predominantly sporadic neurodevelopmental syndrome of uncertain etiology. In more than 3 decades since its description, little progress has been made in understanding its etiology or in identifying effective treatments. In 1998, in collaboration with the Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation, an international registry was established to help document clinical outcomes and promote research efforts. We present phenotypic data on 103 patients who met existing diagnostic criteria for alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Although some of these subjects may have been included in previously published reviews, our focus was directed toward the earliest manifestations of symptoms and evolution of features over time. Data sources included written questionnaires, face-to-face and telephone interviews, clinical examination, and medical charts. Characteristics of disease onset, medical comorbidities, episode triggers, diagnostic workup, and treatment are presented. Paroxysmal eye movements were the most frequent early symptom, manifesting in the first 3 months of life in 83% of patients. Hemiplegic episodes appeared by 6 months of age in 56% of infants. Background slowing shown by electroencephalography during typical paroxysmal events, including hemiplegic, tonic, or dystonic episodes was frequent (21 of 42 cases). Distinct convulsive episodes with altered consciousness believed to be epileptic in nature were reported in 41% of patients. Ataxia (96%) and cognitive impairment (100%) were frequent nonepisodic symptoms. Empiric pharmacologic treatment approaches offered little benefit in most subjects and resulted in adverse effects in 20% of patients. Prolonged episodes were completely or temporarily aborted during sleep in all subjects. This descriptive analysis of a large cohort of children indicates that paroxysmal ocular movements are an early, highly suggestive symptom, followed by paroxysmal episodes of focal dystonia or

  11. Sequencing Chromosomal Abnormalities Reveals Neurodevelopmental Loci that Confer Risk across Diagnostic Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talkowski, Michael E.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Blumenthal, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of balanced chromosomal abnormalities, combined with convergent genomic studies of gene expression, copy-number variation, and genome-wide association, identifies 22 new loci that contribute to autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. These data support a polygenic risk model f...

  12. Child neurodevelopmental outcomes following preterm and term birth: What can the placenta tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Aboustate, Natalie; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T; Clifton, Vicki L; Stark, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection. Further, we will describe the placenta's role as both a barrier to maternally-derived bioactive substances critical for normal fetal brain development, such as cortisol, and a source of neuroactive steroids and neurotrophins known to have critical functions in neuronal proliferation, axonal growth, myelination and the regulation of apoptosis. Finally, emerging data supporting the potential utility of novel placental biomarkers in the early prediction of poor neurodevelopmental outcome in infants born both preterm and term will be discussed. These include the assessment of genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms in placental tissue) and epigenetic biomarkers (e.g. placental microRNAs and placental DNA methylation). With the placenta the key tissue regulating the fetal environment, integration of observed changes in placental function with genetic and epigenetic variations may advance our ability to predict future infant health. Ultimately, this may facilitate targeted allocation of health resources with the aim of improving lifelong neurodevelopmental capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  14. Severe influenza among children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions - Ohio, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza, including death. In April 2011, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC investigated an influenza outbreak that began in February 2011 in a residential facility for 130 children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. This report summarizes the characteristics and clinical courses of 13 severely ill residents with suspected or confirmed influenza; 10 were hospitalized, and seven died. Diagnosis is challenging in this population, and clinicians should consider influenza in patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions who have respiratory illness or a decline in baseline medical status when influenza is circulating in the community. Prompt testing, early and aggressive antiviral treatment, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis are important for these patients. When influenza is suspected, antiviral treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset, ideally within 48 hours. Treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. During outbreaks, antiviral chemoprophylaxis should be provided to all residents of institutional facilities (e.g., nursing homes and long-term- care facilities), regardless of vaccination status. Residential facilities for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are encouraged to vaccinate all eligible residents and staff members against influenza.

  15. Brain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mebius, Mirthe J.; Kool, Elisabeth M. W.; Bilardo, Catherina M.; Bos, Arend F.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Brain injury during prenatal and preoperative postnatal life might play a major role in neurodevelopmental impairment in infants with congenital heart disease (CIID) who require corrective or palliative surgery during infancy. A systematic review of cerebral findings during this period in

  16. Genetic and neurodevelopmental spectrum of SYNGAP1-associated intellectual disability and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mignot, Cyril; von Stülpnagel, Celina; Nava, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to delineate the neurodevelopmental spectrum associated with SYNGAP1 mutations and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We sequenced the exome or screened the exons of SYNGAP1 in a total of 251 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Molecular and clini......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to delineate the neurodevelopmental spectrum associated with SYNGAP1 mutations and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We sequenced the exome or screened the exons of SYNGAP1 in a total of 251 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Molecular...... and clinical data from patients with SYNGAP1 mutations from other centres were also collected, focusing on developmental aspects and the associated epilepsy phenotype. A review of SYNGAP1 mutations published in the literature was also performed. RESULTS: We describe 17 unrelated affected individuals carrying...... 13 different novel loss-of-function SYNGAP1 mutations. Developmental delay was the first manifestation of SYNGAP1-related encephalopathy; intellectual disability became progressively obvious and was associated with autistic behaviours in eight patients. Hypotonia and unstable gait were frequent...

  17. Lessons Learned: Engaging Culturally Diverse Families in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Allison B.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Pugliese, Cara; Mendez, Rocio; Safer-Lichtenstein, Jonathan; Dudley, Katerina M.; Kahn, Nicole F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Biel, Matthew; Martucci, Jillian L.; Anthony, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority families continue to face critical disparities in access to diagnostic and treatment services for neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Despite the growing cultural diversity of the United States, ethnic minority children and families continue to…

  18. Neurobiological Circuits Regulating Attention, Cognitive Control, Motivation, and Emotion: Disruptions in Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review basic and clinical studies outlining the roles of prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in the behavior and cognitive functions that are compromised in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and how these map into the neuroimaging evidence of circuit abnormalities in these disorders. Method: Studies of animals,…

  19. Communication Intervention for Young Children with Severe Neurodevelopmental Disabilities via Telehealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simacek, Jessica; Dimian, Adele F.; McComas, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    Young children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Rett syndrome often experience severe communication impairments. This study examined the efficacy of parent-implemented communication assessment and intervention with remote coaching via telehealth on the acquisition of early communication skills of three…

  20. Midazolam dose correlates with abnormal hippocampal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G; Guo, Ting; Dodbiba, Lorin; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E; Miller, Steven P

    2016-04-01

    Very preterm-born neonates (24-32 weeks of gestation) are exposed to stressful and painful procedures during neonatal intensive care. Analgesic and sedation therapies are essential, and opiates and benzodiazepines are commonly used. These medications may negatively impact brain development. The hippocampus may be especially vulnerable to the effects of pain and analgesic and/or sedative therapies and contribute to adverse outcomes. The effect of invasive procedures and analgesic-sedative exposure on hippocampal growth was assessed, as was that of hippocampal growth on neurodevelopmental outcome. A total of 138 neonates (51% male, median gestational age = 27.7 weeks) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans, early in life (postmenstrual age [PMA] = 32.3 weeks) and at term-equivalent age (PMA = 40.2 weeks). Volumes and DTI measures of axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained from the hippocampus. Cognitive, language, and motor abilities were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III at 18.7 months median corrected age. Models testing the association of invasive procedures with hippocampal volumes and DTI measures accounted for birth gestational age, sex, PMA, dose of analgesics/sedatives (fentanyl, morphine, midazolam), mechanical ventilation, hypotension, and surgeries. Total midazolam dose predicted decreased hippocampal volumes (β = -1.8, p 0.5 each). Lower cognitive scores were associated with hippocampal growth (β = -0.31, p = 0.003), midazolam dose (β = -0.27, p = 0.03), and surgery (β = -8.32, p = 0.04). Midazolam exposure was associated with macro- and microstructural alterations in hippocampal development and poorer outcomes consistent with hippocampal dysmaturation. Use of midazolam in preterm neonates, particularly those not undergoing surgery, is cautioned. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  1. Early neurodevelopmental screening in tuberous sclerosis complex: a potential window of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Srivastava, Siddharth; Poretti, Andrea; Vaurio, Rebecca; Hartman, Adam; Johnston, Michael V

    2014-09-01

    Infants born with tuberous sclerosis complex, a genetic condition resulting from a mutation in TSC1 or TSC2, are at increased risk for intellectual disability and/or autism. Features of epilepsy, neuropathology, genetics, as well as timing and type of mechanism-based medications have been proposed as risk factors. Neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported among these studies; however, few include data about the individuals' early neurodevelopmental profile, a factor that may contribute significantly to these outcomes. Further, there is no clinical standard for the neurodevelopmental assessment of these infants. The paucity of data regarding the natural history of neurodevelopment in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex and the lack of a gold standard for neurodevelopmental evaluation present a significant challenge for clinicians and researchers. During the first year of life, we tracked the onset of infantile spasms, the type and timing of antiepileptic treatments, and the associated response of two age-matched infants with tuberous sclerosis complex. We also employed Capute Scales as a part of a structured neurodevelopmental evaluation to characterize and compare their neurodevelopmental profiles. Infant 1 developed infantile spasms with confirmed hypsarrhythmia at 4 months of age. Treatment with vigabatrin was initiated within 24 hours with near immediate cessation of seizures and no further seizures to date. Expressive language delay was detected at 12 months and treated with speech and/or language therapy. Infant 2 developed complex partial seizures at 1 month. Treatment included levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and the ketogenic diet. Vigabatrin was initiated on detection of hypsarrhythmia after 4 months. Intractable epilepsy persists to date. Global developmental delay was evident by 8 months and treated with physical, occupational, and speech and/or language therapy. Many risk factors have been associated with intellectual disability and/or autism in

  2. Dynamic Attribution of Global Water Demand to Surface Water and Groundwater Resources: Effects of Abstractions and Return Flows on River Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338038612; van Beek, L. P. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14749799X; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Bierkens, M. F. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2014-01-01

    As human water demand is increasing worldwide, pressure on available water resources grows and their sustainable exploitation is at risk. To mimic changes in exploitation intensity and the connecting feedbacks between surface water and groundwater systems, a dynamic attribution of demand to water

  3. Gluten-Free Sources of Fermentable Extract: Effect of Temperature and Germination Time on Quality Attributes of Teff [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] Malt and Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ghionno, Lidia; Marconi, Ombretta; Lee, Eung Gwan; Rice, Christopher J; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of a white teff variety called Witkop during malting by using different parameters (germination temperature and duration) and to identify the best malting program. Samples were evaluated for standard quality malt and wort attributes, pasting characteristics, β-glucan and arabinoxylan content, and sugar profile. It was concluded that malting teff at 24 °C for 6 days produced acceptable malt in terms of quality attributes and sugar profile for brewing. The main attributes were 80.4% extract, 80.9% fermentability, 1.53 mPa s viscosity, 7.4 EBC-U color, 129 mg/L FAN, and 72.1 g/L of total fermentable sugars. Statistical analysis showed that pasting characteristics of teff malt were negatively correlated with some malt quality attributes, such as extract and fermentability. Witkop teff appeared to be a promising raw material for malting and brewing. However, the small grain size may lead to difficulties in handling malting process, and a bespoke brewhouse plant should be developed for the production at industrial scale.

  4. Scale-dependency of LiDAR derived terrain attributes in quantitative soil-landscape modeling: Effects of grid resolution vs. neighborhood extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of soil properties is essential for ecological and environmental modeling at the landscape scale. Terrain attributes are one of the primary covariates in soil-landscape models due to their control on energy and mass fluxes, which in turn contr...

  5. Does Parental Attributional Retraining and Anger Management Enhance the Effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with Parents at Risk of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Pidgeon, Aileen M.; Gravestock, Fred; Connors, Mark D.; Brown, Samantha; Young, Ross W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-eight parents experiencing significant difficulties in managing their own anger in their interactions with their preschool-aged children were randomly assigned either to an enhanced group-administered behavioral family intervention program based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program that incorporated attributional retraining and anger…

  6. Effects of silviculture and genetics on branch/knot attributes of coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir and implications for wood quality--a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Douglas A. Maguire; David G. Briggs; Eric C. Turnblom; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; Jed. Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few...

  7. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  8. Neurodevelopmental functioning in children with FAS, pFAS, and ARND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasnoff, Ira J; Wells, Anne M; Telford, Erin; Schmidt, Christine; Messer, Gwendolyn

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the neurodevelopmental profiles of 78 foster and adopted children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS), or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). Seventy-eight foster and adopted children underwent a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. By using criteria more stringent than those required by current guidelines, the children were placed in 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: FAS, pFAS, or ARND. Each child was evaluated across the domains of neuropsychological functioning most frequently affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences in neuropsychological functioning between the 3 diagnostic groups. Descriptive discriminant analyses were performed in follow-up to the multivariate analyses of variance. The children in the 3 diagnostic categories were similar for descriptive and child welfare variables. Children with FAS had significantly decreased mean weight, height, and head circumference. Children with FAS exhibited the most impaired level of general intelligence, significantly worse language-based memory compared with children with ARND, and significantly poorer functional communication skills than children with pFAS. On executive functioning, the FAS group of children performed significantly worse on sequencing and shift than either the pFAS or ARND groups. Children with pFAS and ARND were similar in all neurodevelopmental domains that were tested. The children who met tightly defined physical criteria for a diagnosis of FAS demonstrated significantly poorer neurodevelopmental functioning than children with pFAS and ARND. Children in these latter 2 groups were similar in all neurodevelopmental domains that were tested.

  9. Telephone interviews and online questionnaires can be used to improve neurodevelopmental follow-up rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Bradley N; Smith, Lucy K; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Marlow, Neil; Boyle, Elaine M

    2014-04-08

    Maximising response rates to neurodevelopmental follow-up is a key challenge for paediatric researchers. We have investigated the use of telephone interviews and online questionnaires to improve response rates, reduce non-response bias, maintain data completeness and produce unbiased outcomes compared with postal questionnaires when assessing neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years. A prospective cohort study of babies born ≥32 weeks gestation. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 2 years of age using a parent questionnaire completed via post, telephone or online. Relative Risks with 95% confidence intervals (RR; 95% CI) were calculated to identify participant characteristics associated with non-response and questionnaire response mode (postal vs. telephone/online). The proportion of missing data and prevalence of adverse outcomes was compared between response modes using generalized linear models. Offering telephone/online questionnaires increased the study response rate from 55% to 60%. Telephone/online responders were more likely to be non-white (RR 1.6; [95% CI 1.1, 2.4]), non-English speaking (1.6; [1.0, 2.6]) or have a multiple birth (1.6; [1.1, 2.3]) than postal responders. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes between those who responded via post vs. telephone/online (1.1; [0.9, 1.4]). Where parents attempted all questionnaire sections, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing data between response modes. Where there is sufficient technology and resources, offering telephone interviews and online questionnaires can enhance response rates and improve sample representation to neurodevelopmental follow-up, whilst maintaining data completeness and unbiased outcomes.

  10. Automated electroencephalographic discontinuity in cooled newborns predicts cerebral MRI and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jonathan M; Wertheim, David; Clarke, Paul; Kapellou, Olga; Chisholm, Philippa; Boardman, James P; Shah, Divyen K

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged electroencephalographic (EEG) discontinuity has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes after perinatal asphyxia but its predictive value in the era of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is unknown. In infants undergoing TH for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) prolonged EEG discontinuity is associated with cerebral tissue injury on MRI and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Retrospective study of term neonates from three UK centres who received TH for perinatal asphyxia, had continuous two channel amplitude-integrated EEG with EEG for a minimum of 48 h, brain MRI within 6 weeks of birth and neurodevelopmental outcome data at a median age of 24 months. Mean discontinuity was calculated using a novel automated algorithm designed for analysis of the raw EEG signal. Of 49 eligible infants, 17 (35%) had MR images predictive of death or severe neurodisability (unfavourable outcome) and 29 (59%) infants had electrographic seizures. In multivariable logistic regression, mean discontinuity at 24 h and 48 h (both p=0.01), and high seizure burden (p=0.05) were associated with severe cerebral tissue injury on MRI. A mean discontinuity >30 s/min-long epoch, had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, sensitivity of 71% and a negative predictive value of 88% for unfavourable neurodevelopmental outcome at a 10 µV threshold. In addition to seizure burden, excessive EEG discontinuity is associated with increased cerebral tissue injury on MRI and is predictive of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome in infants treated with TH. The high positive predictive value of EEG discontinuity at 24 h may be valuable in selecting newborns with HIE for adjunctive treatments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Management of Sleep Disorders in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Allison Beck; Feinstein, James A

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with NDDs is largely heterogeneous and disease specific. The diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in this population are complex, and little high-quality data exist to guide a consistent approach to therapy. Managing sleep disorders in children with NDDs is critical both for the child and for the family but is often frustrating due to the refractory nature of the problem. Sleep hygiene must be implemented as first-line therapy; if sleep hygiene alone fails, it should be combined with pharmacologic management. The available evidence for the use of common pharmacologic interventions, such as iron supplementation and melatonin, as well as less common interventions, such as melatonin receptor agonists, clonidine, gabapentin, hypnotics, trazodone, and atypical antipsychotics is reviewed. Further, parents and caregivers should be provided with appropriate education on the nature of the sleep disorders and the expectation for modest pharmacologic benefit, at best. Additional data from well-designed trials in children with NDDs are desperately needed to gain a better understanding of sleep pharmacotherapy including efficacy and safety implications. Until then, clinicians must rely on the limited available data, as well as clinical expertise, when managing sleep disorders in the

  12. Mice lacking Brinp2 or Brinp3, or both, exhibit behaviours consistent with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Ruth Berkowicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brinps 1 – 3, and Astrotactins (Astn 1 and 2, are members of the Membrane Attack Complex / Perforin (MACPF superfamily that are predominantly expressed in the mammalian brain during development. Genetic variation at the human BRINP2/ASTN1 and BRINP1/ASTN2 loci has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We, and others, have previously shown that Brinp1-/- mice exhibit behaviour reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Method: We created Brinp2-/- mice and Brinp3-/- mice via the Cre-mediated LoxP system to investigate the effect of gene deletion on anatomy and behaviour. Additionally, Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- double knock-out mice were generated by interbreeding Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice. Genomic validation was carried out for each knock-out line, followed by histological, weight and behavioural examination. Brinp1-/-Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- triple knock-out mice were also generated by crossing Brinp2/3 double knock-out mice with previously generated Brinp1-/- mice, and examined by weight and histological analysis.Results: Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice differ in their behaviour: Brinp2-/- mice are hyperactive, whereas Brinp3-/- mice exhibit marked changes in anxiety-response on the elevated plus maze. Brinp3-/- mice also show evidence of altered sociability. Both Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice have normal short-term memory, olfactory responses, pre-pulse inhibition and motor learning. The double knock-out mice show behaviours of Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice, without evidence of new or exacerbated phenotypes. Conclusion: Brinp3 is important in moderation of anxiety, with potential relevance to anxiety disorders. Brinp2 dysfunction resulting in hyperactivity may be relevant to the association of ADHD with chromosome locus 1q25.2. Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- genes do not compensate in the mammalian brain and likely have distinct molecular or cell-type specific functions.

  13. Attribute-Value Functions as Global Interpretations of Attribute Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand decision maker’s perceptions of the importance of attributes, Goldstein (1990) differentiates between global and local interpretations of attribute importance. While the appreciation for the distinction is growing, research on the relationship between measures of global

  14. Attribution theory and attributional therapy: some theoretical observations and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B

    1988-02-01

    Two shortcomings of attributional therapy and therapy-related research are pointed out. First, crucial comparisons between attributional inductions are not being made, so that the variables mediating change remain uncertain and, secondly, the full theory is not being used, thereby greatly limiting the possible change programmes.

  15. MR imaging of term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy as a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome and late MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Eilish; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Twomey, Anne; Murphy, John [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Dublin (Ireland); Donoghue, Veronica B. [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-09-15

    Morbidity attributable to hypoxic-ischaemic injury (HIE) in the perinatal period remains problematic, and timely and accurate assessment of the degree of injury is required for clinical management and prognosis. Conventional MR sequences typically appear normal in the first 48 h post HIE. While diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps register the injury earlier, perhaps within the first 24 h, it has been suggested that there may be a propensity at that early stage to underestimate the lesion severity or extent. To assess whether MR imaging that included DWI, measured ADC values and T1- and T2-weighted sequences ultimately correlated with either neurodevelopmental outcome or with late MR imaging at 2 years of age. In addition, we wished to compare the performance of MR imaging with cranial US imaging. All infants presenting with HIE who had an MRI within 10 days of life were eligible for enrollment and subsequently underwent a full neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years of age. All children underwent repeat MRI at this time. All neonates had at least one cranial US study. The US findings were categorized as normal, abnormalities confined to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, isolated central grey matter hyperechogenicity, and central hyperechogenicity combined with cerebral cortical/subcortical changes. All MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. The patterns of injury on the early DWI and ADC maps and early T1- and T2-W studies were recorded as diffuse, central, watershed or atypical. The patterns of signal abnormality were assessed using a scoring system that yielded four separate scores [basal ganglia (BG), watershed (W), BG/W and summation (S)] for the three sets of images, a total of 12 scores in all. The appearance of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) on T1-W inversion recovery sequences and of the corpus callosum on all sequences was also documented. After

  16. Noncognitive Attributes in Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Anthony E; Goldgar, Constance; Hills, Karen J; Snyder, Jennifer H; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Lane, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity. The need for these noncognitive attributes in clinicians is being reinforced by changes in the US health care system, including shifting patient demographics and a growing emphasis on team-based care and patient satisfaction, and the need for clinicians to help patients interpret complex medical information. The 2016 Physician Assistant Education Association Stakeholder Summit revealed certain behavioral and affective qualities that employers of PAs value and sometimes find lacking in new graduates. Although there are still gaps in the evidence base, some tools and technologies currently exist to more accurately measure noncognitive variables. We propose some possible strategies and tools that PA programs can use to formalize the way they select for noncognitive attributes. Since PA programs have, on average, only 27 months to educate students, programs may need to focus more resources on selecting for these attributes than teaching them.

  17. “Selfish spermatogonial selection”: a novel mechanism for the association between advanced paternal age and neurodevelopmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, Anne; McGrath, John J.; Hultman, Christina M.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.; Malaspina, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is robust evidence from epidemiological studies that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Here we present a novel mechanism that may contribute to this association. Methods Narrative review. Results Because the male germ cell undergoes many more cell divisions across the reproductive age range, copy-errors taking place in the paternal germline are associated with de novo mutations in the offspring of older men. Recently it has been recognized that somatic mutations in male germ cells that modify proliferation via dysregulation of the RAS pathway can lead to within-testis expansion of mutant clonal lines. First identified in association with rare paternal age-effect disorders (e.g. Apert syndrome, achondroplasia), this process is known as ‘selfish spermatogonial selection’. This mechanism will (a) favor propagation of germ cells carrying pathogenic mutations, (b) increasingly skew the mutational profile of sperm as men age, and (c) result in an enrichment of de novo mutations in the offspring of older fathers that preferentially impact on specific cellular signaling pathways. This mechanism offers a parsimonious explanation not only for the association between advanced paternal age and various neurodevelopmental disorders, but also provides insights into the genetic architecture (role of de novo mutations), neurobiological correlates (altered cell cycle) and some epidemiological features of these disorders. We outline hypotheses to test this model. Conclusions In light of our current understanding of the genetic networks involved in neurocognitive disorders and the principles of selfish spermatogonial selection, we speculate that some pathogenic mutations associated with these disorders are the consequence of a selfish mechanism originating in the aging testis. Given the secular changes for delayed parenthood in most societies, this hypothesis has important public

  18. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  19. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...

  20. Attribution Theory and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Peter

    Causal attribution theory, including the concept of learned helplessness, has been used to explain student motivation and achievement in school. In this paper, a model is developed which explains how attribution theory could explain student effort and achievement in mathematics. According to the model, student perceptions of success or failure in…