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Sample records for neurod1-expressing globose basal

  1. Five new Talaromyces species with ampulliform-like phialides and globose rough walled conidia resembling T. verruculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces verruculosus, T. aculeatus and T. apiculatus are the only Talaromyces species that produce conidiophores with ampulliform phialides, which taper into very thin necks and have rough walled, globose conidia. In this study, we introduce five new species with similar micromorphological fe...

  2. Landscape genetics reveals inbreeding and genetic bottlenecks in the extremely rare short-globose cacti Mammillaria pectinifera (Cactaceae as a result of habitat fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Maya-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mammillaria pectinifera is an endemic, short-globose cactus species, included in the IUCN list as a threatened species with only 18 remaining populations in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in central Mexico. We evaluated the population genetic diversity and structure, connectivity, recent bottlenecks and population size, using nuclear microsatellites. M. pectinifera showed high genetic diversity but some evidence of heterozygote deficiency (FIS, recent bottlenecks in some populations and reductions in population size. Also, we found low population genetic differentiation and high values of connectivity for M. pectinifera, as the result of historical events of gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal. M. pectinifera occurs in sites with some degree of disturbance leading to the isolation of its populations and decreasing the levels of gene flow among them. Excessive deforestation also changes the original vegetation damaging the natural habitats. This species will become extinct if it is not properly preserved. Furthermore, this species has some ecological features that make them more vulnerable to disturbance such as a very low growth rates and long life cycles. We suggest in situ conservation to prevent the decrease of population sizes and loss of genetic diversity in the natural protected areas such as the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve. In addition, a long-term ex situ conservation program is need to construct seed banks, and optimize seed germination and plant establishment protocols that restore disturbed habitats. Furthermore, creating a supply of living plants for trade is critical to avoid further extraction of plants from nature.

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  4. Basal cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  5. Notch1 maintains dormancy of olfactory horizontal basal cells, a reserve neural stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Daniel B; Lin, Brian; Peterson, Jesse; Schnittke, Nikolai; Schwob, James E

    2017-07-11

    The remarkable capacity of the adult olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate fully both neurosensory and nonneuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury depends on life-long persistence of two stem cell populations: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), which are quiescent and held in reserve, and mitotically active globose basal cells. It has recently been demonstrated that down-regulation of the ΔN form of the transcription factor p63 is both necessary and sufficient to release HBCs from dormancy. However, the mechanisms by which p63 is down-regulated after acute OE injury remain unknown. To identify the cellular source of potential signaling mechanisms, we assessed HBC activation after neuron-only and sustentacular cell death. We found that ablation of sustentacular cells is sufficient for HBC activation to multipotency. By expression analysis, next-generation sequencing, and immunohistochemical examination, down-regulation of Notch pathway signaling is coincident with HBC activation. Therefore, using HBC-specific conditional knockout of Notch receptors and overexpression of N1ICD, we show that Notch signaling maintains p63 levels and HBC dormancy, in contrast to its suppression of p63 expression in other tissues. Additionally, Notch1, but not Notch2, is required to maintain HBC dormancy after selective neuronal degeneration. Taken together, our data indicate that the activation of HBCs observed after tissue injury or sustentacular cell ablation is caused by the reduction/elimination of Notch signaling on HBCs; elimination of Jagged1 expressed by sustentacular cells may be the ligand responsible.

  6. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia. Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  7. Basal cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  8. Transcription factor p63 controls the reserve status but not the stemness of horizontal basal cells in the olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittke, Nikolai; Herrick, Daniel B; Lin, Brian; Peterson, Jesse; Coleman, Julie H; Packard, Adam I; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E

    2015-09-08

    Adult tissue stem cells can serve two broad functions: to participate actively in the maintenance and regeneration of a tissue or to wait in reserve and participate only when activated from a dormant state. The adult olfactory epithelium, a site for ongoing, life-long, robust neurogenesis, contains both of these functional stem cell types. Globose basal cells (GBCs) act as the active stem cell population and can give rise to all the differentiated cells found in the normal tissue. Horizontal basal cells (HBCs) act as reserve stem cells and remain dormant unless activated by tissue injury. Here we show that HBC activation following injury by the olfactotoxic gas methyl bromide is coincident with the down-regulation of protein 63 (p63) but anticipates HBC proliferation. Gain- and loss-of-function studies show that this down-regulation of p63 is necessary and sufficient for HBC activation. Moreover, activated HBCs give rise to GBCs that persist for months and continue to act as bona fide stem cells by participating in tissue maintenance and regeneration over the long term. Our analysis provides mechanistic insight into the dynamics between tissue stem cell subtypes and demonstrates that p63 regulates the reserve state but not the stem cell status of HBCs.

  9. Primary Cilia on Horizontal Basal Cells Regulate Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Ariell M; Green, Warren W; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Allen, Benjamin L; Schwob, James E; Martens, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-07

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88(fl/fl)) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory neurons and may

  10. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Isil Bulur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  11. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  12. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

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    F Handa

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 years old male developed nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, manifesting as multiple basal cell epitheliomas, marked mutilation of the face and characteristic pitting on the palms and soles. Calcification of the falx cerebri and scoliosis of the lumbar spine were also seen.

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

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    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  16. Laboratory Constraints on Basal Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoet, L.; Ikari, M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    Basal seismicity has been observed across a continuum of glacier morphologies and bed conditions, ranging from ice streams to alpine glaciers, and from hard to deformable beds. Passive seismicity provides a non-invasive method for observing basal processes and investigating ice-earth interactions in glaciated regions, offering the opportunity to characterize the bed (e.g. till stiffness, shear modulus, changes in subglacial hydrology) over glaciated regions. While analysis of glacial seismicity continues to be a widely-used method for studying ice-earth phenomena, the underlying mechanics that control glacial seismicity remain speculative. We have performed a series of experiments using a biaxial shearing apparatus that simulates glacier slip by shearing debris-laden ice over bedrock. By modifying and controlling the apparatus stiffness and frictional rheologic stiffness, we generated a range of stick-slip behaviors during shearing. Our data provide the first experimental insights into unstable glacier slip to be compared with field seismological observations. We found that our laboratory icequakes approximate several seismological field observations of glacier slip, such as dynamic slip distance, stress drop, velocity, and acceleration. Furthermore, the stress drop and peak slip velocity of laboratory ice-quakes are comparable with laboratory stick-slip on fault gouge. We found that once a critical sliding velocity was exceeded a transition from stable to unstable slip occurred as predicted by rate-and-state friction. Our results demonstrate that: (1) characteristics of basal glacial seismicity determined by traditional seismologic analysis techniques are corroborated by our laboratory measurements, (2) both icequakes and earthquakes on tectonic faults are controlled by similar physical mechanisms, and (3) slip behavior in glaciers can be accurately predicted by rate-and-state friction laws, which are traditionally used to describe rock friction.

  17. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms...

  20. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  1. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral

  2. Contemporary Children and Basal Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebacher, Kathryn F.

    Contemporary children must deal with many family problems that children 20 years ago never had to face, including divorce, parental separation, death, working mothers, and economic status. To determine how well current basal reading series reflect the changing American family, the stories of four basal reading series for grades four, five, and six…

  3. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of MYB in salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma and basal cell adenoma.

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    Rooney, Sydney L; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Basal cell predominant salivary gland neoplasms can be difficult to separate histologically. One of the most aggressive of basaloid salivary gland neoplasms is adenoid cystic carcinoma. MYB expression by immunohistochemistry has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Some investigators have suggested that using this expression can help in establishing the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Utilizing tissue microarrays, we studied a group of basal cell adenocarcinomas and basal cell adenomas to determine: (i) whether either tumor expressed MYB and (ii) the frequency of any expression in either tumors. Seventeen salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 30 salivary gland basal cell adenomas were used to construct microarrays. These tissue microarrays were used to assess for immunohistochemical MYB expression. Fifty-three percent (nine of 17) of salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 57% (17 of 30) of salivary gland basal cell adenomas showed MYB overexpression. For comparison, we studied 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas for MYB expression and found that 64% (seven of 11) overexpressed MYB. We found no relation to clinical course for basal adenomas or basal cell adenocarcinomas that overexpressed MYB vs those that did not. MYB expression does not help separate basal cell adenocarcinomas from basal cell adenomas, and our data suggest it does not differentiate between either of these neoplasms and adenoid cystic carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

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    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  6. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  7. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  8. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  9. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. PMID:28954101

  10. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors.

  11. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayam, Raviraj; Annigeri, Rajeshwari; Rao, Balaji; Gadiputi, Satish; Gadiputi, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical...

  12. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  13. Basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelson James Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The parieto-occipital region of the brain is the most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. We describe a patient with SSPE confirmed by neuropathology based on brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive basal ganglia involvement and no significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, clinicians should be aware of this involvement. SSPE should be kept in mind when changes in basal ganglia signal are seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging with or without involvement of other regions of the human brain to avoid erroneous etiological diagnosis of other pathologies causing rapidly progressive dementia.

  14. Jaw mechanics in basal ceratopsia (Ornithischia, Dinosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Kyo; Grandstaff, Barbara S; You, Hai-Lu; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Ceratopsian dinosaurs were a dominant group of herbivores in Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems. We hypothesize that an understanding of the feeding system will provide important insight into the evolutionary success of these animals. The mandibular mechanics of eight genera of basal ceratopsians was examined to understand the variability in shape of the jaws and the early evolution of the masticatory system in Ceratopsia. Data were collected on lever arms, cranial angles and tooth row lengths. The results indicate that psittacosaurids had higher leverage at the beak and in the rostral part of the tooth row than basal neoceratopsians, but lower leverage in the caudal part of the tooth row. Although the vertebrate mandible is generally considered as a third-class lever, that of basal neoceratopsians acted as a second-class lever at the caudal part of the tooth row, as is also true in ceratopsids. When total input force from the mandibular adductor muscles on both sides of the skull is considered, the largest bite force in basal ceratopsian tooth rows was exerted in the caudal part of the tooth row at the caudal extremity of the zone with near-maximum input force. Medially positioned teeth generate higher leverage than laterally positioned teeth. The largest bite force in all basal ceratopsians is smaller than the maximum input force, a limit imposed by the morphology of the basal ceratopsian masticatory system. In ceratopsids, caudal extension of the tooth row resulted in a much larger bite force, even exceeding the maximum input force. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the great amount of basal N fertilizer but lower uptake ability at rice seedling, it was essential to increase the N use efficiency of basal fertilizer and reduce N pollution. So, a field experiment was conducted at Wuxi, China, under non-basal N and basal N fertilizer conditions, to identify the variation of grain yield ...

  16. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  17. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

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    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  18. Basal Cell Adenoma‑Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare ...

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers

  20. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  1. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  2. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an ...

  3. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master…

  4. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  5. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  6. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  7. Thoracoscopic Medial-Basal Segment Segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Yajima, Toshiki; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Obayashi, Kai; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Kosaka, Takayuki; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The technical details and anatomic features of medial-basal segment (S(7)) segmentectomy have not been reported. We report here thoracoscopic S(7) segmentectomy and S(7)a subsegmentectomy and explain the anatomic knowledge necessary to perform S(7) segmentectomy, especially the importance of recognizing bronchus (B(7)) branching patterns before surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their ch...

  9. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  10. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  11. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  12. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Tingzhe; Yang, Weiwei; Liu, Jing; Shen, Pingping

    2011-01-01

    .... Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops...

  13. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  14. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  15. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  17. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  18. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  19. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  20. Basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, J; D'Hermies, F; Renard, G

    2005-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are the more frequent malignant tumors seen in France as in other western countries. They represent 20% of eyelid tumors and 90% of eyelid malignancies. Due to their local growth, problems may arise when treating BCC, and curative exeresis must be the preferred choice each time it is possible. BCC of the eyelids have a high risk of recurrence. Recurrences are more aggressive, infiltrative and destructive and have a considerably poorer rate of cure than primary tumors. Eyelid reconstructions can entail use of complex methods which should only be carried out by a trained ophthalmologist who is also able to treat any associated age-related ocular pathologies. BCC is the most common cause leading to eyelid reconstructive surgery; a surgery which has a triple objective: tumor removal, functionality and an esthetic outcome. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Skeletal ontogeny in basal scleractinian micrabaciid corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2013-03-01

    The skeletal ontogeny of the Micrabaciidae, one of two modern basal scleractinian lineages, is herein reconstructed based on serial micro-computed tomography sections and scanning electron micrographs. Similar to other scleractinians, skeletal growth of micrabaciids starts from the simultaneous formation of six primary septa. New septa of consecutive cycles arise between septa of the preceding cycles from unique wedge-shaped invaginations of the wall. The invagination of wall and formation of septa are accompanied by development of costae alternating in position with septa. During corallite growth, deepening invagination of the wall results in elevation of septa above the level of a horizontal base. The corallite wall is regularly perforated thus invaginated regions consist of pillars inclined downwardly and outwardly from the lower septal margins. Shortly after formation of septa (S2 and higher cycles) their upper margins bend and fuse with the neighboring members of a previous cycle, resulting in a unique septal pattern, formerly misinterpreted as "septal bifurcation." Septa as in other Scleractinia are hexamerally arranged in cycles. However, starting from the quaternaries, septa within single cycles do not appear simultaneously but are inserted in pairs and successively flank the members of a preceding cycle, invariably starting from those in the outermost parts of the septal system. In each pair, the septum adjacent to older septa arises first (e.g., the quinaries between S2 and S4 before quinaries between S3 and S4). Unique features of micrabaciid skeletal ontogeny are congruent with their basal position in scleractinian phylogeny, which was previously supported by microstructural and molecular data. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Classic Case of Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattaprasad Dadhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited condition characterized mainly by basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratinizing odontogenic tumors, and other systemic anomalies. As these manifestations do not alter the patient′s lifestyle, most of the cases are diagnosed through oral abnormalities. A classic case of basal cell nevus syndrome fulfilling almost all the major and minor criteria has been reported here.

  3. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  4. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaninder S. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-11-25

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  6. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  7. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition for Locally Advanced Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Omar K; Yin, Vivian; Chou, Eva; Ball, Sharon; Kies, Merrill; William, William N; Migden, Michael; Thuro, Bradley A; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-08-01

    To review our experience treating patients with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, in patients with orbital or periocular locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or basal cell nevus syndrome. Retrospective interventional case series. We reviewed all patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome treated with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, at a comprehensive cancer center from 2009 through 2015. Reviewed data included age; sex; American Joint Commission on Cancer tumor, node, metastasis staging system designation; type and grade of drug-related side effects; response to treatment; duration of follow-up, and status at last follow-up. The study included 10 white men and 2 white women; the median age was 64.5 years. Ten patients had locally advanced BCC; 2 had basal cell nevus syndrome. Among the patients with locally advanced BCC, 5 had T3bN0M0 disease at presentation; 1 each had T3aN0M0, T3bN1M0, T2N1M1, T4N1M1, and T4N2cM1 disease. Overall, 3 patients had a complete response, 6 had a partial response, and 3 had stable disease at last follow-up. Two patients developed progressive disease after a complete response for 38 months and stable disease for 16 months, respectively. All patients developed grade I drug-related adverse effects, most commonly muscle spasms (12 patients), weight loss (10), dysgeusia (9), alopecia (9), decreased appetite (5), and fatigue (4). Five patients developed grade II adverse effects. At last follow-up, none of the 5 patients presenting with T3bN0M0, nor the patient with T3bN1M0 disease, had required orbital exenteration. Hedgehog pathway inhibition produces a significant clinical response in most patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome and can obviate orbital exenteration in some patients. Drug-related adverse effects are manageable in most patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  9. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of ameloblastoma.[4] The microscopic features of basal cell ameloblastoma, however, are similar to those of several malignant tumors, including basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC),[5,6] cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and solid‑type adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC).[1] The pathologist may sometimes fail to.

  11. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  12. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... pollution. During the past decades, many investigations have been reported, related to nitrogen efficiency of different plant genotypes (Zhang et al., 1997; .... 274. 411. 548. Gr ai n yi el d wi t hout basal grain yield with basal fertilizer (g/8 plants). I. Ⅱ. (a). -20. -10. 0. 10. 20. -1. 99. 199. Rice variety number. A.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Ct brain demonstration of basal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of the basal ganglia in AIDS encephalopathy is well docu- mented in both adults and children. The pathology remains obscure. A type of inflammation with increased vascularity and disruption of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children ...

  14. Seasonal variation of grassland basal cover | JW | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal cover, measured by wheel-point and bridge-point methods, showed a statistically significant seasonal increase through summer and a decrease again after the rainfall began decreasing with the onset of winter. An initial small rise and fall in basal cover at the beginning of spring was shown by the wheel-point survey ...

  15. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  16. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  17. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0679 TITLE: DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION? 5b. GRANT NUMBER...that this protective layer may be maintained by tumors formed during pregnancy lactation cycle, but may be preferentially compromised by tumors

  18. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  20. Orbital invasion by periocular basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Igal; McNab, Alan; Sullivan, Timothy; Davis, Garry; Selva, Dinesh

    2005-04-01

    To present a large series of patients with orbital invasion by periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. All cases diagnosed with orbital invasion by periocular BCC between January 1985 and July 2004 in 3 Orbital Units in Australia. The clinical records of all patients were reviewed. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, histologic subtypes, treatment modalities, recurrence rate, and tumor-related death. There were 64 patients (49 males) with a mean age of 70+/-13 years. Most tumors (84.4%) were recurrent or previously incompletely excised, and the medial canthus was most frequently involved (56.2%). Signs suggestive of orbital involvement included a mass with bone fixation (35.7%), limitation of ocular motility (30.4%), and globe displacement (17.6%). There were no signs suggestive of orbital invasion in 35.7%. Most patients (51.6%) had infiltrative histologic findings, and perineural invasion was present in 19.3%. Treatment modalities were mainly exenteration alone or combined with radiotherapy. During a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years, 3 cases of recurrence (4.7%) were diagnosed. Only 1 patient (1.6%) died from tumor-related causes. Orbital invasion by periocular BCC is an uncommon event that may be associated with significant ocular morbidity and, rarely, death. Because orbital invasion may often be clinically silent, clinicians need to be alert to the possibility in high-risk tumors and consider appropriate imaging. Surgical treatment with exenteration or excision, with or without radiotherapy, results in a low recurrence and mortality rate.

  1. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  2. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas. To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. Pubmed was used to search the following terms: axillary basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. The papers and their citations were evaluated. Basal cell nevus syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma of the axilla were observed in two women; this represents 2.5% (2 of 79) of the patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma. Both women had pigmented tumors that were histologically nonaggressive. The cancers did not recur after curettage or excision. Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla has only been described in 79 individuals; two of the patients were women with pigmented tumors who had basal cell nevus syndrome. Similar to other patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma, the tumors were histologically nonaggressive and did not recur following treatment. Whether PTCH1 gene mutation predisposes basal cell nevus patients to develop axillary basal cell carcinomas remains to be determined.

  3. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  4. Interactions between the midbrain superior colliculus and the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eRedgrave

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC, anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated.

  5. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  6. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  7. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...... that is higher than that previously reported. The basal cell carcinoma material was further studied regarding the amount of amyloid, mitotic rate, degree of apoptosis and the age of the patients. There was no correlation between the amount of amyloid and the mitotic rate, or the degree of apoptosis...

  8. Is cutaneous leishmaniasis a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, M; Almasri, R; Hamadah, I

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common epithelial neoplasm of skin. Risk factors for the development of BCC include intermittent intense sun exposure, radiation therapy, family history of BCC, immune suppression and fair complexion, especially red hair. It can originate in scars like small pox, vaccination, chicken pox or surgical scars. We present a case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a leishmania scar on the nose, sixty years after the primary lesion. Although rare, BCC's have arisen in leishmania scars. Thus the possibility of basal cell carcinoma should be considered while dealing with such patients. Even though a causal relationship, if any, cannot be ascertained at present.

  9. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-09-21

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia.

  10. Basal sliding of temperate basal ice on a rough, hard bed: pressure melting, creep mechanisms and implications for ice streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbendam, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Basal ice motion is crucial to ice dynamics of ice sheets. The Weertman sliding model for basal sliding over bedrock obstacles proposes that sliding velocity is controlled by pressure melting and/or ductile flow, whichever is the fastest; it further assumes that stoss-side melting is limited by heat flow through the obstacle and ductile flow is controlled by Power Law Creep. These last two assumptions, it is argued here, are invalid if a substantial basal layer of temperate (T ~ Tmelt) ice is...

  11. Elucidation of Basal Body and Centriole Functions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutcher, Susan K

    2003-01-01

    .... They are needed for the assembly of flagella or cilia as well as for cell division. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provides an excellent model organism for the study of the basal body and centrioles...

  12. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss, changes in personality, a distorted view of reality (psychosis), and decline in intellectual function (dementia). An ... N, Hirose G. Neurological deficits are associated with increased brain calcinosis, hypoperfusion, and hypometabolism in idiopathic basal ...

  14. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  15. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2003-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  16. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  17. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report | Khadija | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it ... develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma,resulting ofpatient's negligence. ... cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurringin a 79 years old male patient, with a ...

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome and Hairy Skin Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Manisha; Kamangar, Faranak; Awasthi, Smita; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of an increasing number of discrete patches of darkly pigmented terminal hair in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This case adds to a small case series of three patients which have previously reported this observation. We report this case to highlight hairy patches as an important clinical feature associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  20. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheyer, Torsten; Sander, P. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys que...

  1. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Lei Yang; Shunping He

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish ...

  2. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  3. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  4. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  5. Classification of Cryostructures of Basal Glacier Ice Using Tomodensitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Stephani, E.; Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    In permafrost areas, the extent of former glaciations can be inferred from the occurrence of buried glacier ice (Murton et al. 2005). Buried basal glacier ice can only be distinguished from other type of massive ice if the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice are well-known. Several classifications of basal ice have been developed based on the geological facies analysis (Lawson 1979, Knight 1994, Hubbard and Sharp 1995). However, none of them have addressed basal ice descriptions in terms of cryostructures. We used conventional field descriptions and microcomputed tomodensitometry to evaluate structure and properties of sediments including basal ice. The scan images were processed using a thresholding technique which assigns gray scale values to the components of basal ice based on their density. These values were used to determine the volumetric content of each component (ice, sediment, gas). We have used the Mathworks MATLAB R2007a software to produce three-dimensional images of basal ice cryostructures. The main advantage of these is to obtain in a non-destructive manner precise average ice and sediment contents for a given volume of a particular cryostructure. These models allow for a detailed 3D visualization of the cryostructures which is a powerful tool to study their architecture and the geometric relations between ice and sediments. The technical details of these operations have been presented by Dillon et al. (2008). Our cryostructures classification of basal glacier ice and sediments includes seven types of cryostructures observed in the basal ice of the Matanuska Glacier: (1) Porous; (2) Crustal; (3) Reticulate; (4) Lenticular; (5) Layered; (6) Suspended (includes four sub-types: Suspended dispersed, Micro-suspended, Suspended- intergranular, Suspended inter-crystalline); (7) Massive ice. The classification is illustrated by detailed photographs, sketches and bi-dimensional (2D) scan images of the various cryostructures along with their

  6. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  7. Basal bodies across eukaryotes series: basal bodies in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Juliette; Basquin, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has recently emerged as a valuable model system to study basal bodies (BBs) and cilia. Planarians are free-living flatworms that use cilia beating at the surface of their ventral epidermis for gliding along substrates. The ventral epidermis is composed of multiciliated cells (MCCs) that are similar to the MCCs in the respiratory airways, the brain ventricles, and the oviducts in vertebrates. In the planarian epidermis, each cell assembles approximately eighty cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion across the tissue. The BBs that nucleate these cilia all assemble de novo during terminal differentiation of MCCs. The genome of the planarian S. mediterranea has been sequenced and efficient methods for targeting gene expression by RNA interference are available. Defects induced by perturbing the expression of BB proteins can be detected simply by analyzing the locomotion of planarians. BBs are present in large numbers and in predictable orientation, which greatly facilitates analyses by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The great ease in targeting gene expression and analyzing associated defects allowed to identify a set of proteins required for BB assembly and function in planarian MCCs. Future technological developments, including methods for transgenic expression in planarians and in related species, will achieve turning free-living flatworms into powerful model systems to study MCCs and the associated human pathologies.

  8. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  10. The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A M

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been shown to contribute to habit and stimulus-response (S-R) learning. These forms of learning have the property of slow acquisition and, in humans, can occur without conscious awareness. This paper proposes that one aspect of basal ganglia-based learning is the recoding of cortically derived information within the striatum. Modular corticostriatal projection patterns, demonstrated experimentally, are viewed as producing recoded templates suitable for the gradual selection of new input-output relations in cortico-basal ganglia loops. Recordings from striatal projection neurons and interneurons show that activity patterns in the striatum are modified gradually during the course of S-R learning. It is proposed that this recoding within the striatum can chunk the representations of motor and cognitive action sequences so that they can be implemented as performance units. This scheme generalizes Miller's notion of information chunking to action control. The formation and the efficient implementation of action chunks are viewed as being based on predictive signals. It is suggested that information chunking provides a mechanism for the acquisition and the expression of action repertoires that, without such information compression would be biologically unwieldy or difficult to implement. The learning and memory functions of the basal ganglia are thus seen as core features of the basal ganglia's influence on motor and cognitive pattern generators. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Effects of marine actinomycete on the removal of a toxicity alga Phaeocystis globose in eutrophication waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01 on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material.

  12. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  13. Motor sequence chunking is impaired by basal ganglia stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, L A; Edwards, J D; Siengsukon, C S; Vidoni, E D; Wessel, B D; Linsdell, M A

    2009-07-01

    Our main aim was to determine whether individuals with stroke that affected the basal ganglia, organized movement sequences into chunks in the same fashion as neurologically intact individuals. To address this question, we compared motor response times during the performance of repeated sequences that were learned, and thus may be planned in advance, with random sequences where there is minimal if any advance preparation or organization of responses. The pattern of responses illustrated that, after basal ganglia stroke, individuals do not chunk elements of the repeated sequence into functional sub-sequences of movement to the same extent as neurologically intact age-matched people. Limited chunking of learned movements after stroke may explain past findings that show overall slower responses even when sequences of action are learned by this population. Further, our data in combination with other work, suggest that chunking may be a function of the basal ganglia.

  14. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2.......6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se...

  15. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  16. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-05-20

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma and Cyclooxygenase: Translation to the Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbiser, Jack L.

    2009-01-01

    Tang et al demonstrate a pivotal role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme pathway in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma in mice, with elegant experiments in mice overexpressing COX-1 and COX-2 or in mice deficient in COX-1 and 2 showing an increase or decrease respectively in mice bearing the basal call carcinoma prone patch heterozygote background. They followed the murine findings with a study in humans with loss of patch and found a trend towards decreased tumor burden of BCC in humans. This has implications for public health. PMID:20051366

  18. Recurrent eyelid basal cell carcinoma with sclerochoroidal infiltration: echographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Doro, D; Milizia, E; Steindler, P

    1998-01-01

    In an 82-year-old woman with a recurrent right lid basal cell carcinoma infiltrating the upper temporal orbit, a solid yellowish lesion was found ophthalmoscopically in the superotemporal periphery of the right eye. On standardized echography examination, the 2.5-mm elevated subretinal lesion was medium to high reflective with irregular structure, whereas the adjacent orbital mass was medium to low reflective and the sclera was thinned with at least one passage between the orbital and ocular lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first echographic report of sclerochoroidal infiltration from a lid basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  1. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  2. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  3. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  5. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  6. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  7. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) ...

  8. Prevalence of Basal-like Breast Cancer among Indigenous Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer comprises a group of very diverse diseases, which can be demonstrated at the molecular, histopathological and clinical levels. Gene expression studies using RNA microarray studies have categorised breast carcinomas into several classes. Of these basal-like tumour class has showed poor ...

  9. Do gap junctions regulate synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) typically suffer severely from different types of symptoms. Motor symptoms, restricting the patients’ ability to perform controlled movements in daily life, are of special clinical interest and have been related to neural activity in the basal ganglia.

  10. computed tomography features of basal ganglia and periventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HIV infection, tuberous sclerosis. (TS) and pseudohypoparathyroidism. HIV (FIG. l). HIV is probably the most common cause of basal ganglia and periventricular calcification today. on-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) shows diffuse cerebral atrophy in 90% of cases. Bilateral, symmetrical ...

  11. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  12. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  13. Quantitative multiphoton imaging for guiding basal-cell carcinoma removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Kuo, Chien-Jui; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chan, Jung-Yi; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    For secure removal of the basal cell carcinoma tissue, the technique of Mohs' micrographic surgery is often used. However, Mohs' micrographic surgery is time-consuming. In this work, we evaluate the ability of multiphoton fluorescence (MF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to discriminate the borders of human basal cell carcinoma. Morphologically, basal cell carcinomas are featured by clumps of autofluorecent cells with relatively large nuclei and marked peripheral palisading in the dermis. In contrast, SHG from collagen contributes largely to the multiphoton signal in normal dermis. Within the cancer stroma, SHG signals diminish and are replaced by autofluorescent signals. The results suggest that normal collagen structures responsible for SHG have been altered in the cancer stroma and may reflect an up-regulated collagenolytic activity of cancer cells. To better delineate the cancer cells and cancer stroma from normal dermis, a quantitative MF to SHG index (MFSI) is developed. We demonstrate that this index can be used to differentiate cancer cells and adjacent cancer stroma from normal dermis. Our work shows that MF and SHG imaging can be an alternative for the real-time guidance of the secure removal of basal cell carcinoma.

  14. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  15. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  16. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  17. Emerging concepts and recent advances in basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchy, Mariam; Leffell, David

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy worldwide, arising from non-keratinizing cells within the basal layer of the epidermis. The incidence of BCC continues to rise annually, increasing the burden of management of these carcinomas and the morbidity associated with their treatment. While surgical interventions such as Mohs micrographic surgery and surgical excision are the standard of care and yield the highest cure rates, the number of non-surgical interventions approved for the treatment of BCC continues to expand. We review various surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of BCC, focusing on targeted molecular therapies that are approved for locally advanced or recurrent disease. PMID:29259776

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  19. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma : Evaluation Of Clinical And Histologic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanthesh Mamata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective review of 32 patients with basal cell carcinoma was performed with aims to characterize the demographic profile and to analyze the clinical and histological parameters influencing the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. The maximum number occurred in the sixth decade with an unusual female preponderance. Hisologically, the classic type predominated while the other types included pigmented, morphoea, metatypical, adenoid, eccrine, firoepihelioma and superficial spreading type. All patients had excision of the tumour with involvement of surgical margin in three of them. None of the three patients belonged to aggressive histological types, such as morphoea or metatypical type. Two year follow-up showed no recurrence. Size of the tumor less than 2 cm, absence of ulceration and a good inflammatory response were probably other reasons for non-recurrence.

  1. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  2. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  3. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  4. Darier disease mimicking Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David J; Dutton, Jonathan J; Fowler, Amy M

    2009-01-01

    Darier disease is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder that infrequently has ocular manifestations. The authors describe 2 cases of patients with known Darier disease presenting with eyelid lesions resembling basal cell carcinomas. Biopsies demonstrated histopathologic changes consistent with Darier disease. To the authors' knowledge, this presentation has not been previously reported. Ophthalmologists and dermatologists should be aware of this type of presentation in Darier disease.

  5. A finding of granuloma faciale associated with basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalpour, Loebat; Gammon, Bryan; Larsen, Fiona; Cashman, Robert; Cockerell, Clay

    2009-10-01

    The clinical differential diagnosis of violaceous plaques on the face is broad and includes both neoplasms and inflammatory dermatoses. We report the first case of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) superficial to an underlying granuloma faciale (GF). This is a single case report with clinicopathological correlation. Histological examination of a skin biopsy from the cheek revealed superficial BCC and GF. This case constitutes the first reported finding of coincident GF and BCC. 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Factors that influence basal insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Giuseppe; Baratta, Roberto; Calì, Vincenzo; Degano, Claudia; Iurato, Maria Pierangela; Licciardello, Carmelo; Maiorana, Raffaella; Finocchiaro, Concetta

    2012-10-01

    In clinical practice, basal insulin dosage (BID) for the treatment for type 2 diabetes given as slow-acting analogues or NPH insulin varies widely when adjusted for body weight (UI/kg). In this study, we investigated the interrelationship between BID and anthropometric, laboratory and clinical parameters. A total of 681 type 2 diabetic patients, treated with bedtime insulin in association with other antidiabetic drugs (preprandial insulin and/or oral agents), were studied. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters, as well as micro- and macrovascular complications, were evaluated. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was assessed by liver ultrasound. BID was titrated to achieve a fasting blood glucose target of ≤6.7 mmol/L (120 mg/dL). In the multivariate analysis, BID was significantly associated with waist circumference (p = 0.04) and the insulin treatment duration (p = 0.004) as the type of insulin treatment ("basal-bolus" regimen vs. basal insulin only, p < 0.0001), the use of lipid-lowering drugs (p = 0.0003) and insulin sensitizers (p = 0.005). Several glycometabolic parameters were strongly associated with BID (HbA1c p = 0.01, FPG p < 0.0001, HDL p = 0.02, triglycerides p = 0.03). Moreover, the presence of severe NAFLD resulted in a higher BID (p = 0.03). We concluded that when starting and titrating the basal insulin in type 2 diabetes, certain anthropometric, laboratory and clinical factors can be useful to find optimal BID more quickly and appropriately.

  7. Unexplained basal oxygen desaturation in a patient with haemoglobinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinathies are a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders that affect the structure, function or production of haemoglobin. Some of them due to its low affinity to oxygen may be accompanied by cyanosis and mild anemia. For this reason, in the differential diagnosis we should include heart and lung diseases and its presence be suspected in families or young patients with an unexplained basal oxygen desaturation.

  8. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B

    1984-01-01

    Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus. Images PMID:6726263

  9. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B

    1984-01-01

    Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus.

  10. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body.......70-105.56) (P Hidradenitis Suppurativa is associated with a high fat percentage, high visceral fat, and low muscle percentage adding to the morbidity of HS. The higher predicted estimate of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...

  11. Paradoxes of functional neurosurgery: clues from basal ganglia recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be remarkably effective in treating movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Yet these effects remain essentially unexplained, even paradoxical. Equally challenging is the fact that DBS of motor targets in the basal ganglia appears to reverse abnormalities of movement without any obvious deleterious effects on remaining aspects of movement. Here, we explore the extent to which the noisy signal hypothesis might help solve some of these apparent paradoxes. Essentially the hypothesis, first tentatively advanced by Marsden and Obeso (1994), suggests that disease leads to a pattern of basal ganglia activity that disrupts local and distant function and that surgery acts to suppress or override this noisy signal. Critical to the success this theory is that different disease phenotypes are associated with different patterns of noisy signal, and we survey the evidence to support this contention, with specific emphasis on different types of pathological synchronization. However, just as DBS may suppress or override noisy signals in the basal ganglia, it must equally antagonize any remaining physiological functioning in these key motor structures. We argue that the latter effect of DBS becomes manifest when baseline motor performance is relatively preserved, i.e., when pathological activity is limited. Under these circumstances, the deleterious effects of DBS are no longer obscured by its therapeutic actions in suppressing noisy signals. Whether true, oversimplified or simply incorrect, the noisy signal hypothesis has served to focus attention on the detailed character of basal ganglia discharge and its variation with disease and therapy. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.

  13. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... be included in the Danish BCC treatment guidelines, especially for high-risk BCC in the face, in line with standard practice in Europe and the United States. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  14. Cell communication in the basal cells of the human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heukelom, J S; Slaaf, D W; van der Leun, J C

    1972-10-01

    Electrotonic spread can be measured in the basal cells of the human epidermis. The communication between neighboring cells is high, whereas no leak to the intercellular spaces could be detected. The specific resistance of the membranes between the cells is about 10 Omegacm(2). This finding suggests that for those particles that are able to pass the cell membrane the intracellular path through the epidermis is at least as suitable as the path through the intercellular spaces.

  15. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  19. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  20. Expression of ZNF396 in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juncheng; Kito, Yusuke; Okubo, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2014-05-01

    Zfp191 represses differentiation and keeps various cells in the stem/progenitor stage. Here, we report that a Zfp191 homolog protein, ZNF396, is expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and possibly represses the expression of a Notch system effector molecule, Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), and prevents BCC cells from undergoing Notch-mediated squamous cell differentiation. ZNF396 immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus of 35 of 38 cutaneous BCC and 4 of 74 squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens. In non-tumorous epidermal tissues, ZNF396 immunoreactivity was restricted in basal cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 induced the expression of Notch2, Hes1, and involucrin in cultured BCC cells. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 gene inhibited the proliferation of TE354.T basal cell carcinoma cells. ZNF396 might repress Notch-Hes1 signaling axis and prevent tumor cells from undergoing squamous differentiation in BCC.

  1. Mitogenomic data resolve basal relationships among passeriform and passeridan birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Barker, F

    2014-10-01

    Passerine birds compose over half of avian species diversity and exhibit an impressive array of phenotypic variation of interest to evolutionary biologists. Although this group has long been the focus of comparative study, many phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unresolved, despite an impressive number of molecular phylogenetic studies. Much of this uncertainty involves "transitional" groups potentially related to the ancestrally Australasian "core Corvoidea" and the primarily extra-Australasian Passerida, as well as basal relationships among Passerida. In this study data from mitochondrial genome sequences (mitogenomes) are brought to bear on higher-level passerine relationships. This paper reports analyses of new mitogenomes from 15 taxa carefully selected to address basal passeridan relationships, along with 110 previously-published passerine mitogenomes (most deriving from two intra-familial studies). These data corroborate many relationships previously established by multilocus nuclear data, as well as resolving several novel clades, including basal relationships of Passerida and relationships of that clade to several "transitional" forms. Although passerine mitogenomes pose significant analytical challenges (most notably substitutional saturation and base compositional heterogeneity), they appear to retain important information that should contribute to current and future understanding of passerine phylogeny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  3. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  4. Primary Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma of the Basal Cell Subtype Should Be Treated as a High-Risk Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Emilie; Alain, Jimmy; Gagné, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare primary tumor of the skin, characterized by biphasic epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no consensus regarding treatment and prognosis. Some authors suggest that cutaneous carcinosarcomas should be viewed as aggressive tumors, with ancillary imaging used to evaluate potential metastatic disease. Other reports demonstrate an indolent disease course, especially with epidermal-type cutaneous carcinosarcomas. We report a case of cutaneous carcinosarcoma, which we treated with electrodessication and curettage following a shave biopsy. The tumor had an epithelial component resembling a basal cell carcinoma and a fibrosarcomatous stroma. At 1-year follow-up, our patient did not show evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Our case suggests that a cutaneous carcinosarcoma with an epithelial component composed of basal cell carcinoma can be regarded as a high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Zheng; Xingsheng Jin; Xing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang C...

  6. Morphological study of the formation and development of basal shoots in roses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Basal shoots are the vigorous shoots at the base of the plant. In roses, basal shoots determine the potential flower production of the plant. Although many attempts have been made to promote the formation of basal shoots for commercial production, little attention has been paid to the origin and

  7. New Basal Insulins: a Clinical Perspective of Their Use in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Novel Treatment Options Beyond Basal Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patrick F; Frias, Juan Pablo

    2017-08-18

    The purpose of this review was to review advances in basal insulin formulations and new treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic targets despite optimized basal insulin therapy. Advances in basal insulin formulations have resulted in products with increasingly favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including flatter, peakless action profiles, less inter- and intra-patient variability, and longer duration of activity. These properties have translated to significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia (particularly during the night) compared with previous generation basal insulins. When optimized basal insulin therapy is not sufficient to obtain or maintain glycemic goals, various options exist to improve glycemic control, including intensification of insulin therapy with the addition of prandial insulin or changing to pre-mixed insulin and, more recently, the addition of a GLP-1 receptor agonist, either as a separate injection or as a component of one of the new fixed-ratio combinations of a basal insulin and GLP-1 RA. New safer and often more convenient basal insulins and fixed ratio combinations containing basal insulin (and GLP-1 receptor agonist) are available today for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic goals. Head-to-head studies comparing the latest generation basal insulins are underway, and future studies assessing the fixed-ratio combinations will be important to better understand their differentiating features.

  8. Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Ozgur, Omar; Esmaeli, Bita; Yeatts, R Patrick

    To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region. Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis. The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors. Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

  9. Melatonin modifies basal and stimulated insulin secretion via NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Daniel; Riva, Patrícia; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Munhoz, Ana Claudia; Taneda, Marco; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Melatonin is a hormone synthesized in the pineal gland, which modulates several functions within the organism, including the synchronization of glucose metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Melatonin can mediate different signaling pathways in pancreatic islets through two membrane receptors and via antioxidant or pro-oxidant enzymes modulation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a pro-oxidant enzyme responsible for the production of the reactive oxygen specie (ROS) superoxide, generated from molecular oxygen. In pancreatic islets, NOX-derived ROS can modulate glucose metabolism and regulate insulin secretion. Considering the roles of both melatonin and NOX in islets, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of NOX and ROS production on glucose metabolism, basal and GSIS in pinealectomized rats (PINX) and in melatonin-treated isolated pancreatic islets. Our results showed that ROS content derived from NOX activity was increased in PINX at baseline (2.8 mM glucose), which was followed by a reduction in glucose metabolism and basal insulin secretion in this group. Under 16.7 mM glucose, an increase in both glucose metabolism and GSIS was observed in PINX islets, without changes in ROS content. In isolated pancreatic islets from control animals incubated with 2.8 mM glucose, melatonin treatment reduced ROS content, whereas in 16.7 mM glucose, melatonin reduced ROS and GSIS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that both basal and stimulated insulin secretion can be regulated by melatonin through the maintenance of ROS homeostasis in pancreatic islets. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  11. West Antarctic Mantle Plume Hypothesis and Basal Water Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Seroussi, Helene; Wiens, Doug; Bondzio, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of a deep mantle plume that manifests Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism and present-day seismicity in West Antarctica has been speculated for more than 30 years. Recent seismic images support the plume hypothesis as the cause of Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanism and geophysical structure [ Lloyd et al., 2015; Ramirez et al., 2016]. Mantle plumes can more that double the geothermal heat flux, qGHF, above nominal continental values at their axial peak position and raise qGHF in the surrounding plume head to 60 mW/m2 or higher. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of in-situ basal ice sheet data that sample the heat flux. Consequently, we examine a realistic distribution of heat flux associated with a late-Cenozoic mantle plume in West Antarctica and explore its impact on thermal and melt conditions near the ice sheet base. The solid Earth model assumes a parameterized deep mantle plume and head. The 3-D ice flow model includes an enthalpy framework and full-Stokes stress balance. Both the putative plume location and extent are uncertain. Therefore, we perform broadly scoped experiments to characterize plume related basal conditions. The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot. The downstream active lake system of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a rift-related source of anomalous mantle heat. However, the lack of lake and stream activity in MBL suggests a relatively weak plume: one that delivers less flux by 35% below the heat flux to the crustal surface at the site of the Yellowstone hotspot [e.g., DeNosaquo et al., 2009], with peak value no higher than about 145 mW/m2.

  12. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source

  13. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  14. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  15. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  16. Basal cell carcinoma in two Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Ducatelle, Richard; Bosseler, Leslie; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Versnaeyen, Han; Chiers, Koen; Martel, An

    2016-11-01

    Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs. Accordingly, early diagnosis including reliable discrimination from SCC is essential toward the management of this neoplastic entity in tortoises. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  18. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Basal Cell Adenoma of Parotid Simulating Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Subrata; Mondal, Palash Kr; Sharma, Abhishek; Sikder, Mrinal

    2018-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of monomorphic salivary adenoma most commonly involving the parotid gland. Cytology of basal cell adenoma closely mimics many other benign and malignant basaloid neoplasms. Cytological features of membranous basal cell adenoma simulate adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. Here, we are presenting a rare case of cytodiagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of parotid gland in an elderly lady, which mimicked adenoid cystic carcinoma on FNAC. We discuss the cytomorphology of this rare case with an emphasis on cytological difference between membranous basal cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma as well as other basaloid neoplasms.

  19. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs).

  20. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rajabi

    Full Text Available Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs.

  1. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmishev, Lyubomir A.; Rusinova, Darena; Botev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated. PMID:23439912

  2. Understanding the Molecular Genetics of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Maria Giovanna; Ciciarelli, Valeria; Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Carlota; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV)-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology allowed genome-scale approaches to mutation discovery, identifying new genes and pathways potentially involved in BCC carcinogenesis. Mutational and functional analysis suggested PTPN14 and LATS1, both effectors of the Hippo–YAP pathway, and MYCN as new BCC-associated genes. In addition, emerging reports identified frequent non-coding mutations within the regulatory promoter sequences of the TERT and DPH3-OXNAD1 genes. Thus, it is clear that a more complex genetic network of cancer-associated genes than previously hypothesized is involved in BCC carcinogenesis, with a potential impact on the development of new molecular targeted therapies. This article reviews established knowledge and new hypotheses regarding the molecular genetics of BCC pathogenesis. PMID:29165358

  3. Understanding the Molecular Genetics of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pellegrini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology allowed genome-scale approaches to mutation discovery, identifying new genes and pathways potentially involved in BCC carcinogenesis. Mutational and functional analysis suggested PTPN14 and LATS1, both effectors of the Hippo–YAP pathway, and MYCN as new BCC-associated genes. In addition, emerging reports identified frequent non-coding mutations within the regulatory promoter sequences of the TERT and DPH3-OXNAD1 genes. Thus, it is clear that a more complex genetic network of cancer-associated genes than previously hypothesized is involved in BCC carcinogenesis, with a potential impact on the development of new molecular targeted therapies. This article reviews established knowledge and new hypotheses regarding the molecular genetics of BCC pathogenesis.

  4. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  5. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  6. Symmetrical abnormal MR signals in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Makita, Kohzoh; Furui, Shigeru; Takenaka, Eiichi

    1988-09-01

    MR images which demonstrated symmetrical abnormal signals in the basal ganglia were reviewed comparing with the findings on X-ray CT. The cases, seven in all, consisted of three with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, two with Wilson's disease, one with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and one with hypoxic brain damage. MRI, especially T2-weighted imaging, depicted lesions with better contrast than X-ray CT and, in 4 cases, demonstrated additional lesions which were not detected on X-ray CT. Although most of the lesions showed iso or low intensity on T1- weighted images (WI) and high intensity on T2-WI, T2-WI of two cases with Wilson's disease revealed low and partially high intensity in the putamen. The diseases which we experienced formed a part of disorders known to show abnormal density in the basal ganglia bilaterally on X-ray CT. But we consider MRI provides more information than X-ray CT in diagnosis of these diseases.

  7. Incorporating modelled subglacial hydrology into inversions for basal drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Koziol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in modelling coupled ice-flow–subglacial hydrology is initializing the state and parameters of the system. We address this problem by presenting a workflow for initializing these values at the start of a summer melt season. The workflow depends on running a subglacial hydrology model for the winter season, when the system is not forced by meltwater inputs, and ice velocities can be assumed constant. Key parameters of the winter run of the subglacial hydrology model are determined from an initial inversion for basal drag using a linear sliding law. The state of the subglacial hydrology model at the end of winter is incorporated into an inversion of basal drag using a non-linear sliding law which is a function of water pressure. We demonstrate this procedure in the Russell Glacier area and compare the output of the linear sliding law with two non-linear sliding laws. Additionally, we compare the modelled winter hydrological state to radar observations and find that it is in line with summer rather than winter observations.

  8. PERAN MUTASI GEN p53 PADA KARSINOGENESIS SEL BASAL KULIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Pramesti Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Karsinoma sel basal (KSB merupakan keganasan kulit non-melanotik tersering dan mempunyai kaitan erat dengan paparan sinar ultra violet (UV. Keganasan ini berasal dari sel-sel pluripotensial stratum basalis epidermis maupun selubung akar folikel rambut. Gambaran klinis dan histopatologis terdiri dari KSB tipe klasik (noduler dan KSB varian (tipe superfisial, fibroepithelial, KSB dengan diferensiasi adneksal, basoskuamous, infiltrating, morpheaform.Kanker pada tubuh manusia muncul karena adanya mutasi genetik pada gen-gen yang terlibat dalamkontrol pertumbuhan sel, seperti onkogen, tumor suppressor gene, gen apoptosis, dan DNA repair gene.Pada kebanyakan kasus KSB, gen yang tersering mengalami mutasi adalah tumor suppressor genep53. Mutasi ini timbul akibat paparan langsung sinar UV, bergantung pada dosis, durasi dan intensitas paparan.Gen p53 dikenal dengan sebutan guardian of the genome, karena fungsinya sebagai sensor terhadapterjadinya kerusakan DNA. Adanya kerusakan DNA menginduksi aktivasi p53 untuk menghentikan siklus sel saat memasuki fase G1, sehingga memberikan kesempatan kepada DNA repair proteinbekerja memperbaiki kerusakan DNA. Lebih dari itu, p53 juga mengaktivasi gen GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA damage untuk membantu perbaikan DNA. Jika perbaikan gagal, p53 akanmengarahkan sel dengan DNA yang rusak ke mesin apoptosis.Pada sel-sel basal terpapar UV, gen p53 mengalami mutasi dan inaktivasi. Karena itu, sel-sel dengan DNA yang mengalami kerusakan non-lethal akan mengalami ekspansi klonal sehingga tumbuh menjadilesi pra kanker dan akhirnya kanker (KSB. [MEDICINA 2014;45:38-42

  9. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  10. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, S R; Ion, R M; Popescu, S M; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-03-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology.

  11. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  12. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Alexander M; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Kochukov, Mikhail; Herman, Isabella; Quast, Kathleen B; Patel, Jay M; Tepe, Burak; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Ung, Kevin; Selever, Jennifer; Tong, Qingchun; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2016-10-13

    Atypical food intake is a primary cause of obesity and other eating and metabolic disorders. Insight into the neural control of feeding has previously focused mainly on signalling mechanisms associated with the hypothalamus, the major centre in the brain that regulates body weight homeostasis. However, roles of non-canonical central nervous system signalling mechanisms in regulating feeding behaviour have been largely uncharacterized. Acetylcholine has long been proposed to influence feeding owing in part to the functional similarity between acetylcholine and nicotine, a known appetite suppressant. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist for acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that endogenous cholinergic signalling may play a part in normal physiological regulation of feeding. However, it remains unclear how cholinergic neurons in the brain regulate food intake. Here we report that cholinergic neurons of the mouse basal forebrain potently influence food intake and body weight. Impairment of cholinergic signalling increases food intake and results in severe obesity, whereas enhanced cholinergic signalling decreases food consumption. We found that cholinergic circuits modulate appetite suppression on downstream targets in the hypothalamus. Together our data reveal the cholinergic basal forebrain as a major modulatory centre underlying feeding behaviour.

  13. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive

  14. Homologous Basal Ganglia Network Models in Physiological and Parkinsonian Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of basal ganglia has been refined in recent years with discoveries of subpopulations within a nucleus and previously unknown projections. One such discovery is the presence of subpopulations of arkypallidal and prototypical neurons in external globus pallidus, which was previously considered to be a primarily homogeneous nucleus. Developing a computational model of these multiple interconnected nuclei is challenging, because the strengths of the connections are largely unknown. We therefore use a genetic algorithm to search for the unknown connectivity parameters in a firing rate model. We apply a binary cost function derived from empirical firing rate and phase relationship data for the physiological and Parkinsonian conditions. Our approach generates ensembles of over 1,000 configurations, or homologies, for each condition, with broad distributions for many of the parameter values and overlap between the two conditions. However, the resulting effective weights of connections from or to prototypical and arkypallidal neurons are consistent with the experimental data. We investigate the significance of the weight variability by manipulating the parameters individually and cumulatively, and conclude that the correlation observed between the parameters is necessary for generating the dynamics of the two conditions. We then investigate the response of the networks to a transient cortical stimulus, and demonstrate that networks classified as physiological effectively suppress activity in the internal globus pallidus, and are not susceptible to oscillations, whereas parkinsonian networks show the opposite tendency. Thus, we conclude that the rates and phase relationships observed in the globus pallidus are predictive of experimentally observed higher level dynamical features of the physiological and parkinsonian basal ganglia, and that the multiplicity of solutions generated by our method may well be indicative of a natural

  15. Inferring basal plasticity in a temperate ice cap from observationally constrained ice-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Bjornsson, H.; Palsson, F.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.; Hensley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of glacier bed mechanics to understanding glacier flow and projecting the future glacier states, our knowledge of some fundamental concepts concerning the coupling of basal shear stress, water pressure, and slip rate remains incomplete. Here we infer the existence of a plastically deforming bed beneath Hofsjökull, a temperate ice cap in central Iceland, using numerical ice flow models constrained by surface velocity observations. Basal plasticity is evident by the independence of basal shear stress and basal slip rate, both of which we inferred using higher-order flow models in the Ice Sheet Systems Model (ISSM). We derived seasonal surface velocity fields from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected with NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in winter and during the early melt season. Using velocity fields from different seasons and applying a simple plastic model for basal stress, we present estimates of surface-melt-driven changes in basal water pressure that correspond to observed variations in surface velocity. Our data and an idealized basal slip model show that the sensitivity of basal slip to basal water pressure variability scales as the inverse of the ice surface slope, making glaciers with shallow surface slopes more sensitive to basal water pressure fluctuations than steep-sloped glaciers.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Vismodegib in Advanced Basal-Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Aleksandar; Migden, Michael R.; Oro, Anthony E.; Dirix, Luc; Lewis, Karl D.; Hainsworth, John D.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Arron, Sarah T.; Friedlander, Philip A.; Marmur, Ellen; Rudin, Charles M.; Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Low, Jennifer A.; Mackey, Howard M.; Yauch, Robert L.; Graham, Richard A.; Reddy, Josina C.; Hauschild, Axel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alterations in hedgehog signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of basal-cell carcinoma. Although most basal-cell carcinomas are treated surgically, no effective therapy exists for locally advanced or metastatic basal-cell carcinoma. A phase 1 study of vismodegib (GDC-0449), a first-in-class, small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, showed a 58% response rate among patients with advanced basal-cell carcinoma. METHODS In this multicenter, international, two-cohort, nonrandomized study, we enrolled patients with metastatic basal-cell carcinoma and those with locally advanced basal-cell carcinoma who had inoperable disease or for whom surgery was inappropriate (because of multiple recurrences and a low likelihood of surgical cure, or substantial anticipated disfigurement). All patients received 150 mg of oral vismodegib daily. The primary end point was the independently assessed objective response rate; the primary hypotheses were that the response rate would be greater than 20% for patients with locally advanced basal-cell carcinoma and greater than 10% for those with metastatic basal-cell carcinoma. RESULTS In 33 patients with metastatic basal-cell carcinoma, the independently assessed response rate was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16 to 48; P = 0.001). In 63 patients with locally advanced basal-cell carcinoma, the independently assessed response rate was 43% (95% CI, 31 to 56; Pbasal-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Genentech; Erivance BCC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00833417.) PMID:22670903

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  18. Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intraocular Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 103 - year - old patient, with duration of complaints of about ten years. The initial complaint had been presented as a small nodule, located on the eyebrow, which subsequently ulcerated and encompassed larger regions of the upper and lower eyelids. For the past three years, the patient also had complaints of a worsening of his vision, without seeking for medical help. Within the dermatological examination, an intraocular and periocular localised tumour was established, characterised by a raised peripheral edge and central ulceration. More careful examination revealed that the bulb was fully consumed. The patient refused further diagnosis and treatment. Advanced basal cell carcinomas with intraocular invasion are rare in general. If the patient refuses surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy with modern medications such as Vismodegib or Sonidegib are available as treatment options.

  19. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition.

  20. [Current diagnostics and therapy recommendations for ocular basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkassery, V; Loeffler, K U; Sand, M; Koch, K R; Lentzsch, A M; Nick, A C; Adamietz, I A; Heindl, L M

    2017-03-01

    The treatment options for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been augmented with the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. New S2 guidelines on the disease have also been published. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive state of the art description of the features of ocular BCC and an overview of the various therapeutic options. Particular emphasis is placed on the clinical signs, the diagnostic tools to identify periocular BCC and interpretation of the different histopathological subtypes. Tumor staging, TNM classification, interdisciplinary tumor conference reviews as well as psycho-oncological services play an important role in patients with pronounced periocular BCC. Surgical removal with a histological R0 resection is an important component of therapy options in this disease and includes the microsurgical excision into healthy tissue and the subsequent covering of the defect. A special focus of this article is the treatment of locally extensive and metastasized BCC.

  1. Acquired lacrimal sac fistula mimicking basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, A S; Timlin, H; Sagili, S; Wright, M; Malhotra, R

    2013-06-01

    Lacrimal sac fistulae can arise after an episode of dacryocystitis, usually forming below the medial canthus. Preceding symptoms of a watery eye with mucous discharge and a history or signs of inflammation are typical. To highlight the features of lacrimal sac fistulae and encourage readers to consider this in the differential diagnosis of apparently ulcerative medial canthal skin lesions. We describe three patients with inferior-medial canthal ulcerative skin lesions, all referred to ophthalmic plastic surgeons either by dermatologists or plastic surgeons, presumed clinically to have basal cell carcinoma (BCC). All three were in fact due to acquired lacrimal sac fistulae, and syringing of the nasolacrimal system confirmed the presence of a fistula. These cases illustrate the importance of questioning patients about their previous ocular symptoms when dealing with less familiar periocular lesions. © 2013 The Authors. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still...... use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data...... use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration...

  3. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenping [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Luo, Yiqi [Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA; Li, Xianglan [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Liu, Shuguang; Yu, Guirui [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Zhou, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Bahn, Michael [Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Black, Andy [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; Desai, Ankur R. [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Department, Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Cescatti, Alessandro [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy; Marcolla, Barbara [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Jacobs, Cor [Alterra, Earth System Science-Climate Change, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Chen, Jiquan [Department of Earth, Ecological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA; Aurela, Mika [Climate and Global Change Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Bernhofer, Christian [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Gielen, Bert [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium; Bohrer, Gil [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; Cook, David R. [Climate Research Section, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA; Dragoni, Danilo [Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA; Dunn, Allison L. [Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Worcester State College, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA; Gianelle, Damiano [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Grünwald, Thomas [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Ibrom, Andreas [Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Division, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA; Lindroth, Anders [Geobiosphere Science Centre, Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Liu, Heping [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Marchesini, Luca Belelli [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; Montagnani, Leonardo; Pita, Gabriel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal; Rodeghiero, Mirco [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Rodrigues, Abel [Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, Oeiras, Portugal; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA; Stoy, Paul C. [Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA

    2011-10-13

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ~3°S to ~70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual

  4. Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Pandya, Deepak N

    2008-09-01

    Disconnection syndromes were originally conceptualized as a disruption of communication between different cerebral cortical areas. Two developments mandate a re-evaluation of this notion. First, we present a synopsis of our anatomical studies in monkey elucidating principles of organization of cerebral cortex. Efferent fibers emanate from every cortical area, and are directed with topographic precision via association fibers to ipsilateral cortical areas, commissural fibers to contralateral cerebral regions, striatal fibers to basal ganglia, and projection subcortical bundles to thalamus, brainstem and/or pontocerebellar system. We note that cortical areas can be defined by their patterns of subcortical and cortical connections. Second, we consider motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with lesions restricted to basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, and recognize that these lesions mimic deficits resulting from cortical lesions, with qualitative differences between the manifestations of lesions in functionally related areas of cortical and subcortical nodes. We consider these findings on the basis of anatomical observations from tract tracing studies in monkey, viewing them as disconnection syndromes reflecting loss of the contribution of subcortical nodes to the distributed neural circuits. We introduce a new theoretical framework for the distributed neural circuits, based on general, and specific, principles of anatomical organization, and on the architecture of the nodes that comprise these systems. We propose that neural architecture determines function, i.e., each architectonically distinct cortical and subcortical area contributes a unique transform, or computation, to information processing; anatomically precise and segregated connections between nodes define behavior; and association fiber tracts that link cerebral cortical areas with each other enable the cross-modal integration required for evolved complex behaviors. This model

  5. Zonisamide regulates basal ganglia transmission via astroglial kynurenine pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Kouji; Tanahashi, Shunske; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Shinagawa, Rika; Okada, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of action of zonisamide (ZNS), we determined the effects of ZNS on tripartite synaptic transmission associated with kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) in cultured astrocytes, and transmission in both direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia using microdialysis. Interactions between cytokines [interferon-γ (IFNγ) and tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] and ZNS on astroglial releases of KP metabolites, KYN, kynurenic-acid (KYNA), xanthurenic-acid (XTRA), cinnabarinic-acid (CNBA) and quinolinic-acid (QUNA), were determined by extreme liquid-chromatography with mass-spectrometry. Interaction among metabotropic glutamate-receptor (mGluR), KP metabolites and ZNS on striato-nigral, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission was examined by microdialysis with extreme liquid-chromatography fluorescence resonance-energy transfer detection. Acute and chronic ZNS administration increased astroglial release of KYN, KYNA, XTRA and CNBA, but not QUNA. Chronic IFNγ administration increased the release of KYN, KYNA, CNBA and QUNA, but had minimal inhibitory effect on XTRA release. Chronic TNFα administration increased CNBA and QUNA, but not KYN, KYNA or XTRA. ZNS inhibited IFNγ-induced elevation of KYN, KYNA and QUNA, but enhanced IFNγ-induced that of CNBA. TNFα-induced rises in CNBA and QUNA were inhibited by ZNS. ZNS inhibited striato-nigral GABAergic, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission via activation of groups II and III mGluRs. ZNS enhanced astroglial release of endogenous agonists of group II mGluR, XTRA and group III mGluR, CNBA. Activated endogenous mGluR agonists inhibited transmission in direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia. These mechanisms contribute to effectiveness and well tolerability of ZNS as an adjunct treatment for Parkinson's disease during l-DOPA monotherapy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of

  6. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  7. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  8. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  9. Basal insulin analogues in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: What progress have we made?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, continuous progress has been made in the development of insulin therapy. Basal insulins were developed around 60 years ago. However, existing basal insulins were found to have limitations. An ideal basal insulin should have the following properties viz. longer duration of action, a flat time-action profile, low day-to-day glycaemic variability, and the potential for flexible dosing. Basal insulins have advanced over the years, from lectin and neutral protamine Hagedorn to the currently available insulin degludec. Currently, the focus is on developing a basal insulin that can give coverage for the entire day, with lesser variability and flexible administration. Insulin degludec has been a significant leap in that direction. In addition, U300 insulin glargine and pegylated lispro represent further developments in basal insulin pharmacotherapeutics.

  10. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  11. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  12. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, David A; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-09-03

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11 of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA

  13. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple - an unusual location in a male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Oktay; Pabuççuoğlu, Uğur; Koçdor, M Ali; Unlü, Mehtat; Akin, Ciler; Soyal, Cüneyt; Canda, Tülay

    2008-02-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is extremely common, it only rarely occurs on the nipple. Men are affected more often than women. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple-areola complex may be more aggressive as metastases to regional lymph nodes have been reported. We report a basal cell carcinoma of the nipple with features of a fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in a man and review the literature.

  14. Runout of the Socompa volcanic debris avalanche, Chile : a mechanical explanation for low basal shear resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, T.; McSaveney, M.; Kelfoun, Karim

    2010-01-01

    We propose a mechanical explanation for the low basal shear resistance (about 50 kPa) previously used to simulate successfully the complex, well-documented deposit morphology and lithological distribution produced by emplacement of the 25 km(3) Socompa volcanic debris avalanche deposit, Chile. Stratigraphic evidence for intense basal comminution indicates the occurrence of dynamic rock fragmentation in the basal region of this large granular mass flow, and we show that such fragmentation gene...

  15. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  16. Patient Preferences for Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Importance of Cure and Cosmetic Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Isabelle; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa; Glocker, Anne; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Goerdt, Sergij; Peitsch, Wiebke K

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for localized resectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) include micrographically controlled surgery, simple excision, curettage, laser ablation, cryosurgery, imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy...

  17. Genomic signature of BRCA1 deficiency in sporadic basal-like breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, Simon A; Brandwijk, Kim I M; Mulder, Lennart; Wesseling, Jelle; Hannemann, Juliane; Nederlof, Petra M

    2011-02-01

    About 10-20% of all breast carcinomas show a basal-like phenotype, while ∼ 90% of breast tumors from BRCA1-mutation carriers are of this subtype. There is growing evidence that BRCA1-mutated tumors are not just a specific subset of the basal-like tumors, but that (the majority of) basal-like tumors show a dysfunctional BRCA1 pathway. This has major treatment implications, because emerging regimens specifically targeting DNA repair mechanisms would then be most effective against these tumors. To further understand the involvement of BRCA1 deficiency in sporadic basal-like tumors, we investigated 41 basal-like tumors for BRCA1 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, BRCA1 promoter methylation, their genomic profile by array-CGH, and gene expression levels by whole genome expression arrays. Array-CGH results were compared to those of 34 proven BRCA1-mutated tumors. Basal-like tumors were subdivided into two equal groups: deficient and proficient in BRCA1 gene expression. The chromosomal makeup of BRCA1 deficient sporadic basal-like tumors was similar to that of BRCA1-mutated tumors. BRCA1 proficient sporadic basal-like tumors were more similar to nonbasal-like tumors. Only half of the basal-like breast tumors are actually deficient in BRCA1 expression. Gain of chromosome arm 3q is a marker for BRCA1 deficiency in hereditary and sporadic breast tumors. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

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    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  19. Arginine kinase from Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Daichi; Mimura, Sayo; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2016-08-01

    We assembled a phosphagen kinase gene from the Expressed Sequence Tags database of Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids. The assembled gene sequence was synthesized using an overlap extension polymerase chain reaction method and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (355 residues) exhibited monomeric behavior on a gel filtration column and showed strong activity only for l-arginine. Thus, the enzyme was identified as arginine kinase (AK). The two-substrate kinetic parameters were obtained and compared with other AKs. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of phosphagen kinases indicated that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage differed from that of the polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis AK, which is a dimer of creatine kinase (CK) origin. It is likely that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage was lost at an early stage of annelid evolution and that Sabellastarte AK evolved secondarily from the CK gene. This work contributes to our understanding of the evolution of phosphagen kinases of annelids with marked diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  1. Defining and recognising locally advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Jean Michel; Battistella, Maxime; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Chatellier, Anne; Dalac-Ra, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte; Falandry, Claire; Froget, Nicolas; Giacchero, Damien; Grob, Jean Jacques; Guerreschir, Pierre; Leccia, Marie-Thérèse; Malard, Olivier; Mortier, Laurent; Routier, Emilie; Stefan, Andreea; Stefan, Dinu; Stoebner, Pierre-Emmanuel; Basset-Seguin, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have the potential to become extensively invasive and destructive, a phenomenon that has led to the term "locally advanced BCC" (laBCC). We identified and described the diverse settings that could be considered "locally advanced". The panel of experts included oncodermatologists, dermatological and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists, radiotherapists and geriatricians. During a 1-day workshop session, an interactive flow/sequence of questions and inputs was debated. Discussion of nine cases permitted us to approach consensus concerning what constitutes laBCC. The expert panel retained three major components for the complete assessment of laBCC cases: factors of complexity related to the tumour itself, factors related to the operability and the technical procedure, and factors related to the patient. Competing risks of death should be precisely identified. To ensure homogeneous multidisciplinary team (MDT) decisions in different clinical settings, the panel aimed to develop a practical tool based on the three components. The grid presented is not a definitive tool, but rather, it is a method for analysing the complexity of laBCC.

  2. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  3. Chemopreventive opportunities to control basal cell carcinoma: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Cynthia; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a major health problem with approximately 2.8 million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. BCC incidences have continued to rise due to lack of effective chemopreventive options. One of the key molecular characteristics of BCC is the sustained activation of hedgehog signaling through inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene patch (Ptch) or activating mutations in Smoothened. In the past, several studies have addressed targeting the activated hedgehog pathway for the treatment and prevention of BCC, although with toxic effects. Other studies have attempted BCC chemoprevention through targeting the promotional phase of the disease especially the inflammatory component. The compounds that have been utilized in pre-clinical and/or clinical studies include green and black tea, difluoromethylornithine, thymidine dinucleotide, retinoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin D3, and silibinin. In this review, we have discussed genetic and epigenetic modifications that occur during BCC development as well as the current state of BCC pre-clinical and clinical chemoprevention studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Primary ocular caruncular basal cell carcinoma in a Chinese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Shiuh-Liang; Chang, Cheng-Hsien

    2010-10-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid neoplasm, BCC that originates from the lacrimal caruncle is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported and here we report the first documented primary caruncular BCC in an Oriental patient. A 73-year-old Chinese man presented with a telangiectatic, multilobulated, pigmented tumor that measured 5×5 mm, which had arisen from the lacrimal caruncle of the left eye 3 months previously. The patient underwent tumor excision, and histopathological examination revealed BCC. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with intra-arterial methotrexate (30 mg/m(2)). A nodular pigmented BCC recurred in the bulbar conjunctiva close to the original tumor 3 months later, and he underwent a second excision. Bleomycin (8.5 mg/m(2) monthly) was added to the chemotherapy regimen, which was changed to fluorouracil (300 mg/m(2) monthly) 2 months later. The tumor did not recur during follow-up of 22 months. Malignant tumors of the caruncle are infrequent. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pigmented caruncular lesion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

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    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  6. Crystallization of a compositionally stratified basal magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneuville, Matthieu; Hernlund, John; Labrosse, Stéphane; Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Earth's ∼3.45 billion year old magnetic field is regenerated by dynamo action in its convecting liquid metal outer core. However, convection induces an isentropic thermal gradient which, coupled with a high core thermal conductivity, results in rapid conducted heat loss. In the absence of implausibly high radioactivity or alternate sources of motion to drive the geodynamo, the Earth's early core had to be significantly hotter than the melting point of the lower mantle. While the existence of a dense convecting basal magma ocean (BMO) has been proposed to account for high early core temperatures, the requisite physical and chemical properties for a BMO remain controversial. Here we relax the assumption of a well-mixed convecting BMO and instead consider a BMO that is initially gravitationally stratified owing to processes such as mixing between metals and silicates at high temperatures in the core-mantle boundary region during Earth's accretion. Using coupled models of crystallization and heat transfer through a stratified BMO, we show that very high temperatures could have been trapped inside the early core, sequestering enough heat energy to run an ancient geodynamo on cooling power alone.

  7. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  8. Cognitive Flexibility: A Default Network and Basal Ganglia Connectivity Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Manktelow, Anne E; Sahakian, Barbara J; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2016-04-01

    The intra/extradimensional set-shifting task (IED) provides a reliable assessment of cognitive flexibility, the shifting of attention to select behaviorally relevant stimuli in a given context. Impairments in this domain were previously reported in patients with altered neurotransmitter systems such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Consequently, corticostriatal connections were implicated in the mediation of this function. In addition, parts of the default mode network (DMN), namely the medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/precuneus cortices, are also being progressively described in association with set-shifting paradigms. Nevertheless, a definitive link between cognitive flexibility and DMN connectivity remains to be established. To this end, we related resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based functional connectivity of DMN with IED task performance in a healthy population, measured outside the scanner. The results demonstrated that greater posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (DMN) connectivity with the ventromedial striatopallidum at rest correlated with fewer total adjusted errors on the IED task. This finding points to a relationship between DMN and basal ganglia connectivity for cognitive flexibility, further highlighting this network's potential role in adaptive human cognition.

  9. Primary Ocular Caruncular Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Chinese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common eyelid neoplasm, BCC that originates from the lacrimal caruncle is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported and here we report the first documented primary caruncular BCC in an Oriental patient. A 73-year-old Chinese man presented with a telangiectatic, multilobulated, pigmented tumor that measured 5×5 mm, which had arisen from the lacrimal caruncle of the left eye 3 months previously. The patient underwent tumor excision, and histopathological examination revealed BCC. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with intra-arterial methotrexate (30 mg/m2. A nodular pigmented BCC recurred in the bulbar conjunctiva close to the original tumor 3 months later, and he underwent a second excision. Bleomycin (8.5 mg/m2 monthly was added to the chemotherapy regimen, which was changed to fluorouracil (300 mg/m2 monthly 2 months later. The tumor did not recur during follow-up of 22 months. Malignant tumors of the caruncle are infrequent. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pigmented caruncular lesion.

  10. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  11. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

  13. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  14. Guidelines of care for the management of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John Y S; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Mittal, Bharat; Moyer, Jeffrey; Olencki, Thomas; Rodgers, Phillip

    2018-03-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of human cancer, with a continually increasing annual incidence in the United States. When diagnosed early, the majority of BCCs are readily treated with office-based therapy, which is highly curative. In these evidence-based guidelines of care, we provide recommendations for the management of patients with BCC, as well as an in-depth review of the best available literature in support of these recommendations. We discuss biopsy techniques for a clinically suspicious lesion and offer recommendations for the histopathologic interpretation of BCC. In the absence of a formal staging system, the best available stratification based on risk for recurrence is reviewed. With regard to treatment, we provide recommendations on treatment modalities along a broad therapeutic spectrum, ranging from topical agents and superficially destructive modalities to surgical techniques and systemic therapy. Finally, we review the available literature and provide recommendations on prevention and the most appropriate follow-up for patients in whom BCC has been diagnosed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Common Standards of Basal Insulin Titration in T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnolds, Sabine; Heise, Tim; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide major health problem, and the number of people affected is steadily increasing. Thus, not all patients suffering from the disease can be treated by specialized diabetes centers or outpatient clinics, but by primary care physicians. The latter, however, might have time constraints and have to deal with many kinds of diseases or with multimorbid patients, so their focus is not so much on lowering high blood glucose values. Thus, the physicians, as well as the patients themselves, are often reluctant to initiate and adjust insulin therapy, although basal insulin therapy is considered the appropriate strategy after oral antidiabetic drug failure, according to the latest international guidelines. A substantial number of clinical studies have shown that insulin initiation and optimization can be managed successfully by using titration algorithms—even in cases where patients themselves are the drivers of insulin titration. Nevertheless, tools and strategies are needed to facilitate this process in the daily life of both primary health care professionals and patients with diabetes. PMID:23759411

  16. Using Airborne Radar Stratigraphy to Model Surface Accumulation Anomaly and Basal Control over Deformed Basal Ice in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Creyts, T. T.; Wolovick, M.

    2013-12-01

    Large deformed ice structures have been imaged at the base of northern Greenland ice sheet by IceBridge airborne radar. Numerous deformed structures lie along the base of both Petermann Glacier and Northeast Ice stream catchments covering 10-13% of the catchment area. These structures may be combinations of basal freeze-on and folded ice that overturns and inverts stratigraphy. In the interior, where the ice velocity is low, the radar imaged height of the deformed structures are frequently a significant fraction of the ice thickness. They are related to basal freeze on and stick-slip at the base of the ice sheet and may be triggered by subglacial water, sediments or local geological conditions. The larger ones (at times up to 700 m thick and 140 km long) perturb the ice stratigraphy and create prominent undulations on the ice surface and modify the local surface mass balance. Here, we investigate the relationship between the deformed structures and surface processes using shallow and deep ice radar stratigraphy. The surface undulations caused by the deformed structures modulate the pattern of local surface snow accumulation. Using normalized differences of several near-surface stratigraphic layers, we have calculated the accumulation anomaly over these deformed structures. The accumulation anomalies can be as high as 20% of the local surface accumulation over some of the larger surface depressions caused by these deformed structures. We observe distinct differences in the phases of the near-surface internal layers on the Petermann and Northeast catchments. These differences indicate that the deformed bodies over Petermann are controlled by conditions at the bed different from the Northeast Ice stream. The distinctly different near-surface stratigraphy over the deformed structures in the Petermann and Northeast catchments have opened up a number of questions including their formation and how they influence the ice dynamics, ice stratigraphy and surface mass balance

  17. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  18. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  19. Dick and Jane Are Dead: Basal Reader Takes a Back Seat to Student Writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxendine, Linda

    A second grade teacher in a rural Appalachian school draws heavily on familiar regional literature and the children's own rich mountain heritage and culture to teach reading to her students, covering the required basal readings in only one day per week. Students use the basals on Mondays and retell the texts on paper. They spend the rest of the…

  20. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  1. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles membrana granulosa.

  2. Look! Look! Who Stole the Pictures from the Picture Books? The Basalization of Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests picture books are made more difficult for kids to predict, to make sense of, and to learn from by fitting them into the didactic framework of basals. Discusses the picture book genre. Compares the original version of "Ira Sleeps Over" to the basal version. Examines in detail how picture books are made to fit into a basal…

  3. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  4. Successful Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma Encroaching The Eyelid With Cryofreeze And Plastic Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochhar Atul M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is one of the most common skin cancers encountered in dermatological practice. The case details of a basal cell epithelioma occurring near the left eye in a 42 years old male and its successful treatment with cryofeeze is reported for its clincial interest and therapeutic considerations.

  5. Mining the Giardia genome and proteome for conserved and unique basal body proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwaet, Tineke; Smith, Alias J.; Reiner, David S.; Romijn, Edwin P.; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Davids, Barbara J.; Shah, Sheila A.; Yates, John R.; Gillin, Frances D.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite and a major cause of diarrhea in humans. Its microtubular cytoskeleton mediates trophozoite motility, attachment and cytokinesis, and is characterized by an attachment disk and eight flagella that are each nucleated in a basal body. To date, only 10 giardial basal body proteins have been identified, including universal signaling proteins that are important for regulating mitosis or differentiation. In this study, we have exploited bioinformatics and proteomic approaches to identify new Giardia basal body proteins and confocal microscopy to confirm their localization in interphase trophozoites. This approach identified 75 homologs of conserved basal body proteins in the genome including 65 not previously known to be associated with Giardia basal bodies. Thirteen proteins were confirmed to co-localize with centrin to the Giardia basal bodies. We also demonstrate that most basal body proteins localize to additional cytoskeletal structures in interphase trophozoites. This might help to explain the roles of the four pairs of flagella and Giardia-specific organelles in motility and differentiation. A deeper understanding of the composition of the Giardia basal bodies will contribute insights into the complex signaling pathways that regulate its unique cytoskeleton and the biological divergence of these conserved organelles. PMID:21723868

  6. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, M; Dawson, B; Landers, G.J; Swinkels, D.W; Tjalsma, H; Wiegerinck, E.T.G; Trinder, D; Peeling, P

    2014-01-01

    .... Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7...

  7. PATCHED and p53 gene alterations in sporadic and hereditary basal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, G.; Ahmadian, A.; Persson, A.; Undén, A. B.; Afink, G.; Williams, C.; Uhlén, M.; Toftgård, R.; Lundeberg, J.; Pontén, F.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely accepted that disruption of the hedgehog-patched pathway is a key event in development of basal cell cancer. In addition to patched gene alterations, p53 gene mutations are also frequent in basal cell cancer. We determined loss of heterozygosity in the patched and p53 loci as well as

  8. The rise and fall of basal bodies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipurenko, Inna V; Sengupta, Piali

    2017-01-01

    The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a widely used genetic model organism for investigations into centriole and cilia biology. Only sensory neurons are ciliated in C. elegans; morphologically diverse cilia in these neurons are nucleated by basal bodies located at the dendritic endings. C. elegans centrioles comprise a central tube with a symmetric array of nine singlet microtubules. These singlet microtubules remodel in a subset of sensory neurons to form the doublet microtubules of the basal bodies. Following initiation of ciliogenesis, the central tube, but not the outer centriole wall, of the basal body degenerates. Recent ultrastructural characterization of basal body architecture and remodeling have laid the foundation for future studies into mechanisms underlying different aspects of basal body genesis, remodeling, and intracellular positioning.

  9. BASAL CELL NEVUS SYNDROME PRESENTING AS EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE AND MYELINATED NERVE FIBER LAYER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Nathan D; Sassalos, Thérèse M; Ober, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of epiretinal membrane and myelinated nerve fiber layer, which preceded the diagnosis of basal cell nevus syndrome, in a young girl. Observational case report. A 12-year-old girl was referred for an asymptomatic epiretinal membrane. Examination revealed epiretinal membrane in the right eye without posterior vitreous separation or vitreous abnormality and bilateral myelinated nerve fiber layer. Subsequent workup yielded pathologic diagnosis of multiple skin basal cell carcinoma and odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw. Genetic testing revealed a frameshift mutation in the PTCH1 gene. Basal cell nevus syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that affects multiple organ systems, including the eyes. Recognition of common ocular findings in children with basal cell nevus syndrome can lead to systemic diagnosis. Early diagnosis is critical to initiate early screening for known neoplastic associations and lifelong minimization of sun exposure to reduce the incidence and severity of basal cell carcinoma.

  10. Structural Study of the Bacterial Flagellar Basal Body by Electron Cryomicroscopy and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Akihiro; Namba, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial flagellum is a large assembly of about 30 different proteins and is divided into three parts: filament, hook, and basal body. The machineries for its crucial functions, such as torque generation, rotational switch regulation, protein export, and assembly initiation, are all located around the basal body. Although high-resolution structures of the filament and hook have already been revealed, the structure of the basal body remains elusive. Recently, the purification protocol for the MS ring, which is the core ring of the basal body, has been improved for the structural study of the MS ring by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and single particle image analysis. The structure of intact basal body has also been revealed in situ at a resolution of a few nanometers by electron cryotomography (ECT) of minicells. Here, we describe the methods for the MS ring purification, Salmonella minicell culture, and cryoEM/ECT data collection and image analysis.

  11. Towards a biopsychological understanding of costly punishment: the role of basal cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation.

  12. Dentate granule cells form hilar basal dendrites in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cintra, Sofia; Xue, Baogang; Spigelman, Igor; Van, K; Wong, Alan M; Obenaus, Andre; Ribak, Charles E

    2009-08-18

    Hilar basal dendrites form on dentate granule cells following seizures. To determine whether other brain insults cause the formation of hilar basal dendrites, a model of global cerebral hypoxia/ischemia was used. Rats underwent a transient induction of ischemia by occlusion of both common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion. Hippocampal slices were prepared from these animals 1 month after the ischemic insult, and granule cells were labeled with a retrograde tracing technique after biocytin injections into stratum lucidum of CA3b. Ischemic rats had numerous biocytin-labeled granule cells with hilar basal dendrites located at the hilar border of the granule cell layer. Quantitative analysis of ischemic rats compared to controls showed a significant increase in the percentage of biocytin-labeled granule cells with hilar basal dendrites. These data demonstrate that other brain insults in addition to epilepsy may result in the formation of hilar basal dendrites on granule cells.

  13. Notch signaling is significantly suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and activation induces basal cell carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Yu, Mei; Zloty, David; Bell, Robert H; Wang, Eddy; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2017-04-01

    A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as 'ordered' skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as 'disordered' skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non‑follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BCC cells and root sheath keratinocyte cells from HFs were cultured and treated with Notch signaling peptide Jagged1 (JAG1). Gene expression, protein levels, and cell apoptosis susceptibility were assessed using qPCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. Specific molecular mechanisms were found to be involved in the process of cell self‑renewal in the HFs and BCCs, including Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways. However, several key Notch signaling factors showed significant differential expression in BCCs compared with HFs. Stimulating Notch signaling with JAG1 induced apoptosis of BCC cells by increasing Fas ligand expression and downstream caspase-8 activation. The present study showed that Notch signaling pathway activity is suppressed in BCCs, and is highly expressed in HFs. Elements of the Notch pathway could, therefore, represent targets for the treatment of BCCs and potentially in hair follicle engineering.

  14. Basal body structure and composition in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined. Moreover, the relationship between asexual stage centrioles and microgamete basal bodies remains unclear. While asexual stages of Plasmodium lack defined centriole structures, the asexual stages of Toxoplasma and closely related coccidian apicomplexans contain centrioles that consist of nine singlet microtubules and a central tubule. There are relatively few ultra-structural images of Toxoplasma microgametes, which only develop in cat intestinal epithelium. Only a subset of these include sections through the basal body: to date, none have unambiguously captured organization of the basal body structure. Moreover, it is unclear whether this basal body is derived from pre-existing asexual stage centrioles or is synthesized de novo. Basal bodies in Plasmodium microgametes are thought to be synthesized de novo, and their assembly remains ill-defined. Apicomplexan genomes harbor genes encoding δ- and ε-tubulin homologs, potentially enabling these parasites to assemble a typical triplet basal body structure. Moreover, the UNIMOD components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP, and BLD10/CEP135) are conserved in these organisms. However, other widely conserved basal body and flagellar biogenesis elements are missing from apicomplexan genomes. These differences may indicate variations in flagellar biogenesis pathways and in basal body arrangement within the phylum. As apicomplexan basal bodies are distinct from their metazoan counterparts, it may be possible to

  15. Immunology and growth characteristics of ocular basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M; Stiemer, R; Mayer, A; Riedinger, C; Duijvestijn, A; Zierhut, M

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about immunological features and growth characteristics of palpebral (ocular) basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is limited. In particular, it is unclear whether ocular BCC represents in this regard a special BCC entity or not. Twenty BCCs of the lid area (ocular BCCs) were investigated immunohistologically using monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CD8, CD45Ro, CD50, CD68, HECA-452, Ki67 (MIB1), and the p53 epitope. For comparison, nine BCCs excised distant from the eye (non-ocular BCCs) were evaluated. In BCCs the distribution of the immunocompetent cells investigated is markedly irregular. These cells are localized mainly around BCC islands. Only a few of them invade tumour cell aggregates. The CD4:CD8 ratio as detected by immunohistochemistry is >1 in 82% of ocular BCCs and in 88% of nonocular BCCs. Often there are dense infiltrations of CD68+ cells (macrophages) and HECA-452+ cells adjacent to tumour cell aggregates. The growth fraction [percentage of proliferating (Ki67+/MIB 1+) cells] varies from 0% to more than 30%. Proliferative activity is enhanced at the invasion front. Additionally, the amount of p53+ cells differs considerably among the BCCs. CD4+ T cells seem to be the most important cell population for BCC immunosurveillance, offering the chance for conservative interferon therapy. The role of CD68+ and HECA-452+ cells has to be further elucidated. In many tumours the large amount of proliferating cells contrasts to the usually slow growth of BCCs, indicating strong apoptotic processes. The results can be regarded only as semiquantitative. So far, ocular and nonocular BCCs exhibit no essential differences regarding immunocompetent cell infiltration and growth characteristics. According to this, palpebral BCCs are "normal" BCCs and not a special BCC variant. Therefore, results from dermatological research concerning BCC can be extended without limitations to their counterparts in the lid area.

  16. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ∼3°S to ∼70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas.

  17. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  18. Glut-1 Expression Correlates with Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Yaser R; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Semaan, Assaad; Ahmed, Quratulain; Albashiti, Bassam; Jazaerly, Tarek; Nahleh, Zeina; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba

    2011-12-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) is a facilitative glucose transporter expressed in many cancers including breast cancer. Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is a high-risk disease associated with poor prognosis and lacks the benefit of targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Glut-1 in patients with BLBC compared with non-BLBC. We identified 523 cases of invasive breast carcinoma from our database. The clinicopathologic findings and the biologic markers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) status were reviewed. IHC stains for cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, and Glut-1 were performed on tissue microarray using standard procedures. BLBC was defined as ER-,PR-, Her2-, and CK5/6+ and/or EGFR+. Of informative cases, 14.7% were categorized as BLBC versus 85.3% as non-BLBC. Glut-1 was expressed in 42 (76.4%) of 55 BLBCs, whereas only 55 (23.8%) of 231 non-BLBCs showed immunostaining for Glut-1 (P Glut-1 expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, ER negativity, PR negativity, CK5/6 positivity, EGFR expression, and high p53 expression (P Glut-1 immunostaining and patient's outcome. Our results show that Glut-1 is significantly associated with BLBC and might be a potential therapeutic target for this aggressive subgroup of breast cancer, and this warrants further investigations.

  19. Two years results of electronic brachytherapy for basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ballester-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of radiation therapy (RT for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC has been changing throughout the last century. Over the last decades, the use of radiotherapy has surged with the development of new techniques, applicators, and devices. In recent years, electronic brachytherapy (eBT devices that use small x-ray sources have been introduced as alternative to radionuclide dependence. Nowadays, several devices have been incorporated, with a few series reported, and with a short follow-up, due to the recent introduction of these systems. The purpose of this work is to describe the clinical results of our series after two years follow-up with a specific eBT system. Material and methods: This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study, to assess clinical results of electronic brachytherapy in basal cell carcinoma using the Esteya® system. In 2014, 40 patients with 60 lesions were treated. Patient follow-up on a regular basis was performed for a period of two years. Results: Twenty-six patients with 44 lesions achieved two years follow-up. A complete response was documented in 95.5% of cases. Toxicity was mild (G1 or G2 in all cases, caused by erythema, erosion, or alopecia. Cosmesis was excellent in 88.6% of cases, and good in the rest. Change in pigmentation was the most frequent cosmetic alteration. Conclusions : This work is special, since the equipment’s treatment voltage was 69.5 kV, and this is the first prospective study with long term follow-up with Esteya®. These preliminary report show excellent results with less toxicity and excellent cosmesis. While surgery has been the treatment of choice, certain patients might benefit from eBT treatment. These are elderly patients with comorbidities or undergoing anticoagulant treatment as well as those who simply refuse surgery or might have other contraindications.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, S G; Shields, J A; Shields, C L; Eagle, R C; Demirci, H; Mahmood, E Z

    2001-06-01

    To describe the ophthalmic and systemic features in a series of patients initially seen with eyelid basal cell carcinoma associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Retrospective noncomparative case series. Of 105 consecutive patients with eyelid basal cell carcinoma managed at an Ocular Oncology Center between January 1973 and December 1999, four patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome were identified. The ophthalmic and systemic features, management, and outcome of patients with eyelid basal cell carcinoma associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome were analyzed. The published literature on Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, specifically related to genetics, systemic features, ophthalmic associations, and prophylactic management strategies, was reviewed. Response of the eyelid basal cell carcinoma to treatment and the final systemic condition were the main outcome measures. All four patients had a family history of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. The systemic manifestations included multiple basal cell carcinomas in all the patients, frontal bossing or increased occipitofrontal circumference in three patients, palmar pits in two patients, odontogenic keratocyst in one patient, ectopic calcification in one patient, and bifid rib in one patient. The mean age at the detection of the first basal cell carcinoma was 30 years (range, 16-38 years). All four patients had multiple basal cell carcinomas on the face and elsewhere. The eyelid basal cell carcinoma was advanced with orbital infiltration in three patients, one of whom opted for palliative radiotherapy, whereas the other two underwent orbital exenteration. The fourth patient, who had localized recurrent basal cell carcinoma in the upper eyelid, was treated with excision and eyelid reconstruction. At the final follow-up (mean, 41 months), eyelid basal cell carcinoma was cured in three patients and stable in one patient. No patient had life-threatening sequelae of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant cancer

  1. Eight unique basal bodies in the multi-flagellated diplomonad Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInally, Shane G; Dawson, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasitic protist that causes significant acute and chronic diarrheal disease worldwide. Giardia belongs to the diplomonads, a group of protists in the supergroup Excavata. Diplomonads are characterized by eight motile flagella organized into four bilaterally symmetric pairs. Each of the eight Giardia axonemes has a long cytoplasmic region that extends from the centrally located basal body before exiting the cell body as a membrane-bound flagellum. Each basal body is thus unique in its cytological position and its association with different cytoskeletal features, including the ventral disc, axonemes, and extra-axonemal structures. Inheritance of these unique and complex cytoskeletal elements is maintained through basal body migration, duplication, maturation, and their subsequent association with specific spindle poles during cell division. Due to the complex composition and inheritance of specific basal bodies and their associated structures, Giardia may require novel basal body-associated proteins. Thus, protists such as Giardia may represent an undiscovered source of novel basal body-associated proteins. The development of new tools that make Giardia genetically tractable will enable the composition, structure, and function of the eight basal bodies to be more thoroughly explored.

  2. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix in a 20-year-old female: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnee David

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition mostly occurring among postmenopausal women. Although it can be confused with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix, adenoid basal carcinoma has several clinicopathologic features that will allow distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation This is the case of a twenty-year old African-American female who initially presented with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear, with a subsequent cervical LEEP specimen revealing adenoid basal carcinoma. The lesion showed the characteristic histologic features of adenoid basal carcinoma and was positive for the immunohistochemical marker EMA and negative for collagen IV, further defining the tumor while helping to rule out the possibility of adenoid cystic carcinoma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the youngest reported case of adenoid basal carcinoma to date. Conclusion This case shows that adenoid basal carcinoma can deviate markedly from its typical postmenopausal demographics to affect women as young as 20 years of age. In addition, adenoid basal carcinoma has several identifiable features that will differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma including histologic and cellular morphologies, as well as immunohistochemistry. Treatment for most patients involves hysterectomy, LEEP, or a conization procedure which provides a favorable prognosis because of this lesion's low potential for recurrence and metastasis.

  3. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix in a 20-year-old female: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePond, William David; Flauta, Victor Santos; Lingamfelter, Daniel Christian; Schnee, David Mark; Menendez, Kristyn Poncy

    2006-01-01

    Background Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition mostly occurring among postmenopausal women. Although it can be confused with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix, adenoid basal carcinoma has several clinicopathologic features that will allow distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation This is the case of a twenty-year old African-American female who initially presented with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear, with a subsequent cervical LEEP specimen revealing adenoid basal carcinoma. The lesion showed the characteristic histologic features of adenoid basal carcinoma and was positive for the immunohistochemical marker EMA and negative for collagen IV, further defining the tumor while helping to rule out the possibility of adenoid cystic carcinoma. As far as the authors are aware, this is the youngest reported case of adenoid basal carcinoma to date. Conclusion This case shows that adenoid basal carcinoma can deviate markedly from its typical postmenopausal demographics to affect women as young as 20 years of age. In addition, adenoid basal carcinoma has several identifiable features that will differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma including histologic and cellular morphologies, as well as immunohistochemistry. Treatment for most patients involves hysterectomy, LEEP, or a conization procedure which provides a favorable prognosis because of this lesion's low potential for recurrence and metastasis. PMID:16914043

  4. Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Dieter; Sellheyer, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Sclerosing cutaneous neoplasms often represent a diagnostic challenge. The monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 recognizes two glycopolypeptides found in most human epithelial cells. It is diagnostically highly reliable in the differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we report its application in the differential diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. Biopsy samples from 28 sclerosing and infiltrating basal cell carcinomas, 13 microcystic adnexal carcinomas and 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were examined after immunohistochemical staining with Ber-EP4. Ber-EP4 did not label any of the microcystic adnexal carcinomas, whereas all 28 basal cell carcinomas were Ber-EP4 positive. Twenty-seven of the 28 showed moderate or strong staining intensity, with the majority being strong. Only one basal cell carcinoma was weakly positive. Twelve of the 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with Ber-EP4 and the staining was more variable than those of basal cell carcinomas. Ber-EP4 reliably differentiates microcystic adnexal carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma to the same extent as it distinguishes the latter tumor from squamous cell carcinoma. While it stains the majority of desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, these tumors still have to be considered in the differential diagnosis with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, when Ber-EP4 is applied.

  5. Topical photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma in Singaporean Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hui-Yi; Koh, Shui-Lyn Claire; Theng, Thiam-Seng Colin; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy has been used for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas, with varying cure rates. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of topical photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas in Asian patients treated at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. A retrospective analysis of Asian patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinomas and treated with photodynamic therapy was performed. Eight Chinese patients, with an equal gender distribution and mean age of 83.4 years were included. Five of eight basal cell carcinomas were superficial while the remaining three were nodular. The basal cell carcinomas were located in the head and neck in seven patients. The overall clearance rate at 3 months was 87.5% while the clearance rate for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas was 100% and 66.6% respectively at 3 months. At 12 months, the overall clearance rate was 85. 7%. This is a retrospective analysis with small patient numbers. In this small series of eight Asian patients, topical photodynamic therapy has been shown to be effective and generally well-tolerated in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas, particularly of the superficial subtype. However, larger studies are needed to evaluate its overall efficacy in Asian patients.

  6. Brain morphology in children with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Mizuochi, Hiromi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS. We evaluated brain T1-weighted images from nine children with NBCCS and 15 age-matched normal control (NC) children (mean [standard deviation], 12.2 [2.8] vs. 11.6 [2.3] years old). The diameters of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, and brain stem and the cerebellar volume were compared using two-tailed t-tests with Welch's correction. The transverse diameters (150.4 [9.9] vs. 136.0 [5.5] mm, P = 0.002) and longitudinal diameters (165.4 [8.0] vs. 151.3 [8.7] mm, P = 0.0007) of the cerebrum, cross-sectional area of the cerebellar vermis (18.7 [2.6] vs. 11.8 [1.7] cm 2 , P = 0.0001), and total volume of the cerebellar hemispheres (185.1 [13.0] vs. 131.9 [10.4] cm 3 , P = 0.0001) were significantly larger in the children with NBCCS than in NC children. Thinning of the corpus callosum and ventricular enlargement were also confirmed in children with NBCCS. We demonstrate that, on examination of the brain morphology, an increase in the size of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and cerebral ventricles is revealed in children with NBCCS compared to NC children. This suggests that constitutively active hedgehog signaling affects human brain morphology and the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical

  8. COMPROMISO DE GANGLIOS BASALES EN DENGUE HEMORRÁGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Cortés Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available

    El dengue es una infección viral sistémica transmitida a los humanos por la hembra del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Alrededor del 10% de los pacientes con dengue pueden presentar alteraciones neurológicas durante o después de la infección. Existen unos signos conocidos como signos de alarma, los cuales, asociados al antecedente epidemiológico (procedencia de zona endémica, pueden ayudar a sospechar la infección. A continuación, se presentan algunas generalidades sobre el virus, las formas clínicas, las complicaciones y el análisis de una revisión sistemática de 65 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de dengue o dengue hemorrágico. A partir de ellos, se encontró que se evidenciaron signos y síntomas neurológicos en 4 de los 39 casos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Esta revisión permitió detectar un caso de hemorragia en la cabeza del núcleo caudado, asociada a la trombocitopenia marcada, inducida por el virus del dengue.

    BASAL GANGLIA INVOLVEMENT IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (DHF

    ABSTRACT

    Dengue fever is a systemic viral infection transmitted to humans by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. About 10% of patients with dengue fever may develop neurological disorders during or after infection. There are some signs known as warning signs, which, associated to the epidemiological background (origin of endemic area, may help to suspect the infection in those patients from endemic areas. Here are some generalities of the virus, its clinical forms, complications and the analysis of a systematic review of 65 clinical records of patients diagnosed with dengue and / or dengue hemorrhagic fever. From these patients, it was found that neurological signs and symptoms were evident in 4 of the 39 cases that fulfilled inclusion criteria. This review allowed to detect a case of hemorrhage in the head of the Caudate Nucleus associated with thrombocytopenia, induced by

  9. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  10. Basal cell carcinoma: an evidence-based treatment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte M; Furniss, Megan; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. Surgical excision remains the standard of treatment, but several alternative treatment modalities exist. This review aims to provide a current analysis of evidence for the treatment of BCC; specifically, which treatments have the lowest recurrence rates and the best cosmetic outcomes. We searched PubMed (January 1946 to August 2013), Ovid MEDLINE (2003-August 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1993 to August 2013), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library Issue 9, 2013) databases for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, or comparative studies for the treatment of BCC. We found 615 potential articles. Two independent reviewers selected 40 studies: 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), seven systematic reviews, and four nonrandomized prospective trials. Treatment modalities reviewed include surgical therapy, radiotherapy and cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), topical imiquimod, topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), topical solasodine glycoalkaloids, topical ingenol mebutate, intralesional 5-FU, intralesional interferon (IFN), and oral hedgehog pathway inhibitors. The available data suggest that surgical methods remain the gold standard in BCC treatment, with Mohs micrographic surgery typically utilized for high-risk lesions. Suitable alternate treatment options for appropriately selected primary low-risk lesions may include PDT, cryotherapy, topical imiquimod, and 5-FU. Radiotherapy is a suitable alternate for surgical methods for treatment in older patient populations. Electrodesiccation and curettage (ED&C) is a commonly used primary treatment option for low-risk lesions; however, there were no RCTs examining ED&C that met our inclusion criteria. New hedgehog pathway inhibitors are promising for the management of advanced BCC; however, side effects are a concern for some patients, and much remains to be learned regarding optimal

  11. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  12. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  13. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising on a Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Viana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of basal cell carcinoma that appeared from an epidermal verrucous nevus in a 61-year-old patient. The onset of basal cell carcinoma in sebaceous nevi, basal cell nevi and dysplastic nevi is relatively common, but it is rarely associated with epidermal verrucous nevi. There is no consensus on whether the two lesions have a common cellular origin or whether they merely represent a collision of two distinct tumors. Since this association - as with other malignant tumors - is rare, there is no need for prophylactic removal of epidermal verrucous nevi.

  15. High basal melt rates observed on Store Glacier, West Greenland, using phase-sensitive FMCW radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T. J.; Christoffersen, P.; Nicholls, K. W.; Lok, L. B.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, B. P.; Stewart, C.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Brennan, P. V.; Hubbard, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass, and is currently contributing 1 mm/year to global sea level rise. The large majority of these changes can be attributed to the recent acceleration in flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers within the last several decades. Such fast ice flow is characterised by ice deformation, as well as basal motion. However, there are few direct observations of either of these contributing mechanisms due to the difficulty of accessing the subglacial environment. In particular, although basal melt rates have been measured on ice shelves for decades, there exist almost no equivalent observations for grounded ice sheets. We present the first time series of directly-measured rates of basal melting at the bed of Store Glacier, a major outlet glacier flowing into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland. The measurements were obtained using a phase-sensitive, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system installed 30 km upflow of the calving terminus at a location where the surface velocity of the glacier is 700 m/year. Radar data were recorded every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 610-m-deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice research Experiment (SAFIRE). With internal and basal reflector ranges captured at high spatial (millimetre) and temporal (hourly) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of ice deformation and basal melting coincident with englacial and subglacial borehole measurements. Here, we report sustained basal melting of 3 m/year during winter, and maxima of 20 m/year during summer when basal motion is enhanced by surface water delivered to the bed. The lower, but more constant rate of winter basal melting is likely to be driven by frictional heat generated from basal sliding. These discoveries indicate that basal melting beneath Greenland's fast flowing outlet glaciers is considerably higher than basal melting reported

  16. The molecular genetics underlying basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis and links to targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Julie K; Srivastava, Divya; Moy, Ronald L; Lin, Henry J; Kouba, David J

    2012-05-01

    Mutations in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway play a key role in the development of basal cell carcinomas. Specifically, mutations in the PTCH1 (also known as PTCH or PTC1) and SMO genes cause tumor formation through constitutive activation of the pathway. Misregulation of the pathway has also been implicated in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and other tumors. Understanding the function of the sonic hedgehog pathway has led to novel strategies for treatment. In this review we highlight the role of the pathway in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma and review potential targeted therapies. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Precision medicine and precision therapeutics: hedgehog signaling pathway, basal cell carcinoma and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shalini V; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2014-06-01

    Precision medicine and precision therapeutics is currently in its infancy with tremendous potential to improve patient care by better identifying individuals at risk for skin cancer and predict tumor responses to treatment. This review focuses on the Hedgehog signaling pathway, its critical role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma, and the emergence of targeted treatments for advanced basal cell carcinoma. Opportunities to utilize precision medicine are outlined, such as molecular profiling to predict basal cell carcinoma response to targeted therapy and to inform therapeutic decisions.

  18. Computational models of basal ganglia dysfunction: the dynamics is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jonathan E

    2017-09-07

    The development, simulation, and analysis of mathematical models offer helpful tools for integrating experimental findings and exploring or suggesting possible explanatory mechanisms. As models relating to basal ganglia dysfunction have proliferated, however, there has not always been consistency among their findings. This work points out several ways in which biological details, relating to ionic currents and synaptic pathways, can influence the dynamics of models of the basal ganglia under parkinsonian conditions and hence may be important for inclusion in models. It also suggests some additional useful directions for future modeling studies relating to basal ganglia dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Integrated Assessment of Basal Scattering and Topographic Roughness Information Derived from Greenland Radar-Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet-chaulet, F.; Jordan, T.; Cooper, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Schroeder, D. M.; Williams, C.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Price, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the basal roughness of ice sheets is important for understanding and constraining the role of basal traction on ice dynamics. Numerical model simulations demonstrate high sensitivity to the parametrisation of the lower boundary condition, which is governed by both basal roughness and the thermal state of the bed. In terms of ice dynamics history, basal roughness can reveal aspects of past behaviour as well as provide insight towards more recent flow distribution of marine sediments. Basal roughness information, defined here in general terms as the irregularity of the basal interface relative to a reference surface, can be obtained from radar-sounding data in two physically different ways. Firstly, via the statistical properties of along-track topography (e.g. from spectral analysis); and secondly via the electromagnetic scattering properties of the radar pulse (e.g. by quantifying the spread of the distribution of scattered energy). In general, the basal roughness of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been little studied, and the vast increase in recent Operation Ice Bridge radar-sounding data presents an opportunity for comprehensive, quantitative ice-sheet-wide analysis. Here we present a synthesis of basal scattering and topographic based roughness information for the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with a comparison to present day numerical model output including ice velocity, basal traction, and basal temperature. One central topic which we address is the scale dependence of basal roughness information that is inferred from both analysis methods, and the relationship with basal sliding physics. Consideration of scale is important since basal sliding is primarily controlled by higher frequency roughness. The other topic that we consider is identifying whether there are any defined and unambiguous roughness characteristics in regions where there is suspected to be a thawed basal interface. An overall goal of this work is to integrate basal roughness information

  20. Evaluation of surgical margins according to the histological type of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Charles Antonio Pires de; Neta, Alice Lima de Oliveira; Leão, Sofia Silveira de Souza; Dantas, Raul Lima; Carvalho, Valeska Oliveira Fonseca; Silva, Samuel Freire da

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical margin of basal cell carcinoma and correlate this with its histologic subtype. A retrospective analysis of pathology laboratory records from 1990 to 2000 was performed and the following data was collected: age, sex, race, anatomical location, histological type, and state of the excision margins in 1,428 histopathological reports of basal cell carcinoma. Ages ranged from 6 to 99 years, with an average of 57. There was a slight predominance of lesions in white women patients, and the most common histological subtype was the nodular, followed by the superficial. The most common locations were in the head and neck, with highest prevalence appeared in the nose. Surgical margins revealed a lateral involvement of 20.14% and a deep involvement of 12.47%. The fibrosing basal cell carcinoma is the histological type that most often presented positive surgical margins.

  1. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mourier, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety...

  2. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and in the peritumoural skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Mollerup, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer worldwide. BCC is locally invasive and the surrounding stromal microenvironment is pivotal for tumourigenesis. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the microenvironment are essential for tumour growth in a variety...

  3. Basal Cell Carcinomas in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review of 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome (Naevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the PTCH gene with a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 19,000. Patients develop multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin frequently in early life and also have a predisposition to additional malignancies such as medulloblastoma. Gorlin Syndrome patients also have developmental defects such as bifid ribs and other complications such as jaw keratocysts. We studied the incidence and frequency of basal cell carcinomas in 202 Gorlin syndrome patients from 62 families and compared this to their gender and mutation type. Our data suggests that the incidence of basal cell carcinomas is equal between males and females and the mutation type cannot be used to predict disease burden.

  4. Videos of Basal Ice in Boreholes on the Kamb Ice Stream in West Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a collection of video data of basal ice taken in a borehole on the Kamb Ice Stream in West Antarctica. Ice streams are an expression of the inherent...

  5. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-01-01

    ..., but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG...

  7. Dopamine-dependent changes in the functional connectivity between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D; Tijssen, M; van Bruggen, G; Bosch, A; Insola, A; Di Lazzaro, V; Mazzone, P; Oliviero, A; Quartarone, A; Speelman, H; Brown, P

    2002-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that interaction between the human basal ganglia and cerebral cortex involves activity in multiple functional circuits characterized by their frequency of oscillation, phase characteristics, dopamine dependency and topography. To this end we took recordings from

  8. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  9. Germinoma in the basal ganglia with an abnormal karyotype: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, En; Wang, Xiaojuan; Hao, Zhuofang; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Xuefen

    2010-05-01

    Germ cell tumor of basal ganglia with abnormal constitutional karyotype has been rarely reported. A 9-year-old boy presented with precocious puberty and right hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in the left basal ganglia and ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy predominantly in the basal ganglia and midbrain. Germinoma in the left basal ganglia was confirmed by stereotactic biopsy and immunochemical examination. His constitutional karyotype was 46, XY, t (8; 19), (p23.1; p13.1), a novel chromosomal abnormality. Intracranial germinoma, a potentially curable tumor, should be considered in children with nonspecific neurological symptoms, endocrinologic changes, and ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy on computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in those patients would clarify the tumorigenesis and lead to possibilities for novel disease-specific therapies.

  10. The Evaluation of Basal Respiration for Various Soil Textures in Ecologically Sensitive Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huličová, P.; Kotorová, D.; Fazekašová, D.; Hynšt, J.

    2017-10-01

    The present contribution was focused on monitoring changes in the soil basal respiration in different textures of soil in the dry polder Beša. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2014 on soil type Fluvisol locations on three soil textures: clay – loam soil, clayey soil and clay soil in three soil depths. The basal respiration (BR) has been determine by soil CO2 production measuring from incubated soil samples in serum bottles in laboratory condition. Release Co2 has been analysed by gas chromatography. Content of clay particles were in the range 52.18 % to 81.31%, indicating the high difference between the minimum and maximum content. By using of multiple LSD-test we recorded statistically significant impact of clay on basal respiration. Results confirm the values of basal respiration with the depth of the soil profile decreased.

  11. Basal foot MTOC organizes pillar MTs required for coordination of beating cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Daniel K; Magescas, Jérémy; Piolot, Tristan; Dumoux, Maud; Vesque, Christine; Pichard, Evelyne; Dang, Tien; Duvauchelle, Boris; Poirier, Françoise; Delacour, Delphine

    2014-09-12

    Coordination of ciliary beating is essential to ensure mucus clearance in the airway tract. The orientation and synchronization of ciliary motion responds in part to the organization of the underlying cytoskeletal networks. Using electron tomography on mouse trachea, we show that basal bodies are collectively hooked at the cortex by a regular microtubule array composed of 4-5 microtubules. Removal of galectin-3, one of basal-body components, provokes misrecruitment of γ-tubulin, disorganization of this microtubule framework emanating from the basal-foot cap, together with loss of basal-body alignment and cilium orientation, defects in cilium organization and reduced fluid flow in the tracheal lumen. We conclude that galectin-3 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the microtubule-organizing centre of the cilium and the 'pillar' microtubules, and that this network is instrumental for the coordinated orientation and stabilization of motile cilia.

  12. Hypoglycemia as a trigger for the syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryńczyk, Maciej; Rozniecki, Jacek; Zaleski, Krzysztof; Selmaj, Krzysztof

    2010-10-15

    The syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions is a rarely described complication of uremia occurring typically in the setting of concurrent long-standing diabetes mellitus. Reversible symmetrical lesions located in basal ganglia found on brain magnetic resonance imaging are hallmarks of this syndrome. Clinical presentation includes parkinsonism and/or involuntary movements. The cause of this syndrome is largely unknown. Among the factors that are believed to contribute to its pathogenesis are uremic toxins, metabolic acidosis and diabetic microangiopathy. Here we report a patient with uremia and newly diagnosed diabetes, who developed the syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions after an incidence of severe hypoglycemia induced by oral hypoglycemic agents. We consider hypoglycemia as a candidate trigger factor for the syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions and highlight the importance of strict glucose control in uremic patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of Ocular Manifestations of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: What an Ophthalmologist Needs to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Judy J.; Sartori, Juliana; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Setabutr, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Myriad ophthalmologic findings are associated with NBCCS, including periocular BCCs, hypertelorism, strabismus, myelinated nerve fibers, and disorders of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. We performed a literature search in PubMed for articles on ...

  15. Synchronous occurrence of odontogenic myxoma with multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhe; Liu, Bing; Zhang, WenFeng; Chen, XinMing

    2013-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. Usually, multiple KCOTs occur as a component of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The odontogenic myxoma is a rare benign tumor that represents about 3% of all odontogenic tumors. This article reports the case of mandible odontogenic myxoma with synchronous occurrence of multiple KCOTs, partial expression of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. A review of the international literature is also presented.

  16. Basal Cell nevoid Syndrome - Report of a case with 20 years' folow-up -

    OpenAIRE

    新美, 秦恵; 星名, 由紀子; 鈴木, 一郎; 中島, 民雄; Niimi, Kanae; Hoshina, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ichiro; Nakajima, Tamio

    1997-01-01

    Basal cell nevoid syndrome is an autosomal dominant herediatry disease with multiple pits on palmar and plantar skin, bifid rib, ocular hyperterolism, multiple jaw cysts and many other malformations. Most of the jaw cysts found in this syndrome are odontogenic keratocysts. In this paper, 11-year-old boy with basal cell nevoid syndrome who was followed up for 20 years was reported. Clinical examination showed that he had ocular hypertelorism, broad nasal root, temporal and frontal bossings, ma...

  17. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix in a 20-year-old female: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Schnee David; Lingamfelter Daniel; Flauta Victor; DePond William; Menendez Kristyn

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Adenoid basal carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition mostly occurring among postmenopausal women. Although it can be confused with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix, adenoid basal carcinoma has several clinicopathologic features that will allow distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation This is the case of a twenty-year old African-American female who initially presented with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear, with a subs...

  18. Phospholipase Cγ2 is required for basal but not oestrogen deficiency-induced bone resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Kertész, Zsuzsanna; Győri, Dávid; Körmendi, Szandra; Fekete, Tünde; Kis-Tóth, Katalin; Jakus, Zoltán; Schett, Georg; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Mócsai, Attila

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone resorption under basal conditions, but they also contribute to pathological bone loss during diseases including postmenopausal osteoporosis. Phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) is an important signalling molecule in diverse haematopoietic lineages. Here, we tested the role of PLC?2 in basal and ovariectomy-induced bone resorption, as well as in in vitro osteoclast cultures using PLC?2-deficient (PLC?2?/?) mice. Materials and methods The trabecular arc...

  19. Single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy of the basal ganglia in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Kim, Jong Ki; Oh, Kyu Hyeon; Lee, Young Hwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Dong Kuck; Hwang, Jin Bok [Catholic Univ. of Taegu-Hyosung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To demonstrate the proton MR spectroscopic characteristics of non-neoplastic focal basal ganglia lesions with high signal intensity on long TR MR images in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1(NF-1), and to compare them with those of normal-appearing basal ganglia in patients without focal lesions. Materials and Methods: Single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy was performed in six patients with NF-1 from two families(three with and three without non-neoplastic focal brain lesions). All six individual spectra were obtained from basal ganglia with voxel sizes of about 1 x 1 x 1 cm, three from focal pallidal lesions in patients with focal lesions and three from normal-appearing basal ganglia in patients without focal lesions. Spectra were acquired using a 1.5T clinical MR imager and stimulated echo acquisition mode sequence, with the following parameters: 30 ms of echo time, 13.7ms of mixing time, and 2560 ms of repetition time. Zero and first-order phase correction was performed. Results :N-acetyl aspartate(NAA)/creatine(Cr) ratios were similar between focal basal ganglia lesions and normal-appearing basal ganglia, though the former showed slightly lower choline(Cho)/Cr ratios and slightly higher NAA/Cho ratios than the latter. Relatively enhanced resonances around 3.75 ppm, assigned as glutamate/glutamine, were observed in the spectra of three focal lesions. Lipid resonances around slightly different positions were observed in all six patients, regardless of the presence or absence of focal lesions. Conclusion : Slightly decreased Cho levels and relatively enhanced glutamate/glutamine resonances are thought to characterize the focal basal ganglia lesions of NF-1. Different mobile lipids appear to be present in the basal ganglia of NF-1 patients, regardless of the presence of focal lesions.

  20. Dentate granule cells form hilar basal dendrites in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Cintra, Sofia; Xue, Baogang; Spigelman, Igor; K.; Wong, Alan M.; Obenaus, Andre; Ribak, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Hilar basal dendrites form on dentate granule cells following seizures. To determine whether other brain insults cause the formation of hilar basal dendrites, a model of global cerebral hypoxia/ischemia was used. Rats underwent a transient induction of ischemia by occlusion of both common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion. Hippocampal slices were prepared from these animals 1 month after the ischemic insult, and granule cells were labeled with a retrograde tracing technique after biocy...

  1. Polymorphic Basal Rates of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion among Taiwanese Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The basal dose of insulin, proportion of total daily insulin, and circadian variation during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII therapy among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D have not been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods. A total of 45 childhood patients with T1D receiving CSII therapy at Pediatrics Department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2004 and 2012 were analyzed. Patients were classified according to Tanner stage. Results. HbA1c was significantly reduced in all Tanner groups within three months of CSII therapy (from 67 mmol/mol (8.3% to 54 mmol/mol (7.1%, P<0.05. The actual basal proportion of total daily insulin use was 34–40%. The circadian distribution of basal insulin differed markedly between the five Tanner groups. Basal insulin requirement was highest between 3:00 and 7:00 h in Tanner stages 1-2. In stages 3-4, a lower nocturnal basal insulin that increased gradually until daytime was noted. Adolescents (stage 5 displayed a high insulin peak between 6:00 and 11:00 h, and a smaller peak between 19:00 and 23:00 h. Conclusions. A smaller proportion of basal insulin to total daily insulin use, as well as varied circadian patterns of insulin use, characterized these children with T1D.

  2. Efficacy of Vismodegib (Erivedge) for Basal Cell Carcinoma Involving the Orbit and Periocular Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Worden, Francis; Nelson, Christine C; Elner, Victor M; Kahana, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of vismodegib in the management of basal cell carcinoma with orbital extension and/or extensive periocular involvement. Retrospective chart review of 6 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven orbital basal cell carcinoma and 2 additional patients with extensive periocular basal cell carcinoma who were treated with oral vismodegib (150 mg/day) was performed. Basal cell carcinoma extended in the orbit in 6 of 8 patients (involving orbital bones in 1 patient), and 2 of 8 patients had extensive periocular involvement (1 with basal cell nevus syndrome). Vismodegib therapy was the only treatment in 6 patients, off-label neoadjuvant in 1 patient, and adjuvant treatment in 1 patient. Orbital tumors in all 4 patients who received vismodegib as sole treatment showed partial response with a mean 83% shrinkage in tumor size after a median of 7 months of therapy. In the 2 patients receiving vismodegib as neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies, there was complete response after a median of 7 months of therapy and no evidence of clinical recurrence after discontinuing therapy for a median of 15 months. The 2 patients with extensive periocular involvement experienced complete clinical response after a median 14 months of treatment. During treatment, the most common side effects were muscle spasm (75%) followed by alopecia (50%), dysgeusia (25%), dysosmia, and episodes of diarrhea and constipation (13%). Basal cell carcinoma with orbital extension and extensive periocular involvement responds to vismodegib therapy. The long-term prognosis remains unknown, and additional prospective studies are indicated.

  3. Primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Seyda; Ekin, Meryem Altin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is presented and patients presented in the literature reviewed. Clinical features and outcome of a patient with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is described. Review of 8 other cases identified through literature search with the keywords of "basal cell carcinoma" and "caruncle" is presented.A 67-year-old male patient presented with a 12 months' history of a lesion over the caruncular region. Incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed primary basal cell carcinoma of nodular type. MRI of the orbit identified extension of the lesion into the medial orbit. The tumor was excised, and reconstructive surgery was performed. The patient declined subsequent radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during the follow up of 33 months. The current patient and 8 other patients with primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle were reviewed.The main therapeutic approach for primary basal cell carcinoma of the caruncle is complete excision with tumor-free surgical margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be administered when deemed necessary.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  5. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required.

  6. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary constriction requires laminin-dependent basal constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzman, Jennifer H; Graeden, Ellie G; Lowery, Laura Anne; Holley, Heidi S; Sive, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is a highly conserved fold in the vertebrate embryonic brain. We have termed the deepest point of this fold the MHB constriction (MHBC) and have begun to define the mechanisms by which it develops. In the zebrafish, the MHBC is formed soon after neural tube closure, concomitant with inflation of the brain ventricles. The MHBC is unusual, as it forms by bending the basal side of the neuroepithelium. At single cell resolution, we show that zebrafish MHBC formation involves two steps. The first is a shortening of MHB cells to approximately 75% of the length of surrounding cells. The second is basal constriction, and apical expansion, of a small group of cells that contribute to the MHBC. In the absence of inflated brain ventricles, basal constriction still occurs, indicating that the MHBC is not formed as a passive consequence of ventricle inflation. In laminin mutants, basal constriction does not occur, indicating an active role for the basement membrane in this process. Apical expansion also fails to occur in laminin mutants, suggesting that apical expansion may be dependent on basal constriction. This study demonstrates laminin-dependent basal constriction as a previously undescribed molecular mechanism for brain morphogenesis.

  8. Basal cell signaling by p63 controls luminal progenitor function and lactation via NRG1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Nicole; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; van Bragt, Maaike; Sfondouris, Mary E.; Jones, Frank E.; Li, Zhe; Ellisen, Leif W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mammary epithelium is organized as a bi-layer of luminal and basal/myoepithelial cells. During pregnancy the luminal compartment expands for milk production, while basal cells are thought to provide structural and contractile support. Here we reveal an unanticipated, pregnancy-specific role of basal epithelia as a central coordinator of lactogenesis. We demonstrate that genetic deletion of the transcription factor p63 (Trp63) gene exclusively within basal cells of the adult gland during pregnancy leads to dramatic defects in luminal cell proliferation and differentiation, resulting in lactation failure. This phenotype is explained by direct transcriptional activation of the EGF-family ligand gene Nrg1 by p63 selectively in basal cells, which is required for luminal ERBB4/STAT5A activation and consequent luminal progenitor cell maturation. Thus, paracrine basal-to-luminal cell signaling, controlled by p63 via NRG1, orchestrates the entire lactation program. Collectively, these findings redefine the paradigm for cellular interactions specifying the functional maturation of the mammary gland. PMID:24412575

  9. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Basal crevasses in Larsen C Ice Shelf and implications for their global abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luckman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal crevasses extend upwards from the base of ice bodies and can penetrate more than halfway through the ice column under conditions found commonly on ice shelves. As a result, they may locally modify the exchange of mass and energy between ice shelf and ocean, and by altering the shelf's mechanical properties could play a fundamental role in ice shelf stability. Although early studies revealed that such features may be abundant on Antarctic ice shelves, their geometrical properties and spatial distribution has gained little attention. We investigate basal crevasses in Larsen C Ice Shelf using field radar survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling. We demonstrate that a group of features visible in MODIS imagery are the surface expressions of basal crevasses in the form of surface troughs, and find that basal crevasses can be generated as a result of stresses well downstream of the grounding line. We show that linear elastic fracture mechanics modelling is a good predictor of basal crevasse penetration height where stresses are predominantly tensile, and that measured surface trough depth does not always reflect this height, probably because of snow accumulation in the trough, marine ice accretion in the crevasse, or stress bridging from the surrounding ice. We conclude that all features visible in MODIS imagery of ice shelves and previously labelled simply as "crevasses", where they are not full thickness rifts, must be basal crevasse troughs, highlighting a fundamental structural property of many ice shelves that may have been previously overlooked.

  11. Inherent physical characteristics and gene expression differences between alveolar and basal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhary, Ibrahim; Alotibi, Fawwaz; Lewis, Jill; ElSalanty, Mohammed; Wenger, Karl; Sharawy, Mohamed; Messer, Regina L W

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the baseline differences between alveolar and basal areas of the rat mandible. Rat mandibular alveolar and basal bones were evaluated using histology and micro-computed tomography to compare osteocyte number as well as bone density and architecture and polymerase chain reaction to measure gene expression levels. Micro-computed tomography data indicated that basal bone is denser and less porous than alveolar bone. Histologic analysis showed that alveolar bone has more osteocytes per unit area compared with basal bone. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed higher levels of expression of the following genes in basal bone than in alveolar bone: SOST, E-11, DMP-1, and MEPE. Three of these gene products are associated with mature osteocytes, and this suggests that basal bone has more mature osteocyte phenotypes compared with alveolar bone. These findings are suggestive of fewer bone mineralization units and therefore a slower remodeling rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  13. Basal blood corticosterone level is correlated with susceptibility to chronic restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Gon; Jung, Hye-Seung; Kim, Ki-Joon; Min, Sun-Seek; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-10-25

    Corticosterone is released in response to stress and manifests as various bodily stress responses in rodents. While corticosterone reflects acute adaptive responses, how the basal steady-state corticosterone level relates to the subsequent stress response is largely unknown. Here, we investigated how basal corticosterone levels can affect the susceptibility to chronic restraint stress in mice. We designed a longitudinal experiment, enabling us to compare the basal corticosterone level and the subsequent response to repeated restraint stress within the same animal. We found that the mice had differential changes in plasma corticosterone levels, which either increased or decreased, with exposure to chronic stress. These differential changes reflected the differential stress susceptibility of the mice, as evaluated by changes in body weight. The extent of the changes in corticosterone level during chronic stress exposure was predicted by the basal corticosterone level. In addition, the behavioral consequence of chronic stress was also correlated with the basal corticosterone level prior to chronic stress experience. These data reveal that the basal steady-state corticosterone level is a predictor of stress susceptibility or resilience to subsequent stress exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients with schizophrenia show aberrant patterns of basal ganglia activation: Evidence from ALE meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Russell, Courtney E; Newberry, Raeana E; Goen, James R M; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-01-01

    The diverse circuits and functional contributions of the basal ganglia, coupled with known differences in dopaminergic function in patients with schizophrenia, suggest they may be an important contributor to the etiology of the hallmark symptoms and cognitive dysfunction experienced by these patients. Using activation-likelihood-estimation meta-analysis of functional imaging research, we investigated differences in activation patterns in the basal ganglia in patients with schizophrenia, relative to healthy controls across task domains. This analysis included 42 functional neuroimaging studies, representing a variety of behavioral domains that have been linked to basal ganglia function in prior work. We provide important new information about the functional activation patterns and functional topography of the basal ganglia for different task domains in healthy controls. Crucially however, we demonstrate that across task domains, patients with schizophrenia show markedly decreased activation in the basal ganglia relative to healthy controls. Our results provide further support for basal ganglia dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, and the broad dysfunction across task domains may contribute to the symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.

  15. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD. In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  16. NIMA-related kinase TbNRKC is involved in basal body separation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Lydie C; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Landrein, Nicolas; Robinson, Derrick R

    2006-05-01

    The NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK 2) has important cell cycle functions related to centriole integrity and splitting. Trypanosoma brucei does not possess centrioles, however, cytokinesis is coupled to basal body separation events. Here we report the first functional characterisation of a T. brucei basal body-cytoskeletal NIMA-related kinase (NRK) protein, TbNRKC. The TbNRKC kinase domain has high amino acid identity with the human NEK1 kinase domain (50%) but also shares 42% identity with human NEK2. TbNRKC is expressed in bloodstream and procyclic cells and functions as a bona fide kinase in vitro. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of TbNRKC and overexpression of kinase-dead TbNRKC in procyclic forms induces the accumulation of cells with four basal bodies, whereas overexpression of active protein produces supernumary basal bodies and blocks cytokinesis. TbNRKC is located on mature and immature basal bodies and is the first T. brucei NRK to be found associated with the basal body cytokinesis pathway.

  17. Evaluation of dental and basal arch forms using cone-beam CT and 3D virtual models of normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Han, Seong Ho; Baek, Seung-Hak; Sameshima, Glenn T; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2013-05-01

    OBIECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the mandibular dental and basal arches using CBCT, and to assess the correlation between basal arch dimensions derived from CBCT and 3-dimensional (3D) virtual models in a cohort sample exhibiting normal occlusions. The facial axis (FA) and root centre (RC) points of mandibular teeth were identified on 32 CBCT images. FA and WALA points were digitised on 3D models of 28 mandibular casts from the same sample. The relationships between dental and basal arch dimensions, and between the two basal depth dimensions derived from RC and WALA points were statistically assessed by Pearson's correlation. Strong correlations were found between dental and basal intercanine and intermolar arch widths. Also, the basal intercanine width showed a moderate correlation with dental intermolar width and depth. The basal intercanine and intermolar widths measured on 3D models showed moderate correlations with those measurements on CBCT, whereas the basal canine and molar depths showed no correlations. The dental and basal anterior and posterior arch widths were strongly correlated in normal occlusion. No correlations were found between the arch depths measured from WALA points and RC points. Hence, RC points may represent more useable landmarks compared to WALA points in the evaluation of basal arch forms. It is recommended that the relationship between the dental and basal arches is evaluated during treatment planning in order to improve arch co-ordination.

  18. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T; Kirkland, James I; DeBlieux, Donald D; Madsen, Scott K; Cavin, Jennifer; Milner, Andrew R C; Panzarin, Lukas

    2010-11-22

    Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  19. Characterization of the basal angiosperm Aristolochia fimbriata: a potential experimental system for genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. It would be desirable to identify a basal angiosperm experimental system that possesses many of the features found in existing plant model systems (e.g., Arabidopsis and Oryza). Results We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. Most basal angiosperms are woody or aquatic, thus are not well-suited for large scale cultivation, and were excluded. We further investigated members of Aristolochiaceae for ease of culture, life cycle, genome size, and chromosome number. We demonstrated self-compatibility for Aristolochia elegans and A. fimbriata, and transformation with a GFP reporter construct for Saruma henryi and A. fimbriata. Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. An extensive multi-tissue EST dataset was produced for A. fimbriata that includes over 3.8 million 454 sequence reads. Conclusions Aristolochia fimbriata has numerous features that facilitate genetic studies and is suggested as a potential model system for use with a wide variety of technologies. Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms

  20. Comparison of tear lipid profile among basal, reflex, and flush tear samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Athira; Stapleton, Fiona; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Willcox, Mark D P

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether tear collection by flushing the ocular surface with saline (flush tears) or collection by stimulation (reflex tears) can be used as an alternative to basal tear collection for the identification and quantification of lipids in the tear film. Tear samples were collected from 10 participants with no history of ocular surface disease or contact lens wear. Up to 10 μl of basal, reflex, and flush tear samples were collected from each eye using a microcapillary tube on three occasions with the order of methods randomized and allowing at least 24 hours between each collection method. Lipids were quantified from each tear sample using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Total lipids significantly differed in their concentration (pmol/μl) and mole % with each collection technique. Cholesterol esters [mean % (SE)] formed the major component of the total lipidome in basal [54.8% (3.1)], reflex [35.7% (6.4)], and flush [33.0% (3.1)] tear samples. However, the mole % of each lipid class substantially varied with each tear collection method. Nonpolar lipids, including cholesterol, wax esters, and triacylglycerols, dominated the tear lipidome in basal [92.8% (1.9)], reflex [71.8% (7.9)], and flush [83.6% (3.8)] tear samples. However, the mole % of phospholipids in reflex [27.5% (8.1)] and flush [15.8% (3.8)] tear samples was higher (p = 0.005) than that in basal tears [5.4% (2.0)]. Flush or reflex tears did not have similar lipid profiles in either concentration or in mole % to basal tears. It is recommended that basal tears are used for tear lipid analysis as the reflex or flush tears contain very low levels of most lipid components.

  1. Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system produce motor tics in Tourette syndrome.

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    Daniele Caligiore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulated view where cerebellum and cortex, working closely in concert with basal ganglia, are also involved in tic production. Building on such evidence, this article proposes a computational model of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system to study how motor tics are generated in Tourette syndrome. In particular, the model: (i reproduces the main results of recent experiments about the involvement of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system in tic generation; (ii suggests an explanation of the system-level mechanisms underlying motor tic production: in this respect, the model predicts that the interplay between dopaminergic signal and cortical activity contributes to triggering the tic event and that the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical pathway may support the involvement of the cerebellum in tic production; (iii furnishes predictions on the amount of tics generated when striatal dopamine increases and when the cortex is externally stimulated. These predictions could be important in identifying new brain target areas for future therapies. Finally, the model represents the first computational attempt to study the role of the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical links. Studying this non-cortex-mediated basal ganglia-cerebellar interaction could radically change our perspective about how these areas interact with each other and with the cortex. Overall, the model also shows the utility of casting Tourette syndrome within a system-level perspective rather than viewing it as related to the dysfunction of a single brain area.

  2. Substrates for normal gait and pathophysiology of gait disturbances with respect to the basal ganglia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusaki, Kaoru; Tomita, Nozomi; Yano, Masafumi

    2008-08-01

    In this review, we have tried to elucidate substrates for the execution of normal gait and to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of gait failure in basal ganglia dysfunctions. In Parkinson's disease, volitional and emotional expressions of movement processes are seriously affected in addition to the disturbance of automatic movement processes, such as adjustment of postural muscle tone before gait initiation and rhythmic limb movements during walking. These patients also suffer from muscle tone rigidity and postural instability, which may also cause reduced walking capabilities in adapting to various environments. Neurophysiological and clinical studies have suggested the importance of basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and limbic system in the expression of volitional and emotional behaviors. Here we hypothesize a crucial role played by the basal ganglia-brainstem system in the integrative control of muscle tone and locomotion. The hypothetical model may provide a rational explanation for the role of the basal ganglia in the control of volitional and automatic aspects of movements. Moreover, it might also be beneficial for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of basal ganglia movement disorders. A part of this hypothesis has been supported by studies utilizing a constructive simulation engineering technique that clearly shows that an appropriate level of postural muscle tone and proper acquisition and utilization of sensory information are essential to maintain adaptable bodily functions for the full execution of bipedal gait. In conclusion, we suggest that the major substrates for supporting bipedal posture and executing bipedal gait are 1) fine neural networks such as the cortico-basal ganglia loop and basal ganglia-brainstem system, 2) fine musculoskeletal structures with adequately developed (postural) muscle tone, and 3) proper sensory processing. It follows that any dysfunction of the above sensorimotor integration processes

  3. Influence of montmorillonites exchange capacity on the basal spacing of cation–anion organo-montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanqin, Wu [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zepeng, Zhang, E-mail: unite508@163.com [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Yunhua, Wang [Zhejiang Fenghong New Material Co., Ltd. (China); Libing, Liao [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Jiansheng, Zhang [Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: This picture shows the distribution of organic modifier (CTAB and SDS) in Mt interlayer and the basal spacing changes of Mt modified by CTAB and SDS. Organic modifier molecule in Mt interlayer is more and more orderly. The basal spacing of Mt is from 1.5 nm to 5 nm as modifier added. - Highlights: • The d{sub 001} of Ca-Mt, R-Na-Mt, Na-Mt modified by CTAB and SDS can reach 5 nm. • It is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater d{sub 001} if CEC is lower. • The organic molecules distribution in cation–anion OMt was analyzed. • The influence mechanism of Ca-Mt CEC on the d{sub 001} was discussed. - Abstract: With cationic and anionic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as modifiers, Ca-montmorillonites (Ca-Mt), artificial Na-montmorillonites (R-Na-Mt) and natural Na-montmorillonites (Na-Mt) with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) were modified by solution intercalation method, respectively. Then cation–anion organo-montmorillonites (OMt) were prepared. The influence of CEC on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt and the influence mechanism were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential testing. The results indicate that the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt is related to CEC. For the same type montmorillonites, the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt decreases with the increase of CEC and it is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater basal spacing when CEC is lower. Moreover, the CEC of Na-Mt has the greatest influence on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt.

  4. Basal keratinocytes contribute to all strata of the adult zebrafish epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond T H; Asharani, P V; Carney, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish.

  5. Comparison of Insulin Detemir and Insulin Glargine for Hospitalized Patients on a Basal-Bolus Protocol

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    Sondra Davis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether insulin detemir is equivalent to insulin glargine in controlling hyperglycemia for the adult hospitalized patient on a basal-bolus treatment regimen. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at two acute care hospitals within the same health system. Patients from both facilities who were initiated on a basal-bolus subcutaneous insulin regimen were included in the study. The basal-bolus regimen consisted of three components: basal, bolus, and corrective insulin with only the data from the first seven days analyzed. Once the basal-bolus protocol was initiated, all previous glycemic agents were discontinued. The target glycemic goal of the study was 100–180 mg/dL. RESULTS: In both groups, 50% of the patients had achieved the target glycemic control goal (100–180 mg/dL by day 2 (p = 0.3. However, on the seventh or last day of basal-bolus treatment, whichever came first, 36.36% of patients receiving insulin detemir (n = 88 achieved the blood glucose reading goal compared to 52.00% in patients receiving insulin glargine (n = 100 (p = 0.03. This corresponded to an adjusted odds ratio of 2.12 (1.08 to 4.15, p = 0.03. The adjusting variables were provider type, whether the patient was hospitalized within 30 days prior and diagnosis of stroke. The mean blood glucose readings for the insulin glargine and the insulin detemir groups while on basal-bolus therapy were 200 mg/dL and 215 mg/dL, respectively (p = 0.05. The total number of blood glucose readings less than 70 mg/dL and less than 45 mg/dL was very low and there were no differences in number of episodes with hypoglycemia between the two groups. CONCLUSION: There was not a statistical difference between the two groups at 2 days, however there was on the seventh day or the last day of basal-bolus treatment. There were nonsignificant hypoglycemia events between basal insulin groups and the results for the last or seventh day

  6. A subzero microbial habitat in the basal ice of an Antarctic glacier (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, B. C.; Doyle, S. M.; Montross, S. N.; Skidmore, M. L.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.; Tison, J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2010-12-01

    Expanding perspectives on the tenacity of microbial life have motivated research to determine if microbial ecosystems exist at the base of the Antarctic ice sheets that are uniquely adapted to the conditions. To date, these efforts have focused primarily on subglacial locations where there is abundant liquid water (e.g., subglacial lakes and water-saturated sediments). Recent studies of cold-adapted microorganisms indicate that metabolism remains functional under frozen conditions, supporting the notion that active biogeochemical processes occur within the frozen matrix of ice. Our investigations of debris-rich basal ice from the Taylor Glacier, Antarctic revealed trends in the entrapped gas and microbiological data that are consistent with this hypothesis. When compared to the low-debris englacial facies, debris-rich stratified facies of the Taylor Glacier basal ice exhibited elevated CO2 and depleted O2 concentrations. Cell and total dissolved solute concentrations were low in the englacial facies, increasing by an order of magnitude or greater in the debris-rich laminated sub-facies. Cells in the thawed basal ice samples respired 14C-acetate to 14CO2 at 2oC, with maximum respiration rates observed in samples with sediment contents > 1% (wt/vol). Molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal (SSU) RNA gene diversity within the basal ice revealed a low diversity bacterial assemblage dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes (87% of the cloned sequences), and the most abundant phylotype (38%) was affiliated with species in the genus Sporosarcina. Enrichment culturing of the basal ice on various defined and complex heterotrophic media at 4 to 15oC resulted in the growth and isolation of bacteria, nearly all of which (92% of the isolates) were closely related to the Sporosarcina-related SSU RNA gene sequences identified in the culture-independent analysis. All of the isolates characterized are cold-tolerant and experiments on selected strains have demonstrated

  7. An unusual basal Therizinosaur dinosaur with an ornithischian dental arrangement from northeastern China.

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    Hanyong Pu

    Full Text Available Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians.

  8. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  9. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  11. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Variant of a Common Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-05-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a distinct but rare subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It presents as a red macule or papule; therefore, in most cases, it may easily be mistaken for a benign vascular lesion, such as a telangiectasia or angioma. A red dot BCC in an older woman is described. Clinical and histological differences between red dot BCCs and telangiectasias are described. A 72-year-old woman initially presented with a painless red macule on her nose. Biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of a red dot BCC. Pubmed was searched for the following terms: angioma, basal cell carcinoma, dermoscope, diascopy, red dot, non-melanoma skin cancer, telangiectasia, and vascular. The papers were reviewed for cases of red dot basal cell carcinoma. Clinical and histological characteristics of red dot basal cell carcinoma and telangiectasias were compared. Red dot BCC is an extremely rare variant of BCC that may be confused with benign vascular lesions. Although BCCs rarely metastasize and are associated with low mortality, they have the potential to become locally invasive and destructive if left untreated. Thus, a high index of suspicion for red dot BCC is necessary. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):645-647.

  12. Immunohistochemical distinction of ocular sebaceous carcinoma from basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinard, J H

    1999-06-01

    Diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma of the periorbital region is often delayed. Clinically, this lesion can mimic several inflammatory disorders. Histopathologically, it can mimic either squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. To identify an immunohistochemical approach to assist in the diagnosis of periorbital sebaceous carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profiles of several cases of periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma were examined. Although at least focal epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) staining can effectively distinguish sebaceous carcinoma (10 of 11 were positive) from basal cell carcinoma (1 of 16 were positive), most squamous cell carcinomas examined were also focally EMA positive (11 of 14). However, Cam 5.2 reactivity was seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (8 of 11) but no squamous cell carcinomas (0 of 14). In addition, at least focal BRST-1 reactivity was also seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (7 of 11) but no basal cell carcinomas (0 of 16). Periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinomas have different immunohistochemical staining profiles; a panel of commonly available antibodies, including anti-EMA, BRST-1, and Cam 5.2, may help distinguish these diseases from each other when that distinction cannot be clearly made by light microscopy alone.

  13. Fluorine- and Nitrogen-Codoped MoS2 with a Catalytically Active Basal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanzhe; Liu, Shanshan; Hao, Xianfeng; Zhou, Junshuang; Song, Dandan; Wang, Dong; Hou, Li; Gao, Faming

    2017-08-23

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D MoS2) has drawn persistent interests as one of the most promising alternatives to Pt catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). It is generally accepted that the edge sites of 2D MoS2 are catalytically active but the basal planes are inert. Activating the MoS2 basal plane is an obvious strategy to enhance the HER activity of this material. However, few approaches have sought to activate the basal plane. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that the inert basal planes can be activated via the synergistic effects of nitrogen and fluorine codoping. Our first-principles calculations reveal that nitrogen in the basal plane of the fluorine- and nitrogen-codoped MoS2 (NF-MoS2) can act as a new active and further tuneable catalytic site. The as-prepared NF-MoS2 catalyst exhibited an enormously enhanced HER activity compared to that of pure MoS2 and N-doped MoS2 due to the chemical codoping effect. This work will pave a novel pathway for enhancing the HER activity using the synergistic effects of chemical codoping.

  14. Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: adding empagliflozin to basal insulin

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    Andrew Ahmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management is complex, with few patients successfully achieving recommended glycemic targets with monotherapy, most progressing to combination therapy, and many eventually requiring insulin. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are an emerging class of antidiabetes agents with an insulin-independent mechanism of action, making them suitable for use in combination with any other class of antidiabetes agents, including insulin. This review evaluates a 78-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the impact of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, as add-on to basal insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal insulin, with or without metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. Empagliflozin added on to basal insulin resulted in significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels compared with placebo. Empagliflozin has previously been shown to induce weight loss, and was associated with sustained weight loss in this study. This combination therapy was well tolerated, with similar levels of hypoglycemic adverse events in the empagliflozin and placebo groups over the 78-week treatment period. Urinary tract infections and genital infections, side effects associated with SGLT2 inhibitors, were reported more commonly in the empagliflozin group; however, such events led to treatment discontinuation in very few patients. These findings suggest that, with their complementary mechanisms of action, empagliflozin added on to basal insulin may be a useful treatment option in patients on basal insulin who need additional glycemic control without weight gain.

  15. Long Noncoding RNA PURPL Suppresses Basal p53 Levels and Promotes Tumorigenicity in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Ling; Subramanian, Murugan; Jones, Matthew F; Chaudhary, Ritu; Singh, Deepak K; Zong, Xinying; Gryder, Berkley; Sindri, Sivasish; Mo, Min; Schetter, Aaron; Wen, Xinyu; Parvathaneni, Swetha; Kazandjian, Dickran; Jenkins, Lisa M; Tang, Wei; Elloumi, Fathi; Martindale, Jennifer L; Huarte, Maite; Zhu, Yuelin; Robles, Ana I; Frier, Susan M; Rigo, Frank; Cam, Maggie; Ambs, Stefan; Sharma, Sudha; Harris, Curtis C; Dasso, Mary; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Lal, Ashish

    2017-09-05

    Basal p53 levels are tightly suppressed under normal conditions. Disrupting this regulation results in elevated p53 levels to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. Here, we report the suppression of basal p53 levels by a nuclear, p53-regulated long noncoding RNA that we termed PURPL (p53 upregulated regulator of p53 levels). Targeted depletion of PURPL in colorectal cancer cells results in elevated basal p53 levels and induces growth defects in cell culture and in mouse xenografts. PURPL associates with MYBBP1A, a protein that binds to and stabilizes p53, and inhibits the formation of the p53-MYBBP1A complex. In the absence of PURPL, MYBBP1A interacts with and stabilizes p53. Silencing MYBBP1A significantly rescues basal p53 levels and proliferation in PURPL-deficient cells, suggesting that MYBBP1A mediates the effect of PURPL in regulating p53. These results reveal a p53-PURPL auto-regulatory feedback loop and demonstrate a role for PURPL in maintaining basal p53 levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. NHERF1/EBP50 controls lactation by establishing basal membrane polarity complexes with prolactin receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F C; Hayashi, Y; van Pelt, C S; Georgescu, M-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of the lactating mammary gland is a complex multifactorial process occurring in mammals during pregnancy. We show here that this process requires NHERF1/EBP50 (Na/H exchanger regulatory factor 1/ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50) expression and that successful lactation depends on NHERF1 allele copy number, with rates of 50 and 20% in NHERF1(+/−) and (−/−) mice, respectively. The prolactin receptor (PRLR)-STAT5 signaling provides the central axis triggering the differentiation of secretory mammary alveolar cells. In successfully lactating glands, NHERF1 is massively upregulated and forms complexes with PRLR, but also with β-catenin, E-cadherin and ezrin at the alveolar basal membrane, establishing basal polarity. In NHERF1-deficient glands, the basal polarity is disrupted, the PRLR levels and basal membrane localization are abolished, and the downstream STAT5 activation collapses with consequent reduction of milk protein synthesis. NHERF1/EBP50, a protein deregulated in breast cancer, thus emerges as an important physiological mediator of milk secretion, by engagement of PRLR in multimeric complexes at the alveolar basal membrane with subsequent network activation leading to cell differentiation. PMID:22992649

  17. OUTCOMES FOLLOWING "DOUBLE KNOT" SUSPENSION ARTHROPLASTY FOR BASAL JOINT ARTHRITIS OF THE THUMB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mustafa; Nazar, Tarek; Collier, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Various surgical options used in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the basal joint of the thumb that are refractory to non-surgical management. This study was conducted to provide short term functional outcomes using the mentioned technique in treating basal joint arthritis of the thumb. We treated basal joint arthritis of the thumb by trapeziumectomy and volar oblique ligament reconstruction using flexor carpi radialis tendon and "suspension" interposition arthroplasty using the entire tendon split along its length and tied as a double knot at the base of the thumb metacarpal. Through a questionnaire based survey, we reviewed 24 thumbs in 24 patients with basal joint arthritis of the thumb who were followed up with the hand therapist. Postal questionnaires were sent to these patients to record DASH scores and satisfaction. The mean time from surgery to discharge by the hand therapist following rehabilitation was 10 weeks. The DASH score averaged 25 points at 12 weeks postoperatively: There was statistical significance (p-value=0.0001) between the DASH score compared with time spent with the hand therapist. The postoperative net difference in grip strength and pinch grip compared with non-operated had was 9 kg and 3 kg respectively and the net difference in web span was 2 cm. We suggest this technique of "suspension" arthroplasty is a safe and effective method in treating basal joint arthritis of the thumb with good short-term functional outcomes and minimal complications.

  18. Radiologic assessment of alveolar and basal bone change of partially edentulous mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to propose standard values for alveolar and basal bone in normal adult mandibles, and radiologically analyze the remodeling process of the edentulous mandible by examining molar areas and comparing them to the established normal values. Panoramic and CT scans of mandible were performed on 20 normal adults and 20 edentulous or partially edentulous adults. In both groups, arch half diameter and distance of alveolar bone were measured. Also the distance from the mandibular canal to the caudal edges, the buccal and lingual external borders of basal bone, were measured. A statistical comparison between the mean values of normal and edentulous mandibles was carried out in the selected areas. There was evidence of decreasing arch half diameter and distance in the edentulous mandible, but statistically no significant change was seen between the normal and edentulous alveolar bone. There was evidence of decreasing buccal basal bone and increasing in the lingual basal bone in the edentulous mandible. A statistically significant difference between normal and edentulous mandibles was noted in the buccal basal bone. There was an inward and forward atrophic change of the edentulous mandibular molar area compared to the control. CT scanning required the use of sophisticated and expensive procedures to analyze the remodeling process of edentulous mandibles. Consequently, the development and application of a more simplified and objective radiographic procedure for broad and long-term study of remodeling procedures of edentulous mandible was recommended.

  19. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  20. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  1. Basal ganglia structure in Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Natalie J; Zwiers, Marcel P; Naaijen, Jilly; Akkermans, Sophie E A; Openneer, Thaira J C; Visscher, Frank; Dietrich, Andrea; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2017-04-01

    Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often co-occur and have both been associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia. However, findings are inconsistent and comorbidity is often neglected. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from children (n = 141, 8 to 12 years) with Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls were processed with the Oxford Centre for Functional MRI [Magnetic resonance imaging] of the Brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool to determine basal ganglia nuclei volume and shape. Across all participants, basal ganglia nuclei volume and shape were estimated in relation to Tourette's disorder (categorical), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity (continuous across all participants), and their interaction. The analysis revealed no differences in basal ganglia nuclei volumes or shape between children with and without Tourette's disorder, no association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity, and no interaction between the two. We found no evidence that Tourette's disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity, or a combination thereof are associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia in 8- to 12-year-old patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Basal HIF-1a expression levels are not predictive for radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

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    Schilling, D.; Multhoff, G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz Center Munich, CCG - Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich (Germany). German Research Center for Environmental Health - Inst. of Pathology; Bayer, C.; Emmerich, K.; Molls, M.; Vaupel, P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Pneumology

    2012-04-15

    High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a in tumors are reported to be associated with tumor progression and resistance to therapy. To examine the impact of HIF-1a on radioresistance under normoxia, the sensitivity towards irradiation was measured in human tumor cell lines that differ significantly in their basal HIF-1a levels. HIF-1a levels were quantified in lysates of H1339, EPLC-272H, A549, SAS, XF354, FaDu, BHY, and CX- tumor cell lines by ELISA. Protein levels of HIF-1a, HIF-2a, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and GAPDH were assessed by Western blot analysis. Knock-down experiments were performed using HIF-1a siRNA. Clonogenic survival after irradiation was determined by the colony forming assay. According to their basal HIF-1a status, the tumor cell lines were divided into low (SAS, XF354, FaDu, A549, CX-), intermediate (EPLC-272H, BHY), and high (H1339) HIF-1a expressors. The functionality of the high basal HIF-1a expression in H1339 cells was proven by reduced CA IX expression after knocking-down HIF-1a. Linear regression analysis revealed no correlation between basal HIF-1a levels and the survival fraction at either 2 or 4 Gy in all tumor cell lines investigated. Our data suggest that basal HIF-1a levels in human tumor cell lines do not predict their radiosensitivity under normoxia. (orig.)

  3. Basal keratin expression in breast cancer by quantification of mRNA and by immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluciennik Elzbieta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definitions of basal-like breast cancer phenotype vary, and microarray-based expression profiling analysis remains the gold standard for the identification of these tumors. Immunohistochemical identification of basal-like carcinomas is hindered with a fact, that on microarray level not all of them express basal-type cytokeratin 5/6, 14 and 17. We compared expression of cytokeratin 5, 14 and 17 in 115 patients with operable breast cancer estimated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Despite the method of dichotomization and statistical analysis, there were cases with discordant results comparing immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For dichotomisation based on quartiles and ROC, 14% of cases were negative on immunohistochemical examination for CK5/6, but presented high CK5 mRNA levels. There were also 48-55% cases, which were CK5/6-immunopositive, but were negative by mRNA examination. Similar discordances were observed for CK14 and CK17. Basal keratin mRNAs did not correlate with ER mRNA levels, while immunohistochemistry produced significant relationship with ER status. Our observation suggest that both method may produce different results in a small proportion of cases. Discordance between immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR may confound attempts to establish a simple methods for identification of basal-like tumors.

  4. Evolution of the karyotype and sex chromosome systems in basal clades of araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Král, Jirí; Musilová, Jana; St'áhlavský, Frantisek; Rezác, Milan; Akan, Zübeyde; Edwards, Robert L; Coyle, Frederick A; Almerje, Carles Ribera

    2006-01-01

    Concepts of spider karyotype evolution are based mostly on advanced and most diversified clade, the entelegyne lineage of araneomorph spiders. Hence the typical spider karyotype is supposed to consist exclusively of acrocentric chromosomes including the multiple X chromosomes. However, our data show considerable diversity of chromosome morphology and sex chromosome systems in basal clades of araneomorphs. Karyotypes of basal araneomorphs consist of holocentric (superfamily Dysderoidea) or normal chromosomes with localized centromere. In males of basal araneomorphs the prophase of first meiotic division includes a long diffuse stage. Multiple X chromosomes are less common in basal clades. The sex chromosome system of many families includes a Y chromosome or nucleolus organizer region that occurs rarely in the entelegyne spiders. A derived X(1)X(2)Y system with an achiasmatic sex-chromosome pairing during meiosis was found in the families Drymusidae, Hypochilidae, Filistatidae, Sicariidae, and Pholcidae. This suggests a monophyletic origin of the families. In some lineages the X(1)X(2)Y system converted into an X0 system, as found in some pholcids, or into an XY system, which is typical for the family Diguetidae. The remarkable karyotype and sex chromosome system diversity allows us to distinguish four evolutionary lineages of basal araneomorphs and hypothesize about the ancestral karyotype of araneomorphs.

  5. Basal local cerebral glucose utilization is not altered after behavioral sensitization to quinpirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Toni L; Pazdernik, Thomas L; Levant, Beth

    2007-12-18

    Sensitization to psychostimulants results in a behavioral response of a greater magnitude than that produced by a given single dose. Previously, we have shown that sensitization to the D(2)/D(3) dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole produces alterations in quinpirole-stimulated local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in ventral striatal and limbic cortical regions. To determine whether basal neuronal activity is altered in the sensitized animal, this study examined the effects of a sensitizing course of quinpirole on basal neuronal activity using the [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method in rats with verified sensitization. Adult, male Long-Evans rats (n = 7 or 10/group) were subjected to 10 injections of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline administered every 3rd day. Sensitization was verified on the basis of locomotor activity. The 2-DG procedure was performed in freely moving rats 3 days after the last quinpirole injection. LCGU was determined by quantitative autoradiography. No alterations in basal LCGU were detected in quinpirole-sensitized rats compared to those treated with saline. The present finding suggests that either the basal activity of very discrete populations of neurons is affected by sensitization to quinpirole that are not likely to be detected by the 2-DG method, or that the neurobiological changes that result in the sensitized behavioral response affect only stimulated, but not basal, neuronal activity.

  6. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report Encefalocele basal associada a síndrome "morning glory": relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete Minotto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations found in retinography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.As encefaloceles basais são entidades raras e correspondem a herniações do tecido cerebral através de um defeito do crânio, ao longo da lâmina crivosa etmoidal ou do osso esfenoidal. A rara síndrome morning glory, com alterações de fundo de olho características pode apresentar-se associada à encefalocele basal. Deficiências hormonais hipofisárias podem ocorrer. Relatamos caso de nanismo hipofisário com encefalocele transesfenoidal de diagnóstico tardio associada à síndrome de morning glory, mostrando as alterações na retinografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética.

  7. 980nm laser for difficult-to-treat basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjabo, A. D.; Cema, I.; Lihacova, I.; Derjabo, L.

    2013-06-01

    Begin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is most common skin cancer over the world. There are around 20 modalities for BCC treatment. Laser surgery is uncommon option. We demonstrate our long term follow up results. Aim: To evaluate long term efficacy of a 980nm diode laser for the difficult-to-treat basal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: 167 patients with 173 basal cell carcinoma on the nose were treated with a 980 nm diode laser from May 1999 till May 2005 at Latvian Oncology center. All tumors were morphologically confirmed. 156 patients were followed for more than 5 years. Results: The lowest recurrence rate was observed in cases of superficial BCC, diameterConclusions: 980 nm diode laser is useful tool in dermatology with high long term efficacy, good acceptance by the patients and good cosmetics results.

  8. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  9. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

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    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  10. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma of Mandible: A Rare Case Report with Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Shakya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm that has a strong tendency to local invasion and that can grow to be quite large without metastasizing. Rare examples of distant metastasis of an ameloblastoma in lungs or regional lymph nodes do exist. It has an aggressive and recurrent course and is rarely metastatic. Radiographically it shares common features with other lesions such as the giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, and renal cell carcinoma metastasis; a definitive diagnosis can only be made with histopathology. Basal cell ameloblastoma is believed to be the rarest histologic subtype in which the tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has even fewer features of peripheral palisading. Till date, only few cases of basal cell ameloblastoma have been reported in the literature. Considering the rarity of the lesion, we report here an interesting and unique case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible occurring in a very old patient.

  11. Basal cell ameloblastoma of mandible: a rare case report with review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Hemant; Khare, Vikram; Pardhe, Nilesh; Mathur, Ena; Chouhan, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm that has a strong tendency to local invasion and that can grow to be quite large without metastasizing. Rare examples of distant metastasis of an ameloblastoma in lungs or regional lymph nodes do exist. It has an aggressive and recurrent course and is rarely metastatic. Radiographically it shares common features with other lesions such as the giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, and renal cell carcinoma metastasis; a definitive diagnosis can only be made with histopathology. Basal cell ameloblastoma is believed to be the rarest histologic subtype in which the tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has even fewer features of peripheral palisading. Till date, only few cases of basal cell ameloblastoma have been reported in the literature. Considering the rarity of the lesion, we report here an interesting and unique case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible occurring in a very old patient.

  12. [Therapeutic options for a type 2 diabetic patient not well controlled with metformin plus basal insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J; Paquot, Nicolas

    2017-08-23

    In a patient with type 2 diabetes not well controlled with a basal insulin - metformin combination, several therapeutic options may be considered: intensifying insulin therapy with different schemes (appropriate titration using a more favourable basal insulin analogue, adding one, two or three rapid-acting insulin analogues, shift to two or three premix insulin injections), adding a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gliptin) or an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (gliflozin), or combining a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin. The choice should be made according the individual profile and preference of the patient, in a personalized approach, taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of each therapeutic solution.

  13. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  14. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  15. Nevoid Basal-Cell Syndrome: literature review and case report in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio José Tincani

    Full Text Available The Nevoid Basal-Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCC, or as it is also referred to, basal-cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is characterized by multiple early-appearing basal cell carcinomas, keratocytosis of the mandible, and anomalies of the ocular, skeletal reproductive system. We describe four patients in the same family, all of them possessing a large number of skin tumors associated with other typical clinical and X-Ray anomalies of NBCC. The definitive treatment of NBCC has yet to be established, however, early diagnosis is very important as well as the periodical follow-up examination of ten patients, mainly due to the transformations in the skin lesions that may occur.

  16. Chronological changes in nonhaemorrhagic brain infarcts with short T1 in the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yasui, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Our purpose was to investigate nonhaemorrhagic infarcts with a short T1 in the cerebellum and basal ganglia. We carried out repeat MRI on 12 patients with infarcts in the cerebellum or basal ganglia with a short T1. Cerebellar cortical lesions showed high signal on T1-weighted spin-echo images beginning at 2 weeks, which became prominent from 3 weeks to 2 months, and persisted for as long as 14 months after the ictus. The basal ganglia lesions demonstrated slightly high signal from a week after the ictus, which became more intense thereafter. Signal intensity began to fade gradually after 2 months. High signal could be seen at the periphery until 5 months, and then disappeared, while low or isointense signal, seen in the central portion from day 20, persisted thereafter. (orig.)

  17. Facial extensive recurrent basal cell carcinoma: successful treatment with photodynamic therapy and imiquimod 5% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Celia; Messeguer, Francesc; Llombart, Beatriz; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Guillén, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Management of facial extensive recurrent basal cell carcinoma can be a challenge for dermatologists. Although the preferred technique is usually Mohs surgery, sometimes the patient's condition or predicted aggressive surgery make other options advisable. We describe a case of a giant recurrent basal cell carcinoma in the face of an old woman successfully treated by combined therapy with MAL-photodynamic therapy and topical 5%. The patient remains well and with no sign of the tumor, with very good cosmetic result two years after treatment. Management of extensive facial basal cell carcinoma with combined therapies, as photodynamic therapy followed by topical imiquimod, can be an option for selected cases such as ours. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica B Ericson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marica B Ericson1,2, Ann-Marie Wennberg1, Olle Larkö11Department of Dermatology; 2Department of Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenAbstract: The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide, and so also the demand for effective treatment modalities. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization. The cure rates are usually good, and the cosmetic outcomes excellent. The only major side effect reported is the pain experienced by the patients during treatment. This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Both potentials and limitations will be reviewed, as well as some recent development within the field.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma

  19. Direct long bone invasion by Basal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Majed, Badr M; Koonce, Stephanie L; Eck, Dustin L; Murray, Peter; Perdikis, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide, usually arising in the head and neck region, which is cured by surgical excision and rarely invades or metastasizes. Many reports exist of bony invasion in the head and neck but very rarely into long bones. We report an unusual case of basal cell carcinoma that despite surgical excision, directly invaded the left humerus. This article also includes a literature review with possible explanations for the occasionally aggressive behavior of basal cell carcinoma. This 68-year-old patient underwent wide resection of the affected left upper arm skin, tissue, and diaphyseal segment with clear margins. The defect was reconstructed with a vascularized free fibula bone graft, pedicled latissimus muscle flap, and split-thickness skin graft. Long bone invasion by BCC is extremely rare and not well reported. There are more biologic explanations for overtly aggressive behavior that BCC may exhibit such as in this case.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, L A; Woods, L; Mathews, K G

    1997-01-01

    Tumors of the integumentary system are relatively common in companion birds. Dermal tumors in pet birds can be epithelial, mesenchymal, or vascular in origin. Basal cell carcinomas appear to be extremely rare in birds. An adult female blue-fronted Amazon parrot was examined because it exhibited bilateral cervical masses that extended from the base of the skull to the ingluvial region. The tumors were removed by surgical excision. Microscopic examination of the masses revealed neoplastic epithelial cells that extended to all borders of the sections; scattered vessels with neoplastic cells within their lumens were also found. The histopathologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the masses recurred and the bird was euthanatized. This report suggests that basal cell carcinomas should be considered as a differential for avian dermal tumors. This neoplastic condition can be aggressive and has the potential to metastasize.

  1. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  2. Pathophysiological mechanism of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy in basal ganglia germ cell tumors: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sui-To; Yuen, Shing-Chau; Fong, Dawson

    2009-06-01

    The basal ganglia is an uncommon location for germ cell tumors. It has been reported that basal ganglia germinomas and mixed germ cell tumors are associated with ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy on presentation. Several pathophysiological mechanisms including autoimmune process and direct tumor infiltration of the thalamus or the internal capsule have been postulated to explain this association. The authors report two boys, aged 7 and 10, with basal ganglia germ cell tumors. Both of them presented with gradual onset of hemiparesis and had features of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy on imaging studies. They underwent chemotherapy followed by reduced dose radiotherapy with good response. Pathophysiological mechanisms of the associated ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy are discussed. The authors postulate that the gradual obliteration of the perforating arteries to the diencephalon especially the lenticulostriate arteries of the prebifurcation middle cerebral artery may be the major mechanism of the associated hemiatrophy.

  3. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  4. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Switching basal insulins in type 2 diabetes: practical recommendations for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M; Anderson, John E; Tanenberg, Robert J

    2017-12-27

    Basal insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of type 2 diabetes when diet changes and exercise in combination with oral drugs and other injectable agents are not sufficient to control hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy should be individualized, and several factors influence the choice of basal insulin; these include pharmacological properties, patient preferences, and lifestyle, as well as health insurance plan formularies. The recent availability of basal insulin formulations with longer durations of action has provided further dosing flexibility; however, patients may need to switch agents throughout therapy for a variety of personal, clinical, or economic reasons. Although a unit-to-unit switching approach is usually recommended, this conversion strategy may not be appropriate for all patients and types of insulin. Glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia must be closely monitored by health care providers during the switching process. In addition, individual changes in care and formulary coverage need to be adequately addressed in order to enable a smooth transition with optimal outcomes.

  6. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (≤20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74–340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102

  7. Efficacy of Vismodegib (Erivedge™) For Basal Cell Carcinoma Involving the Orbit and Periocular Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Worden, Francis; Nelson, Christine C.; Elner, Victor M.; Kahana, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the effectiveness of vismodegib in the management of basal cell carcinoma with orbital extension and/or extensive periocular involvement. Methods Retrospective chart review of six consecutive patients with biopsy-proven orbital basal cell carcinoma and two additional patients with extensive periocular basal cell carcinoma who were treated with oral vismodegib (150 mg/day). Results Basal cell carcinoma extended into the orbit in 6 of 8 patients (involving orbital bones in 1 patient), and 2 of 8 patients had extensive periocular involvement (one with basal cell nevus syndrome). Vismodegib therapy was the only treatment in 6 patients, off-label neoadjuvant in 1 patient and adjuvant treatment in 1 patient. Orbital tumors in all 4 patients who received vismodegib as sole treatment showed partial response with a mean 83% shrinkage in tumor size after a median of 7 months of therapy. In the 2 patients receiving vismodegib as neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapies there was complete response after a median of 7 months of therapy and no evidence of clinical recurrence after discontinuing therapy for a median of 15 months. The 2 patients with extensive periocular involvement experienced complete clinical response after a median 14 months of treatment. During treatment, the most common side effect was muscle spasm (75%) followed by alopecia (50%), dysgeusia (25%), dysosmia, and episodes of diarrhea and constipation (13%). Conclusions Basal cell carcinoma with orbital extension and extensive periocular involvement responds to vismodegib therapy. The long-term prognosis remains unknown, and additional prospective studies are indicated. PMID:25675162

  8. Movement of spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L

    1977-03-01

    The progressive movement of primary spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubule was studied after testes were fixed with standard and hypertonic solutions. In stages VI, VII and VIII of the cycle (classification of Leblond and Clermont, '52), preleptotene spermatocytes were observed within the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubule. Resting on the basal lamina, these cells were bound tightly to neighboring Sertoli cells by desmosome-like junctions. In late stage VIII and early stage IX, basal processes of Sertoli cells were observed between the newly formed leptotene cells and the basal lamina, and in stage IX, the Sertoli processes met to form a junction of the zonula adherens type. This junction formed a permeability barrier which restricted the free access of fixative into the spaces around leptotene cells. Evidence for this was found in the absence of the shrinkage artifact produced with hypertonic solutions in earlier stages. In longitudinal sections, the permeability barrier was first observed in an area of the tubule in which sperm release was also taking place. In mid-stage IX and in stage X, sertoli-Sertoli junctional specializations formed de novo below the leptotene spermatocyte, while those from the preceding stages, present above the leptotene spermatocytes, remained intact. Thus, tight junctions were in evidence for a considerable period of the time, both above and below the leptotene spermatocytes. At no time in the process of germ cell movement toward the lumen did these cells exhibit evidence of amoeboid movement or lose desmosome-like contacts with the surrounding Sertoli cells. From this study it is concluded that the Sertoli cells play an active role in the transfer of spermatocytes to the adluminal compartment. A transient intermediate compartment of the seminiferous tubule is described, one which allows for the continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during transit of spermatocytes from

  9. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-09

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  10. Thermogenic alterations in the woman. II. Basal body, afternoon, and bedtime temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuspan, K J; Zuspan, F P

    1974-10-15

    19 female college students aged 17-20 years volunteered to participate in an experiment whereby they took their temperatures on 1st rising, at 5 p.m., and at bedtime for a minimum of 1 complete ovulation cycle. 3 parallel curves were found with the afternoon temperature being .7 degrees Farenheit higher than the basal and .3 degrees higher than the bedtime temperature. Several graphs illustrate the curve patterns. It is concluded that either the afternoon or the evening temperature can be used instead of the rising (or basal body) temperature, with an adjustment of the correct amount.

  11. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (part 1): epidemiology, pathology and genetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Sá, Tiago Ribeiro; Silva, Roberto; Lopes, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide with increasing incidence, but difficult to assess due to the current under registration practice. Despite the low mortality rate, BCC is a cause of great morbidity and an economic burden to health services. There are several risk factors that increase the risk of BCC and partly explain its incidence. Low-penetrance susceptibility alleles, as well as genetic alterations in signaling pathways, namely SHH pathway, also contribute to the carcinogenesis. BCC associate with several genetic syndromes, of which basal cell nevus syndrome is the most common.

  13. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulimani, Sridevi M; Talikoti, Dayanand G

    2013-10-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  14. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5-year-old wild born cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, living in a large enclosure on a private Namibian farm, developed a large exophytic nodular neoplasm in its skin at the height of the left shoulder blade. We describe the clinical appearance, the surgical removal, and histological examination of the tumor, which was diagnosed as a moderately pigmented benign basal cell tumor. A three-year follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence after the surgery. Although neoplasia is reported in nondomestic felids, only very few concern cheetahs. So far, no case of basal cell tumor was described in this species.

  16. A child with xeroderma pigmentosum for excision of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi M Mulimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight, ocular involvement, and progressive neurological complications. These manifestations are due to a cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation leading to a defect in repair of DNA by the process of nucleotide excision repair. Basal cell carcinoma which is rare in children can occur with XP. Though the XP induced changes are predominately dermatologic, pose several challenges in anaesthetic management. Hence, we are reporting a 9-year-old child with XP scheduled for excision of basal cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia.

  17. Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome involves multiple organ system. The most common findings include multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws and basal cell nevus on the skin that have an early age onset. These multiple odontogenic keratocysts warrant aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications associated with them. Recurrence in these lesions is the most characteristic feature that has to be taken in consideration while explaining the prognosis to the patient. A case report of a child affected with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome diagnosed, treated and followed at this hospital is presented here.

  18. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma in the Elderly: What Nondermatologists Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Lauren E; Federman, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    As the population ages and incidence of basal cell carcinoma continues to increase, we will be faced more frequently with difficult treatment decisions for basal cell carcinoma in the elderly. Different treatment options, including surgical excision, electrodessication and curettage, cryosurgery, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, 5-fluorouracil, radiation therapy, vismodegib, combination therapy, and observation, may be considered on the basis of tumor characteristics. Given the wide range of therapeutic options, treatments can be tailored to achieve patients' goals of care within their anticipated life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The reduction of chloride ion concentration in basal ice near Hamna Icefall, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    イイズカ, ヨシノリ; サタケ, ヒロシ; ワタナベ, オキツグ; Yoshinori , Iizuka; Hiroshi, Satake; Okitsugu, WATANABE

    2001-01-01

    The present paper mainly discusses chloride ions (Cl^-) in debris-laden basal ice near Hamna Icefall, Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica. The basal ice consists of alternating layers of bubble-free and bubbly ice of the order of mm to cm in thickness. Detailed analyses of Cl^- and stable isotopes (δ^O and δD) on the alternating layers were performed. The Cl^- concentrations in the bubble-free ice layers and in the bubbly ice layers whose isotopic fluctuations decrease from neighboring bubble-fr...

  20. [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Mioko; Rikimaru, Fumihide; Higaki, Yuichiro; Masuda, Muneyuki

    2014-06-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the developmental malformations and its carcinogenic nature. This syndrome shows various symptoms of multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, ketatocystic odontogenic tumors, and inborn abnormalities in the bone and skin. Although basal cell nevus syndrome itself is a rare disorder, we experienced a very rare case in which squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity developed, and not cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. Only 4 similar cases have been reported in the English literature. The patient was a 33-year-old woman. She was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, and basal cell nevus syndrome in our hospital. The patient underwent surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, with postoperative chemoradiothetrapy. Since patients with this syndrome tend to form basal cell carcinoma when exposed to X-ray radiation, we perform radiotherapy with care.

  1. Notch and TGFβ Form a Reciprocal Positive Regulatory Loop that Suppresses Murine Prostate Basal Stem/Progenitor Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Joseph M; Zhang, Li; Su, Qingtai; Dakhova, Olga; Zhang, Yiqun; Shahi, Payam; Spencer, David M; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael M; Xin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Summary The role of Notch signaling in the maintenance of adult murine prostate epithelial homeostasis remains unclear. We found that Notch ligands are mainly expressed within the basal cell lineage, while active Notch signaling is detected in both the prostate basal and luminal cell lineages. Disrupting the canonical Notch effector RBP-J impairs the differentiation of prostate basal stem cells and increases their proliferation in vitro and in vivo, but does not affect luminal cell biology. Conversely, ectopic Notch activation in adult prostates results in a decrease of basal cell number and luminal cell hyper-proliferation. TGFβ dominates over Notch signaling and overrides Notch ablation-induced proliferation of prostate basal cells. However, Notch confers sensitivity and positive feedback by up-regulating a plethora of TGFβ signaling components including TGFβRI. These findings reveal crucial roles of the self-enforced positive reciprocal regulatory loop between TGFβ and Notch in maintaining prostate basal stem cell dormancy. PMID:23122291

  2. Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Kim, Hye-Soon; Shon, Ho-Sang; Jeon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Taek; Han, Sung-Min; Chung, Choon-Hee; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Soon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the ?-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients. Materials and Methods The present study was a...

  3. Sliding of temperate basal ice on a rough, hard bed: creep mechanisms, pressure melting, and implications for ice streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbendam, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Basal ice motion is crucial to ice dynamics of ice sheets. The classic Weertman model for basal sliding over bedrock obstacles proposes that sliding velocity is controlled by pressure melting and/or ductile flow, whichever is the fastest; it further assumes that pressure melting is limited by heat flow through the obstacle and ductile flow is controlled by standard power-law creep. These last two assumptions, however, are not applicable if a substantial basal layer of temper...

  4. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  5. Basal resistance of barley to adapted and non-adapted forms of Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the barley-Blumeria interaction, resistance at penetration stage in association with papilla formation is a commonly occurring mechanism. This mechanism of defense reduces the infection severity by adapted powdery mildew pathogen (basal resistance to Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh) and fully

  6. Comparing Basal Area Growth Rates in Repeated Inventories: Simpson's Paradox in Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas; Bernard R. Parresol

    1989-01-01

    Recent analyses of radial growth rates in southern commercial forests have shown that current rates are lower than past rates when compared diameter class by diameter class. These results have been interpreted as an indication that the growth rate of the forest is declining. In this paper, growth rates of forest populations in Alabama are studied. Basal area growth (a...

  7. Basal melting and Eemian ice along the main ice ridge in northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Susanne Lilja

    The variation of the basal melt rate and the location of the Eemian layer in the ice column are investigated along the ice divide between the NorthGRIP and NEEM ice core drill sites in northern Greenland. At NorthGRIP an ice core was drilled in the period 1996-2004, and the stable isotope record (d...... the line. A Dansgaard-Johnsen model is then used to simulate the ice flow along the flow line from NorthGRIP to NEEM. One- as well as two-dimensional approaches are taken. The basal melt rates and other unknown flow parameters are determined using a Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo solution...... is constrained by isochrones revealed in radio-echo sounding images of the ice. The obtained results indicate a high spatial variability in the basal melt rate in the area, and values between zero and 25 mm/yr are found. The results indicate that there is little or no basal melting at NEEM. The location...

  8. Skin-Derived Vitamin D-3 Protects against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Roelink, Henk

    2017-01-01

    UVR in sunlight causes mutations that drive basal cell carcinomas. However, the incidence of these tumors plateaus with prolonged exposure, but the incidence of other skin cancers increases. Makarova et al. now show that vitamin D-3 produced in the skin by UVR protects against its oncogenic effects

  9. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an algorithm based on the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2015-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma can be effectively managed through surgical excision, the most suitable surgical margins have not yet been fully determined. Furthermore, micrographic surgery is not readily available in many places around the world. A review of the literature regarding the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma was conducted in order to develop an algorithm for the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma that could help the choice of surgical technique and safety margins, considering the major factors that affect cure rates. Through this review, it was found that surgical margins of 4mm seem to be suitable for small, primary, well-defined basal cell carcinomas, although some good results can be achieved with smaller margins and the use of margin control surgical techniques. For treatment of high-risk and recurrent tumors, margins of 5-6 mm or margin control of the surgical excision is required. Previous treatment, histological subtype, site and size of the lesion should be considered in surgical planning because these factors have been proven to affect cure rates. Thus, considering these factors, the algorithm can be a useful tool, especially for places where micrographic surgery is not widely available. PMID:26131869

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma is as Common as the Sum of all Other Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ann-Sofie; Nissen, Christoffer V; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Reliable estimates of disease incidence are fundamental to planning future healthcare services. However, in many countries registration of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is often non-existent. This study examines how many BCC treatments were carried out in Denmark in 2013. The Danish Cancer Registry...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma Of The Lower Extremities - A Report Of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ritambhra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common malignancy of the skin is basal cell carcinoma (BCC, usually occurring in the head and neck. It can occur elsewhere as also in the lower extremity. We describe two patients with BCC in the lower extremities, which were nodular type and without any predisposing factors.

  12. Which features of advanced head and neck basal cell carcinoma are associated with perineural invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André Bandiera de Oliveira; Andrade, Natália Martins Magacho de; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    Perineural invasion is a unique route for tumor dissemination. In basal cell carcinomas, the incidence is low, but increases in advanced cases. Its importance is recognized but not fully understood. To compare head and neck basal cell carcinomas with and without perineural invasion. A retrospective medical chart review of multidisciplinary surgeries for basal cell carcinomas that required a head and neck surgery specialist in a tertiary referral center was performed. Clinical-demographics and histopathological features were analyzed. Of 354 cases, perineural invasion was present in 23.1%. Larger tumors and morpheaform subtype were statistically related to perineural invasion. Nodular and superficial subtypes were less frequent in positive cases. No significant difference was found in gender, age, ulceration, location, and mixed histology. In this series of selected patients with basal cell carcinomas submitted to major resections, perineural invasion was clearly related to morpheaform subtype and to larger tumors. Other classically associated features, such as location in high-risk mask zone of the face, male gender and mixed histology, were not so strongly linked to perineural invasion. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin reactions and quality of life after x-ray therapy of Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Daugbjerg, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Background. Advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is often treated by surgery or X-ray therapy. The consequences of X-ray therapy on the patients' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) have so far not been described. Objectives. To quantify quality of life in BCC patients before and after X...

  14. Analysis of effectiveness of a surgical treatment algorithm for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2016-01-01

    Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for basal cell carcinoma and micrographic surgery considered the gold standard, however not yet used routinely worldwide available, as in Brazil. Considering this, a previously developed treatment guideline, which the majority of tumors were treated by conventional technique (not micrographic) was tested. To establish the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinomas treated according to this guideline. Between May 2001 and July 2012, 919 basal cell carcinoma lesions in 410 patients were treated according to the proposed guideline. Patients were followed-up and reviewed between September 2013 and February 2014 for clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathologic detection of possible recurrences. After application of exclusion criteria, 520 lesions were studied, with 88.3% primary and 11.7% recurrent tumors. Histological pattern was indolent in 85.5%, 48.6% were located in high risk areas and 70% small tumors. Only 7.3% were treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. The recurrence rate, in an average follow-up period of 4.37 years, was 1.3% for primary and 1.63% for recurrent tumors. Study limitations: unicenter study, with all patients operated on by the same surgeon. The treatment guideline utilized seems a helpful guide for surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma, especially if micrographic surgery is not available.

  15. A Case Report of Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum Mimicking Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sezer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is clinically characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques, mainly observed on the scalp during childhood. Histopathologically, epidermal invagination showing luminal epithelial cells with decapitation secretion is diagnostic. Herein, we describe an unusual late-onset case of syringocystadenoma papilliferum mimicking basal cell carcinoma on the face.

  16. The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Severity of Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lik Thai; Agarwal, Pankaj K; Young, David; Ah-Kee, Elliott Yann; Diaper, Charles J M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of socio-economic factors on size of periocular basal cell carcinoma at presentation. All periocular basal cell carcinoma cases receiving treatment from the oculoplastics team in South Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, Glasgow, between 1999 and 2009, were identified retrospectively. Information collected included demographic details of patients, side and site of lesions, type of lesions, and size of lesions. The size of lesion was defined as small for any dimension not exceeding 5 mm, medium for dimensions between 6 mm and 10 mm, and large for dimensions exceeding 11 mm. Home address was used to determine the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation rank. The demographics, size of lesion, and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation rank were investigated using the general linear regression modelling. Of the 67 cases, 24 were men and 43 were women. The mean age was 71.5 years. There were a total of 67 identified cases, of which 38 presented with small-size lesions, 24 with medium-size lesions, and 5 with large-size lesions. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation is related to the presenting incidence of basal cell carcinoma, with the lower ranks presenting more frequently. Socio-economic deprivation is associated with larger and more frequent presentation of periocular basal cell carcinoma. This highlights the importance of raising awareness among populations of the more deprived areas of the significance of lumps and bumps within the periocular regions.

  17. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Norrenberg, S; Jemec, G B E

    2012-01-01

    With the continued development of noninvasive therapies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) such as photodynamic therapy and immune therapies, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool...

  18. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  19. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the face: surgical management and challenges for reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, A; Mijiti, A; Yarbag, A; Moming, A

    2016-02-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma, in which the tumour measures 5 cm or greater in diameter, is a very rare skin malignancy that accounts for less than 1 per cent of all basal cell tumours. Very few studies have reported on the incidence, resection and reconstruction of this lesion worldwide. In total, 17 patients with giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck region underwent surgical excision and reconstruction at our hospital. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. The lesion was usually in the forehead, eyelid, lips or nasal-cheek region. The greatest diameter ranged from 5 to 11 cm, with 5-6 cm being the most common size at the time of presentation. All patients had their tumour resected and reconstructed in a single-stage procedure, mostly with a local advancement flap, and with no post-operative flap failure. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck can be successfully treated with a local flap in a single-stage approach.

  20. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of basal renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, Rikke; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Larroude, Charlotte Ellen

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias may be involved in the pathogenesis of the 'dead-in-bed syndrome' in patients with type 1 diabetes. Evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences the occurrence of arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to explore if basal RAS...

  1. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitow, Melinda E; Li, Shanru; Morley, Michael P; Rathi, Komal; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The development of the lung epithelium is regulated in a stepwise fashion to generate numerous differentiated and stem cell lineages in the adult lung. How these different lineages are generated in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion remains poorly understood, although epigenetic regulation probably plays an important role. We show that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 component Ezh2 is highly expressed in early lung development but is gradually downregulated by late gestation. Deletion of Ezh2 in early lung endoderm progenitors leads to the ectopic and premature appearance of Trp63+ basal cells that extend the entire length of the airway. Loss of Ezh2 also leads to reduced secretory cell differentiation. In their place, morphologically similar cells develop that express a subset of basal cell genes, including keratin 5, but no longer express high levels of either Trp63 or of standard secretory cell markers. This suggests that Ezh2 regulates the phenotypic switch between basal cells and secretory cells. Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Basal Ganglia Structure in Tourette's Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Naaijen, Jilly; Akkermans, Sophie E. A.; Openneer, Thaira J. C.; Visscher, Frank; Dietrich, Andrea; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Background: Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often co-occur and have both been associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia. However, findings are inconsistent and comorbidity is often neglected. Methods: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from

  3. Self-affine subglacial roughness: consequences for radar scattering and basal water discrimination in northern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; Cooper, Michael A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Williams, Christopher N.; Paden, John D.; Siegert, Martin J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2017-05-01

    Subglacial roughness can be determined at a variety of length scales from radio-echo sounding (RES) data either via statistical analysis of topography or inferred from basal radar scattering. Past studies have demonstrated that subglacial terrain exhibits self-affine (power law) roughness scaling behaviour, but existing radar scattering models do not take this into account. Here, using RES data from northern Greenland, we introduce a self-affine statistical framework that enables a consistent integration of topographic-scale roughness with the electromagnetic theory of radar scattering. We demonstrate that the degree of radar scattering, quantified using the waveform abruptness (pulse peakiness), is topographically controlled by the Hurst (roughness power law) exponent. Notably, specular bed reflections are associated with a lower Hurst exponent, with diffuse scattering associated with a higher Hurst exponent. Abrupt waveforms (specular reflections) have previously been used as a RES diagnostic for basal water, and to test this assumption we compare our radar scattering map with a recent prediction for the basal thermal state. We demonstrate that the majority of thawed regions (above pressure melting point) exhibit a diffuse scattering signature, which is in contradiction to the prior approach. Self-affine statistics provide a generalised model for subglacial terrain and can improve our understanding of the relationship between basal properties and ice-sheet dynamics.

  4. Fractionated illumination significantly improves the response of superficial basal cell carcinoma to aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ellen R. M.; Kruijt, Bastiaan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Martino Neumann, H. A.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and a light fluence of 75-100 J cm(-2) yields unsatisfactory long-term results. In several animal models, illumination with two light fractions 2 hours apart was considerably more

  5. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  6. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  7. Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Å.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study

  8. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-16

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  9. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  10. Hereditary haemochromatosis: a case of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia associated with a parkinsonian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.E.; Jensen, L.N.; Krabbe, K

    1995-01-01

    . A patient is reported with hereditary haemochromatosis and a syndrome of dementia, dysarthria, a slowly progressive gait disturbance, imbalance, muscle weakness, rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, ataxia, and dyssynergia. The findings on MRI of a large signal decrease in the basal ganglia, consistent...

  11. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.L.; Dombrovska, O.; Lee, J.; Li, L.; Whitlock, B.A.; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F.; Rest, J.S.; Davis, C.C.; Borsch, T.; Hilu, K.W.; Renner, S.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.E.; Zanis, M.J.; Cannone, J.J.; Powell, M.; Savolainen, V.; Chatrou, L.W.; Chase, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    DNA sequences of nine genes (plastid: atpB, matK, and rbcL; mitochondrial: atp1, matR, mtSSU, and mtLSU; nuclear: 18S and 26S rDNAs) from 100 species of basal angiosperms and gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods. All of these analyses support the

  12. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Héricé, C.; Khalil, R.; Moftah, M.; Boraud, T.; Guthrie, M.J.; Garenne, A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used

  13. Perianth development in the basal monocot Triglochin maritima (Juncaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2006-01-01

    .'' Therefore, in some basal angiosperms with abbreviated development of lateral flowers the demarcation of the flower vs. the inflorescence is ontogenetically ambiguous. In situ hybridization experiments show that a putative ortholog of the B-class gene APETALA3/DEFICIENS is expressed in developing stamens...

  14. A new basal sauropodiform dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The Lufeng Formation in Lufeng Basin of Yunnan Province, southwestern China preserves one of the richest terrestrial Lower Jurassic vertebrate faunas globally, especially for its basal sauropodomorphs, such as Lufengosaurus and Yunnanosaurus. Here we report a new taxon, Xingxiulong chengi gen. et sp. nov. represented by three partial skeletons with overlapping elements. Xingxiulong possesses a number of autapomorphies, such as transversely expanded plate-like summit on top of the neural spine of posterior dorsal vertebrae, four sacral vertebrae, robust scapula, and elongated pubic plate approximately 40% of the total length of the pubis. Phylogenetic analysis resolves Xingxiulong as a basal member of Sauropodiformes, and together with another two Lufeng basal sauropodiforms Jingshanosaurus and Yunnanosaurus, they represent the basalmost lineages of this clade, indicating its Asian origin. Although being relatively primitive, Xingxiulong displays some derived features normally occurred in advanced sauropodiforms including sauropods, such as a four sacral-sacrum, a robust scapula, and a pubis with elongated pubic plate. The discovery of Xingxiulong increases the diversity of basal sauropodomorphs from the Lufeng Formation and indicates a more complicated scenario in the early evolution of sauropodiforms.

  15. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that the whole body fractal vascular dimension D is also applicable to all organs or collections of organs such as the viscera and skeletal muscle. The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in ...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT BASAL READING SYSTEMS ON FIRST GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.

    BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…

  17. Basal ganglia structure in Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, N.J.; Zwiers, M.P.; Naaijen, J.; Akkermans, S.E.A.; Openneer, T.J.; Visscher, F.; Dietrich, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often co-occur and have both been associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia. However, findings are inconsistent and comorbidity is often neglected. METHODS: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from

  18. The influence of basal plate attached to a propagule on flowering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The propagule for commercial cut tuberose production is critical for earlier flowering and yield of plants. Variation in the ... There were significant differences in flowering time, number of flowers produced and spike length among plants with differing proportions of basal plate attached to the propagules. Propagules that had ...

  19. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients

  20. Basal and dynamic relationships between implicit power motivation and estradiol in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated basal and reciprocal relationships between implicit power motivation (n Power), a preference for having impact and dominance over others, and both salivary estradiol and testosterone in women. 49 participants completed the Picture Story Exercise, a measure of n Power. During a laboratory contest, participants competed in pairs on a cognitive task and contest outcome (win vs. loss) was experimentally varied. Estradiol and testosterone levels were determined in saliva samples collected at baseline and several times post-contest, including 1 day post-contest. n Power was positively associated with basal estradiol concentrations. The positive correlation between n Power and basal estradiol was stronger in single women, women not taking oral contraceptives, or in women with low-CV estradiol samples than in the overall sample of women. Women's estradiol responses to a dominance contest were influenced by the interaction of n Power and contest outcome: estradiol increased in power-motivated winners but decreased in power-motivated losers. For power-motivated winners, elevated levels of estradiol were still present the day after the contest. Lastly, n Power and estradiol did not correlate with self-reported dominance and correlated negatively with self-reported aggression. Self-reported dominance and aggression did not predict estradiol changes as a function of contest outcome. Overall, n Power did not predict basal testosterone levels or testosterone changes as a function of dominance contest outcome.

  1. ASIP and TYR pigmentation variants associate with cutaneous melanoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Sulem, P.; Stacey, S.N.; Goldstein, A.M.; Rafnar, T.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Sveinsdottir, S.G.; Magnusson, V.; Lindblom, A.; Kostulas, K.; Botella-Estrada, R.; Soriano, V.; Juberias, P.; Grasa, M.; Saez, B.; Andres, R.; Scherer, D.; Rudnai, P.; Gurzau, E; Koppova, K.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Helgason, A.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Tucker, M.A.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Nagore, E.; Kumar, R.; Hansson, J.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fair color increases risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified variants affecting hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Here, we assess the effect of these variants on risk of CM and BCC in European populations

  2. [Functional models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin and effects of functional neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The rate model regarding the development of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin suggests that hyperkinetic and hypokinetic disorders occur as a result of changes in the firing rates in the GPi and SNr, which in turn suppress thalamocortical output. Dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease increases basal ganglia output, then decreases thalamocortical output, leading to bradykinesia. This model, however, cannot explain a lack of deterioration of parkinsonian signs following thalamic coagulation surgery. Instead of the rate model, the beta oscillation hypothesis has been proposed, explaining that synchronized oscillation in the beta frequency in the basal ganglia disturbs initiation of voluntary movement. We observed that effective high-frequency STN stimulation in parkinsonian monkeys was associated with increase in the firing rate and the pattern shift from irregular burst firing to regular high-frequency firing in the projecting sites. High-frequency neural activation by deep brain stimulation is supposed to cancel lower frequency oscillation including beta oscillation, leading to improvement of bradykinesia. Our observation supports the significance of the neural activity pattern, rather than the tonic activity level, in the development of movement disorders. The rate model cannot explain the improvement of ballismus and chorea by pallidotomy because pallidotomy increases the disinhibition of the thalamocortical projection, which should increase the movements. We observed repetitive bursts or pauses of neuronal firing of the globus pallidus synchronized to ballistic movements in patients with hemiballism or chorea, suggesting that phasic neuronal driving in the basal ganglia is important as their pathophysiology.

  3. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  4. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects.

  5. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt.

  6. Influence of weather and climate variables on the basal area growth of individual shortleaf pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Duncan S. Wilson; John Stewart; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson

    2015-01-01

    An individual-tree basal area growth model previously developed for even-aged naturally occurring shortleaf pine trees (Pinus echinata Mill.) in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma did not include weather variables. Individual-tree growth and yield modeling of shortleaf pine has been carried out using the remeasurements of over 200 plots...

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome—case report and genetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (also named Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare disease. Commonly seen features include multiple odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs, nevus-like basal cell carcinoma, and bifid ribs. Genetic alterations of the PTCH1 gene are associated with the disease. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with multiple OKCs, a bifid rib, ectopic calcification of the falx cer-ebri, and an arachnoid cyst of the cerebrum. No basal cell carcinoma was identified. In addition, a search for genetic alterations was performed on the patient. We identified a genetic mutation of C→T in exon 12 (c.1686 bp and a G→C mutation in intron 13 (g.91665 bp of the PTCH1 gene. Although a similar mutation in exon 12 was reported in a literature search, the mutation in intron 13 has not previously been reported. The patient has continued to be followed-up almost 3 years after the surgery with no recurrence of the OKCs or development of basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Comparative aspects of the basal ganglia-tectal pathways in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L; Smeets, W J

    1991-06-22

    To determine how the basal ganglia in reptiles may influence visuomotor behavior, the connections from the basal ganglia to the tectum of the midbrain were studied in several species of reptiles. Immunohistochemical studies by means of antibodies against Leu-enkephalin (LENK) as well as experimental hodological studies with anterograde (PHA-L) and retrograde (HRP, Fluorogold, Cholera toxin) tracers were carried out. The results indicate that within the class of Reptilia, two different patterns occur: one in which information from the basal ganglia is relayed to the tectum via the substantia nigra as well as via a pretectal, enkephalinergic cell group, and another one in which only the ventral route, via the substantia nigra, is present. The former pattern is found in turtles, crocodiles, and the lacertid lizards Podarcis and Gallotia, and the latter pattern in the gekkonid lizards Gekko and Eublepharis, in Varanus, and in the snakes Python and Thamnophis. The presence or absence of the pretectal relay center is reflected in the laminar distribution of LENK immunoreactivity in the tectum. The apparent lack of a pretectal relay in nocturnal gekkonids and in snakes underlines the hypothesis (Reiner et al., '84: T.I.N.S. 7:320-325) that a de-emphasis of visual-basal ganglia mechanisms has occurred during the evolution of ancestral reptiles to modern mammals.

  9. Treatment and cosmetic outcome of superpulsed CO2 laser for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2013-09-01

    There are many different treatments for basal cell carcinoma, but the most common is surgical excision. CO2 laser could be an alternative treatment for many situations in which other treatments are not possible or available. This follow-up study was performed on 74 (40 female and 34 male) patients with a total of 113 basal cell carcinoma lesions that were pathologically documented. First, the tumor mass was debulked by curettage and later 2 to 5 mm of marginal skin and the debulked area were subjected to 2 to 4 passes of pulsed CO2 laser. Out of 113 lesions, the nodular type accounted for 67 (59.3%) lesions, and 40 (35.4%) lesions were seen in the nasal area as the most common clinical subtype and site of involvement. One hundred six lesions (93.7%) of basal cell carcinoma showed a cure after one session. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were seen in 97 (85.8%) cases. This method appears to be an appropriate alternative treatment for basal cell carcinoma lesions that are smaller than 2 cm, superficial, and pigmented, and have a nodular clinical subtype without an aggressive pathologic pattern. This method should be used with caution in the nasal area with lesions larger than 2 cm.

  10. Topical treatment of basal cell carcinoma with the immune response modifier imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Dimitrios; Stockfleth, Eggert

    2015-11-01

    Imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist, is a novel immune response modifier currently widely used in the treatment of actinic keratoses (in situ squamous cell carcinoma). Imiquimod has revolutionized the treatment of field cancerization and has been approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with the recommendation of a 6-week treatment strategy, offering an alternative to surgery or other destructive treatment strategies.

  11. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an algorithm based on the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2015-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma can be effectively managed through surgical excision, the most suitable surgical margins have not yet been fully determined. Furthermore, micrographic surgery is not readily available in many places around the world. A review of the literature regarding the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma was conducted in order to develop an algorithm for the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma that could help the choice of surgical technique and safety margins, considering the major factors that affect cure rates. Through this review, it was found that surgical margins of 4mm seem to be suitable for small, primary, well-defined basal cell carcinomas, although some good results can be achieved with smaller margins and the use of margin control surgical techniques. For treatment of high-risk and recurrent tumors, margins of 5-6 mm or margin control of the surgical excision is required. Previous treatment, histological subtype, site and size of the lesion should be considered in surgical planning because these factors have been proven to affect cure rates. Thus, considering these factors, the algorithm can be a useful tool, especially for places where micrographic surgery is not widely available.

  12. Vismodegib as a neoadjuvant treatment to Mohs surgery for aggressive basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, Joseph; Tauber, Gil; Fenig, Eyal; Hodak, Emmilia

    2015-03-01

    Vismodegib, a hedgehog pathway inhibitor has been recently introduced as an oral therapy for locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Although treatment of patients with basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib has been associated with partial or complete clinical response, it is still unclear if it is also associated with histological cure. Two patients with 3 large and aggressive basal cell carcinomas were treated with Vismodegib for 6 months. The treatment was followed by Mohs micrographic surgery. Two tumors disappeared clinically and one was reduced dramatically in its size following treatment with vismodegib. Mohs surgery in all three tumors revealed residual islands of BCC although margins were cleared at the end of surgery. Neoadjuvant therapy with vismodegib for 6 months prior to Mohs surgery was effective in reducing the size of primary and recurrent aggressive basal cell carcinoma. However, residual tumor nests were found during surgery. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of Vismodegib as a neoadjuvant treatment prior to Mohs surgery.

  13. Changing basal conditions during the speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habermann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice-sheet outlet glaciers can undergo dynamic changes such as the rapid speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ following the disintegration of its floating ice tongue. These changes are associated with stress changes on the boundary of the ice mass. We invert for basal conditions from surface velocity data throughout a well-observed period of rapid change and evaluate parameterizations currently used in ice-sheet models. A Tikhonov inverse method with a shallow-shelf approximation forward model is used for diagnostic inversions for the years 1985, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2008. Our ice-softness, model norm, and regularization parameter choices are justified using the data-model misfit metric and the L curve method. The sensitivity of the inversion results to these parameter choices is explored. We find a lowering of effective basal yield stress in the first 7 km upstream from the 2008 grounding line and no significant changes higher upstream. The temporal evolution in the fast flow area is in broad agreement with a Mohr–Coulomb parameterization of basal shear stress, but with a till friction angle much lower than has been measured for till samples. The lowering of effective basal yield stress is significant within the uncertainties of the inversion, but it cannot be ruled out that there are other significant contributors to the acceleration of the glacier.

  14. Cutaneous head and neck basal and squamous cell carcinomas with perineural invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Ferlito, A.; Takes, R.P.; Bradford, C.R.; Corry, J.; Fagan, J.J.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Rodrigo, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) occurs in 2% to 6% of cutaneous head and neck basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and is associated with mid-face location, recurrent tumors, high histologic grade, and increasing tumor size. Patients may be asymptomatic with PNI appreciated on pathologic examination

  15. Basal area increment and growth efficiency as functions of canopy dynamics and stem mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean

    2004-01-01

    Crown and canopy structurecorrelate with growth efficiency and also determine stem size and taper as described by the uniform stress principle of stem formation. A regression model was derived from this principle that expresses basal area increment in terms of the amount and vertical distribution of leaf area and change in these variables during a growth period. This...

  16. Layered basal defenses underlie non-host resistance of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Sang Yeol; Mackey, David

    2007-08-01

    Arabidopsis is a non-host for Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (Pph), a bacterial pathogen of bean. Pph does not induce a hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis. Here we show that Arabidopsis instead resists Pph with multi-layered basal defense. Our approach was: (i) to identify defense readouts induced by Pph; (ii) to determine whether mutations in known Arabidopsis defense genes disrupt Pph-induced defense signaling; (iii) to determine whether heterologous type III effectors from pathogens of Arabidopsis suppress Pph-induced defense signaling, and (iv) to ascertain how basal defenses contribute to resistance against Pph by individually or multiply disrupting defense signaling pathways with mutations and heterologous type III effectors. We demonstrate that Pph elicits a minimum of three basal defense-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. These pathways have unique readouts, including PR-1 protein accumulation and morphologically distinct types of callose deposition. Further, they require distinct defense genes, including PMR4, RAR1, SID2, NPR1, and PAD4. Finally, they are suppressed differentially by heterologous type III effectors, including AvrRpm1 and HopM1. Pph growth is enhanced only when multiple defense pathways are disrupted. For example, mutation of NPR1 or SID2 combined with the action of AvrRpm1 and HopM1 renders Arabidopsis highly susceptible to Pph. Thus, non-host resistance of Arabidopsis to Pph is based on multiple, individually effective layers of basal defense.

  17. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by acute completely reversible regional left ventricle (LV) akinesia and decreased tracer uptake in the akinetic region on semi-quantitative perfusion imaging. The latter may be due to normoperfusion of the akinetic mid/apical area and basal...

  18. Design of Effective Primary MicroRNA Mimics With Different Basal Stem Conformations

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    Fiona T van den Berg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary microRNA (pri-miRNA mimics are important mediators of effective gene silencing and are well suited for sustained therapeutic applications. Pri-miRNA mimics are processed in the endogenous miRNA biogenesis pathway, where elements of the secondary RNA structure are crucial for efficient miRNA production. Cleavage of the pri-miRNA to a precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA by Drosha-DGCR8 typically occurs adjacent to a basal stem of ≃11 bp. However, a number of pri-miRNA structures are expected to contain slightly shorter or longer basal stems, which may be further disrupted in predicted folding of the expressed pri-miRNA sequence. We investigated the function and processing of natural and exogenous RNA guides from pri-miRNAs with various basal stems (9–13 bp, where a canonical hairpin was predicted to be well or poorly maintained in predicted structures of the expressed sequence. We have shown that RNA guides can be effectively derived from pri-miRNAs with various basal stem conformations, while predicted guide region stability can explain the function of pri-miRNA mimics, in agreement with previously proposed design principles. This study provides insight for the design of effective mimics based on naturally occurring pri-miRNAs and has identified several novel scaffolds suitable for use in gene silencing applications.

  19. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree...

  20. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  1. Resistance to Fusarium basal rot and response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan Vivero, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation in low input and organic farming systems is hampered by Fusarium basal rot (FBR) and the limited ability of onion to take up nutrients like phosphorus. The symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contributes to plant acquisition of phosphorus, among other

  2. Which histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas influence the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, M.; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more...

  3. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  4. Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel

    1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in

  5. Basal sphenoethmoidal encephalocele in association with midline cleft lip and palate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Maurus Marques de Almeida; Rocha, Artur Bastos; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Furtado, Paulo Germano Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria e Genetica

    2011-11-15

    Association of basal sphenoethmoidal encephalocele with midline cleft lip and palate is extremely rare. The authors report the case of a nine-year-old girl presenting a midline facial cleft with meningocele that was noticeable through the palatine defect as a medial intranasal pulsatile mass. An analysis of clinical and radiological findings of the present case of cranial dysraphism is carried out. (author)

  6. Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Spindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a re-investigation of two historical fossil discoveries, Callibrachion gaudryi (Artinskian of France and Datheosaurus macrourus (Gzhelian of Poland, that were originally classified as haptodontine-grade sphenacodontians and have been lately treated as nomina dubia. Both taxa are here identified as basal caseasaurs based on their overall proportions as well as dental and osteological characteristics that differentiate them from any other major synapsid subclade. As a result of poor preservation, no distinct autapomorphies can be recognized. However, our detailed investigations of the virtually complete skeletons in the light of recent progress in basal synapsid research allow a novel interpretation of their phylogenetic positions. Datheosaurus might represent an eothyridid or basal caseid. Callibrachion shares some similarities with the more derived North American genus Casea. These new observations on Datheosaurus and Callibrachion provide new insights into the early diversification of caseasaurs, reflecting an evolutionary stage that lacks spatulate teeth and broadened phalanges that are typical for other caseid species. Along with Eocasea, the former ghost lineage to the Late Pennsylvanian origin of Caseasauria is further closed. For the first time, the presence of basal caseasaurs in Europe is documented.

  7. On the basal structure of Siphonodella cooperi Haas, 1959 and Siphonodella lobata (Branson & Mehl), 1934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope photographs of Siphonodella cooperi and Siphonodella lobata suggest that basal pits decrease in size after having reached a maximum. Analysis of biométrie data and computed regression lines confirm this. The phenomenon is explained by postulating migration of the plane

  8. Aggressive basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck: challenges in surgical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Joshi, Anil; Borggreven, Pepijn A.; Vermeeren, Lenka; Zupan-Kajcovski, Biljana; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2016-01-01

    With exponentially increasing numbers of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the head and neck region, also the locally advanced BCCs are increasing in number. These tumours are associated with aggressive biological behaviour with invasion of soft tissues, organs or bone and present with wide variation in

  9. Biotin-responsive Basal Ganglia disease: a treatable differential diagnosis of leigh syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distelmaier, F.; Huppke, P.; Pieperhoff, P.; Amunts, K.; Schaper, J.; Morava, E.; Mayatepek, E.; Kohlhase, J.; Karenfort, M.

    2014-01-01

    Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. BBGD typically causes (sub)acute episodes with encephalopathy and subsequent neurological deterioration. If untreated, the clinical course may be fatal. Our report on

  10. Basal inflammation and innate immune response in chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; MacFarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; Smit, J.H.; Dekker, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in chronic pain, although study findings are inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined whether basal inflammatory markers and the innate immune response are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain.

  11. Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A ground-water resources investigation in west-central Iowa indicates that water is available from alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene, and Dakota aquifers. The west-central Iowa area includes Audubon, Carrol1, Crawford, Greene, Guthrie, Harrison, Monona, and Shelby Counties.

  12. Laurentide Ice Sheet Basal Temperatures at the Last Glacial Cycle As Inferred from Borehole Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, C.; Beltrami, H.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Twelve temperature-depth profiles (>1500 m) located in Eastern to Central Canada were studied to determine the past ground surface temperature histories (GSTH) for the Last Glacial Cycle (LGC) and afterwards. The GSTHs were inferred using singular variable decomposition (SVD). Three locations (Sudbury, Manitouwadge, and Thompson) presented multiple boreholes. Here, simultaneous inversion was utilized to illustrate any regional trends present. For all studied sites, the inversion shows that ground surface temperatures throughout the LGC near the pressure melting point of ice, -1.41-2.51°C. These ground surface temperatures are representative of the basal temperatures of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered the region throughout the LGC. These temperatures allow for the possibility of basal flow and fast flowing ice streams, which have been inferred from geomorphological data and are consistent with modeling efforts. Regional variations in basal temperatures are observed. These could be attributed to fluctuations in ice sheet thickness and proximity to the edge of the ice sheet. No correlation between heat flow and the amplitude of the GSTH variations was observed, leading to the conclusion that the basal temperatures in this region are primarily driven by ice dynamics.

  13. Clonal variation in lateral and basal rooting of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny Jr.; J.A. Zalesny

    2011-01-01

    Successful establishment and productivity of Populus depends upon adventitious rooting from: 1) lateral roots that develop from either preformed or induced primordia and 2) basal roots that differentiate from callus at the base of the cutting in response to wounding. Information is needed for phytotechnologies about the degree to which ...

  14. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K+ current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30–50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30–50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity

  15. Vismodegib and the hedgehog pathway: a new treatment for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, Frank; Harris, Christy S

    2012-10-01

    Vismodegib is an oral inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. It is the first systemic treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma that is not amenable to surgery and radiation. This is the first drug to use the Hedgehog pathway to inhibit the proliferation of tumors and is also implicated in the development of other cancers such as medulloblastoma. The goal of this review was to summarize the development, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of vismodegib. Relevant English-language literature was identified and then evaluated based on results from database searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1975 to June 19, 2012. The terms searched included, but were not limited to, vismodegib, Erivedge, GDC-0449, basal cell carcinoma, and 2-chloro-N-[4-chloro-3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide. Additional literature was identified by assessing the reference lists of previously identified articles and through abstracts presented by the American Society of Clinical Oncology. A total of 70 full text citations were identified although two national conference proceedings were then excluded. An additional 10 published abstracts were also identified. A Phase II, nonrandomized, multicenter, international study demonstrated a 30.3% objective response rate in metastatic basal cell carcinoma and a 42.9% objective response rate in locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. The adverse effect profile for vismodegib is similar to other identified Hedgehog pathway inhibitors; muscle cramps (71.7%), alopecia (63.8%), and dysgeusia (55.1%) were the most common adverse effects seen in trials. A Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Gorlin syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma concluded that vismodegib was significantly better than placebo at reducing new basal cell carcinoma lesions (P basal cell carcinoma or where resection would be cosmetically disadvantageous, vismodegib is an effective

  16. Analog Physical Experiments to Investigate Mechanisms Controlling Enhanced Ice Flow by Basal Sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, M. K.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous observations document enhanced ice flow of terrestrial glaciers during brief periods of increased delivery of water to the bed. The displacements that occur during these periods make up a significant portion of the total displacements of these glaciers. Contemporary understanding of the effect of basal water fails to consistently predict the duration and magnitude of these speedup events. To improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms causing increased ice velocities due to basal sliding, we carried out laboratory experiments using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) as an analog for glacier ice. PDMS has a large viscosity contrast with water, a similar density to ice, and is clear and transparent. PDMS flow experiments were conducted in a tilted rectangular flow channel. Basal water was injected between the PDMS and the bed through a distributed water supply system complete with pressure measurement. Water discharge rates were measured gravimetrically. A thin lubricant film was used to prevent the PDMS from sticking to the bed. The lubricant film is analogous to water films in temperate bed regions under a glacier. A rough checkerboard bed topography constrains the flow of water at the bed and provides basal resistance against the PDMS sliding over it. High resolution cameras were used to track beads placed on the bed, surface and within the PDMS layer and calculate displacement and velocity fields. The cameras also quantified the geometry of the basal water system. Various configurations of basal water systems were tested, including linked cavity and conduit systems. The influence of spatial variations in bed lubrication was also tested. Transient and steady-state experiments were conducted with pressure variations. The pressure conditions needed for sustaining basal water systems and sliding were also investigated. Extensive basal lubrication was necessary to produce a sustainable linked-cavity system with widespread sliding. Even with a constant water

  17. Anatomia microcirúgica da substâcia perfurada anterior basal humana Microsurgical anatomy of the human basal anterior perforated substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alfredo Silveira D’Ávila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A substância perfurada anterior constitui referencial na base do encéfalo. Localizada acima da bifurcação subaracnóidea da artéria carótida interna em sua porção basal e junto à artéria comunicante anterior na face inter-hemisférica, é transfixada por ramos perfurantes dirigidos aos núcleos telencefálicos corticais, cápsula interna e parte do tálamo. Por injeção intravascular de gelatina carminada, resina de Batson e látex, analisamos 50 hemisférios cerebrais humanos adultos de ambos os sexos, sob o microscópio cirúrgico. Objetivamos contribuir para a determinação da origem, número e topografia dos ramos destinados a essa região, seu curso, anastomoses e territórios de penetração. Propusemo-nos também a analisar a contribuição da artéria comunicante anterior à substância perfurada anterior. Foram encontradas variações anatômicas, incluindo anastomoses, envolvendo principalmente a artéria cerebral média e a artéria coróidea anterior. Estes conhecimentos são de interesse clínico-cirúrgico em razão da freqüência de patologias vasculares e tumorais a ela relacionadas.The anterior perforated substance (APS is a landmark in the basal forebrain. It has a basal face located above the carotid bifurcation in the subarachnoid space, and an interhemispheric one. It is the site of passage of the arteries to the caudate nucleus, putamen, internal capsule, adjacent areas of the globus pallidus and thalamus. Fifty hemispheres from twenty-five adult cadavers were obtained. The arteries were perfused with colored latex, Batson’s resin and gelatin colored with carmine. Using a surgical microscope we have determined the origin, local and number of origin from the parent vessel. The sites of penetration in the mediolateral and anteroposterior direction were also recorded. The anterior communicating artery contribution to the basal APS was reviewed. Significant vascular variations and anastomoses were encountered

  18. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Miller

    Full Text Available Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p = 0.01 and right globus pallidus (p = 0.02. Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2 = 0.49, p = 0.001, general fatigue (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.01 and reduced activity (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.02 as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.

  19. Determining Sliding Velocity and Shear-Strain Magnitude From Basal Sediments of Past Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Thomason, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Ice sheets slide over their basal sediments and commonly deform them. Despite meticulous description of such sediments, they have not been used to estimate rates or magnitudes of basal motion. Thus, although a common assertion is that modeling of past ice sheets can benefit from studies of basal sediments, their actual utility in modeling studies has been minimal. We have developed methods for estimating sliding velocity and till shear-strain magnitude from basal sediments of past ice sheets. The first method involves balancing shear traction on clasts that have plowed through the bed surface with resistance to plowing provided by the bed. The shear traction on clasts is provided by the sliding theory of Lliboutry, and plowing resistance is estimated using a geotechnical theory of cone penetration. The result is an expression for sliding speed of a past ice sheet that depends only on the size distribution of clasts that plowed and the thermomechanical properties of ice and clasts. This method was applied to sizes of clasts that plowed through outwash near Peoria, Illinois, to estimate the sliding speed of the Illinoian ice sheet in that area: 60-170 m/a. The second method involves shearing till in laboratory experiments to study the evolution of till microstructural properties as a function of shear-strain magnitude. Microstructural anisotropy is quantified by collecting multiple intact samples (20 mm cubes) and determining the strength of fabric defined by principal directions of magnetic susceptibility. These directions depend on alignment of needle-shaped magnetite grains. Fabrics formed by directions of maximum susceptibility do not become steady until shear strains of 20-50. Therefore, laboratory calibrations of fabric strength to shear-strain magnitude allow the extent of bed deformation to be determined from susceptibility fabrics of basal till. These studies can provide quantitative inputs to ice-sheet models that have been unavailable previously.

  20. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to

  2. Using a hybrid neuron in physiologically inspired models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Michael Thibeault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of the basal ganglia has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the basal ganglia however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the basal ganglia, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under deep brain stimulation. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of deep brain stimulation and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks.

  3. Loss of Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Basal Breast Cancer.

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    Eva Lorsy

    Full Text Available Dickkopf 3 (DKK3 has been associated with tumor suppression of various tumor entities including breast cancer. However, the functional impact of DKK3 on the tumorigenesis of distinct molecular breast cancer subtypes has not been considered so far. Therefore, we initiated a study analyzing the subtype-specific DKK3 expression pattern as well as its prognostic and functional impact with respect to breast cancer subtypes. Based on three independent tissue cohorts including one in silico dataset (n = 30, n = 463 and n = 791 we observed a clear down-regulation of DKK3 expression in breast cancer samples compared to healthy breast tissue controls on mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, most abundant reduction of DKK3 expression was detected in the highly aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Analyzing a large in silico dataset comprising 3,554 cases showed that low DKK3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with reduced recurrence free survival (RFS of luminal and basal-like breast cancer cases. Functionally, DKK3 re-expression in human breast cancer cell lines led to suppression of cell growth possibly mediated by up-regulation of apoptosis in basal-like but not in luminal-like breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic DKK3 expression in mesenchymal basal breast cancer cells resulted in partial restoration of epithelial cell morphology which was molecularly supported by higher expression of epithelial markers like E-Cadherin and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers such as Snail 1. Hence, we provide evidence that down-regulation of DKK3 especially promotes tumorigenesis of the aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Further studies decoding the underlying molecular mechanisms of DKK3-mediated effects may help to identify novel targeted therapies for this clinically highly relevant breast cancer subtype.

  4. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus can infect basal cells and alter human airway epithelial differentiation.

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    B David Persson

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing severe respiratory illness in infants and immune compromised patients. The ciliated cells of the human airway epithelium have been considered to be the exclusive target of RSV, although recent data have suggested that basal cells, the progenitors for the conducting airway epithelium, may also become infected in vivo. Using either mechanical or chemical injury models, we have demonstrated a robust RSV infection of p63+ basal cells in air-liquid interface (ALI cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, proliferating basal cells in 2D culture were also susceptible to RSV infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that RSV infection of this progenitor cell would influence the differentiation status of the airway epithelium. RSV infection of basal cells on the day of seeding (MOI≤0.0001, resulted in the formation of an epithelium that showed a profound loss of ciliated cells and gain of secretory cells as assessed by acetylated α-tubulin and MUC5AC/MUC5B immunostaining, respectively. The mechanism driving the switch in epithelial phenotype is in part driven by the induced type I and type III interferon response that we demonstrate is triggered early following RSV infection. Neutralization of this response attenuates the RSV-induced loss of ciliated cells. Together, these data show that through infection of proliferating airway basal cells, RSV has the potential to influence the cellular composition of the airway epithelium. The resulting phenotype might be expected to contribute towards both the severity of acute infection, as well as to the longer-term consequences of viral exacerbations in patients with pre-existing respiratory diseases.

  6. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

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    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2014-04-01

    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Localization of Basal Ganglia and Thalamic Damage in Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.

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    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Waugh, Jeff L

    2016-01-01

    Dyskinetic cerebral palsy affects 15%-20% of patients with cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury is associated with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, but the patterns of injury within the basal ganglia predisposing to dyskinetic cerebral palsy are unknown, making treatment difficult. For example, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dystonia in only 40% of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury heterogeneity may explain this variability. To investigate this, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of basal ganglia and thalamic damage in dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Reviews and articles primarily addressing genetic or toxic causes of cerebral palsy were excluded yielding 22 studies (304 subjects). Thirteen studies specified the involved basal ganglia nuclei (subthalamic nucleus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, or lentiform nuclei, comprised by the putamen and globus pallidus). Studies investigating the lentiform nuclei (without distinguishing between the putamen and globus pallidus) showed that all subjects (19 of 19) had lentiform nuclei damage. Studies simultaneously but independently investigating the putamen and globus pallidus also showed that all subjects (35 of 35) had lentiform nuclei damage (i.e., putamen or globus pallidus damage); this was followed in frequency by damage to the putamen alone (70 of 101, 69%), the subthalamic nucleus (17 of 25, 68%), the thalamus (88 of 142, 62%), the globus pallidus (7/35, 20%), and the caudate (6 of 47, 13%). Globus pallidus damage was almost always coincident with putaminal damage. Noting consistent involvement of the lentiform nuclei in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, these results could suggest two groups of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy: those with putamen-predominant damage and those with panlenticular damage involving both the putamen and the globus pallidus. Differentiating between these groups could help predict response to therapies such as deep brain

  8. Selective attentional enhancement and inhibition of fronto-posterior connectivity by the Basal Ganglia during attention switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, M.R. van; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia interact to selectively gate a desired action. Recent studies have shown that this selective gating mechanism of the basal ganglia extends to the domain of attention. Here, we investigate the nature of this action-like gating mechanism for attention using

  9. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination

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    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

  10. A longitudinal study of basal cortisol in infants : Intra-individual variability, circadian rhythm and developmental trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerth, C.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mothers with normally developing babies were visited in their homes during 13 consecutive weeks, when the babies were around 5-8 months of age. Basal salival cortisol measures were taken for both the baby and the mother on arrival. The infants' basal cortisol decreased linearly with age, was

  11. Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Bolle, L; Visser, GH; Masman, D; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate in the field vole (Microtus agrestis) was studied in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field Daily energy expenditure was measured by means of doubly labelled water ((D2O)-O-18). In the same individuals, basal metabolic rate was subsequently

  12. Does basal PR gene expression in Solanum species contribute to non-specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Govers, F.; Kamoun, S.; Colon, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) occurs in many plant species, including potato. SAR can be induced by various signals, but also basal levels of SAR may vary between plants. In Arabidopsis mutants, basal SAR levels positively correlate with pathogen resistance. Here we test whether in 13 wild

  13. Secondary Resistance to Vismodegib After Initial Successful Treatment of Extensive Recurrent Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma with Orbital Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastefanou, Vasilios P; René, Cornelius

    Vismodegib is proven to be effective in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma, but evidence of resistance is beginning to emerge. A case of advanced recurrent periocular basal cell carcinoma which responded dramatically to vismodegib after 3 months but recurred after 9 months due to drug resistance, eventually requiring orbital exenteration, is presented. The mechanism of vismodegib resistance is discussed.

  14. Basal-Like Phenotype in a Breast Carcinoma Case Series from Sudan: Prevalence and Clinical/Pathological Correlations

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    Khalid Dafaallah Awadelkarim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like breast cancer, an aggressive subtype associated with high grade, poor prognosis, and younger age, is reported frequently in Africa. We analyzed the expression of the basal cytokeratins (CKs 5/6 and 17 in a case series from Central Sudan and investigated correlations among basal CK status, ER, PgR, and Her-2/neu, and individual/clinicopathological data. Of 113 primary breast cancers 26 (23%, 38 (34%, and 46 (41% were, respectively, positive for CK5/6, CK17, and combined basal CKs (CK5/6 and/or CK17. Combined basal CK+ status was associated with higher grade (P<.03 and inversely correlated with ER (P<.002, PgR (P=.004 and combined ER and/or PgR (P<.0002. Two clusters based on all tested markers were generated by hierarchical cluster analysis and k-mean clustering: I: designated ``hormone receptors positive/luminal-like’’ and II: designated ``hormone receptors negative’’, including both basal-like and Her-2/neu+ tumors. The most important factors for dataset variance were ER status, followed by PgR, CK17, and CK5/6 statuses. Overall basal CKs were expressed in a fraction of cases comparable to that reported for East and West African case series. Lack of associations with age and tumor size may represent a special feature of basal-like breast cancer in Sudan.

  15. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  16. Cold basal conditions during surges control flow of fringing Arctic ice caps in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel; Christoffersen, Poul; Todd, Joe; Palmer, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Fringing ice caps separated from larger ice sheets are rarely studied, yet they are an important part of earth's cryosphere, which has become the largest source of global sea-level rise. Understanding marginal ice caps is crucial for being able to predict sea-level change as they are responsible for up to 20% of Greenland's mass loss for 2003-2008. Studies of fringing ice caps can furthermore provide useful insights into processes operating on glaciers that surge. Surging has been the focus of much recent glaciological work, especially with reference to thermal evolution of polythermal glaciers in High Mountain Asia and the High Arctic. This has shown that the classic divide between hydrologically-controlled surges ('hard-bed') in Alaska and thermally-regulated ('soft-bed') surges elsewhere is less stark than previously assumed. Studying marginal ice caps can therefore be valuable in several ways. The largest fringing ice cap in Greenland is Flade Isblink. Previous work has established that this ice cap is showing a range of dynamic behaviour, including subglacial lake drainage and varied patterns of mass-balance change. In particular, a substantial surge, assumed to be caused by a version of the thermally-regulated mechanism, occurred between 1996 and 2000, making the ice cap a useful case study for investigating this process. Here we investigate the surge on Flade Isblink using the open-source, Full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to invert for basal conditions and englacial temperatures using the adjoint method. We specifically study steady-state conditions representative of the active surge phase in 2000, and the subsequent quiescent phase, using patterns of surface velocity observed in 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2015. Under constant geometry, temperature and geothermal heat, it is shown that surging increases basal freezing rates by over 60% across an area that is twice as large as the area over which the bed freezes in the quiescent phase. The process responsible for this

  17. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... higher number of naevi on the arms and the legs than did female controls, but also had more naevi on the trunk. For females, the risk for basal cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of naevi. Naevi were not a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in males....

  18. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5) and keratin 14 (K14) for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub) for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10), but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion The data are

  19. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

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    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  20. Basal ganglia impairments in autism spectrum disorder are related to abnormal signal gating to prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea; Neuhaus, Emily; Kleinhans, Natalia M

    2016-10-01

    Research on the biological basis of autism spectrum disorder has yielded a list of brain abnormalities that are arguably as diverse as the set of behavioral symptoms that characterize the disorder. Among these are patterns of abnormal cortical connectivity and abnormal basal ganglia development. In attempts to integrate the existing literature, the current paper tests the hypothesis that impairments in the basal ganglia's function to flexibly select and route task-relevant neural signals to the prefrontal cortex underpins patterns of abnormal synchronization between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical processing centers observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested this hypothesis using a Dynamic Causal Modeling analysis of neuroimaging data collected from 16 individuals with ASD (mean age=25.3 years; 6 female) and 17 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls (mean age=25.6, 6 female), who performed a Go/No-Go test of executive functioning. Consistent with the hypothesis tested, a random-effects Bayesian model selection procedure determined that a model of network connectivity in which basal ganglia activation modulated connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other key cortical processing centers best fit the data of both neurotypicals and individuals with ASD. Follow-up analyses suggested that the largest group differences were observed for modulation of connectivity between prefrontal cortex and the sensory input region in the occipital lobe [t(31)=2.03, p=0.025]. Specifically, basal ganglia activation was associated with a small decrease in synchronization between the occipital region and prefrontal cortical regions in controls; however, in individuals with ASD, basal ganglia activation resulted in increased synchronization between the occipital region and the prefrontal cortex. We propose that this increased synchronization may reflect a failure in basal ganglia signal gating mechanisms, resulting in a non-selective copying

  1. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

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    Malvar Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21, each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm, reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm, although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H-one (DIMBOA, a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and

  2. Closed-Loop Basal Insulin Delivery Over 36 Hours in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Nodale, Marianna; Caldwell, Karen; Cheng, Peiyao; Kollman, Craig; Haidar, Ahmad; Murphy, Helen R.; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.; Hovorka, Roman

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated the safety and efficacy of closed-loop basal insulin delivery during sleep and after regular meals and unannounced periods of exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve adolescents with type 1 diabetes (five males; mean age 15.0 [SD 1.4] years; HbA1c 7.9 [0.7]%; BMI 21.4 [2.6] kg/m2) were studied at a clinical research facility on two occasions and received, in random order, either closed-loop basal insulin delivery or conventional pump therapy for 36 h. During closed-loop insulin delivery, pump basal rates were adjusted every 15 min according to a model predictive control algorithm informed by subcutaneous sensor glucose levels. During control visits, subjects’ standard infusion rates were applied. Prandial insulin boluses were given before main meals (50–80 g carbohydrates) but not before snacks (15–30 g carbohydrates). Subjects undertook moderate-intensity exercise, not announced to the algorithm, on a stationary bicycle at a 140 bpm heart rate in the morning (40 min) and afternoon (20 min). Primary outcome was time when plasma glucose was in the target range (71–180 mg/dL). RESULTS Closed-loop basal insulin delivery increased percentage time when glucose was in the target range (median 84% [interquartile range 78–88%] vs. 49% [26–79%], P = 0.02) and reduced mean plasma glucose levels (128 [19] vs. 165 [55] mg/dL, P = 0.02). Plasma glucose levels were in the target range 100% of the time on 17 of 24 nights during closed-loop insulin delivery. Hypoglycemia occurred on 10 occasions during control visits and 9 occasions during closed-loop delivery (5 episodes were exercise related, and 4 occurred within 2.5 h of prandial bolus). CONCLUSIONS Day-and-night closed-loop basal insulin delivery can improve glucose control in adolescents. However, unannounced moderate-intensity exercise and excessive prandial boluses pose challenges to hypoglycemia-free closed-loop basal insulin delivery. PMID:23193217

  3. Sensitizing basal-like breast cancer to chemotherapy using nanoparticles conjugated with interference peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorolla, A.; Ho, D.; Wang, E.; Evans, C. W.; Ormonde, C. F. G.; Rashwan, R.; Singh, R.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Blancafort, P.

    2016-04-01

    Basal-like breast cancers are highly aggressive malignancies associated with very poor prognosis. Although these cancers may initially respond to first-line treatment, they become highly resistant to standard chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Chemotherapy resistance in basal-like breast cancers is associated with highly selective overexpression of the homeobox transcription factor Engrailed 1 (EN1). Herein, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy using poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with poly(acrylic acid) that enable dual delivery of docetaxel and interference peptides designed to block or inhibit EN1 (EN1-iPep). We demonstrate that EN1-iPep is highly selective in inducing apoptotic cell death in basal-like cancer cells with negligible effects in a non-neoplastic human mammary epithelial cell line. Furthermore, we show that treatment with EN1-iPep results in a highly synergistic pharmacological interaction with docetaxel in inhibiting cancer cell growth. The incorporation of these two agents in a single nanoformulation results in greater anticancer efficacy than current nanoparticle-based treatments used in the clinical setting.Basal-like breast cancers are highly aggressive malignancies associated with very poor prognosis. Although these cancers may initially respond to first-line treatment, they become highly resistant to standard chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Chemotherapy resistance in basal-like breast cancers is associated with highly selective overexpression of the homeobox transcription factor Engrailed 1 (EN1). Herein, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy using poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with poly(acrylic acid) that enable dual delivery of docetaxel and interference peptides designed to block or inhibit EN1 (EN1-iPep). We demonstrate that EN1-iPep is highly selective in inducing apoptotic cell death in basal-like cancer cells with negligible effects in a non-neoplastic human mammary

  4. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa Ana

    2011-10-14

    To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could

  5. Minimizing Human Intervention in the Development of Basal Ganglia-Inspired Robot Control

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    F. Montes-Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologically inspired mechanism for robot action selection, based on the vertebrate basal ganglia, has been previously presented (Prescott et al. 2006, Montes Gonzalez et al. 2000. In this model the task confronting the robot is decomposed into distinct behavioural modules that integrate information from multiple sensors and internal state to form ‘salience’ signals. These signals are provided as inputs to a computational model of the basal ganglia whose intrinsic processes cause the selection by disinhibition of a winning behaviour. This winner is then allowed access to the motor plant whilst losing behaviours are suppressed. In previous research we have focused on the development of this biomimetic selection architecture, and have therefore used behavioural modules that were hand-coded as algorithmic procedures. In the current article, we demonstrate the use of genetic algorithms and gradient–descent learning to automatically generate/tune some of the modules that generate the model behaviour.

  6. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinoma of the skin that appeared macroscopically healthy after radiotherapy. Case report

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    Handa, Yoshihiro; Takakuwa, Sachiko; Yamada, Motohito; Ono, Hiroki; Tomita, Yasushi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    The patient was a 76-year-old woman with multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas. She had undergone radiotherapy for a 1-year period after hysterectomy for uterine carcinoma 38 years previously, and the basal cell carcinomas coincided with the irradiated parts. No clear symptoms of chronic radioepithelitis could be found macroscopically, but the lesions were thought to represent radiation-induced carcinoma based on the histopathological findings (atrophy of the epidermis, hyalinization and sclerosis of dermal connective tissue, inflammatory cell infiltration, and capillary dilatation). The lesion was removed to the depth of the adipose tissue with a 5 mm margin around the tumor, and primary closure was achieved. No recurrences or new carcinomas have been detected during the 16 months since the operation. (K.H.)

  7. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Long-Term Study in a Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Santos, Thiago; Vajgel, André; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; de Albuquerque Maranhao Filho, Almir Walter; De Holanda Vasconcellos, Ricardo José; Frota, Riedel; Filho, José Rodrigues Laureano

    2015-01-01

    We present a family case series with 10 individuals having nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) with a 10-year follow-up. All articles published in the literature between 1967 and 2011 on familial Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in any language were surveyed to determine the mapping of cases per country of occurrence of this disease. All patients in the present series were presented with calcification of the falx cerebri, mild hypertelorism, and frontal bossing. Odontogenic keratocystic tumors, palmar and plantar pits, and multiple basal cell carcinomas occurred in 90, 40, and 20%, respectively, of the patients. One of the patients died of skin cancer. Diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst tumors was confirmed by histopathological examination. NBCCS is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome; it is important to recognize it when a patient has multiple odontogenic keratocyst tumors because life-long monitoring is essential for patient management. PMID:26889355

  8. Dynamic focus optical coherence tomography: feasibility for improved basal cell carcinoma investigation

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    Nasiri-Avanaki, M. R.; Aber, Ahmed; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.; Sira, Mano; Schofield, John B.; Jones, Carole; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2012-03-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer. To improve the diagnostic accuracy, additional non-invasive methods of making a preliminary diagnosis have been sought. We have implemented an En-Face optical coherence tomography (OCT) for this study in which the dynamic focus was integrated into it. With the dynamic focus scheme, the coherence gate moves synchronously with the peak of confocal gate determined by the confocal interface optics. The transversal resolution is then conserved throughout the depth range and an enhanced signal is returned from all depths. The Basal Cell Carcinoma specimens were obtained from the eyelid a patient. The specimens under went analysis by DF-OCT imaging. We searched for remarkable features that were visualized by OCT and compared these findings with features presented in the histology slices.

  9. Review of Ocular Manifestations of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: What an Ophthalmologist Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy J.; Sartori, Juliana; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Setabutr, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Myriad ophthalmologic findings are associated with NBCCS, including periocular BCCs, hypertelorism, strabismus, myelinated nerve fibers, and disorders of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. We performed a literature search in PubMed for articles on the ophthalmologic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome, published between 1984 and 2014. Of 33 papers, 31 were included. Although Gorlin syndrome is due to mutations in a single gene, it displays variable phenotypic expressivity. Therefore, familiarity with this disorder across clinical specialties is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. The ophthalmologist should be included in the multidisciplinary team for the management of Gorlin syndrome in order to prevent visual loss and improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:26692711

  10. Review of Ocular Manifestations of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: What an Ophthalmologist Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy J; Sartori, Juliana; Aakalu, Vinay K; Setabutr, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and ectopic calcifications of the falx cerebri. Myriad ophthalmologic findings are associated with NBCCS, including periocular BCCs, hypertelorism, strabismus, myelinated nerve fibers, and disorders of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. We performed a literature search in PubMed for articles on the ophthalmologic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome, published between 1984 and 2014. Of 33 papers, 31 were included. Although Gorlin syndrome is due to mutations in a single gene, it displays variable phenotypic expressivity. Therefore, familiarity with this disorder across clinical specialties is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. The ophthalmologist should be included in the multidisciplinary team for the management of Gorlin syndrome in order to prevent visual loss and improve the quality of life of these patients.

  11. An isotopic model for basal freeze-on associated with subglacial upward flow of pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchez, R.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.; Pattyn, F.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2004-01-01

    Subglacial freezing in polar glaciers can have a significant dynamical effect. Recent studies have shown that freezing of pore water flowing upward through subglacial fine-grained sediments at the freezing interface and progression of this freezing front downward are responsible for fast ice flow stoppage in ice streams. The upward pore water flow leads to the formation of debris-bearing basal ice layers. A model for stable isotope composition, both in δD and δ18O, is developed for predicting the isotopic composition of the ice segregated by such a mechanism. The development of this isotopic model for water films present along the grains of the subglacial sediment predicts the absence of apparent fractionation for the ice formed. This prediction is tested against two East Antarctic outlet glaciers by studying the δD-δ18O relationships in the basal ice layers of these glaciers.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the auricle: A common lesion at an uncommon location

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    Ajay Pal Singh Kataria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, accounting approximately for 70% of all skin malignancies. It develops most frequently on the exposed surfaces of the skin, middle third of the face, and the scalp. Though it is a slow-growing tumor that rarely metastasizes, it can cause significant local destruction with disfigurement if neglected or treated inadequately. We present one such interesting case of a 70-year-old female patient with a non-healing ulcer involving the left ear and the retroauricular area since 2 years. An incisional biopsy was performed from the left pinna, which was conclusive of nodular basal cell carcinoma. The clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, along with appropriate review of literature are presented in the context that dental surgeons might often be the first health care professionals to come in contact with patients suffering from abnormalities in the orofacial region.

  13. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with parkinsonism and symmetric hyperintense basal ganglia on T1 weighted MRI

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    Jayalakshmi Sita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal high signal in the globus pallidus on T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain has been well described in patients with chronic liver disease. It may be related to liver dysfunction or portal-systemic shunting. We report a case of extra hepatic portal vein obstruction with portal hypertension and esophageal varices that presented with extra pyramidal features. T1 weighted MRI brain scans showed increased symmetrical signal intensities in the basal ganglia. Normal hepatic function in this patient emphasizes the role of portal- systemic communications in the development of these hyperintensities, which may be due to deposition of paramagnetic substances like manganese in the basal ganglia.

  14. Basal cell cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland: diagnostic pitfalls of a basaloid pattern in lacrimal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Jonathan E; Braich, Puneet S; Braich, Puneet; Misra, Raghunath P

    2011-02-01

    An 85-year-old male experienced a painless swelling along the left lateral orbit for one year. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a cystic mass in the orbit adjacent to the lacrimal gland. There was a concern for malignancy considering the large size and the patient's age, so the tumour was excised. Histopathology of the tumour showed nests with basaloid patterns, but a definitive diagnosis was not rendered. The uncertainty of tissue diagnosis coupled with the basaloid pattern, which carries a grim prognosis in some salivary gland tumours, led us to refer this case to an authority on lacrimal gland pathology, who suggested that this tumour be called a basal cell cystadenoma. To the best of our knowledge, a basal cell cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland has not been reported in the literature. We present histopathological features that distinguish this tumour from malignant tumours with a basaloid pattern. We also discuss the management differences associated with basaloid patterns in lacrimal tumours.

  15. Ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the stratum basale of mole rats epidermis

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    Mustafa Yel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the epidermis of mole rats (Spalax leucodon was studied after irradiation with ultraviolet (UV light (λmax = 254 nm; 0.00147 J cm−2 s−1; for periods of 52, 112 and 168 h by using transmission electron microscope (TEM. After irradiation, Vacuolation in cytoplasm and mitochondria, and wrinkled nucleus were found in the stratum basal cells. Also, pathological aggregations of tonofilaments are formed in the desmosomes in these cells. These findings clearly demonstrated the harmful effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the stratum basale. The degree of pathological changes occurred depending on exposure time and radiation dosage applied.

  16. New material and revision of Melanorosaurus thabanensis, a basal sauropodomorph from the Upper Triassic of Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre de Fabrègues, Claire; Allain, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Melanorosaurus is a genus of basal sauropodomorph that currently includes two species from Southern Africa. In this paper, we redescribe the holotype femur of Melanorosaurus thabanensis from the Elliot Formation of Lesotho, as well as associated remains. The stratigraphic position of this taxon is reviewed, and it is clear that it comes from the Lower Elliot Formation being, therefore, Late Triassic in age, and not Early Jurassic as originally described. The knowledge of the anatomy of the basal sauropodomorph of Thabana Morena is enhanced by the description of six new skeletal elements from the type locality. The femur and the ilium from Thabana Morena are diagnostic and characterized by unusual proportions. The first phylogenetic analysis including both this specimen and Melanorosaurus is conducted. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the femur described in the original publication of Melanorosaurus thabanensis can no longer be referred to Melanorosaurus. For these reasons, we hereby create Meroktenos gen. nov. to encompass Meroktenos thabanensis comb. nov.

  17. Nuclear activity of MLA immune receptors links isolate-specific and basal disease-resistance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian-Hua; Saijo, Yusuke; Mauch, Stefan; Biskup, Christoph; Bieri, Stéphane; Keller, Beat; Seki, Hikaru; Ulker, Bekir; Somssich, Imre E; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2007-02-23

    Plant immune responses are triggered by pattern recognition receptors that detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or by resistance (R) proteins recognizing isolate-specific pathogen effectors. We show that in barley, intracellular mildew A (MLA) R proteins function in the nucleus to confer resistance against the powdery mildew fungus. Recognition of the fungal avirulence A10 effector by MLA10 induces nuclear associations between receptor and WRKY transcription factors. The identified WRKY proteins act as repressors of PAMP-triggered basal defense. MLA appears to interfere with the WRKY repressor function, thereby de-repressing PAMP-triggered basal defense. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which these polymorphic immune receptors integrate distinct pathogen signals.

  18. Bilateral Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: In a Recipient of Kidney Transplant

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    Mari Markkanen-Leppänen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral basal cell adenocarcinoma (BcAC of the parotid gland in a male patient 30 years after kidney transplantation and continuous administration of immunosuppressive therapy. BcAC is a salivary gland malignancy first recognized as a distinct neoplastic entity in WHO classification of salivary gland tumours in 1991. Over 90% of BcACs are detected in the parotid gland. The most important differential diagnosis is basal cell adenoma. Infiltrative growth is the distinguishing feature of BcAC. Administration of immunosuppressive medication to this patient for three decades may have contributed to development of this rare neoplasia. To our knowledge, similar cases of BcAC have not been reported previously.

  19. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

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    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  20. Cell size and basal metabolic rate in hummingbirds Tamaño celular y tasa metabólica basal en picaflores

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    Juan C. Opazo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotypic theory suggests that genome size play indirect roles in determining organismal fitness. Among endotherms this theory has been demonstrated by an inverse correlation between basal metabolic rate (BMR and genome size. Nonetheless, accumulation of variables, especially for some key groups of endotherms, involved in C-value enigma (e.g., cell size will fortify this theory. In this sense, hummingbird species are of particular interest because they are an energetic extreme in avian and endotherm evolution. Knowing that cell size is proportional to C-value, in this study we tested for a relationship between mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells and BMR in four species of hummingbirds ranging from 4 to 20 g. In comparison with other birds, our hummingbird data show higher BMR and the smallest mean corpuscular volumes, thereby providing further support for the nucleotypic theoryLa teoría nucleotípica sugiere que el tamaño del genoma juega un rol indirecto en la adecuación biológica, a través de las variables con las que se relaciona. En endotermos esta teoría ha sido demostrada por la relación inversa entre la tasa metabólica basal y el tamaño del genoma. La acumulación de variables, en grupos claves de endotermos, relacionadas con esta problemática (e.g., tamaño celular son ideales para poner a prueba esta teoría. En este sentido, los picaflores son de particular interés ya que son el extremo energético dentro de los endotermos. Sabiendo que el tamaño celular es proporcional al tamaño del genoma, en este trabajo ponemos a prueba la relación del volumen corpuscular medio y la tasa metabólica basal, e indirectamente el tamaño del genoma, en cuatro especies de picaflores con masas corporales que van desde 4 a 20 g. Los datos de metabolismo mostraron estar dentro de los mayores descritos para aves, asimismo, los tamaños de los eritrocitos fueron los más pequeños dentro de los valores reportados en la literatura