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Sample records for neurocysticercosis nc serodiagnosis

  1. [Neurocysticercosis].

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    Tscherpel, C; Gottschalk, A; Meyding-Lamadé, U; Fink, G R; Burghaus, L

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide and endemic in underdeveloped and developing regions. As a result of increased migration and traveling, cases of neurocysticercosis reach Europe more frequently. Neurological symptoms are multifarious and often nonspecific, so that neurocysticercosis poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a patient in whom the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was achieved quickly via the patient's history, neuroimaging and serology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Neurocysticercosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Neurocysticercosis. Causative agent: Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Larval form: cysticercus cellulosae. Commonest parasitic infection of the brain. Prevalent in under-developed regions of the world with poor santitation. Seizures or epilepsy is the commonest (>70% of ...

  3. NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS IN CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH AFEBRILE SEIZURE: CLINICAL PROFILE, IMAGING AND SERODIAGNOSIS

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    Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is one of the major causes of childhood seizures in developing countries including India and Latin America. In this study neurological pediatric cases presenting with afebrile seizures were screened for anti-Cysticercus antibodies (IgG in their sera in order to estimate the possible burden of cysticercal etiology. The study included a total of 61 pediatric afebrile seizure subjects (aged one to 15 years old; there was a male predominance. All the sera were tested using a pre-evaluated commercially procured IgG-ELISA kit (UB-Magiwell Cysticercosis Kit ™. Anti-Cysticercus antibody in serum was positive in 23 of 61 (37.7% cases. The majority of cases with a positive ELISA test presented with generalized seizure (52.17%, followed by complex partial seizure (26.08%, and simple partial seizure (21.73%. Headaches were the major complaint (73.91%. Other presentations were vomiting (47.82%, pallor (34.78%, altered sensorium (26.08%, and muscle weakness (13.04%. There was one hemiparesis case diagnosed to be NCC. In this study one child without any significant findings on imaging was also found to be positive by serology. There was a statistically significant association found between the cases with multiple lesions on the brain and the ELISA-positivity (p = 0.017. Overall positivity of the ELISA showed a potential cysticercal etiology. Hence, neurocysticercosis should be suspected in every child presenting with afebrile seizure especially with a radio-imaging supportive diagnosis in tropical developing countries or areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  4. Neurocysticercosis.

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    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-01-01

    Known as a disease of swine in ancient civilizations, cysticercosis is currently considered the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a Taenia carrier by the fecal-oral route. Once in the human intestine, Taenia eggs evolve to oncospheres that, in turn, cross the intestinal wall and lodge in human tissues - especially the nervous system - where cysticerci develop. The brain is a hostile environment in which parasites attempt to escape the immune surveillance while the host is trying to drive out the infection. In some cases, cysticerci are destroyed by this immunological attack, while in others, parasites may live unchanged for years. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing a myriad of pathologic changes that are the main changes responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of the disease, but some patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. With the exception of cystic lesions showing the scolex as an eccentric nodule, neuroimaging findings of neurocysticercosis are nonspecific and may be seen in other diseases of the nervous system. Likewise, immune diagnostic tests have been faced with problems related to poor sensitivity or specificity. Accurate diagnosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunologic tests, in a proper epidemiologic scenario. The introduction of cysticidal drugs has changed the prognosis of neurocysticercosis. Praziquantel and albendazole have been shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain (as seen on neuroimaging studies) and to improve the

  5. Neurocysticercosis

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    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the nervous system in humans, and constitutes a major public health problem for most of the developing world. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC largely depend on the the host immune response against the parasite. NCC diagnosis is based upon neuroimaging studies (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and antibody/antigen detection in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid. Anticysticercal therapy has been marked by an intense controversy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the clinical benefit of treatment have yield conflicting data with some studies indicating a benefit and others failing to show a difference. Prevention strategies must rely on multiple approaches, tailoring each to the special features of the particular endemic area.

  6. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

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    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  7. HPLC purification of recombinant NcGRA6 antigen improves enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

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    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Schares, G; Björkman, C; Wapenaar, W; McAllister, M; Dubey, J P

    2005-08-10

    The gene for a dense granule protein (NcGRA6) of Neospora caninum was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tag fusion protein and purified by NiNTA affinity chromatography. In a preliminary study, high binding of antibodies from N. caninum-negative cows was observed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using NiNTA-purified NcGRA6. Analysis of NiNTA eluates revealed a significant number of E. coli proteins that co-purified with recombinant NcGRA6. In an attempt to improve the relative sensitivity and specificity of the NcGRA6-based ELISA, the rNcGRA6 eluates were subjected to a secondary purification using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Analysis of RP-HPLC eluates by SDS-PAGE/silver staining revealed the purification of recombinant NcGRA6 from contaminating E. coli proteins. ELISAs using the RP-HPLC purified NcGRA6 (dELISA) or singly purified NcGRA6 (sELISA) for identifying seropositive and seronegative cows in a beef herd experiencing an epidemic outbreak of neosporosis were compared to standard assays based on native tachyzoite protein-immunofluorescence antibody test, immunoblot assay, and ISCOM-ELISA. The relative sensitivity, specificity, and kappa value of the NcGRA6d-ELISA were greatly improved over the NcGRA6s-ELISA when compared to the three native antigen immunoassays. These results indicate that removal of contaminating E. coli proteins improves the performance of recombinant NcGRA6 ELISA in diagnosing bovine neosporosis, and may have applicability to the use of recombinant proteins in diagnosing other infectious agents.

  8. Taenia solium metacestode fasciclin-like protein is reactive with sera of chronic neurocysticercosis.

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    Bae, Young-An; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Wang, Hu; Kim, Seon-Hee; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jin-Taek; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kong, Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), an infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium metacestodes (TsM), invokes a formidable neurological disease. A bundle of antigens is applicable for serodiagnosis of active cases, while they demonstrate fairly low reactivity against sera of chronic NC. Identification of sensitive biomarkers for chronic NC is critical for appropriate management of patients. Proteome analysis revealed several isoforms of 65- and 83-kDa TsM fasciclin-like proteins (TsMFas) to be highly reactive with sera of chronic NC. A cDNA encoding one of the 83-kDa TsMFas (TsMFas1) was isolated from a cDNA library. We expressed a recombinant protein (rTsMFas1) and evaluated its diagnostic potential employing sera from chronic NC (n = 80), tissue-invasive cestodiases (n = 169) and trematodiases (n = 80) and those of normal controls (n = 50). Secretory TsMFas1 was composed of 766 amino acid polypeptide and harboured fasciclin and fasciclin-superfamily domains. The protein was constitutively expressed in metacestode and adult stages, with preferential locality in the scolex. Bacterially expressed rTsMFas1 exhibited 78.8% sensitivity (63/80 cases) and 93% specificity (278/299 samples) in diagnosing chronic NC. Some cross-reactivity was observed with sera of cystic echinococcosis (10/56, 17.8%) and sparganosis (4/50, 8%). Positive and negative predictive values were 75% and 95.5%, respectively. TsM fasciclin-like protein may be useful for differential diagnosis of chronic NC in clinical settings, especially where both NC and other infectious cerebral granulomatoses are prevalent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using a synthetic peptide selected by phage-display.

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    Hell, R C R; Amim, P; de Andrade, H M; de Avila, R A M; Felicori, L; Oliveira, A G; Oliveira, C A; Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A P; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2009-04-01

    The usefulness of a synthetic peptide in the serodiagnosis of Taenia solium human neurocysticercosis (NC) has been evaluated. Phage-displayed peptides were screened with human antibodies to scolex protein antigen from cysticercus cellulosae (SPACc). One clone was found to interact specifically with anti-SPACc IgGs. The corresponding synthetic peptide was found to be recognized in ELISA by NC patient's sera. The study was carried out with sera from 28 confirmed NC patients, 13 control sera and 73 sera from patients suffering from other infectious diseases. A 93% sensibility and a 94.3% specificity was achieved. Figures of 89% and 31.4% of sensibility and specificity were obtained in a SPACc-based ELISA. Immunoblotting of SPACc with anti-peptide antibodies revealed a single band of approximately 45 kDa in 1D and four 45 kDa isoforms in 2D-gel electrophoresis. A strong and specific immunostaining in the fibers beneath the suckers, at the base of the rostellum, and in the tissue surrounding the scolex of cysticerci was observed by immunomicroscopy. Our results show that a peptide-based immunodiagnostic of neurocisticercosis can be envisioned.

  10. Age-Related Differences in Clinical Features of Neurocysticercosis

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, radiologic, and inflammatory features of neurocysticercosis (NC in 92 pediatric (<15 years and 114 adult Mexican patients were compared in a study at three hospitals in Mexico City.

  11. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

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    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-04-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.

  12. Imaging spectrum of neurocysticercosis

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    Jing-Long Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system, and also one of the most common causes of seizures in endemic areas. Globalization has caused the disease to spread around the world beyond the endemic regions. With no specific clinical symptoms of the disease, medical imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Familiarity with these imaging findings may help greatly in early diagnosis, appropriate treatment decision, and follow-up of patients with neurocysticercosis.

  13. Dementia and neurocysticercosis.

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    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2014-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation that can be seen in developing countries with poor sanitation. The infection at brain, called neurocysticercosis, is a serious form. The neurocysticercosis can manifest neuropsychiatric presentations including dementia. In this short review, the author briefly summarizes on neurocysticercosis and dementia. In clinical practice, neurocysticercosis can manifest several neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia is an important neuropsychiatric manifestation to be mentioned. Many dementia patients have neurocysticercosis as underlying etiology. The problem might be unrecognized by practitioner and this can result in a delayed diagnosed, hence, the concern of the practitioner is required. Since the recovery after treatment of parasitic infection is very good, early diagnosis is a critical step determining success of patient management.

  14. Clinical management of neurocysticercosis.

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    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic disease of the nervous system and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Differences in the number and location of lesions as well as in the severity of the immune response against the parasites, makes neurocysticercosis a complex disease. Therefore, a single therapeutic approach is not expected to be useful in every patient. Introduction of cysticidal drugs - praziquantel and albendazole - have changed the prognosis of thousands of patients with neurocysticercosis. While pioneer trials of therapy were flawed by a poor design, recent studies have shown that cysticidal drugs results in disappearance of lesions and clinical improvement in most cases. Nevertheless, some patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis may be left with remaining cysts and may develop recurrent seizures after therapy, and many patients with subarachnoid cysts may need repeated courses of therapy. In addition, not all forms of the disease benefit from cysticidal drugs.

  15. Corticosteroid use in neurocysticercosis

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    Nash, Theodore E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H

    2013-01-01

    The cystic larvae of Taenia solium commonly infect the human nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis, a major contributor to seizure disorders in most of the world. Inflammation around the parasites is a hallmark of neurocysticercosis pathophysiology. Although mechanisms regulating this inflammation are poorly understood, anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, have been long used alone or with anthelmintics to manage disease and limit neurological complications and perhaps damage to neural tissues. Only scarce controlled data exist to determine when and what type of corticosteroids and the treatment regime to use. This article revisits the mechanisms of action, rationale, evidence of benefit, safety and problems of corticosteroids in the context of neurocysticercosis, as well as alternative anti-inflammatory strategies to limit the damage caused by inflammation in the CNS. PMID:21797658

  16. Neurocysticercosis, a Persisting Health Problem in Mexico

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    Fleury, Agnès; Moreno García, Jael; Valdez Aguerrebere, Paulina; de Sayve Durán, María; Becerril Rodríguez, Paola; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-01-01

    Background The ongoing epidemiological transition in Mexico minimizes the relative impact of neurocysticercosis (NC) on public health. However, hard data on the disease frequency are not available. Methodology All clinical records from patients admitted in the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) at Mexico City in 1994 and 2004 were revised. The frequencies of hospitalized NC patients in neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry services, as well as NC mortality from 1995 through 2009, were retrieved. Statistical analyses were made to evaluate possible significant differences in frequencies of NC patients' admission between 1994 and 2004, and in yearly frequencies of NC patients' hospitalization and death between 1995 and 2009. Principal Findings NC frequency in INNN is not significantly different in 1994 and 2004. Between these two years, clinical severity of the cases diminished and the proportion of patients living in Mexico City increased. Yearly frequencies of hospitalization in neurology and psychiatry services were stable, while frequencies of hospitalization in neurosurgery service and mortality significantly decreased between 1995 and 2009. Conclusions Our findings show a stable tendency of hospital cases during the last decade that should encourage to redouble efforts to control this ancient disease. PMID:20808759

  17. The relationship between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy: an endless debate

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    Arturo Carpio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC, or cerebral infection with Taenia solium, is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the neurological sequelae of NC, seizures have been described as the most common symptom. Acute symptomatic seizures often result from degeneration of a viable cyst; however, not all of these patients with acute or provoked seizures will develop epilepsy (i.e., recurrent unprovoked seizures. Because of the high prevalence of epilepsy and NC, a causal, as well as incidental relationship between the two may exist. The epileptogenicity of calcified cysts as well as the potential association between NC and hippocampal sclerosis necessitates future research. Antihelminthic treatment of NC results in disappearance of viable cysts in about one-third of patients with parenchymal disease, but a reduction in seizure recurrence has not been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Prevention is critical to reduce the burden of seizure and epilepsy related to NC.

  18. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

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    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2 years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Transventricular Migration of Neurocysticercosis.

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    Shah, Abhidha; Vutha, Ravikiran; Sankhe, Shilpa; Goel, Atul

    2017-09-01

    The movements of a neurocysticercosis cyst within the ventricular cavity have been identified rarely. A 22-year old male patient presented with the main symptom of diplopia for about a week. Findings of the neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth cranial nerve weakness. Investigations during the period showed an intraventricular tumor that migrated from lateral ventricle to the third ventricle and subsequently to the fourth ventricle. The lesion was resected from the fourth ventricle and was identified to be a neurocysticercosis cyst. Such an intraventricular migration of any kind of tumor has not been recorded in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of neurocysticercosis

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    Nash, T.E.; Singh, G.; White, A.C.; Rajshekhar, V.; Loeb, J.A.; Proaño, J.V.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Butman, J.A.; DeGiorgio, C.; Del Brutto, O.H.; Delgado-Escueta, A.; Evans, C.A.W.; Gilman, R.H.; Martinez, S.M.; Medina, M.T.; Pretell, E.J.; Teale, J.; Garcia, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Here we put forward a roadmap that summarizes important questions that need to be answered to determine more effective and safer treatments. A key concept in management of neurocysticercosis is the understanding that infection and disease due to neurocysticercosis are variable and thus different clinical approaches and treatments are required. Despite recent advances, treatments remain either suboptimal or based on poorly controlled or anecdotal experience. A better understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms including parasite survival and evolution, nature of the inflammatory response, and the genesis of seizures, epilepsy, and mechanisms of anthelmintic action should lead to improved therapies. PMID:17030744

  1. HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis.

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    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of HIV and neurocysticercosis co-infection have been reported till date. The symptomatic manifestation of cysticercosis may be further reduced by interactions between the 2 disease processes. In patients with HIV, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is challenging and management must be individualized depending on the stage and the coexistent opportunistic conditions. We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm(3). The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3). Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

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    Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

  3. [Paediatric neurocysticercosis: two case reports].

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    Frieiro-Dantas, Carla; Serramito-García, Ramón; Reyes-Santías, Rosa M; Rico-Cotelo, María; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-González, Miguel

    2013-01-16

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system in humans. Considered an endemic parasitosis in developing countries including Latin America, Asia and Africa while in Europa, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anecdotal. We report two cases of neurocysticercosis in children of non-Spanish origin who presented with seizures, with the initial diagnosis of brain tumors both were treated with surgery; later, to be the diagnosis of neurocisticercosis antiparasitic therapy was administered. Neurocysticercosis can be a potential cause of epilepsy even in non-endemic countries. Some cases may be difficult to diagnose and they can be confused with other intracranial lesions. Clinicians should be aware of this condition given increasing incidence in Spain and neurocysticercosis should be always be considered in the differential diagnosis particularly in patients from Latin America and Africa.

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

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    Christina M. Coyle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  5. Immunopathology in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

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    Fleury, A; Cardenas, G; Adalid-Peralta, L; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to a severe, potentially fatal clinical picture. The intensity and extension of the parasite-elicited inflammatory reaction is a key factor for such variability. The main features of the inflammatory process found in the brain and in the peripheral blood of neurocysticercosis patients will be discussed in this review, and the factors involved in its modulation will be herein presented. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Neurocysticercosis presenting as Millard Gubler syndrome

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    Rajniti Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common childhood neurological illness in India. A variety of presentations have been reported in the literature, including weber syndrome. Neurocysticercosis, manifesting as Millard Gubler syndrome, have not been reported in literature. Therefore, we report a child presented to us with Millard Gubler syndrome due to pontomedullary neurocysticercosis and was treated successfully.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

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    Nash, Theodore E; Garcia, Hector H

    2011-09-13

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval (cystic) form of the pork cestode tapeworm, Taenia solium, and is a major cause of acquired seizures and epilepsy worldwide. Development of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, particularly CT and MRI, has revolutionized our knowledge of the burden of cysticercosis infection and disease, and has led to the development of effective antihelminthic treatments for neurocysticercosis. The importance of calcified granulomas with perilesional edema as foci of seizures and epilepsy in populations where neurocysticercosis is endemic is newly recognized, and indicates that treatment with anti-inflammatory agents could have a role in controlling or preventing epilepsy in these patients. Importantly, neurocysticercosis is one of the few diseases that could potentially be controlled or eliminated-an accomplishment that would prevent millions of cases of epilepsy. This Review examines the rationale for treatment of neurocysticercosis and highlights the essential role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of disease, the exacerbation of symptoms that occurs as a result of antihelminthic treatment, and the limitations of current antihelminthic and anti-inflammatory treatments.

  8. Cervicomedullary neurocysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

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    Wang, Doris D; Huang, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    We present a 45-year-old man with tussive headache and blurred vision found to have obstructive hydrocephalus from a neurocysticercal cyst at the cervicomedullary junction who underwent surgical removal of the cyst. We performed a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cervicomedullary cyst en bloc. Cyst removal successfully treated the patient's headaches without necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasite infection of the central nervous system causing seizures and, less commonly, hydrocephalus. Intraventricular cysts or arachnoiditis usually cause hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis but craniocervical junction cysts causing obstructive hydrocephalus are rare. Neurocysticercosis at the craniocervical junction may cause Chiari-like symptoms. In the absence of arachnoiditis and leptomeningeal enhancement, surgical removal of the intact cyst can lead to favorable outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

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    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  10. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

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    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  11. Intradural spinal neurocysticercosis: case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderrama Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of the Taenia solium. Spinal cord involvement is very uncommon. Clinical case: A female patient with a history of NCC presented with chronic and recurrent headache associated with motor and sensory deficit, which develops tonic-clonic convulsion, with spatial disorientation. She also had intracranial hypertension syndrome, meningitis syndrome, and pyramidal sygns suggestive of spinal NCC. Conclusions: Neurocysticercosis usually occurs in developing countries and should be considered as a differential diagnosis of neurological diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory, as well as education to the community to primary prevention.

  12. [Cerebrovascular disease and neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M S; Brucki, S M; Ferraz, A C; Piccolo, A C

    2001-09-01

    We report three cases of stroke secondary to neurocysticercosis. The first one is a 36 years old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery occlusions who had presented acute right hemiparesia and aphasia. MRI demonstrated several enhancing subarachnoid cysts surrounding the occluded vessels, a right parietal racemose cyst and a left temporal large infarction area. Angiographic study showed total occlusion of left middle cerebral artery and a subtotal occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. The second one is a 42 years old man with vasculitis of small cortical vessels who presented with headache, seizures and focal neurological deficit. CT scan demonstrated several calcifications and a left temporal infarction area. Cerebral angiographic study was normal. The third case was a woman, 53 years old, with a past history of six stroke events and an actual behavior disturbance and seizures. MRI demonstrated several cortical and subcortical infarction areas and cisternal cysts. Angiographic study showed diffuse arteritis of basilar and carotid arterial system. In all three cases CSF study showed linfomonocitic pleocytosis and positive ELISA for cysticercosis.

  13. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart̀i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who

  14. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  15. Neurocysticercosis presenting as pseudobulbar palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaganahalli Subbanna Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common helminthic infestation of the central nervous system (CNS and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The common manifestations of NCC are seizures and headache. The NCC as a cause of pseudobulbar palsy is very unusual and not reported yet in the literature. A pseudobulbar palsy can occur in any disorder that causes bilateral corticobulbar disease. The common etiologies of pseudobulbar palsy are vascular, demyelinative, or motor neuron disease. We report a 38-year-old female patient who presented with partial seizures and pseudobulbar palsy. The MRI brain showed multiple small cysts with scolex in both the cerebral hemispheres and a giant intraparenchymal cyst. Our patient responded well to standard treatment of neurocysticercosis and antiepileptics.

  16. Unusual MR manifestations of neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, D.C. (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Radiology; Woolsan Medical Coll., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Radiology); Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W. (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Radiology); Lee, S.R. (Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    MR and CT features of neurocysticercosis are variable and depend fundamentally on the stage in evolution of the infection, location, number and size of the worm. The authors retrospectively evaluated MR images obtained on a 2.0T superconducting unit in 22 neurocysticercosis patients and observed various MR features including some new findings. A variety of MR findings are presented with special reference to six case reports. The features include: (1) A large simple cyst containing both internal septations and a scolex; (2) suprasellar racemose cysts mimicking other cysts, (3) a fourth ventricular cyst readily depicted by aid of CSF flow-void in the sagittal plane; (4) degenerating cysts showing 'white target' appearance; (5) granulomatous lesions having a 'black target' appearance; and (6) a meningitic form showing Gd-DTPA enhancement of basal cisterns and of a subacute infarct. (orig.).

  17. Treatment of neurocysticercosis with flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Girón, E; Ramos, M C; Dufour, L; Montante, M; Tellez, E; Rodríguez, J; Gómez Méndez, F; Mireles, E

    1984-07-01

    Thirteen patients with neurocysticercosis were studied and treated with flubendazole. Diagnostic procedures included computerized tomography (CT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 12 cases treatment with the drug led to clinical improvement. CT showed that some cysts regressed in size, and in two patients they disappeared. The treatment also lowered the antibody levels. The drug was well tolerated and no allergic reaction or other side effects were observed.

  18. Neurocysticercosis in Oregon, 1995–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Kohn, Melvin A.

    2004-01-01

    The unexpected death of a teenager from neurocysticercosis prompted an investigation of this disease in Oregon. We found 89 hospitalizations, 43 newly diagnosed cases, and 6 deaths from 1995 to 2000. At least five cases occurred in persons who had not traveled or lived outside the United States. Enhanced surveillance for neurocysticercosis is warranted. PMID:15109424

  19. Second Reactivation of Neurocysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sup; Hwang, Hee Young; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik [Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the first case involving a second reactivation of neurocysticercosis. There was peripheral enhancement and surrounding edema at multiple calcified lesions in both cerebral hemispheres on the brain MRI. One must be aware of the possibility of reactivation of neurocysticercosis to make the correct diagnosis

  20. Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals ofthe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals ofthe University ofCape Town . A. J. G~ THOMSON. Abstract In the 15 years 1975-1989, 239 patients attending the associated teaching hospitals ofthe University of Cape Town have been identified retrospectively as having neurocysticercosis. One hundred and.

  1. Calcified neurocysticercosis among patients with primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J

    2012-02-01

    Anecdotal reports and a single case-control epidemiological survey have suggested an association between the helminthic disease neurocysticercosis and primary headache. The present study was undertaken to determine whether neurocysticercosis is more common among patients with primary headaches than in other neurological disorders. We determined the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in a cohort of patients with primary headache who were seen at our institution over a 20-year period. We used as controls all people from the same cohort with four major different categories of neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular disease, degenerative disorders of the CNS, head trauma, and primary brain tumors. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of neurocysticercosis between patients and controls. Forty-eight of 1017 patients with primary headache and 31 of 1687 controls had neurocysticercosis (4.7% vs 1.8%, p neurocysticercosis. There is a relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and primary headache disorders. It is possible that periodic remodeling of cysticercotic calcifications, with liberation of antigens to the brain parenchyma, contributes to the occurrence of headache in these patients.

  2. Leptospirosis serodiagnosis by the microscopic agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, Marga G. A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the gold standard for sero-diagnosis of leptospirosis because of its unsurpassed diagnostic specificity. It uses panels of live leptospires, ideally recent isolates, representing the circulating serovars from the area where the patient became infected. A

  3. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  4. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T

  5. Neurocysticercosis: A natural human model of epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Theodore E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Loeb, Jeffrey A; Theodore, William H; Friedman, Alon; Sander, Josemir W; Singh, Gagandeep; Cavalheiro, Esper; Del Brutto, Oscar H; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Fleury, Agnes; Verastegui, Manuela; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Montano, Silvia; Pretell, E Javier; White, A Clinton; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-02-01

    To develop a better understanding of mechanisms of seizures and long-term epileptogenesis using neurocysticercosis. A workshop was held bringing together experts in epilepsy and epileptogenesis and neurocysticercosis. Human neurocysticercosis and parallel animal models offer a unique opportunity to understand basic mechanisms of seizures. Inflammatory responses to degenerating forms and later-stage calcified parasite granulomas are associated with seizures and epilepsy. Other mechanisms may also be involved in epileptogenesis. Naturally occurring brain infections with neurocysticercosis offer a unique opportunity to develop treatments for one of the world's most common causes of epilepsy and for the development of more general antiepileptogenic treatments. Key advantages stem from the time course in which an acute seizure heralds a start of the epileptogenic process, and radiographic changes of calcification and perilesional edema provide biomarkers of a chronic epileptic state. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-03-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed.

  7. Neurocysticercosis presenting as a 'Stroke Mimic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Reza; Rowe, Aimee; Shah, Rajiv; Venkatesan, Pradhib; England, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    A 62 year old Nepalese gentleman presented with left sided weakness and sensory loss. Initial brain CT scanning was suggestive of acute infarction but a subsequent MRI scan showed cysts with oedema. Cysticercosis serology was positive and a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was made. The patient made almost a complete recovery after treatment with albendazole, praziquantel and steroids. Neurocysticercosis should be considered in the diffierential diagnosis when patients originating from endemic areas present with focal neurological deficit.

  8. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  9. Neurocysticercosis: Correlative pathomorphology and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J.; Hewlett, R.; Alheit, B.; Bowen, R.

    1988-02-01

    CT and MR images of 32 patients with neurocysticercosis were correlated with pathomorphology. Gross morphological features of cystic larvae, complex arachnoid cysts, granulomatous abscesses, basal meningitis and mineralised nodules correlated closely with the images obtained, especially on MR, where resolution permitted visualisation of larval protoscolices. Our material indicates three forms of the natural history of neurocysticercosis related chiefly to anatomic location, and provides details of the evolution of large, complex arachnoid cysts.

  10. Oxidative stress in children with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajniti; Anil; Mishra, Om P; Mishra, Surendra P; Upadhyay, Ram S; Singh, Tej B

    2012-10-01

    Free radicals can cause neuronal injury and play an important role in pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis. This study was done to evaluate oxidative stress (antioxidants and oxidants) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with neurocysticercosis and to observe their correlation with the type of seizure and outcome. Forty consecutive confirmed cases of neurocysticercosis were evaluated for their markers of reactive oxygen species, that is, oxidants (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitrite) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin, ascorbic acid, copper and zinc) concentrations in CSF. An equal number of children, age and sex matched with an idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure, were studied as controls. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (65%) was the most common presentation, and a single ring-enhancing lesion in the parietal lobe was the most common finding in cranial imaging. Oxidants such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitrite in CSF were significantly elevated (P neurocysticercosis than in controls. There were insignificant differences in oxidant and antioxidant value in CSF in relation to the type of seizure, number and location of lesion in cerebral cortex and antiepileptic therapy. The significantly elevated malondialdehyde, nitrite and protein carbonyl values reflect increased oxidative stress, whereas decreased concentrations of glutathione peroxidase, ascorbic acid, zinc, copper, ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase point toward utilization of the antioxidants in neurocysticercosis. The observed changes in oxidants and antioxidants suggest the production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxides and hydroxyl radicals and their possible role in pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis.

  11. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogang YF

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yannick Fogoum Fogang, Abdoul Aziz Savadogo, Massaman Camara, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Anna Basse, Adjaratou Djeynabou Sow, Mouhamadou Mansour Ndiaye Neurology Department, Fann Teaching Hospital, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal Abstract: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline. Accurate patients' categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. Keywords: neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, epilepsy, headache, albendazole, praziquantel

  12. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-12-01

    The infection of the nervous system by the cystic larvae of Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis) is a frequent cause of seizure disorders. Neurocysticercosis is endemic or presumed to be endemic in many low-income countries. The lifecycle of the worm and the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are well established, and CT and MRI have substantially improved knowledge of the disease course. Improvements in immunodiagnosis have further advanced comprehension of the pathophysiology of this disease. This knowledge has led to individualised treatment approaches that account for the involvement of parenchymal or extraparenchymal spaces, the number and form of parasites, and the extent of degeneration and associated inflammation. Clinical investigations are focused on development of effective treatments and reduction of side-effects induced by treatment, such as seizures, hydrocephalus, infarcts, and neuroinjury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurocysticercosis masquerading psychotic disorder: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic manifestations are uncommon in neurocysticercosis. This article describes a ten year girl presented with manic–psychotic manifestation for which she was under treatment with antipsychotics for eight months. Eventually she developed generalized tonic clonic seizure and CT scan of brain revealed small isodense right posterior parietal lesion of 5 mm size with perifocal edema. CECT revealed intense nodular post contrast enhancement. This highlights the possible misdiagnosis of a case of neurocysticercosis as an organic psychotic disorder so it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological as well as psychiatric manifestations in endemic area like India.

  14. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Savadogo, Abdoul Aziz; Camara, Massaman; Toffa, Dènahin Hinnoutondji; Basse, Anna; Sow, Adjaratou Djeynabou; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline). Accurate patients’ categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. PMID:26527895

  15. Neurocysticercosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100 000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population. PMID:23265549

  16. MR findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Park, Hae Jung; Chung, Soo Young [Hallym Univ. Kangnam Sungshim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate MR imaging findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis and to determine the characteristics which distinguish it from other brain diseases. MR imagings of 19 patients (56 lesions) of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on the size and location of lesions signal intensity patterns of cyst fluid and wall, the extent of the surrounding edema and features of contrast enhancement. Degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis was located in gray or subcortical while matter in 89.3% of 56 lesions (50/56) ; most of these (98.2%) were smaller than 2 cm in diameter. Cyst fluid signal was hyperintense relative to CSF on T1 and proton density weighted images (92.9%). A hypointense signal rim of the cyst wall was noted in the lesions on proton density (92.9%) and T2 weighted (98.2%) images, Surrounding edema was mostly mild. Peripheral rim enhancement was noted in all lesions, and this was frequently irregular and lobulated (67.9%) with a focal defect in the enhancing rim(41.1%). Findings which could be helpful in distinguishing degenerating parencymal neurocysticercosis from other brain diseases are as follows : small, superficial lesions ; hyperintense signal of the cyst fluid on T1 and proton density weighted images ; hypointense signal of the cyst wall on proton density and T2 weighted images ; relatively mild extent of surrounding edema, and peripheral rim enhancement which is frequently irregular and lobulated with a focal defect in the enhancing rim.

  17. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  18. Current Consensus Guidelines for Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A. W.; Nash, Theodore E.; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; White, A. Clinton; Botero, David; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Allan, James C.; Flisser, Ana; Correa, Dolores; Sarti, Elsa; Friedland, Jon S.; Martinez, S. Manuel; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2002-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a common cause of epileptic seizures and other neurological morbidity in most developing countries. It is also an increasingly common diagnosis in industrialized countries because of immigration from areas where it is endemic. Its clinical manifestations are highly variable and depend on the number, stage, and size of the lesions and the host's immune response. In part due to this variability, major discrepancies exist in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. A panel of experts in taeniasis/cysticercosis discussed the evidence on treatment of neurocysticercosis for each clinical presentation, and we present the panel's consensus and areas of disagreement. Overall, four general recommendations were made: (i) individualize therapeutic decisions, including whether to use antiparasitic drugs, based on the number, location, and viability of the parasites within the nervous system; (ii) actively manage growing cysticerci either with antiparasitic drugs or surgical excision; (iii) prioritize the management of intracranial hypertension secondary to neurocysticercosis before considering any other form of therapy; and (iv) manage seizures as done for seizures due to other causes of secondary seizures (remote symptomatic seizures) because they are due to an organic focus that has been present for a long time. PMID:12364377

  19. Jacalin-unbound fraction of Taenia saginata in immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Nunes, Daniela; da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa; Manhani, Marianna Nascimento; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate jacalin-bound fraction (JBF) and jacalin-unbound fraction (JUF) of the total saline extract from Taenia saginata metacestodes for human neurocysticercosis (NC) immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Total extract, JBF, and JUF were separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose(®)-jacalin and were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) to detect immunoglobulin G. In ELISA test, JUF showed the higher diagnostic efficiency and specificity indexes, 92% and 100%, respectively. In WB, 5 immunodominant proteins (39-42, 47-52, 64-68, 70, and 75 kDa) were detected when using JUF. In conclusion, the results achieved demonstrate that JUF, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revised diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, O H; Nash, T E; White, A C; Rajshekhar, V; Wilkins, P P; Singh, G; Vasquez, C M; Salgado, P; Gilman, R H; Garcia, H H

    2017-01-15

    A unified set of criteria for neurocysticercosis (NCC) has helped to standardize its diagnosis in different settings. Cysticercosis experts were convened to update current diagnostic criteria for NCC according to two principles: neuroimaging studies are essential for diagnosis, and all other information provides indirect evidence favoring the diagnosis. Recent diagnostic advances were incorporated to this revised set. This revised set is structured in absolute, neuroimaging and clinical/exposure criteria. Absolute criteria include: histological confirmation of parasites, evidence of subretinal cysts, and demonstration of the scolex within a cyst. Neuroimaging criteria are categorized as major (cystic lesions without scolex, enhancing lesions, multilobulated cysts, and calcifications), confirmative (resolution of cysts after cysticidal drug therapy, spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions, and migrating ventricular cysts on sequential neuroimaging studies) and minor (hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement). Clinical/exposure criteria include: detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens by well-standardized tests, systemic cysticercosis, evidence of a household Taenia carrier, suggestive clinical manifestations, and residency in endemic areas. Besides patients having absolute criteria, definitive diagnosis can be made in those having two major neuroimaging criteria (or one major plus one confirmative criteria) plus exposure. For patients presenting with one major and one minor neuroimaging criteria plus exposure, definitive diagnosis of NCC requires the exclusion of confounding pathologies. Probable diagnosis is reserved for individuals presenting with one neuroimaging criteria plus strong evidence of exposure. This revised set of diagnostic criteria provides simpler definitions and may facilitate its more uniform and widespread applicability in different scenarios. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  2. PSEUDOSEIZURES AND EPILEPSY IN NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibañez-Valdés L de F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied 32 rural patients from the poorest regions in South Africa, diagnosed as epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis presenting pseudoseizures. We found that the common clinical characteristics of this series and its psychological profile such as: duration of events, history of sexual abuse in females, absent of focal neurological signs, vocalization in the middle of the seizures, and lack of post-ictal symptoms were very useful for its differential diagnosis, and the possible difference between the clinical features and psychological profile of those patients and others without PS. Finally, some advices for the management of this condition by family doctors are suggested. ______________ RESUMEN: Estudiamos 32 pacientes provenientes de las áreas rurales mas pobres de Sudáfrica en los cuales se diagnosticó una epilepsia secundaria a neurocisticercosis cerebral y que además presentaban seudo crisis epilépticas. Encontramos un número de características clínicas y psicológicas comunes en este grupo tales como la duracion de las crisis, historia de abuso sexual en las hembras, ausencia de signos neurológicos focales, vocalización en el intervalo entre las crisis y la falta de signos postictales que resultó ser muy útil en el diagnóstico diferencial. Se encontraron además diferencias en las características clínicas y psicológicas estos pacientes con relación a otros que no presentaban pseudocrisis.

  3. An incidental diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a dental patient.

    OpenAIRE

    PUTTARAJU, Mahesh K; Srikanth Hanasoge Srivathsa

    2013-01-01

    Tenia solium, a parasite causes cysticercous cellulose when affecting the central nervous system, the manifestation is called neurocysticercosis. The most common symptom in neurocysticercosis is seizure. Generally, oral diagnosticians come across cases of oral cysticercosis and it is rare to find a case of neurocysticercosis in the dental office, as it goes undetected. Sometimes, when patients experience seizure in the dental office and subsequent evaluation is performed, rarity such as this ...

  4. An incidental diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a dental patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Puttaraju

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tenia solium, a parasite causes cysticercous cellulose when affecting the central nervous system, the manifestation is called neurocysticercosis. The most common symptom in neurocysticercosis is seizure. Generally, oral diagnosticians come across cases of oral cysticercosis and it is rare to find a case of neurocysticercosis in the dental office, as it goes undetected. Sometimes, when patients experience seizure in the dental office and subsequent evaluation is performed, rarity such as this can be detected. One case of neurocysticercosis in a 27 year old unmarried female patient detected due to its presentation in the dental office is being reported here.

  5. MRI and CT patterns of neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Rupp, N.; Einsiedel, H. von

    1987-05-01

    MRI and CT manifestations were studied in five cases of neurocysticercosis. As demonstrated by long-term follow-ups the disease usually causes multiple lesions the morphology of which depends on the life cycle of the parasite. Tissue lesions consist of three main types: 1) vital cysticerci, 2) inflammatory parenchymatous reactions following degenerating cysts and 3) calcified granulomas. MRI provides all information that is given by CT except for small calcifications which are usually missed. Morphological details of vital cysticerci like cysts wall and scolex are better outlined by MRI. When i.v. contrast medium is applied, it leads to nodular or annular enhancement of inflamed tissue. The sensitivity of MRI towards edema caused by parasite exceeds that of CT by several weeks. CT and MRI are complementary methods providing at the present time the highest degree of specificity in diagnosing neurocysticercosis.

  6. Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Herbert; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Gonzalez, Isidro; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Alvarado, Manuel A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Porras, Miguel A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Vargas, Victor; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Cjuno, Román A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Garcia, Hector H.; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en salud internacional.; Martinez, S. Manuel; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en salud internacional.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and m...

  7. Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurocysticercosis - experience at the teaching hospitals of the University of Cape Town. AJG Thomson. Abstract. In the 15 years 1975-1989, 239 patients attending the associated teaching hospitals of the University of Cape Town have been identified retrospectively as having neurocysticercosis. One hundred and ...

  8. Acute hydrocephalus caused by intraspinal neurocysticercosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Won; Wang, Hui Sun; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong-Min

    2014-01-02

    Intraspinal neurocysticercosis is an uncommon manifestation that may present as an isolated lesion. Furthermore, acute hydrocephalus caused by isolated intraspinal neurocysticercosis without concomitant cerebral involvement is extremely rare. A 64-year-old man presented with a history of severe headache, an unsteady gait, and occasional urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoraco-lumbar spine revealed multiple, cystic, contrast-enhancing intraspinal lesions. A computed tomographic scan of the brain showed marked ventricular dilatation but no intraparenchymal lesions or intraventricular cysticercal lesions. This case of acute hydrocephalus was found to be caused by isolated intraspinal neurocysticercosis and was treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and surgical removal of the intraspinal lesions (which were histologically confirmed as neurocysticercosis), followed by administration of dexamethasone and albendazole. Isolated spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hydrocephalus when no explanation is found in the brain, particularly in geographical regions endemic for cysticercosis.

  9. Blocking ELISA using recombinant NcSRS2 protein for diagnosing bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Francine A; Monte, Leonardo G; Collares, Thais F; De Matos, Bruno M; Pacheco, Diene B; Borsuk, Sibele; Andreotti, Renato; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle industry. The reference method for serodiagnosis of neosporosis is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). However, IFAT is laborious, expensive, and is not practicable in high throughput screening. In order to facilitate the serological diagnosis of neosporosis, we developed a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-ELISA) based on NcSRS2 recombinant protein (rNcSRS2) and polyclonal antibodies against rNcSRS2 (b-ELISA/rNcSRS2). Compared to IFAT, b-ELISA/rNcSRS2 showed 93.7 % accuracy (98.7 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity), suggesting its potential as diagnostic assay to detect N. caninum antibodies in cattle sera.

  10. A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolution of symptoms, they later recurred. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and a further cycle of albendazole plus dexamethasone led to substantial clinical improvement. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis may be challenging to diagnose and treat and is usually associated with a poorer prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of this condition.

  11. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: Demographic, clinicoradiological, and inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin Sierra, Mariana; Arroyo, Mariana; Cadena Torres, May; Ramírez Cruz, Nancy; García Hernández, Fernando; Taboada, Diana; Galicia Martínez, Ángeles; Govezensky, Tzipe; Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Fleury, Agnès

    2017-06-01

    Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (ExPNCC), an infection caused by Taenia solium cysticerci that mainly occurs in the ventricular compartment (Ve) or the basal subarachnoid space (SAb), is more severe but less frequent and much less studied than parenchymal neurocysticercosis (ParNCC). Demographic, clinical, radiological, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid features of patients affected by ExPNCC are herein described and compared with those of ParNCC patients. 429 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, attending the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, a tertiary reference center in Mexico City, from 2000 through 2014, were included. Demographic information, signs and symptoms, radiological patterns, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory values were retrieved from medical records for all patients. Data were statistically analyzed to assess potential differences depending on cyst location and to determine the effects of age and sex on the disease presentation. In total, 238 ExPNCC and 191 ParNCC patients were included. With respect to parenchymal cysts, extraparenchymal parasites were diagnosed at an older age (P = 0.002), chiefly caused intracranial hypertension (P < 0.0001), were more frequently multiple and vesicular (P < 0.0001), and CSF from these patients showed higher protein concentration and cell count (P < 0.0001). SAb patients were diagnosed at an older age than Ve patients, and showed more frequently seizures, vesicular cysticerci, and higher CSF cellularity. Gender and age modulated some traits of the disease. This study evidenced clear clinical, radiological, and inflammatory differences between ExPNCC and ParNCC, and between SAb and Ve patients, and demonstrated that parasite location determines different pathological entities.

  12. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: Demographic, clinicoradiological, and inflammatory features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marcin Sierra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (ExPNCC, an infection caused by Taenia solium cysticerci that mainly occurs in the ventricular compartment (Ve or the basal subarachnoid space (SAb, is more severe but less frequent and much less studied than parenchymal neurocysticercosis (ParNCC. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid features of patients affected by ExPNCC are herein described and compared with those of ParNCC patients.429 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, attending the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, a tertiary reference center in Mexico City, from 2000 through 2014, were included. Demographic information, signs and symptoms, radiological patterns, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory values were retrieved from medical records for all patients. Data were statistically analyzed to assess potential differences depending on cyst location and to determine the effects of age and sex on the disease presentation. In total, 238 ExPNCC and 191 ParNCC patients were included. With respect to parenchymal cysts, extraparenchymal parasites were diagnosed at an older age (P = 0.002, chiefly caused intracranial hypertension (P < 0.0001, were more frequently multiple and vesicular (P < 0.0001, and CSF from these patients showed higher protein concentration and cell count (P < 0.0001. SAb patients were diagnosed at an older age than Ve patients, and showed more frequently seizures, vesicular cysticerci, and higher CSF cellularity. Gender and age modulated some traits of the disease.This study evidenced clear clinical, radiological, and inflammatory differences between ExPNCC and ParNCC, and between SAb and Ve patients, and demonstrated that parasite location determines different pathological entities.

  13. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, Laura de Anta; Pozo, Kazuhiro Tajima; Palomino, Camila Bayón; de Dios de Vega, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, in which the human being becomes the parasite’s intermediary host. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with a marked prevalence in underdeveloped or developing. However, this disease is rare in children, which is attributed to the long incubation period of the disease, ranging from several months up to 30 years. For this reason, very few cases are found in infants at the age of preschoolers, while most frequently cases are found in children between the ages of 6 and 16. PMID:22892232

  14. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  15. Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E

    2008-04-01

    High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes.

  16. Computed tomography in neurocysticercosis a 10-year long evolution analysis of 100 patients with an appraisal of a new classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Machado

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred land fifty seven computed tomography (CT from 100 different patients with neurocysticercosis (NC were studied between 1979 and 1988. All patients were treated with praziquantel (PZQ. A new classification attempting to recognize the CT evolution profile in NC as well as assigning a possible link between CT findings and biological conditions of cysts is evaluated. It was possible to conclude that: intact cysts remain unchanged in consecutive CTs by 11 months and exhibit signs of degeneration in about 18 months after PZQ drug therapy; degenerating cysts can be detected by 10.5 months, disappear in 11 months and become nodular calcifications in about 25 months. Therefore, a time period of at least 36 months can be estimated for the complete evolution profile of cysts in the brain parenchyma.

  17. Pediatric neurocysticercosis: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhi P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot SainiDepartment of Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurology and Neurodevelopment Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is an acquired infection of the nervous system caused by encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in the tropics and the commonest cause of focal seizures in North Indian children. T. solium teniasis-cysticercosis is considered a parasitic “Neglected Tropical Diseases” endemic throughout Southeast Asia. NCC in children has pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts, and host response. Even with advancing knowledge of the disease manifestations, many aspects related to diagnosis and treatment, particularly in children, still remain controversial and pose challenges to clinical practice. There is no gold standard test to diagnose NCC and the management recommendations are still emerging. This review provides an overview of diagnosis of NCC in children and its management with special focus on current challenges and future prospects.Keywords: neurocysticercosis, children, epilepsy, ring enhancing lesions, pigs

  18. Report of three imported cases of neurocysticercosis in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaizot, R; Melot, B; Schepers, K; Nicolas, M; Gaumond, S; Poullain, P; Belaye, L; Lannuzel, A; Hoen, B

    2017-01-31

    Neurocysticercosis is endemic in most countries of Central and South America but has rarely been described in the French West Indies. We aimed to better understand the clinical and radiological presentation of our cases. We report three cases of neurocysticercosis in patients living in Guadeloupe, with different clinical and radiological presentations. Given the eventuality of autochtonous transmission, the diagnosis should be considered in all patients living in Guadeloupe presenting with seizures.

  19. Neurocysticercosis in Western Europe: a re-emerging disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the magnitude of neurocysticercosis in Western Europe and to determine the pattern of disease expression in the region. Review of patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed in Western Europe from 1970 to 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and whether the disease occurred in immigrants, European international travelers, or Europeans who had never been abroad. A total of 779 patients were found. Of these, only 28 were diagnosed before 1985. Countries with more reported patients were Portugal (n = 384), Spain (n = 228), France (n = 80), The United Kingdom (n = 26), and Italy (n = 21). Information on citizenship status, clinical manifestations, and forms of the disease was available in only 30-40% of patients. Immigrants accounted for 53% of cases, European travelers for 8%, and non-traveler Europeans for 39%. Immigrants/European travelers were most often diagnosed during the new Millennium, presented most often with seizures, and had less frequently inactive (calcified) neurocysticercosis than non-traveler Europeans. The prevalence of neurocysticercosis in Western Europe may be on the rise. The pattern of disease expression is different among immigrants/European travelers than among non-traveler Europeans. It is possible that some patients had acquired the disease as the result of contact with Taenia solium carriers coming from endemic countries. Much remains to be learned on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in this region.

  20. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.

  1. [Neurocysticercosis with hydrocephalus and secondary bilateral hemianopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Villanueva, G; Rueda-Villa, A; Hernández-Ábrego, M P

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of seizures, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and decreased visual acuity of 5 years. Visual field detected a bitemporal heteronymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed basal cistern arachnoiditis and supratentorial hydrocephalus. Cranial computed tomography revealed supratentorial calcifications, scolex in the left occipital region, and hydrocephalus secondary to entrapment of the fourth ventricle. Neurocysticercosis can cause bitemporal hemianopsia due to chiasmatic compression secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus. The positivity of anti-cysticercus antibodies determined by ELISA evidence active disease. However patients with hydrocephalus and negative antigen may have sequelae of infection with non-living parasites. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Julio

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic disease of the human brain. Modern imaging studies, CT and MRI, have defined the diagnosis and characterization of the disease. Through these studies the therapeutic approach for each case may be individualized with the aid of antihelmintics, steroids, symptomatic medicines, or surgery. The use of one or various therapeutic measures largely depends on the peculiar combination of number, location, and biological stage of lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response to the parasites. Although there is not a typical clinical picture of NCC, epilepsy is the most frequent manifestation of parenchymal NCC, whereas hydrocephalus is the most frequent manifestation of meningeal NCC. Eradication of cysticercosis is an attainable goal by public education and sanitary improvement in endemic areas.

  3. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  4. A longitudinal study of neurocysticercosis through CT scan of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiram Chakraborty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the role of CT scan in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC and also to get an idea of the nature and extent of this disease in a definite geographical ethnic location. Methods: CT scan of the brain of altogether 4 762 persons residing in a congested area of central Kolkata, was performed between 2004 and 2010, in an imaging centre in central Kolkata (Calcutta, of whom 1 114 (23.39% suspected patients were investigated for NC, having complaints of convulsion (472, headache (272, right sided weakness (98, loss of consciousness (84, left sided weakness (61, abnormal behavior (48, slurring of speech (34, difficulty with keeping balance (33 and dementia (12. Results: NC was detected in 45, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1 and 0, respectively consisting 4.48% (50/1 114 of the suspected cases varying from as low as 2 (in 2006 to as high as 23 (in 2005 in different years indicating this parasitic infection is perennial. The age of patients varied from 6 to 59 years of whom 28 (56% were vegan. We were also able to detect 4 types of lesions viz. calcified lesions (14, small hypodense i.e. vesicle (12, bright central spot i.e. vesicular lesion with central spot (2 and ring enhancement (22. For 3 patients, further imaging investigation (MRI was needed to confirm the diagnosis. We calculated the specificity and sensitivity of CT scan of brain diagnosing NC which was found to be 64% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Although, the sample may not be the representatives of the whole community, the findings suggest that cysticercosis is a significant but under-recognized public health concern in Kolkata.

  5. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Ruth Ann; Wiebe, Sam; Zunt, Joseph R.; Halperin, John J.; Gronseth, Gary; Roos, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence base for different treatment strategies in intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in adults and children. Method: A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Database from 1980 to 2008, updated in 2012, resulted in the identification of 10 Class I or Class II trials of cysticidal drugs administered with or without corticosteroids in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Results: The available data demonstrate that albendazole therapy, administered with or without corticosteroids, is probably effective in decreasing both long-term seizure frequency and the number of cysts demonstrable radiologically in adults and children with neurocysticercosis, and is well-tolerated. There is insufficient information to assess the efficacy of praziquantel. Recommendations: Albendazole plus either dexamethasone or prednisolone should be considered for adults and children with neurocysticercosis, both to decrease the number of active lesions on brain imaging studies (Level B) and to reduce long-term seizure frequency (Level B). The evidence is insufficient to support or refute the use of steroid treatment alone in patients with intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (Level U). PMID:23568997

  6. Cerebral neurocysticercosis mimicking or comorbid with episodic migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Camara, Massaman; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Ndiaye, Mansour Mouhamadou

    2014-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of neurological symptoms in developing countries. We report a case of cerebral neurocysticercosis presenting as episodic migraine without aura, with clinico-radiological correlations and discuss the possible causal influence of neurocysticercosis on the pathomechanisms of migraine. We report a 24 year-old male consulting for a one year history of recurrent headaches. He described bilateral frontal and/or temporal attacks of throbbing headache, moderate to severe in intensity, worsened by head movements and accompanied by nausea, photophobia and phonophobia. Attacks lasted between 12 and 60 hours if untreated. He never had symptoms suggestive of a migraine aura or an epileptic seizure. Headache attacks progressively increased in frequency to up to 5 to 7 severe attacks per month. On taking history, the patient reported having consumed undercooked porcine meat. Physical examination was unremarkable. A brain CT scan showed two contiguous occipital cystic lesions with ring enhancement and surrounding edema suggestive of cerebral neurocysticercosis. On laboratory work-up, blood serology for cysticercal antibodies was positive. Full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, c - reactive protein level, human immunodeficiency virus serology, liver and hepatic function were all normal. Albendazole (1000 mg/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/day) were prescribed for seven days. The patient was examined again two and six months after the end of his treatment and there was a significant reduction in headache severity and frequency. We propose that in our patient the occipital neurocysticercosis lesions cause migraine without aura-like attacks via inflammation in the surrounding brain parenchyma leading to sensitization of the trigemino-vascular system. We cannot rule out, however, the possibility that our patient has a genetic predisposition for migraine without aura and that the fortuitous association of neurocysticercosis is simply an

  7. Neurocysticercosis among patients with first time seizure in Northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segamwenge, Innocent Lule; Kioko, Ngalyuka Paul; Mukulu, Celia; Jacob, Ogunsina; Humphrey, Wanzira; Augustinus, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizures in low resource countries. There is a paucity of data regarding the extent of this infection in Namibia. There are multiple causes of First-time seizure including electrolyte abnormalities, infections, trauma, drugs, alcohol and many times no apparent cause can be found. We sought to describe the burden of Neurocysticercosis among individuals with a first-time seizure in Namibia. We recruited 221 patients with a First-time seizure who presented to the Intermediate Hospital Oshakati between August 2012 and March 2014. Patients with seizures due to identifiable causes like trauma, electrolytes, intoxications and meningitis were excluded. Brain CT scans were done, blood serological testing of Neurocysticercosis antibodies, Physical examination and demographic variables were collected. Data was entered into Epidata version 3.1 and transferred to stata version for analysis. Ninety-six (96) of the participants had evidence of Neurocysticercosis on Brain CT scan representing a prevalence of 51.41%. Consumption of pork and rearing of pigs in the homestead were significant factors associated with Neurocysticercosis in our study population with odds of 3.48(1.45-8.33) and 2.07(1.11-3.86) respectively. Serological testing for Cyticercosis IgG had a sensitivity of 65.93% and Specificity of 96.51%. The positive and negative predictive values were 95.2% and 72.81% respectively. Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of Index seizures in Northern Namibia, living in a rural area, rearing pigs in homesteads, eating pork and poor sanitary practices are the major risk factors for this illness.

  8. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  9. Neurocysticercosis infection and disease-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripper, Lucy B; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations. Control and prevention of T. solium transmission should be a key priority in global health as intervention can reduce the substantial healthcare and economic burdens inflicted by both NCC and taeniasis. Surveillance systems need to be better established, including implementing obligatory notification of cases. In the absence of reliable estimates of its global burden, NCC will remain-along with other endemic zoonoses, of low priority in the eyes of funding agencies-a truly neglected disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Vania B L; Lima, Sarah B; Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Vinaud, Marina C; Loyola, Patricia R A N; Lino, Ruy S

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.

  11. Neurocysticercosis—a Parasitic Brain Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal discusses his article on the economic burden of neurocysticercosis, which is a brain infection caused by Taenia solium larval cysts.  Created: 8/20/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/20/2015.

  12. MRI demonstration of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis simulating metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.Y.; Roebuck, D.J.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT (Hong Kong); Mok, V.; Kay, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Ng, H.K.; Teo, J.G.C. [Dept. of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Lam, J.; Poon, W. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    1998-11-01

    We present a patient with neurocysticercosis with spinal subarachnoid spread who presented with lower back pain and progressive numbness and weakness of the left leg. MRI of the spine simulated metastasis. MRI of the brain demonstrated a ``bunch of grapes`` appearance in the basal cisterns, characteristic of cysticercosis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 17 refs.

  13. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurocysticercosis in patients presenting with epilepsy at St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To survey the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in patients treated for epilepsy in Lusikisiki, E Cape. Design. This was a descriptive study. Variables considered were age, gender, symptoms and type of seizure, serological data, electroencephalogram and computed tomography (CT) findings, treatment, and ...

  15. Pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma mimicking neurocysticercosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, John C; Robinson, Stephen R; Schell, Andrew; Vaughan, Stephen

    2016-06-02

    Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Pathological investigations ultimately demonstrated that her brain lesions were secondary to malignancy. Brain metastases are considered to be the most common cause of intracranial cystic lesions. We present the case of a 60-year-old Canadian-born Caucasian woman with a subacute history of ataxia, lower extremity hyper-reflexia, and otalgia who resided near a pig farm for most of her childhood. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that she had multiple heterogeneous intracranial cysts, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Despite a heavy burden of disease, serological tests for cysticercosis were negative. This result and a lack of the central scolices on neuroimaging that are pathognomonic of neurocysticercosis prompted whole-body computed tomography imaging to identify another etiology. The whole-body computed tomography revealed right hilar lymphadenopathy associated with soft tissue nodules in her chest wall and abdomen. A biopsy of an anterior chest wall nodule demonstrated high-grade poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis, which stained strongly positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin on immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage 4 metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was made and our patient was referred for oncological palliative treatment. This case illustrates the importance of the diagnostic approach to intracranial lesions. Our patient

  16. Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out of 131 seizure patients admitted, 21 patients were diagnosed with NCC (mean age: 33.95 ± 16.41; male: 15 (71.4%, female: 6 (28.6%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type in NCC patients (18 patients; 85.7%, two of them had status epilepticus during presentation in Emergency Department. Three patients had focal seizure, one with epilepsia partialis continua. Neuroimaging showed multiple NCC lesions in 8 (38.1% and a single NCC lesion in 13 (61.9% patients. Seven of them (33.3% sought traditional healers before being presented to our center. Eight patients (38.1% were treated with antiepileptics in local health-post without neuroimaging studies done. Calcified stage of NCC was the most frequent CT/MRI findings (12 patients; 57.1%. Phenytoin was preferred both by physicians and patients due to its low cost. Conclusion: NCC is a common finding among seizure patients in Nepal. Poor economic status, illiteracy and underdeveloped rural society are the major challenges in prevention and treatment of NCC.

  17. Neurocysticercosis as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy in HIV-negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis can simulate a paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy with neurological ailments. We report the case of a 31 year-old-man, treated for tuberculous meningitis who developed neurological deficit after nine weeks of early antituberculous therapy. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by CT scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Neurocysticercosis should be sought as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy.

  18. Immunoreactive proteins of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula for farmer's lung serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Millon, Laurence; Rognon, Bénédicte; Quadroni, Manfredo; Roussel, Sandrine; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Caillaud, Denis; Jouneau, Stephane; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Zaugg, Christophe; Reboux, Gabriel; Monod, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula is the principal cause of farmer's lung disease (FLD). Serodiagnosis is based on immunoprecipitation techniques or enzyme immunoassays with homemade crude antigens and is not standardized. We aimed to produce specific recombinant antigens for the development of a standardized ELISA. We recruited 41 patients and 43 healthy exposed controls from five university hospital pneumology departments in France and Switzerland. S. rectivirgula proteins were extracted, separated by 2D electrophoresis, and subjected to Western blotting, with sera from FLD patients or controls. FLD-specific proteins were identified by MS and were produced as recombinant antigens. The diagnostic performance of ELISA tests using the recombinant antigens was assessed with all the sera from FLD patients and controls. We identified 25 FLD-specific proteins, some of which play important roles in transport, nutrition, or virulence. We produced 17 of these proteins as recombinant antigens and assessed their suitability for inclusion in the ELISA test. A combination of three of these proteins (SR1FA, SR17, and SR22) proved remarkably effective at discriminating between patients and controls, with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 77%. The recombinant antigens produced in this study constitute a major step toward the improvement of diagnostic performance and the standardization of FLD serodiagnosis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Neurocysticercosis presenting as acute psychosis: a rare case report from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied, non specific and pleomorphic, depending on multiple factors. Seizures are the commonest presentation of neurocysticercosis. In this communication we describe an interesting case of multiple neurocysticercosis in a young presenting with psychiatric manifestations. He responded well to steroid and antipsychotic treatment. This case highlights an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis and significance of early recognizing this reversible cause will avoid delay in treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurocysticercosis in Wisconsin: 3 cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Elie; Seeger, Susanne K; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the brain. Endemic in many regions of the world, neurocysticercosis is now showing up in nonendemic areas such as Wisconsin. We present 3 patients that illustrate features typical for neurocysticercosis in anon-endemic area, including immigrant/travel status, presentation with focal seizures, classic magnetic resonance imaging features of single enhancing lesions, and good response to treatment with anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory agents, and cysticidal drugs. It behooves physicians involved in the care of at-risk populations to be aware of the clinical features, radiographic signs, diagnostic tests, and general principles for treating neurocysticercosis.

  1. An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis -a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denegri Federica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocysticercosis represents an important cause of seizures in children in endemic countries, such as Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while in Europe, especially in Italy, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anectodal. We report the case of a 6 year old boy, born and lived for four years in Cameroon, who presented a right emiconvulsion. The diagnosis was neurocysticercosis. This case accentuates the need to consider neurocysticercosis in a child presenting with non febrile seizures, mainly if he emigrated from an area of high prevalence or if he had long-term stay in endemic regions.

  2. [Giant racemose subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of neuropsychiatric manifestations in patients of neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Smita; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Bala, Kiran; Majumdar, Pradipta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic parasitic infection of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and central Europe. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of the illness include epilepsy and behavioral disturbances. There is a dearth of systematic studies on psychiatric manifestations of NCC from various Asian counties. The present study assessed the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in a cohort of patients with NCC attending a neurological service. Materials and Methods: Detailed p...

  4. Neurocysticercosis among international travelers to disease-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Review of neurocysticercosis in citizens from non-endemic countries who developed the disease after a travel to endemic regions, to estimate the magnitude of the disease and to determine the pattern of disease expression in travelers to disease-endemic areas. MEDLINE and manual search of international travelers with neurocysticercosis diagnosed in countries where the disease is not endemic, from 1981 to October 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile of patients, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and therapy. A total of 35 articles reporting 52 patients were found. Most patients were originally from Western Europe, Australia, Israel, and Japan. Mean age was 36.5 ± 15.1 years, and 46% were women. Common places for travelling were the Indian Subcontinent, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Mean time spent aboard was 56.6 ± 56.1 months. Most patients developed symptoms 2 years or more after returning home. Seizures were the most common clinical manifestation of the disease (73%), and all but six patients had parenchymal brain cysticercosis (a single cysticercus granuloma was the most common neuroimaging finding, in 21 patients). Twenty patients underwent surgical resection of the brain lesion for diagnostic purposes, and 22 received cysticidal drugs. Neurocysticercosis is rare in international travelers to endemic countries, and most often occurs in long-term travelers. It is possible that most of these patients get infected by contact with a taenia carrier. The time elapsed between disease acquisition and symptoms occurrence suggests that, at least in some patients, clinical manifestations are related to reactivation of an infection that has previously been controlled by the host immune system. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. Intraventricular Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC, caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is reported to be a common condition in Nepal. So far imaging diagnosis was mainstay of the diagnosis. In this paper, we report three patients presenting with neurological symptoms due to intraventricular NCC. We have diagnosed the causative agent as T. solium on molecular basis. Further research is warranted to assess the actual health impact of T. solium in Nepal. Keywords: Intraventricular neurocysticerosis, PCR-RELP, Taenia solium.

  6. CT-follow-up-studies in neurocysticercosis during praziquantel-therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.; Aulich, A.; Hammer, B.

    1987-05-01

    Praziquanteltherapy has produced a much better prognosis in neurocysticercosis since 1980. The computertomographic findings and follow-up study in 4 patients with neurocysticercosis before and after praziquanteltherapy are described. The special difficulties of differential diagnosis and further diagnostic procedures are discussed in cases in which calcifications are absent and only solitary foci can be found.

  7. Primary Spinal Intramedullary Neurocysticercosis: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subramanya G S; Mehta, Ritu; Macha, Shrikant; Tripathi, Sanjog

    2017-09-01

    We describe a series of 3 cases of the rare intramedullary form of primary spinal neurocysticercosis. The cases were seen in varied age groups and showed different profiles at presentation. All the cases were thoroughly evaluated clinically and radiologically. Serologic tests were not conducted. In all cases, magnetic resonance imaging showed a large intramedullary lesion in the thoracic spinal cord consisting of a cystic lesion with a well-defined intramural nodule. One case was managed with steroids and cysticidal therapy, a second case was managed with steroids and surgery (2 emergency procedures), while the third case was managed without any medical or surgical intervention, as the patient was unwilling for either. All cases showed good neurologic recovery. In the second case where surgery was done, histologic examination of the resected specimen demonstrated the cysticercal parasite surrounded by mixed inflammatory infiltrate. As there were no intracranial lesions in all 3 cases, the final diagnosis was primary isolated intramedullary neurocysticercosis. Primary isolated intramedullary-neurocysticercosis remains a rare condition afflicting the spinal cord. It forms a small subset of cysticercal infestation of the neuraxis. Such evidence is rare, and only anecdotal reports are available. Our case series captures the wide spectrum of presentations, as well as the management options, and highlights the varied ways in which these cases were managed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intrathecal gadodiamide for identifying subarachnoid and ventricular neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Góngora-Rivera, Fernando; Soto-Hernández, José Luis; Del-Brutto, Oscar H; Moreno-Andrade, Talía; Gutiérrez-Alvarado, Ramón; Rodríguez-Carbajal, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Some neurocysticercosis cysts may remain hidden despite novel MRI sequences. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of gadodiamide (GDD)-contrasted MRI cisternography in selected cases of neurocysticercosis. We included patients aged 18-65 years with a probable diagnosis of subarachnoid cysticercosis in whom previous neuroimaging studies failed to demonstrate the presence of cysts. One millilitre of GDD was administered intrathecally as a contrast agent with subsequent performance of MRI. Fourteen patients were included. Optimal contrast diffusion was achieved in nine patients, and partial diffusion was achieved in 4. Intracranial vesicles were identified in 10 patients, with the presence of more than 60 basal subarachnoid vesicles being revealed in all, with five cysts in the fourth ventricle in four patients and a floating cyst in the lateral ventricle in one. In one case, intrathecal GDD demonstrated spinal cysticercosis. No adverse events were reported after intrathecal GDD administration. Intrathecal GDD administration is useful for the diagnosis of subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis and can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy in selected cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E; Flecker, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003-2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20-44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money.

  10. Confinement at Large Nc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is given of the confinement mechanism in terms of the Abelian projection scheme, for a general number Nc of colors. There is a difficulty in the Nc to infinity limit that requires a careful treatment, as the charges of the condensing magnetic monopoles tend to infinity. We suggest that

  11. Antiepileptic drugs for seizure control in people with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Tejinder; Mathew, Amrith

    2015-10-12

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the brain. Epilepsy is the commonest clinical presentation, though it may also present with headache, symptoms of raised intracranial tension, hydrocephalus and ocular symptoms depending upon the localisation of the parasitic cysts. Anthelmintic drugs, anti-oedema drugs, such as steroids and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) form the mainstay of treatment. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of AEDs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures in people with neurocysticercosis. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (5 May 2015), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library April 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 May 2015), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, 5 May 2015), SCOPUS (1823 to 15 April 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (7 May 2015), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (7 May 2015). We also checked the references lists of identified studies, and contacted experts in the field and colleagues to search for additional studies and for information about ongoing studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials.The studies may be single blind, double blind or unblinded. One review author screened all citations for eligibility.Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated each study for risk of bias. We did not find any trials that investigated the role of AEDs in preventing seizures among people with neurocysticercosis, presenting with symptoms other than seizures.We did not find any trials that evaluated evaluating individual AEDs in people with neurocysticercosis.We found one trial, comparing two AEDs in people with solitary neurocysticercosis with seizures. However, we excluded this study from the review as it was of poor quality.We found four trials that compared the efficacy of short term versus longer term AED treatment for people with solitary

  12. Usefulness of rNcGRA7- and rNcSAG4-based ELISA tests for distinguishing primo-infection, recrudescence, and chronic bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Martínez, A; Alvarez-García, G; Fernández-García, A; Risco-Castillo, V; Arnaiz-Seco, I; Rebordosa-Trigueros, X; Navarro-Lozano, V; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2008-11-07

    Bovine reproductive failure caused by the parasite Neospora caninum is a major problem and is responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. Currently, appropriate control measures depend on the predominant transmission route in a particular herd. Therefore, the development of diagnostic tools capable of discriminating between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection is a major challenge in the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. Here, two recombinant protein-based ELISAs utilizing the immunodominant NcGRA7 dense granule protein and the NcSAG4 bradyzoite stage-specific protein were developed and showed good diagnostic performances. Their usefulness for discerning between primo-infection, recrudescence, re-infection, and chronic infection was also studied by analyzing an appropriate panel of serum samples belonging to different groups of experimentally and naturally infected bovines. Our results suggest that anti-rNcGRA7 antibody levels may be indicative of acute infection (primo-infection, re-infection, and recrudescence), whereas the presence of anti-rNcSAG4 antibodies may be associated with chronic infection and could be a good indicator of infection establishment (tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion). Moreover, primo-infection associated with a Neospora-associated epidemic abortion pattern is characterized by the detection of anti-rNcGRA7 antibodies together with the absence or detection of anti-rNcSAG4 antibody levels around the cut-off point. In contrast, the detection of antibody levels directed against both recombinant proteins may be quite indicative of recrudescence or re-infection associated with abortion and/or vertical transmission in herds with a Neospora-associated endemic abortion pattern. In conclusion, both serological tests developed in the present study offer additional information to conventional avidity tests and, consequently, improve the diagnosis of bovine neosporosis with perspectives for control measures.

  13. Neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2012-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis has been recognized as a major cause of secondary epilepsy worldwide. So far, most of the knowledge about the disease comes from Latin America and the Indian subcontinent. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa the condition was neglected for a long time, mainly owing to the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. This review therefore focuses on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa, the clinical picture with emphasis on epilepsy, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis and its related epilepsy/epileptic seizures in African resource-poor settings.

  14. Transitory alexia without agraphia: a disconnection syndrome due to neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Archana; Singh, N N; Misra, Surendra

    2004-09-01

    We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with acute onset inability to read, without any difficulty in writing. A clinical diagnosis of alexia without agraphia was made and the patient was subjected to routine investigations including contrast MRI. MRI showed a ring-enhancing lesion in left occipital area, suggestive of neurocysticercosis supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci (PCF-ELISA). Patient was treated with albendazole and prednisolone for one week. The clinical manifestation as well as the radiological finding resolved after treatment.

  15. A Classic Neurocysticercosis Case with an Unusual Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is triggered by infection with the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The usual sites for the development of cyscticerci are the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis – NCC, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye. Ocular cysticercosis is caused by the growth of the larvae within ocular tissues. The extraocular muscles form is the most common type of orbital cysticercosis. We report a case of a patient admitted with seizures secondary to NCC, who developed ocular symptoms after starting combined treatment with albendazole, praziquantel and dexamethasone. The investigation revealed a cystic lesion in the lateral rectus muscle.

  16. Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Diehl Rodriquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC. The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head posture with attacks of headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head, a phenomenon called Bruns' syndrome (BS. We report a patient with racemose NCC and BS.

  17. Neurocysticercosis in Radiographically Imaged Seizure Patients in U.S. Emergency Departments1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, David A.; Moran, Gregory J.; Mower, William; Newdow, Michael; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Pinner, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis appears to be on the rise in the United States, based on immigration patterns and published cases series, including reports of domestic acquisition. We used a collaborative network of U.S. emergency departments to characterize the epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in seizure patients. Data were collected prospectively at 11 university-affiliated, geographically diverse, urban U.S. emergency departments from July 1996 to September 1998. Patients with a seizure who underwent neuroimaging were included. Of the 1,801 patients enrolled in the study, 38 (2.1%) had seizures attributable to neurocysticercosis. The disease was detected in 9 of the 11 sites and was associated with Hispanic ethnicity, immigrant status, and exposure to areas where neurocysticercosis is endemic. This disease appears to be widely distributed and highly prevalent in certain populations (e.g., Hispanic patients) and areas (e.g., Southwest). PMID:12023918

  18. The role of 3D volumetric MR sequences in diagnosing intraventricular neurocysticercosis: preliminar results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Edward Frota Mont'Alverne Filho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the role of two three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MRI sequences: enhanced spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR, and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA in the evaluation of intraventricular neurocysticercosis cysts and scolices. METHOD: Seven neurocysticercosis patients suspected of presenting intraventricular lesions were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging using enhanced SPGR, and FIESTA. RESULTS: Enhanced SPGR detected eight cystic lesions, with scolices in four. Contrast enhancement was observed in three cysts. FIESTA also detected eight cystic lesions with the presence of scolices in seven of those cystic lesions. Four patients presented parenchymal involvement, while the remaining three presented the racemose form. CONCLUSION: FIESTA and SPGR are sequences that can detect intraventricular cysts of neurocysticercosis, and FIESTA also is good for the detection of the scolex. Considering this information we suggest that FIESTA and SPGR should be included in the MRI protocol for the investigation of intraventricular neurocysticercosis.

  19. [Sturge-Weber syndrome: differential diagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, A C; Hernández-Cossio, O; Hernández-Fustes, O J; Munhoz, R P; Hernández-Fustes, O J; Francisco, A N

    The Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by facial cutaneous angioma associated with leptomeningeal and cerebral angioma, typically ipsilateral to the facial lesion, which is accompanied by convulsions, mental retardation, contralateral hemiparesia, hemiatrophy, homonymous hemianopsia and glaucoma. Most of the patients with radiographic evidence of intracranial angioma develop convulsive crises, but only half have severe mental retardation. The image of calcification on cranial tomography often leads to confusion in diagnosis, especially with neurocysticercosis, particularly in places where this is endemic and the patients present with minimal skin lesions or these are at atypical sites. We present the case of a 13 year-old boy hospitalized with status epilepticus who, since the age of 1 year and 3 months, had had convulsive seizures which were of generalized tonic-clonic type and partially complex with secondary generalization, treated with carbamazepine at a dose of 400 mg per day. Neurocysticercosis was diagnosed on a tomogram showing calcification of the left parieto-occipital gyrus. Following physical examination and complementary tests the diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome was made. We emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome, its clinical picture and treatment.

  20. Headaches More Common among Epilepsy Sufferers with Neurocysticercosis than Other Structural Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Erin K; Mehta, Bijal; Wang, Frances; Nakamoto, Beau

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the developing world. Cysticercosis is endemic in many regions of Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Asia. Neurocysticercosis is of emerging importance because globalization has increased travel between Hawai‘i and disease-endemic areas. Headache and epilepsy are two of the most common complications of neurocysticercosis infection. Currently, it is not known if epilepsy patients with neurocysticercosis are more likely to have headaches than those with other structural brain lesions or those with no structural brain abnormalities. This study was designed to investigate whether epilepsy patients with neurocysticercosis report co-morbid headaches more frequently than those with other or with no structural brain lesions. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients treated at a community based neurology clinic for epilepsy during a three-month period was performed. One-hundred sixty patients were included in the analytical study. Co-morbid headaches were more commonly present among those with neurocysticercosis (40%) than those with other structural lesions and those with no structural brain abnormalities (19% and 22%, respectively; P = .031). Headache frequency among those reporting co-morbid headaches did not differ significantly between the groups. Prevalence of co-morbid headaches is greater among epilepsy patients with neurocysticercosis than those with other structural brain lesions or no structural brain abnormality. Epilepsy patients with neurocysticercosis may be especially vulnerable to development of headaches and a thorough headache history should be obtained to help screen for affected individuals. PMID:28607832

  1. Cysticidal therapy - Impact on seizure control in epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    ISABEL CRISTINA DOS SANTOS; ELIANE KOBAYASHI; TÂNIA MARCHIORI CARDOSO; CARLOS ALBERTO MANTOVANI GUERREIRO; FERNANDO CENDES

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features and seizure control of epilepsy related to neurocysticercosis. METHOD: 18 patients with partial epilepsy and neurocysticercosis were treated with albendazol or praziquantel and followed from 3 months to 12 years. We analyzed results from the CSF exam, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), head computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 36.4 years. The mean duration of epilepsy was 16 years. 83% p...

  2. [Risk factors associated with neurocysticercosis in a public hospital in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Trejo, Juan Manuel; Correa-Chacón, Arnulfo Joel; Sctelo-Ham, Elma Ivonne; Torres-Valenzuela, Alejandro; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2006-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to determine risk factors associated with neurocysticercosis in a public hospital in Mexico. The following factors were analyzed: Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, hygiene, eating habits, and family history of neurocysticercosis in 85 cases and 170 controls. Cases were patients with cranial computed tomography images compatible with neurocysticercosis. The densitometric analysis (Hounsfield units) allowed us to distinguish normal tissue from physiological and pathological calcifications, and other types of lesions. Controls were admitted for neurocysticercosis but findings were not compatible with initial diagnosis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and Epi-info 2002. The most common clinical manifestation in patients was epileptic seizures OR=4.2 (IC 95% 2.40-9.67). With regards to risk factors, consumption of street food OR=2.33 (IC 95% 1.25-4.38), and family history of neurocysticercosis OR= 2.37 (IC 95% 1.11-5.04) were found to be associated with neurocysticercosis. In the north central region of Mexico where this study was performed, the disease was more frequent among urban populations.

  3. [Temporal lobe epilepsy and active neurocysticercosis: two representative case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R; Gaytán-Martínez, Luis A; Vega-Ruiz, Brenda; Soto-Rodríguez, Sofía; Rochín-Mozqueda, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There are limited evidences reported of temporal lobe epilepsy associated with active cysticercosis in cystic stage. The objective is to present the correlation between active cysticercosis in topographical zones associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, with neuropsychiatric manifestations and pattern of secondarily generalized partial seizures. Two cases of adult patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations of one year evolution, refractory to antipsychotic drug treatment, and who subsequently appear late onset partial-secondarily generalized seizures. Cysticercosis active presence in the temporal lobe in one patient, and the insula in the other, is identified. A better clinical control after albendazol treatment and subsequently anticonvulsant therapy only remained to evaluate pertinence of pharmacological withdrawal criteria. Active neurocysticercosis, may be the cause of acquired neuropsychiatric disorders and temporal lobe epilepsy of late onset when the topography is in the mesolimbic circuit. Early etiologic diagnosis and appropriate treatment allows adequate control of their symptoms and potentially final cure.

  4. Reversible dementia as a presenting manifestation of racemose neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Racemose cysticercosis is a less frequent presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC. It′s presentation and management is quite different from cerebral parenchymal NCC. Diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis is based on the combination of clinical, epidemiologic, radiographic, and immunologic information. Compared with cysticercus cellulose, which most commonly presents as seizures, racemose NCC due to its extraaxial location presents with raised intracranial pressure and meningitis, and frequently requires neurosurgical intervention. Dementia as a sole presenting feature of NCC is rare. We report a case of racemose NCC with dementia as the presenting manifestation. The outcome of dementia patients with NCC seems favorable in most cases therefore a high index of suspicion for NCC should be kept especially in endemic areas.

  5. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav M Kasundra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report.

  6. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasundra, Gaurav M; Bhargava, Amita Narendra; Bhushan, Bharat; Khichar, Subhakaran; Sood, Isha

    2014-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report.

  7. Isolated and silent spinal neurocysticercosis associated with pseudotumor cerebri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rabindra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC is rare. Isolated spinal NCC is still rarer. We present here a case report where a young lady presented with all the clinical features of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC, where medical treatment for PTC failed and the presence of cysticercous in spinal canal was detected only on the operation table, while doing a lumbo-peritoneal shunt (LP shunt to save her vision. Diagnosis could be confirmed only after the histopathology report was received. She did not have any direct evidence of spinal involvement, thereby eluding correct diagnosis. In English literature, we could not find any report of isolated and silent spinal NCC associated with PTC. In addition, we could not find any report of recovery of cysticercous larva through the Touhey′s needle injury, although this was an incidental finding. In endemic areas, isolated spinal NCC should be suspected in patients presenting with PTC.

  8. Use of Statewide Hospital Discharge Data to Evaluate the Economic Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (1991–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Reporter, Roshan; Mascola, Laurene

    2010-01-01

    Statewide hospital discharge data were used to assess the economic burden of neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (LAC) from 1991 through 2008. A neurocysticercosis hospitalization was defined as having a discharge diagnosis of cysticercosis in addition to convulsions, seizures, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema or cerebral cysts. This study identified 3,937 neurocysticercosis hospitalizations, with the number of annual hospitalizations remaining relatively unchanged over the study period (R2 = 0.01), averaging 219 per year (range 180–264). The total of all neurocysticercosis hospitalization charges over the study period was $136.2 million, averaging $7.9 million per year. The average charge per patient was $37.6 thousand and the most common payment method was Medicaid (43.9%), followed by private insurance (24.5%). The average length of stay was 7.2 days. The substantial number of hospitalizations and significant economic cost underscore the importance of neurocysticercosis in LAC. PMID:20595487

  9. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ≥ 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Surgical treatment of neurocysticercosis. Retrospective cohort study and an illustrative case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Araujo, João Luiz Vitorino; Ferraz, Vinicius Ricieri; Lovato, Renan Maximilian; Pedrozo, Charles Alfred Grander; Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro de; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is prevalent in developing countries and manifests with several neurological signs and symptoms that may be fatal. The cysts may be parenchymal or extraparenchymal and therefore several signs and symptoms may occur. Depending on their location, neurosurgical procedures may be required, sometimes as emergencies. The aim here was to review 10-year statistics on all surgical neurocysticercosis cases at a large public tertiary-level hospital. Retrospective cohort at a large public tertiary-level hospital. All surgical neurocysticercosis cases seen between July 2006 and July 2016 were reviewed. Parenchymal and extraparenchymal forms were considered, along with every type of surgical procedure (shunt, endoscopic third ventriculostomy and craniotomy). The literature was reviewed through PubMed, using the terms "neurocysticercosis", "surgery", "shunt" and "hydrocephalus". 37 patients underwent neurosurgical procedures during the study period. Most were male (62.16%) and extraparenchymal cases predominated (81%). Patients aged 41 to 50 years were most affected (35.13%) and those 20 years or under were unaffected. Ventricular forms were most frequently associated with hydrocephalus and required permanent shunts in most cases (56.57%). The treatment of neurocysticercosis depends on the impairment: the parenchymal type usually does not require surgery, which is more common in the extraparenchymal form. Hydrocephalus is a frequent complication because the cysts often obstruct the cerebrospinal flow. The cysts should be removed whenever possible, to avoid the need for permanent shunts.

  11. Paradoxical migrating cyst: an unusual presentation of intraventricular neurocysticercosis with a coincidental pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shanchita; Al-Khalili, Rend; Liu, James K; Slasky, Shira E

    2014-06-01

    Intraventricular neurocysticercosis is an uncommon entity which may become symptomatic due to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction. Migration of intraventricular cysts through the ventricular spaces is a rare occurrence. This phenomenon is poorly understood but may be due to pressure changes within the ventricular cavities. We present a patient with intraventricular neurocysticercosis with paradoxical transaqueductal migration of the cyst from the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle shortly after ventricular drain placement for acute hydrocephalus. The patient also presented with a coincidental sellar and suprasellar mass, later pathologically proven to be a pituitary adenoma. The migration of this cyst resulted in spontaneous relief of obstruction at the cerebral aqueduct, thus restoring normal cerebrospinal fluid pathways and avoiding permanent shunting. We discuss the possible mechanisms and implications of cyst migration, and the diagnostic challenges of concomitant findings of a pituitary mass and neurocysticercosis. Although the presence of a sellar and suprasellar mass in a patient with known neurocysticercosis should raise clinical suspicion for the possibility of sellar neurocysticercosis, pituitary macroadenoma is a more common entity and a more likely etiology for a sellar lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecker, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money. PMID:25988221

  13. Serodiagnosis of nasal and visceral schistosomosis in cattle by counter current immuno electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanth, Sreenivasiah; D’Souza, Placid Eugene; Jagannath, Mitta Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was evaluated for serodiagnosis of nasal and visceral schistosomosis in cattle. The whole worm antigens of Schistosoma nasale and S. spindale with protein content of 3.5mg/ml were prepared and the CIEP test was conducted. A clear cut positive band indicating positivity was observed in hyperimmune sera raised against both species. This technique was 98.62 and 99.50% sensitive in S. nasale and S. spindale infections in known positive cattle, respecti...

  14. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose The epilepsy in neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    ógicos focais ou sinais de hipertensão intracraniana.One hundred and thirty one cases of epilepsy with neurocysticercosis were studied. The investigation was made in regard to the type of epilepsy, the disease duration, the frequency of seizures and the electroencephalographic pattern regarding the epilepsies in general. The study was also done concerning the headache, the neurological findings, the cerebrospinal fluid, plain and contrasted radiologic examination and histopathology. The author draw the following conclusions: 1 In the neurocysticercosis group the onset of disease predominate in the first decada and from the fourth decada. 2 Concerning the type of seizures, the convulsions predominate; the Jacksonian fits were the less frequent. 3 Concerning the duration of disease the epilepsy with short duration (one year or less predominate in the neurocysticercosis group. 4 The severity of epilepsy (frequency of seizures was smaller in the neurocysticercosis group. 5 Excluding the cases with continuous EEG abnormalities, there were more normal EEG in neurocysticercosis group than in epilepsies in general. 6 The headache was present in 68% of cases, with paroxysmal pattern in the greater number (78%; in 67% of cases with paroxysmal headache the intracranial hypertension signs were absent; in the cases with continuous headache these signs were not present in only two cases (13%. 7 In the greater number (62% th3 patients have presented only epileptic manifestations without focal neurological signs or intracranial hypertension.

  15. Leishmania infantum heat shock protein 83 for the serodiagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The serologic assay is an important tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. One of the most commonly used tests is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since total Leishmania promastigotes are used as antigen in the routine assay, false-positive reactions are frequent due to cross-reaction with sera from other diseases, mainly Chagas' disease. Therefore, an antigen that determines less cross-reactivity has been pursued for the serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. In the present study we analyzed the use of recombinant Leishmania infantum heat shock protein (Hsp 83 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of cutaneous (N = 12 and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (N = 14 and we observed the presence of anti-L. infantum Hsp 83 antibodies in all samples as well as anti-Leishmania total antigen antibodies. When cross-reactivity was tested, chronic Chagas' disease patients (N = 10 did not show any reactivity. Therefore, we consider this L. infantum Hsp 83 to be a good antigen for routine use for serodiagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  16. Evaluation of recombinant proteins of Burkholderia mallei for serodiagnosis of glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Vijai; Kumar, Subodh; Malik, Praveen; Rai, Ganga Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Glanders is a contagious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia mallei. The number of equine glanders outbreaks has increased steadily during the last decade. The disease must be reported to the Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France. Glanders serodiagnosis is hampered by the considerable number of false positives and negatives of the internationally prescribed tests. The major problem leading to the low sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test (CFT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been linked to the test antigens currently used, i.e., crude preparations of whole cells. False-positive results obtained from other diagnostic tests utilizing crude antigens lead to financial losses to animal owners, and false-negative results can turn a risk into a possible threat. In this study, we report on the identification of diagnostic targets using bioinformatics tools for serodiagnosis of glanders. The identified gene sequences were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. The purified recombinant proteins of B. mallei were used in an indirect ELISA format for serodiagnosis of glanders. Two recombinant proteins, 0375H and 0375TH, exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity for glanders diagnosis. The proteins also did not cross-react with sera from patients with the closely related disease melioidosis. The results of this investigation highlight the potential of recombinant 0375H and 0375TH proteins in specific and sensitive diagnosis of glanders.

  17. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli

    2016-01-01

    tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large......Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain...... fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis....

  18. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  20. Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araújo, David; Alexandre, Veriano; Scornavacca, Francisco; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Carlotti, Carlos G; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2015-10-01

    To test if chronic calcificed neurocysticercosis (cNCC) and hippocampal sclerosis occur more often than by chance ipsilateral to the same brain hemisphere or brain region in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) plus neurocysticercosis. This proof-of-concept would provide important evidence of a direct pathogenic relationship between neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS. A cohort of 290 consecutive MTLE-HS surgical patients was studied. A test of proportions was used to analyze if the proportion of patients with a single cNCC lesion matching the same brain hemisphere or region of hippocampal sclerosis was significantly greater than 50%, as expected by the chance. Neuroimaging findings of cNCC were observed in 112 (38.6%) of 290 MTLE-HS patients and a single cNCC lesion occurred in 58 (51.8%) of them. There were no differences in main basal clinical characteristics of MTLE-HS patients with single or multiple cNCC lesions. In patients with single cNCC lesions, the lesion matched the side in which hippocampal sclerosis was observed in 43 (74.1%) patients, a proportion significantly greater than that expected to occur by chance (p=0.008). Neurocysticercosis in temporal lobe was ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis in 85.0% of patients and accounted mostly for this result. This work is a proof-of-concept that the association of neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS cannot be explained exclusively by patients sharing common biological or socio-economic predisposing variables. Instead, our results suggest the involvement of more direct pathogenic mechanisms like regional inflammation, repetitive seizures or both. Neurocysticercosis within temporal lobes was particularly related with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis in MTLE-HS, a finding adding new contributions for understanding MTLE-HS plus cNCC or perhaps to other forms of dual pathology in MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of T24H-his, GST-T24H and GST-Ts8B2 recombinant antigens in western blot, ELISA and multiplex bead-based assay for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Ana; Noh, John; Perteguer, María Jesús; Gárate, Teresa; Handali, Sukwan

    2017-05-15

    Currently, the reference standard assay for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins/enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). The main disadvantage of this technique is the complexity of obtaining and purifying the LLGP extract. This could be solved by replacement with highly specific recombinant antigens from Taenia solium. Based on previous studies, we selected and produced the recombinant Ts8B2 and T24H proteins and applied them to three diagnostic techniques: western blot (WB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the multiplex bead-based assay (MBA). The Ts8B2 and T24H cDNA sequences were expressed in a prokaryotic system and the corresponding expression products purified; three recombinant proteins were further characterized: T24H-his, GST-T24H and GST-Ts8B2. The proteins on WB, ELISA and MBA were tested against 149 sera from patients with NCC confirmed by brain imaging, 40 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases, and 131 sera from US. individuals without evidence of neurocysticercosis (clinical/serological/brain imaging). The sensitivity and specificity of each antigen by WB were calculated by counting the number of true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative results. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the cut-off values for the ELISA and MBA were established as well as the sensitivity and specificity of each assay. All three antigens showed a high sensitivity on WB in active NCC cases with two or more viable cysts and low sensitivity for cases with single viable cyst or calcified lesions and inactive NCC. WB showed the highest specificity and sensitivity out of the three diagnostic techniques. The recombinant T24H-his was the best diagnostic reagent in WB (100% sensitivity, 99.4% specificity), exhibiting similar results to the LLGP-EITB, against the same panel of NCC sera. The GST-T24H antigen worked better than the others in ELISA and MBA

  2. Toll-like Receptor-4 Polymorphisms and Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Calcified Neurocysticercosis and Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachuriya, Gaurav; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Jain, Bhawna; Kumar, Neeraj; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated seizure profile, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 polymorphisms, and serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis.One-hundred nine patients with calcified neurocysticercosis with newly diagnosed seizures and 109 control subjects were enrolled. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and serum MMP-9 levels were evaluated. The patients were followed for 1 year.Asp/Gly (P = 0.012) and Thr/Ile (P = 0.002), Gly (Asp/Gly plus Gly/Gly) (P = 0.008) and Ile (Thr/Ile plus Ile/Ile) (P = 0.003) genotypes were significantly associated with calcified neurocysticercosis compared with controls. Gly/Gly and Ile/Ile genotypes were not significantly associated (P = 0.529 for Gly/Gly, P = 0.798 for Ile/Ile) with either group. The levels of MMP-9 were higher in calcified neurocysticercosis (P =  neurocysticercosis compared with single calcified neurocysticercosis (P =  10 mm (P = 0.001), and perilesional edema (P =  neurocysticercosis leading to an increase in perilesional edema and provocation of seizures.

  3. A study of neuropsychiatric manifestations in patients of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Bala, Kiran; Majumdar, Pradipta

    2013-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic parasitic infection of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and central Europe. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of the illness include epilepsy and behavioral disturbances. There is a dearth of systematic studies on psychiatric manifestations of NCC from various Asian counties. The present study assessed the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in a cohort of patients with NCC attending a neurological service. Detailed psychiatric assessment was carried out on 50 patients of NCC with epilepsy and 50 patients of epilepsy without any evidence of NCC. Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale was used to elicit the symptoms. Cognitive functions were assessed using Mini Mental Status Examination. Psychiatric diagnoses were made as per International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition (ICD-10). Sixty eight percent of the patients with NCC suffered from a psychiatric disorder, as compared to 44% of those without NCC (P=0.02). Major depression and mixed anxiety depression were the two most common diagnoses. None of the patients was to found to suffer from a psychotic disorder. The most frequent site of brain lesion of NCC was the parietal lobe, followed by frontal lobes and disseminated lesions. Left sided lesions were associated with greater psychiatric morbidity. Focal seizures with or without secondary generalizations were present more frequently in patients with NCC whereas primary generalized seizures were more common in patients with idiopathic epilepsy (P=0.05). Psychiatric manifestations are more common in patients of epilepsy with NCC than those without NCC. The treating clinician need to be vigilant about the phenomenon.

  4. Seizure in People with Newly Diagnosed Active or Transitional Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Carpio, Arturo; Bagiella, Emilia; Leslie, Denise; Leon, Pietro; Andrews, Howard; Hauser, W. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to describe seizure as a presenting symptom in individuals with recently diagnosed neurocysticercosis (NCC). Methods Using logistic regression, we examined the probability of having seizures as a presenting symptom among those with active or transitional NCC by host age and gender, and by number of cysts, location of the cysts in the brain, and phase of evolution of the encysted parasite. Results We found that the odds of having seizures as presenting symptom for those in the youngest age group (3–24 years old) were 12.9 times that of the oldest participants (age 55–82 years) (p=0.006). People with cysts in parenchymal locations had a significantly higher odds of seizures compared to those with all their cysts elsewhere (ventricles or subarachnoid) (OR=6.2, p=0.028); and the number of cysts was significantly associated with having seizures (OR=1.1, p=0.026). Host gender and cyst phase were not significantly associated with having seizures after adjusting for confounders and covariates. Conclusion Children, those with cysts in parenchymal locations, and those with a higher number of cysts appear to be more likely to experience seizure when they have NCC cysts in the active or transitional stage. PMID:21145263

  5. Three cases of imported neurocysticercosis in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Maria Teresa; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Cattaneo, Federico; Brunetti, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of adult-onset seizures in endemic areas, whereas it is emerging in some nonendemic areas as well because of extensive immigration. We describe three cases of imported NCC recently admitted to San Bortolo Hospital in Vicenza, located in Northern Italy. All patients were immigrants. One patient was human immunodeficiency virus positive with severe immunosuppression. The diagnosis of NCC was made on the basis of magnetic resonance results; failure of anti-Toxoplasma, antitubercular, and antifungal therapy; and regression of the cystic lesions after empiric therapy with albendazole. Serology was positive in only one case. In one patient, NCC was diagnosed by biopsy of the brain lesion. In nonendemic countries, NCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of all patients coming from endemic areas with seizures, hydrocephalus, and compatible lesions on brain imaging. Long-term follow-up is required but may be difficult to implement because these patients tend to move in search of employment. Screening of patient's household contacts for Taenia solium infection should always be carried out. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  6. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Neurocysticercosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, Hélène; Ndimubanzi, Patrick Cyaga; Budke, Christine M.; Nguyen, Hai; Qian, Yingjun; Cowan, Linda Demetry; Stoner, Julie Ann; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are poorly understood. This systematic review aims to estimate the frequencies of different manifestations, complications and disabilities associated with NCC. Methods A systematic search of the literature published from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2008, in 24 different electronic databases and 8 languages was conducted. Meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate. Results A total of 1569 documents were identified, and 21 included in the analysis. Among patients seen in neurology clinics, seizures/epilepsy were the most common manifestations (78.8%, 95%CI: 65.1%–89.7%) followed by headaches (37.9%, 95%CI: 23.3%–53.7%), focal deficits (16.0%, 95%CI: 9.7%–23.6%) and signs of increased intracranial pressure (11.7%, 95%CI: 6.0%–18.9%). All other manifestations occurred in less than 10% of symptomatic NCC patients. Only four studies reported on the mortality rate of NCC. Conclusions NCC is a pleomorphic disease linked to a range of manifestations. Although definitions of manifestations were very rarely provided, and varied from study to study, the proportion of NCC cases with seizures/epilepsy and the proportion of headaches were consistent across studies. These estimates are only applicable to patients who are ill enough to seek care in neurology clinics and likely over estimate the frequency of manifestations among all NCC cases. PMID:21629722

  7. Experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of IL-4 induces lower encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4 on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT and BALB/c (IL-4-KO mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.

  8. Awareness of neurocysticercosis: A study from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girotra Mohit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common cause of epilepsy in developing countries. In order to plan and implement prevention programs, it is essential to study the awareness of NCC. Objective: To study the awareness of NCC among patients with NCC and compare with age- and gender-matched controls without NCC. Setting and Design: Hospital based case-control study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fourteen subjects were studied (109 NCC patients, and 105 age- and gender-matched controls without NCC. The participants were selected from neurology and medical wards of a tertiary referral hospital in northwest India. They were interviewed by trained medical interns using a questionnaire. Results: 64.2% of the NCC patients and 19% of control group had heard about NCC (P < 0.001. Knowledge regarding organ affected by NCC in the NCC group was 61.4% and in the control group was 80% (P = 0.09. Only 12.9% of the NCC group and none in the control group identified tape worm as a causative agent for NCC (P = 0.092. Negative effects of NCC on marriage and social life were more often cited by the NCC group but in the control group it was towards education (P = 0.004. Conclusions: The awareness of NCC was poor in both the groups. Educational programs are needed to improve the awareness about NCC among the patients and the public.

  9. Magnitude of the Disease Burden from Neurocysticercosis in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis contributes to higher epilepsy rates in developing countries than in industrialized ones, yet no estimate exists for the associated burden of disease. We used epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis in Peru to calculate the burden of disease and applied our model to the other countries of Latin America where neurocysticercosis is endemic to determine a regional estimate. Analysis of 12 population-based community studies demonstrated that neurocysticercosis was endemic in highland areas and high jungles, with seroprevalences from 6% to 24%. In one community, the adult seizure disorder rate was 9.1% among seropositive persons versus 4.6% among seronegative persons; we used this difference for estimates. On the basis of average prevalence rates in areas of endemicity of 6%–10%, we estimated that there are 23,512–39,186 symptomatic neurocysticercosis cases in Peru. In Latin America, an estimated 75 million persons live in areas where cysticercosis is endemic, and ~400,000 have symptomatic disease. Cysticercosis contributes substantially to neurological disease in Peru and in all of Latin America. PMID:10524964

  10. Pediatric Neurocysticercosis: Three Cases Presented in the Netherlands with Divergent Clinical Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; van Doeveren, T.E.M.; van der Kuip, M.; Wolf, N.I.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a helminthic disease that affects the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Because of the growing number of immigrants from endemic areas, its incidence is increasing in Western Europe. Cases We describe three children, aged

  11. Neurocysticercosis as an important differential of seizures in pregnancy: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Suresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Seizures in pregnancy usually result from eclampsia, epilepsy or central nervous system disorders. Neurocysticercosis is a rare, but an important, cause of first-time convulsions in pregnancy. Case presentations We report the cases of two Indian women, aged 20 and 24 years old respectively, with neurocysticercosis presenting in the second trimester of pregnancy with convulsions. Both had marginally raised blood pressure with 1+ urine albumin and neither had a past history of convulsions. The neurocysticercosis was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, which showed spherical ring-enhancing lesions in the brain. In one woman, pregnancy was terminated due to spina bifida in the fetus and she was discharged on albendazole and phenytoin. The second woman was put on carbamazepine: she had an emergency Cesarean section at term for fetal distress and delivered a healthy baby. Her postnatal period was uneventful. Conclusion Neurocysticercosis should be considered in pregnant women presenting with seizures which cannot be explained by eclampsia, especially in early pregnancy.

  12. Conservative management of neurocysticercosis in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvey, S; Lu, K; Mukkamalla, S K; Anandi, P; Dumitriu, B; Kranick, S; Hammoud, D A; O'Connell, E; Oh, A L; Barrett, J; Mahanty, S; Battiwalla, M

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is common in developing countries but its occurrence and management in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report the case of an immigrant female patient who underwent a matched-related allogeneic HSCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was incidentally found to have a solitary viable neurocysticercosis lesion. However, despite severe immunosuppression, the size of the cyst did not increase. More importantly, restoration of the immune system did not induce significant inflammation or seizures. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the neurocysticercosis lesion. Thus, in the setting of HSCT, an asymptomatic patient with a single neurocysticercosis lesion was successfully managed without the use of anthelmintics, steroids, or anti-epileptics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An Unusual Presentation of Neurocysticercosis: A Space-Occupying Lesion in the Fourth Ventricle Associated with Progressive Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Carolin; Schmidt, Veronika; Poppert, Holger; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John; Poppert, Sven; Schlegel, Jürgen; Delbridge, Claire; da Costa, Clarissa Prazeres; Winkler, Andrea S

    2016-01-01

    We communicate a case of a middle-aged Brazilian patient with an unusual presentation of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis: occurrence of two intraventricular cysts at different locations in the brain within 2 years and cognitive decline as the only neurological symptom. Neurocysticercosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, serology, histology, and genetic analysis. Neurocysticercosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases with atypical neurologic or psychiatric symptoms, atypical neuroimaging and travel history. Especially, fourth ventricular cysts carry the risk of obstructive hydrocephalus and brainstem compression and therefore should be extirpated completely. If complete removal of the cystic structures cannot be proven in cases with surgically treated neurocysticercosis, anthelminthic therapy and thorough follow-up examinations should be conducted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Immunodiagnosis of Neurocysticercosis: Ways to Focus on the Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Velázquez, M.; Ostoa-Saloma, P.; Morales-Montor, J.; Hernández-Bello, R.; Larralde, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease of the central nervous system that is considered a public health problem in endemic areas. The definitive diagnosis of this disease is made using a combination of tools that include imaging of the brain and immunodiagnostic tests, but the facilities for performing them are usually not available in endemic areas. The immunodiagnosis of NCC is a useful tool that can provide important information on whether a patient is infected or not, but it presents many drawbacks as not all infected patients can be detected. These tests rely on purified or semipurified antigens that are sometimes difficult to prepare. Recent efforts have focused on the production of recombinant or synthetic antigens for the immunodiagnosis of NCC and interesting studies propose the use of new elements as nanobodies for diagnostic purposes. However, an immunodiagnostic test that can be considered as “gold standard” has not been developed so far. The complex nature of cysticercotic disease and the simplicity of common immunological assumptions involved explain the low scores and reproducibility of immunotests in the diagnosis of NCC. Here, the most important efforts for developing an immunodiagnostic test of NCC are listed and discussed. A more punctilious strategy based on the design of panels of confirmed positive and negative samples, the use of blind tests, and a worldwide effort is proposed in order to develop an immunodiagnostic test that can provide comparable results. The identification of a set of specific and representative antigens of T. solium and a thorough compilation of the many forms of antibody response of humans to the many forms of T. solium disease are also stressed as necessary. PMID:22131808

  15. Immunodiagnosis of Neurocysticercosis: Ways to Focus on the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esquivel-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a disease of the central nervous system that is considered a public health problem in endemic areas. The definitive diagnosis of this disease is made using a combination of tools that include imaging of the brain and immunodiagnostic tests, but the facilities for performing them are usually not available in endemic areas. The immunodiagnosis of NCC is a useful tool that can provide important information on whether a patient is infected or not, but it presents many drawbacks as not all infected patients can be detected. These tests rely on purified or semipurified antigens that are sometimes difficult to prepare. Recent efforts have focused on the production of recombinant or synthetic antigens for the immunodiagnosis of NCC and interesting studies propose the use of new elements as nanobodies for diagnostic purposes. However, an immunodiagnostic test that can be considered as “gold standard” has not been developed so far. The complex nature of cysticercotic disease and the simplicity of common immunological assumptions involved explain the low scores and reproducibility of immunotests in the diagnosis of NCC. Here, the most important efforts for developing an immunodiagnostic test of NCC are listed and discussed. A more punctilious strategy based on the design of panels of confirmed positive and negative samples, the use of blind tests, and a worldwide effort is proposed in order to develop an immunodiagnostic test that can provide comparable results. The identification of a set of specific and representative antigens of T. solium and a thorough compilation of the many forms of antibody response of humans to the many forms of T. solium disease are also stressed as necessary.

  16. Estimating the non-monetary burden of neurocysticercosis in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Bhattarai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a major public health problem in many developing countries where health education, sanitation, and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. Although NCC is endemic in many areas of the world and is associated with considerable socio-economic losses, the burden of NCC remains largely unknown. This study provides the first estimate of disability adjusted life years (DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. METHODS: DALYs lost for symptomatic cases of NCC in Mexico were estimated by incorporating morbidity and mortality due to NCC-associated epilepsy, and morbidity due to NCC-associated severe chronic headaches. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs. FINDINGS: In Mexico, 144,433 and 98,520 individuals are estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and NCC-associated severe chronic headaches, respectively. A total of 25,341 (95% CR: 12,569-46,640 DALYs were estimated to be lost due to these clinical manifestations, with 0.25 (95% CR: 0.12-0.46 DALY lost per 1,000 person-years of which 90% was due to NCC-associated epilepsy. CONCLUSION: This is the first estimate of DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. However, this value is likely to be underestimated since only the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and severe chronic headaches were included. In addition, due to limited country specific data, some parameters used in the analysis were based on systematic reviews of the literature or primary research from other geographic locations. Even with these limitations, our estimates suggest that healthy years of life are being lost due to NCC in Mexico.

  17. Reduced percentage of neurocysticercosis cases among patients with late-onset epilepsy in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Del Brutto, Victor J

    2012-11-01

    To determine if the number of neurocysticercosis cases among patients with late-onset epilepsy has decreased over the past two decades. Retrospective cohort study of 431 consecutive patients with recurrent seizures starting after the age of 20 years evaluated at our Institution from 1990 to 2009. Patients were classified according to the year in which they were first seen. Group I included 129 patients evaluated between 1990 and 1994, Group II included 108 patients evaluated between 1995 and 1999, Group III included 106 patients evaluated between 2000 and 2004, and Group IV included 88 patients evaluated between 2005 and 2009. We correlated the percentage of persons with cryptogenic and symptomatic epilepsy between the groups to determine if there was any change in the causes of late-onset epilepsy. One hundred seventy-one patients had cryptogenic and 260 had symptomatic epilepsy. Common causes of symptomatic epilepsy were neurocysticercosis in 120 cases, cerebrovascular disease in 68, and brain tumors in 40. We found a reduction in the number of patients with symptomatic epilepsy (p=0.0007) as well as a reduction in the number of neurocysticercosis cases (p=0.0004) over the study years. There was a reduction in the weight of neurocysticercosis as an etiological factor for symptomatic late-onset epilepsy related to a drop in the number of patients with this condition evaluated between 2005 and 2009 (p=0.0045). The number of neurocysticercosis cases among patients with late-onset epilepsy has changed over the years. This parasitic disease is no longer the most common cause of symptomatic late-onset epilepsy in our population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers: report of seven cases and review of published patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2013-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers has received little attention in the literature, and little is known about the mechanisms of disease acquisition and clinical forms of presentation of the disease in this age group. All patients aged ≤3 years with neurocysticercosis evaluated at Hospital-Clínica Kennedy, Guayaquil, over a 22-year period were included in this study. Their household contacts were screened to detect Taenia solium carriers, which may represent the source of infection. A literature search on neurocysticercosis in infants and toddlers was also performed to compare personal cases with those described elsewhere. A total of 25 infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis were included (seven from our institution and 18 from the literature). All patients had seizures as the primary manifestation of the disease, and neuroimaging studies showed one or two parenchymal brain cysticerci in the colloidal stage in 88% of patients. The source of infection was investigated in 11 houses, including the seven households of the present series, and only four of the 18 reported in the literature. A Taenia carrier was found in five (45%) of these households, including three from the present series and two from the literature. A sizable proportion of infants and toddlers with neurocysticercosis have been infected at home. Compulsory search of Taenia carriers among household contacts will allow the detection of the potential source of infection and will reduce further spread of the disease. The search must not be limited to family members, but also extended to domestic employees who are in daily contact with the children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Korean Isolate-1 Tachyzoite Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lin, Aifen; Lee, Jo-Woon-Yi; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Isolate-1 (KI-1) antigen for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis, antigen profiles of KI-1 tachyzoites were analyzed in comparison with RH tachyzoites by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. ELISA was performed on latex agglutination (LA)-positive and negative serum samples using KI-1 and RH antigens. Immunoblotting of the KI-1 antigen showed multiple antigen bands with molecular sizes of 22-105 kDa. Among them, 1 and 6 common bands were noted against a KI-1-infect...

  20. NC application to production site; Seisan genba eno NC oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. built for and delivered to the Shinto plant of The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., a manufacturing process management system with NC (network computer) used as an on-site client. This is a core system for manufacturing in the unified logistics plan of The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., and constituted of five servers and about 200 NC client terminals. The on-site client terminals require (1) environmental resistance, (2) easiness of maintenance, and (3) reduction in maintenance control operations, for example. For these requirements, the system employed on-site client terminals by using the features of NC such as (1) it excels in the environmental resistance because of no magnetic disk device and (2) it reduces maintenance and maintenance control operations because of the unified management of software by the servers. Expected from now on are a number of NC applications to manufacturing sites having similar requirements. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Taenia crassiceps injection into the subarachnoid space of rats simulates radiological and morphological features of racemose neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Zanini, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a major public health concern. Although its eradication appears feasible, the disease remains endemic in developing countries and has emerged again in Europe and in the USA. Basic studies on neurocysticercosis are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve treatment perspectives. Much has been published on experimental parenchymal neurocysticercosis, but there are no experimental models of racemose neurocysticercosis. Cysts of Taenia crassiceps were injected into the subarachnoid space of 11 rats. After 4 months, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to verify the occurrence of ventricular dilatation and the distribution of cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments. The histologic assessment was done focusing on changes in the ependyma, choroid plexus, and brain parenchyma. MRI and histologic assessment confirmed the findings similar to those seen in human racemose neurocysticercosis including enlargement of the basal cisterns, hydrocephalus, and inflammatory infiltration through the ependyma and choroid plexus into cerebrospinal fluid spaces. We developed a simple model of racemose neurocysticercosis by injecting cysts of T. crassiceps into the subarachnoid space of rats. This model can help understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease.

  2. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Edson Paz da [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas; Diefenthaeler, Ana Paula [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia e Bioquimica; Palma, Jose Knoll [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2000-02-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographs (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e. 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made. (author)

  3. Improved serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis using the new recombinant 2B2t antigen.

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    Ana Hernández-González

    Full Text Available A standardized test for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE is still needed, because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the currently available commercial tools and the lack of proper evaluation of the existing recombinant antigens. In a previous work, we defined the new ELISA-B2t diagnostic tool for the detection of specific IgGs in CE patients, which showed high sensitivity and specificity, and was useful in monitoring the clinical evolution of surgically treated CE patients. Nevertheless, this recombinant antigen gave rise to false-negative results in a percentage of CE patients. Therefore, in an attempt to improve its sensitivity, we constructed B2t-derived recombinant antigens with two, four and eight tandem repeat of B2t units, and tested them by ELISA on serum samples of CE patients and patients with related parasites. The best diagnostic values were obtained with the two tandem repeat 2B2t antigen. The influence of several clinical variables on the performance of the tests was also evaluated. Finally, the diagnostic performance of the 2B2t-ELISA was compared with that of an indirect haemagglutination commercial test. The 2B2t recombinant antigen performed better than the HF and B2t antigens, and the IHA commercial kit. Therefore, this new 2B2t-ELISA is a promising candidate test for the serodiagnosis of CE in clinical settings.

  4. Reversible dementia due to Neurocysticercosis: improvement of the racemose type with antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Lopes Machado-Porto

    Full Text Available Infection of the human central nervous system (CNS by the larvae of Taenia solium, termed neurocysticercosis (NCC, is endemic in most developing countries, where it is a major cause of acquired seizures and other neurological morbidity, including neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, despite its frequent manifestation, some findings, such as cognitive impairment and dementia, remain poorly understood. Less commonly, NCC may affect the ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces and this form is known as extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. A particular presentation of the subarachnoid form is called racemose cysticercosis, which has a progressive pattern, frequently leads to hydrocephalus and can be life-threatening. Here we review a case of the racemose variety of cysticercosis, complicated by hydrocephalus and reversible dementia, with remission of symptoms after derivation and that remained stable with use of dexchlorpheniramine. We discuss the challenges in diagnosis, imaging findings, treatment and follow-up of this disease.

  5. Intraventricular racemose type neurocysticercosis with anterior interhemispheric fissure cyst: A rare case report

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    Pankaj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Racemose type of neurocysticercosis (NCC is a rare form of parasitic infestation of central nervous system. Most commonly it is found in fourth ventricle and cisterns. On reviewing the PubMed and Google databases, we found that this would be the first reported case of racemose type NCC in occipital horn of lateral ventricle with obstructive hydrocephalus, along with an incidental interhemispheric fissure arachnoid cyst.

  6. Intracerebral neurocysticercosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme: a rare differential diagnosis in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabel, M.; Weber, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Neuen-Jacob, E. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Vogt, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    A 47-year-old Greek man presented with a 4-week history of speech difficulties. CT and MRI revealed a low-density multilobulated cystic frontal mass with peripheral ring contrast enhancement adjacent to the sylvian fissure. Examination was normal. Blood tests revealed leucocytosis (16,000 cells/{mu}l) and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (30/52). A malignant brain tumour was suspected and surgically removed. Histological examination disclosed intracerebral neurocysticercosis. (orig.)

  7. Clinico-radiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in pediatric population in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bandana; Mainali, Prabha; Sayami, Sujan; Shrestha, Om Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosisis common in developing countries including Nepal. Clinicalpresentations vary depending on the CT scan findings of head. Adequate information of neurocysticercosis in children from Western Nepal is lacking. This study was conducted with an objective of evaluating the most common clinical and radiological picture in children suffering from NCC at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Western Nepal. Hospital records of all pediatric inpatients, admitted from 16th June 2010 to 15th December 2012, consistent with the diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis were reviewed. Forty nine cases of neurocysticercosis were enrolled. Their age varied 2.6 years to 14 years with the mean age of 10.6 years and the peak age was at 12 years with slight male predominance, ratio being male:female 1.2:1. The commonest presentation was seizures (n=38; 77.5 %); partial seizures being most common. Most of the lesions were single (n=44; 89.8%), predominantly in the parietal region (n=20; 40.8%) and most were in transitional stage (61.22%) in Computed tomography (CT).However, number of lesions from CT scan of head showed no significance in association with seizure types (p=0.84). In addition, perilesional edema and scolex within the lesion were noted in 67.34% and 18.36% of the cases respectively. Any child presenting with acute onset of afebrile seizure should be screened for neurocysticercosis provided other common infective and metabolic causes are ruled out. CT scan is the valuable diagnostic tool to support our diagnosis.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: bacheschi@henet.usp.br

    2001-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  9. Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Kalipatnam Seshagiri; Adhikari, Sudhir; Gauchan, Eva; Sathian, Brijesh; B. K., Ganesh; Basnet, Sahisnuta; Tiwari, Prabhat Kumar; Bahadur, Namraj; Mishra, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizure disorders in children of Western Nepal. The clinical presentation is variable. The incidence varies depending on the food habits and ethnicity of the population. The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying the mode of presentation, radiological findings and to determine the recent trend of the disease in children of Western Nepal. Methods Records from the Department of Pediatrics, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokha...

  10. Albendazole versus praziquantel in the treatment of neurocysticercosis: a meta-analysis of comparative trials.

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    Dimitrios K Matthaiou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm, is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their effectiveness and safety. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a search in the PubMed database, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and in references of relevant articles. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Albendazole was associated with better control of seizures than praziquantel in the pooled data analysis, when the generic inverse variance method was used to combine the incidence of seizure control in the included trials (patients without seizures/[patients x years at risk] (156 patients in 4 studies, point effect estimate [incidence rate ratio] = 4.94, 95% confidence interval 2.45-9.98. In addition, albendazole was associated with better effectiveness than praziquantel in the total disappearance of cysts (335 patients in 6 studies, random effects model, OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.06-5.00. There was no difference between albendazole and praziquantel in reduction of cysts, proportion of patients with adverse events, and development of intracranial hypertension due to the administered therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A critical review of the available data from comparative trials suggests that albendazole is more effective than praziquantel regarding clinically important outcomes in patients with neurocysticercosis. Nevertheless, given the relative scarcity of trials, more comparative interventional studies--especially randomized controlled trials--are required to draw a safe conclusion about the best regimen for the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis.

  11. Interrelationship between radiologic findings and prognosis of epilepsy in children with neurocysticercosis Interrelação entre achados radiológicos e o prognóstico da epilepsia em crianças com neurocisticercose

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    Lisiane Seguti Ferreira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epileptic manifestations of Neurocysticercosis (NC appear to depend on number and localization of the cysts. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between CT findings, number of parasites and the evolutive stage of the cysts, and the prognosis of epilepsy in children with NC. METHOD: We studied 28 patients with the parenchymal form of NC, considering: epilepsy duration; seizure frequency before and after AED treatment; seizure control; number of AED and recurrence after AED withdrawal. Clinical information was crossed with the number of lesions and disease activity in univariate comparison. RESULTS: The analysis of the clinical data in relation to the number of lesions and disease activity showed no statistical difference among the variables (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the course of epilepsy due to NC in childhood cannot be based exclusively on the number or stage of the parasites.INTRODUÇÃO: As manifestações epilépticas da neurocisticercose (NC parecem depender do número e localização das lesões. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a relação entre os achados de CT, número de parasitas e estágio evolutivo dos cistos, com o prognóstico da epilepsia em crianças. MÉTODO: Nós estudamos 28 pacientes com a forma parenquimatosa da NC, considerando: duração da epilepsia; freqüência de crises antes e após o tratamento com DAE; aquisição de controle; número de drogas e recorrência. Esses aspectos foram correlacionados com o número de lesões e atividade da doença em análise estatística univariada. RESULTADOS: A análise dos dados clínicos em relação ao número de lesões e atividade da doença não revelou diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que o curso da epilepsia por NC na infância não pode se basear exclusivamente no número ou estágio dos parasitas.

  12. A rare case of racemose neurocysticercosis and its complications. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Jaime; Braz, Ana; Conceição, Carla; Rios, Cristina; Reis, João

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a central nervous system infection caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The disease is endemic in Central and South America, Asia and Africa. Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space and is characterized by proliferative lobulated cysts without a scolex. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with an eight-month history of headaches, ataxia and loss of vision. CT and MRI showed an intraventricular cyst, causing entrapment of Monro foramina and hydrocephalus, smaller cysts at subarachnoid space in temporal lobes, Sylvian fissures, supra-selar and perimesencephalic cisterns, and an intra-orbital cyst. Additionally, there were acute ischemic vascular lesions on the left thalamus and corpus callosum splenium and subacute ischemic lesions of both occipital lobes. The diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis was made after biopsy and drainage of the intraventricular cyst. It is important to recognize neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in intra-cranial cysts, not only intraparenchymal cysts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neurocysticercosis at two hospitals in Chiclayo, Peru

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    Giuseppe Rojas-Panta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with neurocysticercosis at two hospitals in Chiclayo, Peru. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed at the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo Hospital and Lambayeque Regional Hospital. Ninety-six (96 medical records of patients attended in 2014 with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis were reviewed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.8 ± 18.8 years old, 52.1% were female, 26% came from Chiclayo and 54.2% received care for the first time. The most common symptom leading to medical consultation was headache. All patients underwent a diagnostic imaging method. The location of the parasite was mostly in the brain and the calcified stage was the most common one. The most widely used treatments were anticonvulsants and pain relievers. Conclusions: Neurocysticercosis mainly affects the economically active population, is more common in women and the most common clinical manifestation is headache

  14. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil Epidemiologia da neurocisticercose no Brasil

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    Svetlana Agapejev

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100% was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67% between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%. In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62% and of the female sex (53-75%. The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 ± 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92% and intracranial hypertension (19-89%. Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical serie and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.Realizou-se revisão da literatura com o objetivo de tentar delinear um perfil epidemiológico da neurocisticercose no Brasil. A prevalência em necrópsias variou de 0,12-9%. A freqüência, nas casuísticas clínicas foi de 0,03-7,5% e, nos estudos soroepidemiológicos, de 0,68-5,2%. Compreendeu 0,08-2,5% das internações em hospitais gerais. A procedência foi rural em 30-63% dos doentes. Comprometeu mais (64-100% na faixa etária dos 11 aos 60 anos, predominantemente (22-67% entre 21 e 40 anos. O sexo masculino foi mais atingido (51-80%. Nas formas graves, houve predomínio da origem urbana (53-62% e do sexo feminino (53-75%. O período de

  15. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Ruth Ann; Wiebe, Sam; Zunt, Joseph R; Halperin, John J; Gronseth, Gary; Roos, Karen L

    2013-04-09

    To review the evidence base for different treatment strategies in intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in adults and children. A literature search of Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Database from 1980 to 2008, updated in 2012, resulted in the identification of 10 Class I or Class II trials of cysticidal drugs administered with or without corticosteroids in the treatment of neurocysticercosis. The available data demonstrate that albendazole therapy, administered with or without corticosteroids, is probably effective in decreasing both long-term seizure frequency and the number of cysts demonstrable radiologically in adults and children with neurocysticercosis, and is well-tolerated. There is insufficient information to assess the efficacy of praziquantel. Albendazole plus either dexamethasone or prednisolone should be considered for adults and children with neurocysticercosis, both to decrease the number of active lesions on brain imaging studies (Level B) and to reduce long-term seizure frequency (Level B). The evidence is insufficient to support or refute the use of steroid treatment alone in patients with intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (Level U).

  16. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Sillas, A; Álvarez-Luquín, D D; Cárdenas, G; Casanova-Hernández, D; Fragoso, G; Hernández, M; Proaño Narváez, J V; García-Vázquez, F; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E; Adalid-Peralta, L

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. It is considered that, during co-evolution, the parasite developed strategies to modulate the host's immune response. The action mechanisms of regulatory T cells in controlling the immune response in neurocysticercosis are studied in this work. Higher blood levels of regulatory T cells with CD4(+) CD45RO(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(high) and CD4(+) CD25(high) FoxP3(+) CD95(high) phenotype and of non-regulatory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) FoxP3(med) T cells were found in neurocysticercosis patients with respect to controls. Interestingly, regulatory T cells express higher levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells. Furthermore, higher IL-10 and regulatory T cell type 1 (Tr1) levels were found in neurocysticercosis patients' peripheral blood, suggesting that the action mechanism of regulatory T cells involves the release of immunomodulatory cytokines. No evidence was found of the regulatory T cell role in inhibiting the proliferative response. Suppressive regulatory T cells from neurocysticercosis patients correlated negatively with late activated lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD38(+) ). Our results suggest that, during neurocysticercosis, regulatory T cells could control the immune response, probably by a cell-to-cell contact with dendritic cells and interleukin (IL)-10 release by Tr1, to create an immunomodulatory environment that may favour the development of T. solium cysticerci and their permanence in the central nervous system. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Influence of the cerebrospinal fluid laboratory parameters in the ELISA test for neurocysticercosis using a total cysticerci antigen Influência dos parâmetros laboratoriais do líquido cefalorraquidiano no teste ELISA para neurocisticercose utilizando antígeno total de cisticerco

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    Cristiane S. Casanova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters may influence the cysticercosis immunoreactivity response in the CSF. CSF samples of 109 patients were analyzed and classified in three groups, according to the neurological manifestations and the reactivity in antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA testing in CSF for neurocysticercosis (NC: group A, 18 patients with neurological disorders compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC; group B, 50 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA for NC; group C, 41 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and non-reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC. The CSF analysis in group A was compatible with NC. The group B in comparison to the groups A and C presents higher frequency and intensity of hypercytosis, presence of red blood cells in CSF, protein concentration and immunological reactive test for other etiological agents (pAvaliar se os parâmetros do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR podem influenciar na reatividade da resposta imune específica do LCR na neurocisticercose (NC. Amostras de LCR de 109 pacientes foram analisadas e classificadas em três grupos, de acordo com as manifestações neurológicas e reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. Grupo A, 18 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo B, 50 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo C, 41 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e na ausência de reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. A análise do LCR do grupo A foi compatível com NC. O grupo B apresentou maior freqüência e intensidade da pleocitose, da presença de hemácias no LCR, hiperproteinorraquia, reatividade imune para outros agentes etiológicos em comparação aos grupos A e C (p<0.05. Os dados indicam

  19. The effect of albendazole treatment on seizure outcomes in patients with symptomatic neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Wyka, Katarzyna; Carpio, Arturo; Leslie, Denise; Andrews, Howard; Bagiella, Emilia; Hauser, W Allen; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials have found an inconsistent effect of anthelmintic treatment on long-term seizure outcomes in neurocysticercosis. The objective of this study was to further explore the effect of albendazole treatment on long-term seizure outcomes and to determine if there is evidence for a differential effect by seizure type. In this trial, 178 patients with active or transitional neurocysticercosis cysts and new-onset symptoms were randomized to 8 days of treatment with albendazole (n=88) or placebo (n=90), both with prednisone, and followed for 24 months. We used negative binomial regression and logistic regression models to determine the effect of albendazole on the number of seizures and probability of recurrent or new-onset seizures, respectively, over follow-up. Treatment with albendazole was associated with a reduction in the number of seizures during 24 months of follow-up, but this was only significant for generalized seizures during months 1-12 (unadjusted rate ratio [RR] 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04-0.91) and months 1-24 (unadjusted RR 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.57). We did not detect a significant effect of albendazole on reducing the number of focal seizures or on the probability of having a seizure, regardless of seizure type or time period. Albendazole treatment may be associated with some symptomatic improvement; however, this association seems to be specific to generalized seizures. Future research is needed to identify strategies to better reduce long-term seizure burden in patients with neurocysticercosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Current status and future perspectives on the medical treatment of neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Neurological disease resulting from neurocysticercosis (NCC) is common in most of the world. The variability in the biology of the infection and in its clinical manifestations has led to much confusion regarding appropriate management. Therapeutic options have evolved from surgery, symptomatic measures, and steroids, to include the use of anti-parasitic drugs and minimally invasive neurosurgery. This manuscript reviews the principles of medical therapy for NCC, from discussion of the need for individualized management approaches for each type of NCC to exploration of the most likely potential additions or modifications currently under study. PMID:23265555

  1. Gigantic neurocysticercosis: diagnosis and therapy;Neurocisticercose gigante: diagnostico e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rafael Augusto Castro Santiago; Dellaretti Filho, Marcos Antonio, E-mail: rafabrand@hotmail.co [Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Tadeu Wilker; Totola, Paolo Victor Fernandes; Fonseca, Vinicius Silveira; Souza, Warley Cristiano de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2010-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system. Considered a global epidemic, the parasite presents, mainly, as asymptomatic. Usually treatment is clinical, but in some selected cases surgical intervention is a good treatment option. In our case, keeping in view the magnitude of intracranial injury, surgery was the therapy chosen. A female patient, aged 54, Mulatto, native of Novo Cruzeiro (MG) and raised in Belo Horizonte. Presented with intense frontal headache, which progressed to right hemiparesis and seizure. Ten days after onset of symptoms, sought the service of emergency care. Tomography (CT) revealed a hypodense area in left frontoparietal region with characteristics of cystic lesion.

  2. Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia de Assunção; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Rezende, Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2010-01-01

    Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68 kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

  3. Development of an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Botta, Fabio Pires; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2015-12-01

    To develop an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus There were used 17 rats. Ten animals were inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysts into the subarachnoid. Five animals were injected with 0. ml of 25% kaolin (a standard solution for the development of experimental hydrocephalus) and two animals were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate enlargement of the ventricles after one or three months of inoculation. Volumetric study was used to quantify the ventricle enlargement. Seven of the 10 animals in the cyst group developed hydrocephalus, two of them within one month and five within three months after inoculation. Three of the five animals in the kaolin group had hydrocephalus and none in the saline group. Ventricle volumes were significantly higher in the 3-months MRI cyst subgroup than in the 1-month cyst subgroup. Differences between cyst subgroups and kaolin group did not reach statistical significance. The developed model may reproduce the human condition of neurocysticercosis-related hydrocephalus, which exhibits a slowly progressive chronic course.

  4. The Impact of Neurocysticercosis in California: A Review of Hospitalized Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Redelings, Matthew; Reporter, Roshan; Sorvillo, Frank; Mascola, Laurene; Wilkins, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    To assess the burden of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in California we examined statewide hospital discharge data for 2009. There were 304 cases hospitalized with NCC identified (incidence = 0.8 per 100,000). Cases were mostly Latino (84.9%), slightly more likely to be male than female (men 57.6%, women 42.4%) with an average age of 43.5 years. A majority of cases were hospitalized in Southern California (72.1%) and many were hospitalized in Los Angeles County (44.7%). Men were more likely than women to have severe disease including hydrocephalus (29.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.027), resulting in longer hospitalizations (>4 days, 48.0% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.007) that were more costly (charge>$40 thousand men = 46.9% vs. woman = 4.1%, p = 0.026). Six deaths were recorded (2.0%). The total of NCC-related hospital charges exceeded $17 million; estimated hospital costs exceeded $5 million. Neurocysticercosis causes appreciable disease and exacts a considerable economic burden in California. PMID:22292097

  5. Cognitive and behaviour dysfunction of children with neurocysticercosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajniti; Shambhavi; Mishra, Om P; Upadhyay, Shashi K; Singh, Tej B; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2014-10-01

    Eighty-three confirmed cases of neurocysticercosis diagnosed as per modified delBrutto criteria were enrolled in the study (Group-I) to observe cognitive and behavioural changes. Controls consisted of two groups: children with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (Group-II) and normal children with non-specific cough (Group-III). Cases and controls were subjected to cognitive and behaviour assessment. There was significant difference in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of cases in domains of visual perception, immediate recall, analysis synthesis and reasoning, verbal ability, memory and spatial ability. In the age group of 6-18 years, cases had significantly more behaviour problems than control without seizure, in domains of anxious depressed, withdrawn depressed, somatic problems, social problems and rule-breaking behaviour. Neurocysticercosis causes decline in cognitive function and behaviours in older children, which should be recognized early for appropriate management and to avoid undue parental anxiety. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cysticidal therapy: impact on seizure control in epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I C; Kobayashi, E; Cardoso, T M; Guerreiro, C A; Cendes, F

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and seizure control of epilepsy related to neurocysticercosis. 18 patients with partial epilepsy and neurocysticercosis were treated with albendazol or praziquantel and followed from 3 months to 12 years. We analyzed results from the CSF exam, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), head computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. The patients' mean age was 36.4 years. The mean duration of epilepsy was 16 years. 83% patients had simple partial seizures; 17% had complex partial seizures. All patients underwent routine EEGs: 62% had abnormalities and 38% were normal. A relationship was observed between focal EEG abnormality and the location of cyst in 28% of the patients. The CSF exams showed pleocytosis in 33% of the patients, and 28% had elevated protein levels. Only 22% of patients had positive titer for cysticercosis in the CSF. In all patients who had somatosensory and special sensory seizures there was a relationship between location of the cysts and seizure semiology (n=11). After cysticidal therapy, 83% patients had a significant improvement in controlling seizures. In this group, we found a predominance of simple partial seizures and a relationship between somatosensory and special sensory seizures and the location of the cysts. Cysticidal therapy was effective in controlling seizures in these patients and should be considered for patients with partial seizures and semiology related to cyst location.

  7. Opportunities for Improved Serodiagnosis of Human Tuberculosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, and Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial infections—tuberculosis (TB, bovine tuberculosis (bTB, and Johne’s disease (JD—are major infectious diseases of both human and animals. Methods presently in use for diagnosis of mycobacterial infections include bacterial culture, nucleic acid amplification, tuberculin skin test, interferon-γ assay, and serology. Serological tests have several advantages over other methods, including short turn-around time, relatively simple procedures, and low cost. However, current serodiagnostic methods for TB, bTB and JD exhibit low sensitivity and/or specificity. Recent studies that have aimed to develop improved serodiagnostic tests have mostly focused on identifying useful species-specific protein antigens. A review of recent attempts to improve diagnostic test performance indicates that the use of multiple antigens can improve the accuracy of serodiagnosis of these mycobacterial diseases. Mycobacteria also produce a variety of species-specific nonprotein molecules; however, only a few such molecules (e.g., cord factor and lipoarabinomannan have so far been evaluated for their effectiveness as diagnostic antigens. For TB and bTB, there has been recent progress in developing laboratory-free diagnostic methods. New technologies such as microfluidics and “Lab-on-Chip” are examples of promising new technologies that can underpin development of laboratory-free diagnostic devices for these mycobacterial infections.

  8. Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow immunoassay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease worldwide and is caused by species of the genus Fasciola (F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Human fasciolosis can be diagnosed by classical coprological techniques, such as the Kato-Katz test, to reveal parasite eggs in faeces. However, although 100% specific, these methods are generally not adequate for detection of acute infections, ectopic infections, or infections with low number of parasites. In such cases immunological methods may be a good alternative and are recommended for use in major hospitals where trained personnel are available, although they are not usually implemented for individual testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a new lateral flow test (SeroFluke for the serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis. The new test was constructed with a recombinant cathepsin L1 from F. hepatica, and uses protein A and mAb MM3 as detector reagents in the test and control lines, respectively. In comparison with an ELISA test (MM3-SERO the SeroFluke test showed maximal specificity and sensitivity and can be used with serum or whole blood samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new test can be used in major hospitals in hypoendemic countries as well as in endemic/hyperendemic regions where point-of-care testing is required.

  9. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs.

  10. Utility of Bartonella henselae IgM Western Blot Bands for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Yoshidomi, Hiroka; Haraguchi, Mio; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Nojima, Junzo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of Western blot (WB) bands of Bartonella henselae in detecting anti-B. henselae immunoglobulin M (IgM) for serodiagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD). IgM band patterns were examined using sera from 92 patients clinically suspected of having CSD and from 130 healthy individuals. Positive WB bands were observed in 49 (53.5%) of the 92 patient sera. Three bands at 8 to 10, 31 to 35, and 70 kDa were regarded as relevant for B. henselae because all of the positive sera yielded at least one of the three bands, and none of the healthy control sera showed reactivity to any of them. In contrast, the positive rate of the patient sera by conventional indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA) for B. henselae IgM was 28.3% (26/92) among the patients. These finding suggest that the IgM-WB assay, although cumbersome to perform, can be used for confirmatory diagnosis of CSD with no false positivity in the control sera. Purification of proteins in the specific bands may contribute to the development of an IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) with improved specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of Fasciola adult worm vomit for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsibaei, Mahmoud Mohamed; Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil; Mohammed, Basant Osama

    2013-05-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of Fasciola gigantica adult worm vomit (AWV) preparation in diagnosis of human fasciolosis was evaluated using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Falcon assay screening test (FAST)-ELISA in comparison with F. gigantica adult total soluble extract (TSE). Sera of fasciolosis patients, patients with other parasitic diseases (hydatid disease, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, and amebiasis), and sera of healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. The results showed that the sensitivity of both conventional ELISA and FAST-ELISA was improved from 95 % using TSE to 100 % when using AWV. The specificity of conventional ELISA was 93.3 % using TSE and increased to 96.7 % using AWV. The specificity of FAST-ELISA using TSE was 96.7 % and became 100 % AWV antigen. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional ELISA was 94 % using TSE and increased to 98 % using AWV. The diagnostic accuracy of FAST-ELISA was 96 % using TSE and increased to 100 % using AWV. It is concluded that both TSE and AWV antigenic preparations are efficient for use in the serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.

  12. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  13. Evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer antigenic preparation in serodiagnosis of paramphistomiasis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Cheshti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Fomada, Bashir Ahmad; Raina, O K

    2014-04-01

    An evaluation of Gastrothylax crumenifer crude antigen preparation viz., Somatic Antigen (SAg), Excretory Secretory Antigen (ESAg) and Egg Antigen (EAg) in serodiagnosis of disease was undertaken. Test sera samples were obtained from 30 Paramphistomiasis Positive and 30 Gastrothylax free sheep slaughtered at Hazratbal Kashmir. The referral antigenic preparation were evaluated against Paramphistomiasis positive sera, via., control negative sera, using double immunodiffusion test (DID), (IEP) Immunoelectrophoretic assay and ELISA. The performance of referral antigens, as assessed from percent sensitivity and specificity, revealed an increasing trend from DID (Double immunodiffusion-An immunological technique used in the detection, identification and quantification of antibodies and antigens) to IEP (immunoelectrophoresis-A general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies), followed by ELISA, detecting higher number of sheep positive for paramphistomiasis. In ELISA the ESAg and SAg were evaluated as most reactive antigens with no significant difference and EAg was the least antigenic. In IEP, EAg had the higher sensitivity (60%) and analogous specificity of SAg and ESAg. The formation of the preceptin lines in the proximity to EAg containing wells (cathode end) in IEP was suggestive of higher molecular weight of G. crumenifer specific protein molecules with slower rate of migration. Purification and characterization of G. crumenifer and identification of specific antigenic molecules, particularly in EAg has been suggested for qualitative improvement of diagnostic value of the antigens in the tests used here in.

  14. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  15. Use of saprophytic leptospira strains in the serodiagnosis of experimental leptospirosis in guinea-pigs (Cavia sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul J. S. Girio

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Leptospira biflexa strains (Buenos Aires, Patoc 1, Rufino and São Paulo as single antigen in the serodiagnosis in guinea-pigs experimentally infected with seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, tarassovi and wolffi was evaluated by the microscopic agglutination test. The four saprophytic strains were not able to reveal antibody titres in sera of guinea-pigs experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Serological cross-reactions were observed between strains Patoc 1 and São Paulo and between serovars wolffi and hardjo.

  16. Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a peptide sequence from gene B protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gaafar, A; Ismail, A

    1996-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a 28 amino acid sequence of the repetitive element of gene B protein (GBP) from Leishmania major was developed for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was compared to ELISAs using crude amastigote and promastigote antigens from...... samples from healthy Sudanese individuals living in an area endemic for malaria but free of leish-maniasis were negative in all the assays. Significantly higher levels of antibodies were found in the patients who had suffered from the disease for more than eight weeks than in patients with a shorter...

  17. Evaluation of the direct agglutination test based on freeze-dried Leishmania donovani promastigotes for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudanese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Khalid A. A.; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Mergani, Adil; Hamid, Zohal; Elkarim, Abdallah Abd; Saeed, Osman K.; Mohamadani, Ahmed A.

    2004-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) based on freeze-dried (FD) Leishmania donovani antigen was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of kala-azar in a rural setting in eastern Sudan. The performance of the FD-DAT was compared with standard liquid antigen (LQ) by testing serum samples and blood samples

  18. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  19. Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.

  20. The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST, T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001. Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

  1. Early serodiagnosis of trichinellosis by ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge-Ge; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Liu, Chun-Ying; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo-Dan; Wen, Hui; Qi, Xin; Wang, Li; Cui, Jing

    2015-09-23

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis. Their main disadvantage for the detection of anti-Trichinella IgG is false-negative results during the early stage of infection. Additionally, there is an obvious window between clinical symptoms and positive serology. ELISA with adult worm (AW) ES antigens was used to detect anti-Trichinella IgG in the sera of experimentally infected mice and patients with trichinellosis. The sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISAs with AW crude antigens and ML ES antigens. In mice infected with 100 ML, anti-Trichinella IgG were first detected by ELISA with the AW ES antigens, crude antigens and ML ES antigens 8, 12 and 12 days post-infection (dpi), respectively. In mice infected with 500 ML, specific antibodies were first detected by ELISA with the three antigen preparations at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively. The sensitivity of the ELISA with the three antigen preparations for the detection of sera from patients with trichinellosis at 35 dpi was 100%. However, when the patients' sera were collected at 19 dpi, the sensitivities of the ELISAs with the three antigen preparations were 100% (20/20), 100% (20/20) and 75% (15/20), respectively (P < 0.05). The specificities of the ELISAs with the three antigen preparations were 98.11, 95.60 and 89.31%, respectively (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the T. spiralis AW ES antigens were superior to those of the AW crude antigens and ML ES antigens. Thus, the AW ES antigens might serve as potential antigens for the early and specific serodiagnosis of trichinellosis.

  2. Serodiagnosis of chronic Chagas infection by using EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Yara M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A kit based on an enzyme immunoassay, EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos, developed by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of chronic Chagas disease. Evaluation was performed with 368 serum samples collected from individuals living in an endemic area for Chagas disease: 131 patients in the chronic phase with confirmed clinical, epidemiological, and serological diagnosis (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 237 nonchagasic seronegative individuals were considered negative control. The EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos kit showed high sensitivity, 100% (CI 95%: 96.4-100% and high specificity, 100% (CI 95%: 98-100%. The data obtained were in full agreement with clinical and conventional serology data. In addition, no cross-reaction was observed with sera from patients with cutaneous (n=14 and visceral (n=3 leishmaniasis. However, when these sera were tested by conventional serological assays for Chagas disease, cross-reactions were detected in 14.3% and 33.3% of the patients with cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. No cross-reactions were observed when sera from nonchagasic seronegative patients bearing other infectious disease (syphilis, n=8; HTLV, n=8; HCV, n=7 and HBV, n=12 were tested. In addition, sera of patients with inconclusive results for Chagas disease by conventional serology showed results in agreement with clinical evaluation, when tested by the kit. These results are relevant and indicate that the refered kit provides a safe immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease and could be used in blood bank screening.

  3. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations. PMID:26682841

  4. Antiepileptic drug therapy and recommendations for withdrawal in patients with seizures and epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; García, Héctor H; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2016-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a leading causes of secondary epilepsy worldwide. There is increasing evidence on the epileptogenic role of NCC, and the presence of edema, calcified scars, gliosis and hippocampal sclerosis support this phenomenon. We summarized principles of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy as well as risk factors associated with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal in patients with NCC. Expert commentary: First-line AED monotherapy is effective as a standard approach to control seizures in most NCC patients. Risks and benefits of AED withdrawal have not been systematically studied, and this decision must be individualized. However, a seizure-free period of at least two years seem prudent before attempting withdrawal. Risk factors for seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal include a history of status epilepticus, poor seizure control during treatment, neuroimaging evidence of perilesional gliosis, hippocampal sclerosis and calcified lesions, as well as persistence of paroxysmal activity in the EEG.

  5. Follow-up of neurocysticercosis patients after treatment using an antigen detection ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguekam

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients with active neurocysticercosis (NCC received an eight days treatment with albendazole and were followed up using computed tomography (CT-scan and a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen (Ag-ELISA. Only three patients were cured as was shown by CT-scan and by the disappearance of circulating antigens one month after treatment. After a second course of albendazole therapy, two other patients became seronegative. CT-scan showed the disappearance of viable cysts in all persons who became seronegative whereas patients who were not cured remained seropositive. These preliminary results show that this Ag-ELISA is a promising technique for monitoring the success of treatment of NCC patients because of the excellent correlation between the presence of circulating antigens and of viable brain cysts.

  6. Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kalipatnam Seshagiri; Adhikari, Sudhir; Gauchan, Eva; Sathian, Brijesh; B K, Ganesh; Basnet, Sahisnuta; Tiwari, Prabhat Kumar; Bahadur, Namraj; Mishra, Rajnish

    2017-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizure disorders in children of Western Nepal. The clinical presentation is variable. The incidence varies depending on the food habits and ethnicity of the population. The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying the mode of presentation, radiological findings and to determine the recent trend of the disease in children of Western Nepal. Records from the Department of Pediatrics, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal of children aged 0-17 years admitted from 2003 to 2015 and with the discharge diagnosis of seizure and neurocysticercosis (NCC) were reviewed. The diagnosis was primarily based on clinical features, neurological involvement and CT and MRI studies. Seizures due to other CNS pathologies were excluded. Patients with NCC were treated with Albendazole15mg/kg/day for 28 days with supportive treatments for seizures and raised intracranial pressure. Patients were followed up for one year after the completion of the treatment. There were 1355 cases of seizure disorders, out of which 229 (16.90%) were NCC. There were 99 (43.23%) in the age group 6-10 years followed by 91 (41.09%) in the age group of 11-15 years. Seizures were the most common presenting symptom in 88.65%, followed by raised ICP in 9.61%. Neuropsychiatric changes were noted in 38 cases (16.59%). CT scan findings revealed single lesion in 78.16% and multiple lesions in 21.83%. Poisson regression analysis showed statistically significant decline of year-wise incidence of NCC cases (p<0.05) from 2003 to 2015. The decline in the incidence of NCC in recent years is most probably attributed to improved hygiene with the construction of household toilets to avoid open defecation and biannual deworming with Albendazole as a part of School Health and Nutrition Project.

  7. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Blocher, Joachim; Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K; Winkler, Andrea S; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium.

  8. Albendazole metabolism in patients with neurocysticercosis: antipyrine as a multifunctional marker drug of cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Marques

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the isoform(s of cytochrome P450 (CYP involved in the metabolism of albendazole sulfoxide (ASOX to albendazole sulfone (ASON in patients with neurocysticercosis using antipyrine as a multifunctional marker drug. The study was conducted on 11 patients with neurocysticercosis treated with a multiple dose regimen of albendazole for 8 days (5 mg/kg every 8 h. On the 5th day of albendazole treatment, 500 mg antipyrine was administered po. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 72 h after antipyrine administration. Plasma concentrations of (+-ASOX, (--ASOX and ASON were determined by HPLC using a chiral phase column and detection by fluorescence. The apparent clearance (CL/f of ASON and of the (+ and (--ASOX enantiomers were calculated and compared to total antipyrine clearance (CL T and the clearance for the production of the three major antipyrine metabolites (CLm. A correlation (P<=0.05 was obtained only between the CL T of antipyrine and the CL/f of ASON (r = 0.67. The existence of a correlation suggests the involvement of CYP isoforms common to the metabolism of antipyrine and of ASOX to ASON. Since the CL T of antipyrine is a general measure of CYP enzymes but with a slight to moderate weight toward CYP1A2, we suggest the involvement of this enzyme in ASOX to ASON metabolism in man. The study supports the establishment of a specific marker drug of CYP1A2 in the study of the in vivo metabolism of ASOX to ASON.

  9. Pourradiculoneurite e neurocisticercose: relato de caso Polyradiculoneuropathy and neurocysticercosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Agapejev

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de doente com forma hidrocefálica e meningoencefalítica de neurocisticercose que, na primeira semana de tratamento com albendazol, desenvolveu simultaneamente polirradiculoneurite e síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana. São relacionados vários agentes etiológicos encontrados na literatura associados à polirradiculoneurite. Comenta-se sobre a possível fisiopatogenia desta entidade na vigência de cisticercose. Faz-se menção a outro caso que apresentou polirradiculoneurite, do tipo síndrome de Guillain-Barré, como única manifestação de provável cisticercose de sistema nervoso. No caso apresentado, além da própria neurocisticercose, o stress cirúrgico e aquele relativo à gravidade do quadro clínico, um possível efeito colateral do albendazol - ou, até mesmo, uma simples coincidência - podem ser considerados como fatores relacionados à presença de polirradiculoneurite nesse doente.Report of a patient with the hydrocephalic and meningoencephalitic form of neurocysticercosis who simultaneously developed polyradiculoneuropathy and intracranial hypertension syndrome during the first week of treatment with albendazole. Etiologic agents associated with polyradiculoneuropathy related in the literature are cited. Some comments about the possible physiopathogeny of this entity in the presence of cysticercosis are also done. It is mentioned another case who presented polyradiculoneuropathy as the only manifestation of a probable cysticercosis of the nervous system. In this presented case, including the neurocysticercosis and even a mere coincidence of facts, some factors can have a relationship with the appearance of polyradiculoneuropathy as the surgical stress, the stress due to the severity of the clinical picture and the possible side effect of albendazole.

  10. Time trend of neurocysticercosis in children with seizures in a tertiary hospital of western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common cause of seizure disorders in children of Western Nepal. The clinical presentation is variable. The incidence varies depending on the food habits and ethnicity of the population. The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying the mode of presentation, radiological findings and to determine the recent trend of the disease in children of Western Nepal.Records from the Department of Pediatrics, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal of children aged 0-17 years admitted from 2003 to 2015 and with the discharge diagnosis of seizure and neurocysticercosis (NCC were reviewed. The diagnosis was primarily based on clinical features, neurological involvement and CT and MRI studies. Seizures due to other CNS pathologies were excluded. Patients with NCC were treated with Albendazole15mg/kg/day for 28 days with supportive treatments for seizures and raised intracranial pressure. Patients were followed up for one year after the completion of the treatment.There were 1355 cases of seizure disorders, out of which 229 (16.90% were NCC. There were 99 (43.23% in the age group 6-10 years followed by 91 (41.09% in the age group of 11-15 years. Seizures were the most common presenting symptom in 88.65%, followed by raised ICP in 9.61%. Neuropsychiatric changes were noted in 38 cases (16.59%. CT scan findings revealed single lesion in 78.16% and multiple lesions in 21.83%. Poisson regression analysis showed statistically significant decline of year-wise incidence of NCC cases (p<0.05 from 2003 to 2015.The decline in the incidence of NCC in recent years is most probably attributed to improved hygiene with the construction of household toilets to avoid open defecation and biannual deworming with Albendazole as a part of School Health and Nutrition Project.

  11. Feasibility of a lateral flow test for neurocysticercosis using novel up-converting nanomaterials and a lightweight strip analyzer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L A M Corstjens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain, occurring in most of the world, and requires imaging of the brain to diagnose. To determine the burden of disease and to simplify diagnosis, a field-friendly rapid lateral flow (LF based antibody screening test was developed. The assay utilizes novel nano-sized up-converting phosphor (UCP reporter particles in combination with a portable lightweight analyzer and detects antibodies in serum samples reactive with bacterial-expressed recombinant (r T24H, a marker for detecting neurocysticercosis cases. Three sequential flow steps allow enrichment of antibodies on the Test (T line and consecutive binding of protein-A coated UCP reporter particles. Antibody binding was determined by measuring 550 nm emission after excitation of the UCP label with a 980 nm infrared (IR diode. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay to detect cases of human neurocysticercosis with 2 or more viable brain cysts were 96% and 98%, respectively, using a sample set comprised of sera from 63 confirmed cases and 170 healthy parasite-naïve non-endemic controls.Proof-of-principle, of a rapid UCP-LF screening assay for neurocysticercosis was demonstrated. The assay utilized bacterial-expressed rT24H as a potential alternative for baculovirus-expressed rT24H. Performance of the UCP-LF assay was excellent, although further studies need to confirm that bacterial expressed antigen can entirely replace previously used baculovirus antigen. In addition, the increasing availability of commercial sources for UCP reporter materials as well as the accessibility of affordable semi-handheld scanners may allow UCP-based bioanalytical systems for point-of-care to evolve at an even faster pace.

  12. Feasibility of a lateral flow test for neurocysticercosis using novel up-converting nanomaterials and a lightweight strip analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; de Dood, Claudia J; Priest, Jeffrey W; Tanke, Hans J; Handali, Sukwan

    2014-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a frequent parasitic infection of the human brain, occurring in most of the world, and requires imaging of the brain to diagnose. To determine the burden of disease and to simplify diagnosis, a field-friendly rapid lateral flow (LF) based antibody screening test was developed. The assay utilizes novel nano-sized up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles in combination with a portable lightweight analyzer and detects antibodies in serum samples reactive with bacterial-expressed recombinant (r) T24H, a marker for detecting neurocysticercosis cases. Three sequential flow steps allow enrichment of antibodies on the Test (T) line and consecutive binding of protein-A coated UCP reporter particles. Antibody binding was determined by measuring 550 nm emission after excitation of the UCP label with a 980 nm infrared (IR) diode. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay to detect cases of human neurocysticercosis with 2 or more viable brain cysts were 96% and 98%, respectively, using a sample set comprised of sera from 63 confirmed cases and 170 healthy parasite-naïve non-endemic controls. Proof-of-principle, of a rapid UCP-LF screening assay for neurocysticercosis was demonstrated. The assay utilized bacterial-expressed rT24H as a potential alternative for baculovirus-expressed rT24H. Performance of the UCP-LF assay was excellent, although further studies need to confirm that bacterial expressed antigen can entirely replace previously used baculovirus antigen. In addition, the increasing availability of commercial sources for UCP reporter materials as well as the accessibility of affordable semi-handheld scanners may allow UCP-based bioanalytical systems for point-of-care to evolve at an even faster pace.

  13. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clinical Symptoms, Imaging Features and Cyst Distribution in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Compartments in Patients with Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho; Odashima, Newton Satoru; Dos Santos, Antônio Carlos; Elias Júnior, Jorge; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Fleury, Agnès; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2016-11-01

    Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis has an aggressive course because cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments induce acute inflammatory reactions. The relationships between symptoms, imaging findings, lesion type and location remain poorly understood. In this retrospective clinical records-based study, we describe the clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cyst distribution in the CSF compartments of 36 patients with extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. Patients were recruited between 1995 and 2010 and median follow up was 38 months. During all the follow up time we found that 75% (27/36) of the patients had symptoms related to raised intracranial pressure sometime, 72.2% (26/36) cysticercotic meningitis, 61.1% (22/36) seizures, and 50.0% (18/36) headaches unrelated to intracranial pressure. Regarding lesion types, 77.8% (28/36) of patients presented with grape-like cysts, 22.2% (8/36) giant cysts, and 61.1% (22/36) contrast-enhancing lesions. Hydrocephalus occurred in 72.2% (26/36) of patients during the follow-up period. All patients had cysts in the subarachnoid space and 41.7% (15/36) had at least one cyst in some ventricle. Cysts were predominantly located in the posterior fossa (31 patients) and supratentorial basal cisterns (19 patients). The fourth ventricle was the main compromised ventricle (10 patients). Spinal cysts were more frequent than previously reported (11.1%, 4/36). Our findings are useful for both diagnosis and treatment selection in patients with neurocysticercosis.

  15. Unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis in MR imaging: analysis of 172 cases; Manifestacoes incomuns na ressonancia magnetica da neurocisticercose: analise de 172 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Lazaro; Ferreira, Nelson Fortes; Mendonca, Renato [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem]. E-mail: lazden.terra.com.br; Maschietto, Murilo; Maschietto, Roberta; Cury, Ricardo [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica; Lima, Sergio Santos [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem. Dept. de Imagens

    2003-09-01

    The typical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are described widely in the literature. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the uncommon presentations of different forms of neurocysticercosis in MR imaging. A retrospective analysis of 172 cases of neurocysticercosis in MR studies was carried out over a period of 13 years. One hundred and four males and 68 females with a mean age of 32 {+-} 3.7 years were studied. The studies were performed on 1.5 T G E MR units and T1 was used before and after gadolinium injection, T2 and gradient-echo (T2*) sequences. The authors divided the unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis into: intraventricular, subarachnoid, spinal, orbital, intra parenchymatous, and reactivation of previously calcified lesions. The results obtained were: intra parenchymatous 95 cases (55.23%); intraventricular 27 cases (15.69%); subarachnoid 20 cases (11.63%); spinal 6 cases (3.49%); orbital 1 case (0.58%); reactivated lesion 1 case (0.58%); association of intraventricular and intra parenchymatous 12 cases (6.98%); association of subarachnoid and intra parenchymatous 6 cases (3.49%); association of subarachnoid and intraventricular, 4 cases (2.32%). MR imaging is a sensitive and specific method in the analysis of different forms of unusual manifestations of neurocysticercosis, which should appear in the differential diagnosis of parenchymal, ventricular, spinal, cysternal, and orbital lesions. (author)

  16. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Durham, NC EnviroAtlas Area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  17. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  18. TNF-α blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mahanty

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN, an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX, a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ.We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9, pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6, and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6. The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3. As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA4, interleukin (IL-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF1, angiopoietin (Ang1, Ang 2, and

  19. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os

  20. Pediatric neurocysticercosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India...

  1. [Pediatric neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment.

  2. Subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Lima, Mayara I S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G P; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Andrade, Pedro H R; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs.

  3. Cloning and characterization of two recombinant Neospora protein fragments and their use in serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, K; Sverlow, K W; Barr, B C; Anderson, M L; Conrad, P A

    1997-01-01

    Bovine neosporosis causes fetal abortion and/or congenital neurologic disease in cattle. For the serodiagnosis of this parasitic disease, two immunodominant clones from a bovine Neospora lambda gt11 library were identified, characterized, and expressed as recombinant proteins for the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These two clones, designated N54 and N57, were 29 and 20 kDa, respectively, when expressed as histidine fusion proteins from the pRSET expression vector. Antibodies to recombinant protein N54 recognized five major bands from a Neospora tachyzoite lysate with molecular masses of 97, 87, 77, 67, and 64 kDa. Antibodies to recombinant protein N57 recognized four primary bands with molecular masses of 34, 31, 30, and 28 kDa. When a defined "gold standard" panel of bovine sera from confirmed Neospora-positive and Neospora-negative cattle were characterized by immunoblotting, 57 of the 60 Neospora-positive serum samples recognized proteins with the molecular masses of the N54 heptuplet. Binding to the N57 quadruplet was more variable. The same gold standard panel was used to evaluate and compare an N54-based ELISA, an N57-based ELISA, and a whole-tachyzoite lysate-based ELISA. The sensitivities and specificities were 95 and 96% (N54 ELISA), 82 and 93% (N57 ELISA), and 74 and 93% (lysate ELISA). Thus, compared to the whole-tachyzoite lysate-based ELISA, both recombinant-protein-based ELISAs had higher sensitivities and higher or the same specificities and can be used to replace the whole-tachyzoite lysate ELISA for the serodiagnosis of bovine neosporosis. PMID:9384291

  4. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, pdomestic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcified neurocysticercosis lesions and antiepileptic drug-resistant epilepsy: a surgically remediable syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Thomas, Bejoy; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Abraham, Mathew; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2013-10-01

    In contrast to the well-recognized association between acute symptomatic seizures and neurocysticercosis, the association between antiepileptic drug (AED)-resistant epilepsy and calcified neurocysticercosis lesions (CNLs) is poorly understood. We studied the association between AED-resistant epilepsy and CNLs, including the feasibility and outcome of resective surgery. From the prospective database maintained at our epilepsy center, we reviewed the data of all patients with AED-resistant epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation from January 2001 to July 2010 and had CNL on imaging. We used clinical, neuroimaging, and interictal, ictal, and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) findings to determine the association between CNL and epilepsy. Suitable candidates underwent resective surgery. Forty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 17 patients, CNL was proven to be the causative lesion for AED-resistant epilepsy (group 1); in 18 patients, CNL was associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS; group 2); and in 10 patients, CNLs were considered as incidental lesions (group 3). In group 1 patients, CNLs were more common in frontal lobes (12/17), whereas in group 2 patients, CNLs were more commonly located in temporal lobes (11/18; p = 0.002). Group 2 patients were of a younger age at epilepsy onset than those in group 1 (8.9 ± 7.3 vs. 12.6 ± 6.8 years, p = 0.003). Perilesional gliosis was more common among patients in group 1 when compared to group 3 patients (12/17 vs. 1/10; p = 0.006). Fifteen patients underwent resective surgery. Among group 1 patients, four of five became seizure-free following lesionectomy alone. In group 2, four patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) alone, of whom one became seizure-free; five underwent ATL combined with removal of CNL (two of them after intracranial EEG and all of them became seizure-free, whereas one patient underwent lesionectomy alone and did not become seizure-free. In endemic

  6. Enhanced Patient Serum Immunoreactivity to Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP32 Produced in the Yeast Pichia pastoris Compared to Escherichia coli and Its Potential for Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Barbouche, M. R.; Benabdesselem, C.; Fathallah, M.D.; Huard, R.C.; Zhu, H.; Jarboui, M.A.; Ho, J. L.; Dellagi, K

    2006-01-01

    CFP32 is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-restricted secreted protein that was previously reported to be present in a majority of sputum samples from patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and to stimulate serum antibody production. CFP32 (originally annotated as Rv0577 and also known as TB27.3) was therefore considered a good candidate target antigen for the rapid serodiagnosis of TB. However, the maximal sensitivity of CFP32 serorecognition may have been limited in earlier studies becau...

  7. Evaluation of two recombinant Leishmania proteins identified by an immunoproteomic approach as tools for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral and human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Garde, Esther; de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Lopes, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva; Borges, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2016-01-15

    Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used. For the HTL diagnosis, sera from non-infected subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from active cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, as well as those from T. cruzi-infected patients were employed. ELISA assays using the recombinant proteins showed both sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the serodiagnosis of both forms of disease, with high positive and negative predictive values, showing better diagnostic properties than the parasite recombinant A2 protein or a soluble Leishmania antigen extract. In this context, the two new recombinant proteins could be considered to be used in the serodiagnosis of CVL and HTL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Procedurally similar competitive immunoassay systems for the serodiagnosis of Babesia equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, and Burkholderia mallei infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J; Dewald, R; Nicholson, J

    2000-01-01

    Procedurally similar competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (cELISA) methods were developed for the serodiagnosis of Babesia equi and Babesia caballi (piroplasmosis), Trypanosoma equiperdum (dourine), and Burkholderia mallei (glanders) infections in horses. Apparent test specificities for the B. equi, B. caballi, T. equiperdum, and B. mallei cELISAs were 99.2%, 99.5%, 98.9%, and 98.9%, respectively. Concordances and kappa values between the complement fixation (CF) and the cELISA procedures for the serodiagnosis of B. equi, B. caballi, T. equiperdum, and B. mallei infections in experimentally exposed horses were 76% and 0.55, 89% and 0.78, 97% and 0.95, and 70% and 0.44, respectively. The cELISA method may be a technically more reproducible, objective, and convenient approach for piroplasmosis, dourine, and glanders serodiagnosis in qualifying animals for international movement and disease eradication programs than the CF systems currently in use. Use of the cELISA method also obviated the problems associated with testing hemolyzed or anticomplementary sera.

  9. Intranasal microemulsion for targeted nose to brain delivery in neurocysticercosis: Role of docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Rajshree L; Bharkad, Gopal P; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-10-01

    Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size 95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P<0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24h was 1400±160.1ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 120±35.2ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurocysticercosis: a review on status in India, management, and current therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rumana; Khan, Tahmeena; Ahmad, Bilal; Misra, Aparna; Balapure, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Tapeworms (cestodes) are segmented flatworms responsible for causing diseases that may prove fatal and difficult to treat in the absence of proper treatment and efficient drugs. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major contributor to epilepsy caused by the metacestode (larva) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, characterized by a range of pathological symptoms including epileptic seizures, headaches, and hydrocephalus. Cysticercosis is considered as a "biological imprint" of the socioeconomic development of a community in general and a country in particular. It is the single most common cause of epilepsy in the resource-poor endemic regions of the world, including most of South and Central America, India, Southeast Asia, China, and sub-Saharan Africa. A vast degree of variation in the neuropathology and clinical symptoms of NCC often makes it difficult to diagnose and manage. To add to it, emerging drug resistance to known anti-parasitic agents, together with the inability of these agents to prevent re-infection and relapse, further complicates the disease scenario. The aim of the current review was to provide the latest update on NCC with special emphasis on the Indian scenario, along with current and novel methods of diagnosis as well as scope of development for novel detection techniques, novel targets for drug development, and therapeutic interventions, as well as future challenges.

  11. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M Moyano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level.We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454. We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB. We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT of the head.Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9% were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8% had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0% reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic.This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  12. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Leandro Gasparetto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM, also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management.

  13. Epidemiologic pattern of patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by computed tomography in Curitiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Monego, Fernanda [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Coll. of Cellular and Molecular Biology; Fontalvo, Mariana Campos; Santos, Marilis Beckert Feijo; Grazziotin, Ana Line; Kolinski, Victor Hugo Zanini; Bordignon, Rodrigo Henrique; Biondo, Alexander Welker, E-mail: abiondo@illinois.ed [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). College of Veterinary Medicine; Antoniuk, Affonso [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this study was to drawn an epidemiological pattern of neurocystisticercosis (NCC) patients diagnosed by computed tomography at the major private diagnostic center in Curitiba, Brazil. A total of 1,009 medical files of consecutive patients presenting neurological indications were diagnosed by computed tomography from July 2007 to April 2008. Patient data included sex, age, municipality and tomography findings were analysed by Epi-info version 6.0.1. software. Most patients (81.10%) were living in Curitiba. A total of 91/1,009 cases (9.02%) were considered positive to NCC; 88 (96.7%) patients had inactive form of NCC and only 3 (3.2%) patients had cysts in granulomatous process. No patients had both forms. The prevalence of NCC cases in studied group was greater in patients between 51 to 60 years old, however, difference between sex was not significant. This epidemiological pattern of NCC was similar to the first NCC study in Curitiba, performed in 1995-1996 with 9.24% of positive cases. Key words: neurocysticercosis, cysticercus cellulosae, epidemiology. (author)

  14. Application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the serological diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Cabral, Dagmar D; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2007-09-01

    Serological tests are an important tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC), the disease caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting (WB) tests compared with the metacestodes antigen of T. solium in serum samples. The samples were obtained from 130 individuals: 20 from patients with definitive NCC, Group 1; 18 from individuals infected by Taenia sp., Group 2; 40 from individuals infected by various parasites, Group 3; and 40 from healthy individuals, Group 4. The sensitivity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium applied to the patients of Group 1 yielded results of 85, 95, and 95%, respectively, for the three tests. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 75, 80, and 85%, respectively. The specificity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium yielded results of 94.9, 88.8, and 93.9%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 95.9, 88.8, and 93.6%, respectively. No statistical differences for sensitivity or specificity among the antigens were found. In conclusion, the results indicated that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for NCC diagnosis.

  15. Epilepsy and Neurocysticercosis: An Incidence Study in a Peruvian Rural Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarán, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Chero, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Pan, William; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder and neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. NCC is becoming more frequent in industrialized countries due to immigration from endemic areas. Previously reported epilepsy incidences range from 30 to 50/100,000 people in industrialized countries and 90 to 122/100,000 people in developing countries. Objectives To determine the incidence of epilepsy in a cysticercosis endemic area of Peru. Methods A screening survey for possible seizure cases was repeated biannually in this cohort for a period of 5 years (1999–2004) using a previously validated questionnaire. All positive respondents throughout the study were examined by a trained neurologist in the field to confirm the seizure. If confirmed, they were offered treatment, serological testing, neuroimaging (CT scans and MRI) and clinical follow-up. Results The cohort study comprised 817 individuals. The overall epilepsy incidence rate was 162.3/100,000 person-years, and for epileptic seizures, 216.6/100,000 person-years. Out of the 8 individuals who had epileptic seizures, 4 had markers for NCC (neuroimaging and/or serology). Conclusion The incidence of epilepsy in this area endemic for cysticercosis is one of the highest reported worldwide. PMID:19325247

  16. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Luz M; O'Neal, Seth E; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H

    2016-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  17. Neurocysticercosis Presenting with Epilepsia Partialis Continua: A Clinicopathologic Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Joe Yeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, a disease caused by a tapeworm larva in the central nervous system, is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy in undeveloped regions of the world. In Taiwan, after improvements in sanitation, tapeworm infection became very rare except in mountain areas inhibited by aborigines. However, in recent years, immigration from other Asian countries has increased rapidly, and parasite infection of the central nervous system may again become an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in clinical practice. Here, we describe a 27-year-old female Thai immigrant who presented with adult-onset epilepsia partialis continua of the right upper extremity. Electroencephalography showed epileptiform discharge in the left central region, while brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a small enhanced lesion in the left premotor cortex. She underwent operation and pathology of the mass revealed a degenerated cysticercus. In this article, we provide detailed neuroimaging findings, pathologic report, and literature review of this parasitic infection of the central nervous system. This case calls for physicians to be aware of cysticercosis as an etiology of adult-onset epilepsy in immigrants from endemic countries.

  18. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413...

  19. Evaluation of recombinant porin (rOmp2a) protein as a potential antigen candidate for serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Prachi; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian

    2017-07-11

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by different Brucella species and human brucellosis is commonly prevalent in different states of India. Among various Brucella species, B. melitensis is most pathogenic to human and included as category B biothreat which can cause infection through aerosol, cut, wounds in skin and contact with infected animals. The diagnosis of human brucellosis is very important for proper treatment and management of disease as there is no vaccine available for human use. The present study was designed to clone, express and purify immunodominant recombinant omp2a (rOmp2a) porin protein of B. melitensis and to evaluate this new antigen candidate for specific serodiagnosis of human brucellosis by highly sensitive iELISA (indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Omp2a gene of B. melitensis 16 M strain was cloned and expressed in pET-SUMO expression system. The recombinant protein was purified under denaturing conditions using 8 M urea. The purified recombinant protein was confirmed by western blotting by reacting with anti-HIS antibody. The sero-reactivity of the recombinant protein was also checked by reacting with antisera of experimentally infected mice with B. melitensis 16 M at different time points. Serodiagnostic potential of recombinant porin antigen was tested against 185 clinical serum samples collected from regions endemic to brucellosis in southern part of India by iELISA. The samples were grouped into five groups. Group 1 contained cultured confirmed positive serum samples of brucellosis (n = 15), group 2 contained sera samples from positive cases of brucellosis previously tested by conventional methods of RBPT (n = 28) and STAT (n = 26), group 3 contained sera samples negative by RBPT(n = 36) and STAT (n = 32), group 4 contained sera samples of other febrile illness and PUO case (n = 35) and group 5 contained confirmed negative sera samples from healthy donors (n = 23). The rOmp2a was found to be

  20. Neurocysticercosis: An uncommon cause of drug-refractory epilepsy in North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manoj; Chand, Partap; Modi, Manish; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kharbanda, Parampreet Singh; Lal, Vivek; Singla, Veenu; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2015-11-01

    Being a common cause of epilepsy in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis (NCC) is expected to account for a sizable proportion of patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE) as well. However, data regarding prevalence of DRE in NCC are sparse. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of DRE as well as identification of clinical and radiologic factors that lead to DRE in patients with NCC. This study was conducted in a tertiary-care postgraduate teaching institute in Northern India from July 2011 to July 2013. Two hundred patients with epilepsy due to NCC (definite [n = 59, 29.5%] or probable [n = 141, 70.5%]) based on diagnostic criteria by Del Brutto et al. were enrolled in the study in both a prospective (n = 51 [25.5%]) and a retrospective manner (n = 149 [74.5%]), and were followed for a minimum period of 1 year. Thirteen patients with NCC were found to be refractory to drug therapy. Prevalence of DRE was found to be 65 of 1,000 NCC patients with epilepsy in the present study. The risk factors associated with high risk of DRE were male sex (p = 0.035), older age (p = 0.016), pig-raising practices (p = 0.003), pork eating (p = 0.04), and presence of multiple (>2) (p = 0.0001) or mixed stage lesions (p = 0.007) on neuroimaging. On multivariate analysis, it was found that residing in an area where pig raising is prevalent (p = 0.01) and presence of multiple (>2) (p = 0.004) lesions on neuroimaging are associated with increased risk of DRE. NCC is only rarely associated with the development of DRE. The common risk factors associated with increased chance of DRE include pig-rearing practices and presence of multiple (>2) lesions on neuroimaging. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Radiological evolution of porcine neurocysticercosis after combined antiparasitic treatment with praziquantel and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangalaya, Carla; Bustos, Javier A; Calcina, Juan; Vargas-Calla, Ana; Mamani, Javier; Suarez, Diego; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E; Chacaltana, Juan; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Héctor H

    2017-06-01

    The onset of anthelmintic treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) provokes an acute immune response of the host, which in human cases is associated with exacerbation of neurological symptoms. This inflammation can occur at the first days of therapy. So, changes in the brain cysts appearance may be detected by medical imaging. We evaluated radiological changes in the appearance of brain cysts (enhancement and size) on days two and five after the onset of antiparasitic treatment using naturally infected pigs as a model for human NCC. Contrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium was performed before and after antiparasitic treatment. Eight NCC-infected pigs were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole and euthanized two (n = 4) and five (n = 4) days after treatment; another group of four infected pigs served as untreated controls. For each lesion, gadolinium enhancement intensity (GEI) and cyst volume were measured at baseline and after antiparasitic treatment. Volume and GEI quantification ratios (post/pre-treatment measures) were used to appraise the effect of treatment. Cysts from untreated pigs showed little variations between their basal and post treatment measures. At days 2 and 5 there were significant increases in GEI ratio compared with the untreated group (1.32 and 1.47 vs 1.01, p = 0.021 and p = 0.021). Cyst volume ratios were significantly lower at days 2 and 5 compared with the untreated group (0.60 and 0.22 vs 0.95, p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Cysts with lower cyst volume ratios showed more marked post-treatment inflammation, loss of vesicular fluid and cyst wall wrinkling. A significant and drastic reduction of cyst size and increased pericystic enhancement occur in the initial days after antiparasitic treatment as an effect of acute perilesional immune response. These significant changes showed that early anthelmintic efficacy (day two) can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Long-term Clinical and Radiologic Outcome in 500 Children With Parenchymal Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Suthar, Renu; Deo, Brijendra; Malhi, Prabhjot; Khandelwal, Niranjan K

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to study long-term clinical and radiologic outcome in children with parenchymal neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its predictors. Five hundred children with NCC registered in the pediatric NCC clinic between January 1996 and December 2002 and followed till December 2009 were enrolled. Demographic details, clinical presentations and therapy received were recorded. Outcome was evaluated in terms of seizure recurrence and resolution of lesions on neuroimaging. Various factors that could influence outcome were studied. Mean age at presentation was 8 ± 2.7 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 8.8 ± 2.03 years; 79.6% (398) had single lesion, and 20.4% (102) had multiple lesions at presentation; 14.5% (58) of children with single lesion, and 28.4% (29) of children with multiple lesions had recurrent seizures (P < 0.001) during follow-up. At 6-month follow-up neuroimaging, resolution was seen in 52.7% (210) and 31.3% (32) of children with single and multiple lesions, respectively (P < 0.001). On prolonged follow-up, 94.6% (384) of single-lesion NCC and 88% (90) of multiple-lesion NCC (P < 0.001) had radiologic resolution. Single-lesion NCC, radiologic resolution and cysticidal therapy were associated with better seizure outcome (P < 0.05). Children with multiple lesions had significantly higher percentage of calcified lesions on long-term follow-up compared with those with a single lesion (11.7% vs. 3.6%, P < 0.05). Children with a single-lesion NCC have favorable outcome with resolution of most of the lesions and few seizure recurrences. Cysticidal therapy leads to better seizure control and increased resolution of lesions on short-term follow-up.

  3. Added Value of Antigen ELISA in the Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis in Resource Poor Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, Pierre; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Schmutzhard, Erich; Ombay, Michaeli; Mathias, Bartholomayo; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in Taenia solium endemic areas, primarily situated in low-income countries. Diagnosis is largely based upon the “Del Brutto diagnostic criteria” using the definitive/probable/no NCC diagnosis approach. Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a major diagnostic criterion, especially in areas where neuroimaging is absent. Methods The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE) in an endemic area. Results The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of 17 patients as opposed to 0/17 without antigen results in the absence of neuroimaging. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. While the use of a higher cutoff improves the specificity of the test to 96%, it decreases its sensitivity to 83%. Conclusions In areas where neuroimaging is absent, NCC diagnosis according to the existing criteria is problematic. Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. Therefore, we recommend a revision of the “Del Brutto diagnostic criteria” for use in resource poor areas and suggest the inclusion of serum antigen detection as a major criterion. PMID:23094118

  4. Profile of adult and pediatric neurocysticercosis cases observed in five Southern European centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Angheben, Andrea; Gobbi, Federico; Zavarise, Giorgio; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Marchese, Valentina; Montagnani, Carlotta; Galli, Luisa; Bisoffi, Zeno; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Muñoz, Jose

    2016-08-01

    In Europe the management of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is challenging because health care providers are unaware of this condition, thus leading to diagnostic delay and mismanagement. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review the cases of NCC observed in five centers located in Florence, Negrar (Italy) and Barcelona (Spain). A total of 81 subjects with NCC were evaluated in the period 1980-2013. By applying the Del Brutto's criteria 39 cases (48.1 %) were classified as definitive cases, 31 (38.8 %) as probable cases and 11 (13.6 %) did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria. Continent of origin was known for 80 subjects. Latin America and Asia were the most frequent continents of origin (n = 37; 46.3 % and n = 22; 27.5 %) followed by Europe (n = 14; 17.5 %) and Africa (n = 7; 8.8 %). Compared with adults, paediatric patients were more likely to have eosinophilia, to have other parasitic infections, to be asymptomatic, to not be treated with antiepileptic drugs or analgesic and to heal. The study shows that there are some hurdles in the management of NCC in Europe. A not negligible portion of patients diagnosed at reference centers do not fully satisfy Del Brutto's diagnostic criteria. The higher portion of asymptomatic subjects found among the paediatric group is probably related to an ongoing serological screening among adopted children coming from endemic regions. The value of such a serological screening should be better assessed by a further cost-effective analysis.

  5. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Mezo, Roger; Lara García, Javier; Arroyo, Mariana; Fleury, Agnès

    2015-12-01

    Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The causal relationship between neurocysticercosis infection and the development of epilepsy - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripper, Lucy B; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-04-05

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system, the most common form of which involves infection of the brain parenchyma with the larval form of the Taenia solium tapeworm. A causal relationship between such an NCC infection and the development of epilepsy in infected individuals is acknowledged, in part supported by high levels of comorbidity in endemic countries worldwide. This study undertook a systematic review and critical analysis of the NCC-epilepsy relationship with the primary objective of quantifying the risk of developing epilepsy following NCC infection. A secondary aim was to analyse the proportions of NCC-associated epilepsy within different populations. Significant emphasis was placed on the importance of neuroimaging (CT or MRI) availability and use of clear guidelines for epilepsy diagnosis, in order to avoid overestimations of prevalence rates of either condition; a limitation identified in several previous studies. A common odds ratio of 2.76 was identified from meta-analysis of case-control studies, indicating that an individual infected with NCC has almost a three times higher risk of developing epilepsy than an uninfected individual. Furthermore, meta-analysis of studies identified a common proportion of 31.54% of epilepsy cases associated with NCC infection which suggests that amongst epileptic populations in at risk countries, approximately one-third may be associated with NCC infection. A significant finding was the lack of good clinical data to enable accurate determination of a causal relationship. Even studies that were included had noticeable limitations, including a general lack of consistency in diagnostics, and lack of accurate epidemiological data. This review highlights a need for consistency in research in this field. In the absence of reliable estimates of its global burden, NCC will remain of low priority in the eyes of funding agencies - a truly neglected disease.

  7. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (≤20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74–340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102

  8. Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gabriël

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in Taenia solium endemic areas, primarily situated in low-income countries. Diagnosis is largely based upon the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" using the definitive/probable/no NCC diagnosis approach. Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a major diagnostic criterion, especially in areas where neuroimaging is absent. METHODS: The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE in an endemic area. RESULTS: The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of 17 patients as opposed to 0/17 without antigen results in the absence of neuroimaging. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. While the use of a higher cutoff improves the specificity of the test to 96%, it decreases its sensitivity to 83%. CONCLUSIONS: In areas where neuroimaging is absent, NCC diagnosis according to the existing criteria is problematic. Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. Therefore, we recommend a revision of the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" for use in resource poor areas and suggest the inclusion of serum antigen detection as a major criterion.

  9. Fourth ventricle neurocysticercosis: Rigid endoscopic management. Description of direct transcerebellar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Espinosa, A; Franco-Jiménez, J A; Sosa-Nájera, A; Gutiérrez-Aceves, G A; Ruiz-Flores, M I

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopy has gained a crucial role in high specialty neurosurgery during the last decades. At present, there are well-defined flexible neuroendoscopic procedures to treat ventricular and subarachnoid space pathologies. Neurocysticercosis is recognized as a common cause of neurologic disease in developing countries and the United States. Surgical intervention, especially cerebrospinal fluid diversion, is the key for management of hydrocephalus. In 2002, a consensus suggested that ventricular forms should be treated with endoscopy as the first option. Here, we present the case of a 51-year-old right-handed male, from Estado de México. Two days before admission he experienced holocraneal headache 7/10 on the visual analogue scale which was intermittent, with no response to any medication, sudden worsening of pain to 10/10, nausea, and vomit. On physical examination, he presented with 14 points in the Glasgow coma scale (M6, O4, V4), pupils were 3 mm, there was adequate light-reflex response, and bilateral papilledema. The cranial nerves did not have other pathological responses, extremities had adequate strength of 5/5, and normal reflexes (++/++) were noted. Neuroimaging studies showed dilatation of the four ventricles as well as a cystic lesion in the fourth ventricle. Surgical position was Concorde, and the approach through a suboccipital burr hole was planned preoperatively with craneometric points. A rigid Karl Storz Hopkins II® endoscope was inserted directly through the cerebellum and the cystic lesion was extracted entirely. This article presents a useful technique with low morbidity and mortality. Further investigation is needed, especially in our Mexico, where neuroendoscopical techniques are still in the development phase.

  10. Cost of neurocysticercosis patients treated in two referral hospitals in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rachana; Carabin, Hélène; Proaño, Jefferson V; Flores-Rivera, Jose; Corona, Teresa; Flisser, Ana; Budke, Christine M

    2015-08-01

    To estimate annual costs related to the diagnosis, treatment and productivity losses among patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) receiving treatment at two referral hospitals, the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) and the Hospital de Especialidades of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (HE-IMSS), in Mexico City from July 2007 to August 2008. Information on presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, hospitalisations, surgical procedures and other treatments received by NCC outpatients was collected from medical charts, and supplemented by an individual questionnaire regarding productivity losses and out-of-pocket expenses related to NCC. The annual average per-patient direct costs were US$ 503 (95% CI: 414-592) and US$ 438 (95% CI: 322-571) for patients without a history of hospitalisation and/or surgery seen at the INNN and the HE-IMSS, respectively. These costs increased to US$ 2506 (95% CI: 1797-3215) and US$ 2170 (95% CI: 1303-3037), respectively, for patients with a history of hospitalisation and/or surgery. The average annual per-patient indirect costs were US$ 246 (95% CI: 165-324) and US$ 114 (95% CI: 51-178), respectively, using minimum salary wages for individuals not officially employed. The total annual cost for patients who had and had not been hospitalised and/or undergone a surgical procedure for the diagnosis or treatment of NCC corresponded to 212% and 41% of an annual minimum wage salary, respectively. The disease tends to affect rural socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and creates health disparities and significant economic losses in Mexico. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bruno

    Full Text Available The difference in epilepsy burden existing among populations in tropical regions has been attributed to many factors, including the distribution of infectious diseases with neurologic sequels. To define the burden of epilepsy in Latin American Countries (LAC and to investigate the strength of association with neurocysticercosis (NCC, considered one of the leading causes of epilepsy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.Studies published until 2012 were selected applying predefined inclusion criteria. Lifetime epilepsy (LTE prevalence, active epilepsy (AE prevalence, incidence, mortality, treatment gap (TG and NCC proportion among people with epilepsy (PWE were extracted. Median values were obtained for each estimate using random effects meta-analysis. The impact of NCC prevalence on epilepsy estimates was determined using meta-regression models. To assess the association between NCC and epilepsy, a further meta-analysis was performed on case-control studies.The median LTE prevalence was 15.8/1,000 (95% CI 13.5-18.3, the median AE prevalence was 10.7/1,000 (95% CI 8.4-13.2, the median incidence was 138.2/100,000 (95% CI 83.6-206.4, the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.4 (95% CI 0.01-6.1 and the overall estimated TG was 60.6% (95% CI 45.3-74.9. The median NCC proportion among PWE was 32.3% (95% CI 26.0-39.0. Higher TG and NCC estimates were associated with higher epilepsy prevalence. The association between NCC and epilepsy was significant (p<0.001 with a common odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9-4.0.A high burden of epilepsy and of NCC in LAC and a consistent association between these two diseases were pointed out. Furthermore, NCC prevalence and TG were identified as important factors influencing epilepsy prevalence to be considered in prevention and intervention strategies.

  12. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  13. Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis. Case report

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    Kobayashi, Eliane; Guerreiro, Carlos A.M.; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: fcendes@unicamp.br

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this case report is to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in a patient with new onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and Complex Partial Seizures underwent CT scan and lumbar puncture as diagnose proceeding. Multiple cysts and meningitis were identified, with a positive immunology for cysticercosis. Seizures were recorded over the left temporal region in a routine EEG. Treatment with al bendazole was performed for 21 days, with clinical improvement and seizure remission after 4 months. An MRI scan 11 months after treatment, showed complete resolution of those cystic lesions and a left hippocampal atrophy (HA) with hyperintense T2 signal. The presence of HA and hyperintense T 2 signal in this patient has not, to date, been associated with a poor seizure control. Conclusions: This patient presented with MRI evidence of left MTS after new onset partial seizures of left temporal lobe origin. Although we did not have a previous MRI scan, it is likely that this hippocampal abnormality was due to the acute inflammatory response to cysticercosis associated to repeated partial seizures. This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. (author)

  14. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic....... rRNA and mRNA transcripts assignable to NC10 peaked within the OMZ and included genes of the putative nitrite-dependent intra-aerobic pathway, with high representation of transcripts containing the unique motif structure of the nitric oxide (NO) reductase of NC10 bacteria, hypothesized...

  15. New insights on serodiagnosis of trichinellosis during window period: early diagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis intestinal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Quan; Shi, Ya-Li; Liu, Rou-Dan; Jiang, Peng; Guan, Ya-Yi; Chen, Ying-Dan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-20

    The clinical diagnosis of trichinellosis is difficult because its clinical manifestations are nonspecific. Detection of anti-Trichinella IgG by ELISA using T. spiralis muscle larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens is the most commonly used serological method for diagnosis of trichinellosis, but the main disadvantage is false negativity during the early stage of infection. There is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity.During the intestinal stage of Trichinella infection, the ES antigens of intestinal worms (intestinal infective larvae and adults) are exposed to host's immune system at the earliest time and elicit the production of specific anti-Trichinella antibodies. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in infected mice were detectable by ELISA with ES antigens of intestinal worms as soon as 8-10 days post infection (dpi), but ELISA with muscle larval ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. Therefore, the new early antigens from T. spiralis intestinal worms should be screened, identified and characterized for early serodiagnosis of trichinellosis.

  16. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization and Validation of Indirect ELISA Using Truncated TssB Protein for the Serodiagnosis of Glanders amongst Equines

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    Harisankar Singha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To express truncated TssB protein of Burkholderia mallei and to evaluate its diagnostic efficacy for serological detection of glanders among equines. Materials and Methods. In an attempt to develop recombinant protein based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, N-terminal 200 amino acid sequences of B. mallei TssB protein—a type 6 secretory effector protein—were expressed in prokaryotic expression system. Diagnostic potential of recombinant TssB protein was evaluated in indirect ELISA using a panel of glanders positive (n=49, negative (n=30, and field serum samples (n=1811. Cross-reactivity of the assay was assessed with equine disease control serum and human melioidosis positive serum. Results. In comparison to CFT, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 99.7% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. The indirect ELISA method using the truncated TssB offered safer and more rapid and efficient means of serodiagnosis of glanders in equines. These data highlight the use of TssB as potential diagnostic antigen for serological diagnosis of glanders.

  18. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. © D. Yang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  19. Usage of Leptospira spp. local strains as antigens increases the sensitivity of the serodiagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Priscila S; Loureiro, Ana P; Penna, Bruno; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, particularly in tropical countries. In livestock the agent is responsible for reproductive problems such as infertility and abortion. Serogroup Sejroe, particularly serovar Hardjo, prevails in cattle in several regions. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the current method for diagnosing leptospirosis. It has been proposed that the inclusion of local strains could detect a larger set of seroreactive animals. In that context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if the usage of local strains as antigens increases the sensitivity of the serodiagnosis of bovine leptospirosis. Blood and urine samples were collected from 314 bovines from several herds randomly selected in a slaughterhouse in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Serological diagnosis was made with MAT using a 21 reference-strains panel (MAT21). Additionally, 12 local strains (MAT33) were included as antigens. PCR was performed with the urine samples and it was positive on 71 out of 222 samples (31.9%). MAT21 identified as seroreactive 173 (55.1%) out of the 314 animals studied, with Sejroe the most common (38.1%). In MAT33, 204 (65.0%) animals were seroreactive with a significant increase on seroreactivity (9.9%). In conclusion, MAT presented with a significant increase of sensitivity when local strains were used as antigens. Among the local strains, 2013_U152 (KP263062) (serogroup Shermani) and 2013_U280 (KP263069) (serogroup Grippotyphosa) showed to be more antigenic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G; Bustos, Javier A; Zimic, Mirko; Escalante, Diego; Saavedra, Herbert; Gavidia, Martin; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Najar, Enrique; Umeres, Hugo; Pretell, E Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. Findings Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10–2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87–2·38, p=0·151

  1. Post-treatment vascular leakage and inflammatory responses around brain cysts in porcine neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mahanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue and non stained (clear cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2Rα were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3 was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model

  2. Epilepsy and Neurocysticercosis in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Bustos, Javier A.; Santivañez, Saul; García, Héctor H.; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Background The difference in epilepsy burden existing among populations in tropical regions has been attributed to many factors, including the distribution of infectious diseases with neurologic sequels. To define the burden of epilepsy in Latin American Countries (LAC) and to investigate the strength of association with neurocysticercosis (NCC), considered one of the leading causes of epilepsy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Methodology Studies published until 2012 were selected applying predefined inclusion criteria. Lifetime epilepsy (LTE) prevalence, active epilepsy (AE) prevalence, incidence, mortality, treatment gap (TG) and NCC proportion among people with epilepsy (PWE) were extracted. Median values were obtained for each estimate using random effects meta-analysis. The impact of NCC prevalence on epilepsy estimates was determined using meta-regression models. To assess the association between NCC and epilepsy, a further meta-analysis was performed on case-control studies. Principal findings The median LTE prevalence was 15.8/1,000 (95% CI 13.5–18.3), the median AE prevalence was 10.7/1,000 (95% CI 8.4–13.2), the median incidence was 138.2/100,000 (95% CI 83.6–206.4), the overall standardized mortality ratio was 1.4 (95% CI 0.01–6.1) and the overall estimated TG was 60.6% (95% CI 45.3–74.9). The median NCC proportion among PWE was 32.3% (95% CI 26.0–39.0). Higher TG and NCC estimates were associated with higher epilepsy prevalence. The association between NCC and epilepsy was significant (p<0.001) with a common odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9–4.0). Significance A high burden of epilepsy and of NCC in LAC and a consistent association between these two diseases were pointed out. Furthermore, NCC prevalence and TG were identified as important factors influencing epilepsy prevalence to be considered in prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24205415

  3. Human Glutathione S-Transferase Enzyme Gene Polymorphisms and Their Association With Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrita; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Paliwal, Vimal K; Pandey, Chandra M; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2017-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by cysticerci of Taenia solium is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system. Some individuals harboring different stages of cysticerci in the brain remain asymptomatic, while others with similar cysticerci lesions develop symptoms and the reasons remain largely unknown. Inflammatory response to antigens of dying parasite is said to be responsible for symptomatic disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated in inflammatory conditions can damage cellular macromolecules such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are critical for the protection of cells from ROS. A total of 250 individuals were included in the study: symptomatic NCC = 75, asymptomatic NCC = 75, and healthy controls = 100. The individuals carrying the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were at risk for NCC (OR = 2.99, 95 %CI = 1.31-6.82, p = 0.0073 and OR = 1.94, 95 %CI = 0.98-3.82, p = 0.0550 respectively). Further, the individuals with these deletions were more likely to develop symptomatic disease (OR = 5.08, 95 % CI = 2.12-12.18, p = 0.0001 for GSTM1 and OR = 3.25, 95 %CI = 1.55-6.82, p = 0.0018 for GSTT1). Genetic variants of GSTM3 and GSTP1 were not associated with NCC. The total GST activity and levels of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTM3 were significantly higher in asymptomatic subjects than in symptomatic and healthy controls. Lower GST activity was observed in individuals with GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The present study suggests that the individuals with GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions are at higher risk to develop symptomatic disease. The higher GST activity and levels of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTM3 are likely to play role in maintaining asymptomatic condition.

  4. Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo, Athanase; Nitiéma, Pascal; Carabin, Hélène; Boncoeur-Martel, Marie Paule; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Cowan, Linda; Ganaba, Rasmané; Hounton, Sennen; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Cissé, Rabiou

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the lifetime prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy and the proportion of NCC among people with epilepsy in three Burkina Faso villages. Methods Three villages were selected to represent three types of pig-rearing methods: 1) Batondo where pigs are left to roam; 2) Pabré where pigs are mostly tethered or penned, and 3) Nyonyogo where the majority of residents are Muslim and few pigs are raised. In Batondo and Nyonyogo, all concessions (a group of several households) were included. Half of the concessions in Pabré were randomly chosen. All households of selected concessions were included, and one person per household was randomly selected for epilepsy screening and serological testing for cysticercosis. Self-reported cases of epilepsy were also examined and confirmed cases included in analyses other than the estimate of NCC-associated epilepsy prevalence. Epilepsy was defined as ever having had more than one episode of unprovoked seizures. Medically confirmed cases of epilepsy had a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain before and after contrast medium injection. The diagnosis of NCC was made using a modification of the criteria of Del Brutto et al. (2001). Key Findings Thirty-nine (4.4%) of 888 randomly selected villagers and 33 of 35 (94.3%) self-reported seizures cases were confirmed to have epilepsy by medical examination. Among the 68 participants with epilepsy who had a CT scan, 20 patients were diagnosed with definitive or probable NCC for a proportion of 46.9% (95% CI=30.2; 64.1) in Batondo and 45.5% (95%CI=19.0; 74.1) in Pabré. No cases of NCC were identified in Nyonyogo. Significance All the definitive and probable cases of NCC were from the two villages where pig breeding is common. Prevention policies intended to reduce the burden of epilepsy in this country should include measures designed to interrupt the life cycle of Taenia solium. PMID:23148555

  5. Post-treatment vascular leakage and inflammatory responses around brain cysts in porcine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Orrego, Miguel Angel; Mayta, Holger; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Gonzalez, Armando E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2015-03-01

    Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB) extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue) and non stained (clear) cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2Rα) were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3) was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model can be used to

  6. Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis Depressão em pacientes portadores de neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common central nervous system infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of depression in patients with calcified NCC form. The study group consisted of 114 patients subdivided in four groups: NCC with epilepsy, NCC without epilepsy, epilepsy without NCC and chronic headache. METHOD: Depression was evaluated and quantified by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21. RESULTS: Percentage of patients with depression was as follows: group 1 (83%; group 2 (88%; group 3 (92%; group 4 (100%. The majority of patients had moderate depression. CONCLUSION: Incidence of depression in all groups was higher than in the general population. It is possible that, in a general way, patients with chronic diseases would have depression with similar intensity. NCC is associated with the presence of depression.Neurocysticercose (NCC é uma infecção do sistema nervoso central comum causada por metacestodes da Taenia solium. OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de depressão nos pacientes com NCC forma calcificada. O grupo de estudo é formado por 114 pacientes subdivididos em quatro grupos: NCC com epilepsia, NCC sem epilepsia, epilepsia sem NCC e cefaléia crônica. MÉTODO: A presença de depressão foi determinada e quantificada pela Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (HRSD-21. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de pacientes com depressão foi: grupo 1 (83%; grupo 2 (88%; grupo 3 (92%; grupo 4 (100%. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou depressão moderada. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência da depressão em todos os grupos foi mais elevada do que na população geral, contudo não houve diferença entre os grupos estudados. É possível que, de uma maneira geral, os pacientes portadores de doença crônica apresentarem a depressão em intensidade similar. NCC está associada com a presença de depressão.

  7. Estimation of the health and economic burden of neurocysticercosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Khatkar, M S; Gill, J P S; Dhand, N K

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is an endemic parasite in India which occurs in two forms in humans: cysticercosis (infection of soft tissues) and taeniosis (intestinal infection). Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most severe form of cysticercosis in which cysts develop in the central nervous system. This study was conducted to estimate health and economic impact due to human NCC-associated active epilepsy in India. Input data were sourced from published research literature, census data and other official records. Economic losses due to NCC-associated active epilepsy were estimated based on cost of treatment, hospitalisation and severe injury as well as loss of income. The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to NCC were estimated by combining years of life lost due to early death and the number of years compromised due to disability taking the disease incidence into account. DALYs were estimated for five age groups, two genders and four regions, and then combined. To account for uncertainty, probability distributions were used for disease incidence data and other input parameters. In addition, sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the impact of certain input parameters on health and economic estimates. It was estimated that in 2011, human NCC-associated active epilepsy caused an annual median loss of Rupees 12.03 billion (uncertainty interval [95% UI] Rs. 9.16-15.57 billion; US $ 185.14 million) with losses of Rs. 9.78 billion (95% UI Rs. 7.24-13.0 billion; US $ 150.56 million) from the North and Rs. 2.22 billion (95% UI Rs. 1.58-3.06 billion; US $ 34.14 million) from the South. The disease resulted in a total of 2.10 million (95% UI 0.99-4.10 million) DALYs per annum without age weighting and time discounting with 1.81 million (95% UI 0.84-3.57 million) DALYs from the North and 0.28 million (95% UI 0.13-0.55 million) from the South. The health burden per thousand persons per year was 1.73 DALYs (95% UI 0.82-3.39). The results indicate that human NCC causes

  8. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic...... oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) off northern Mexico and Costa Rica. NC10 16S rRNA genes were detected at all sites, peaking in abundance in the anoxic zone with elevated nitrite and methane concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of particulate methane monooxygenase genes further confirmed the presence of NC10...... to participate in O2-producing NO dismutation. These findings confirm pelagic OMZs as a niche for NC10, suggesting a role for this group in OMZ nitrogen, methane and oxygen cycling....

  9. Clinical manifestations in patients with computerized tomography diagnosis of neurocysticercosis; Manifestacoes clinicas de pacientes com diagnostico de neurocisticercose por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuetzenreiter, Marcia Regina [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva e Tecnologia]. E-mail: a2mrp@cav.udesc.br; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Saude Publica

    1999-09-01

    A survey was conducted in the urban area of Lages using patients who had been submitted to a computed tomography of the skull in the period of March-December, 1996, for different reasons. Forty-two patients with a provisional diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, and 57 negatives were personally interviewed by one of the authors (Pfuetzenreiter), using a semi-structured procedure. More individuals with a provisional diagnostic of neurocysticercosis reported clinical manifestations related to this infection than those found negative. this difference is more marked among women, except in relation to convulsions, more frequently reported by men (19.05%) than by women (7.14%). The greater percentage of inactive forms (83.33%0 and a longer history of perceived symptoms among those positives suggest that the condition is not new. (author)

  10. Development of Recombinant Chimeric Antigen Expressing Immunodominant B Epitopes of Leishmania infantum for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarino, A.; Scalone, A.; Gradoni, L.; Ferroglio, E.; Vitale, F.; Zanatta, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Rosati, S.

    2005-01-01

    serodiagnosis of VL in both human and canine hosts. PMID:15879027

  11. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a fluorescent based immunosensor for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis combining immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Susana; Cardoso, Luís; Reed, Steven G; Reis, Alexandre B; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis is essential for the control of infectious diseases. In the search for effective and efficient tests, biosensors have increasingly been exploited for the development of new and highly sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we describe a new fluorescent based immunosensor comprising magnetic polymer microspheres coated with recombinant antigens to improve the detection of specific antibodies generated during an infectious disease. As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where the levels of pathogen-specific antibodies are scarce. Ni-NTA magnetic microspheres with 1,7 µm and 8,07 µm were coated with the Leishmania recombinant proteins LicTXNPx and rK39, respectively. A mixture of equal proportions of both recombinant protein-coated microspheres was used to recognize and specifically bind anti-rK39 and anti-LicTNXPx antibodies present in serum samples of infected dogs. The microspheres were recovered by magnetic separation and the percentage of fluorescent positive microspheres was quantified by flow cytometry. A clinical evaluation carried out with 129 dog serum samples using the antigen combination demonstrated a sensitivity of 98,8% with a specificity of 94,4%. rK39 antigen alone demonstrated a higher sensitivity for symptomatic dogs (96,9%), while LicTXNPx antigen showed a higher sensitivity for asymptomatic (94,4%). Overall, our results demonstrated the potential of a magnetic microsphere associated flow cytometry methodology as a viable tool for highly sensitive laboratorial serodiagnosis of both clinical and subclinical forms of canine leishmaniasis.

  13. Comparative Assessment of ELISAs Using Recombinant Saposin-Like Protein 2 and recombinant Cathepsin L-1 from Fasciola hepatica for the Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Bruno; Schneeberger, Marianne; Boubaker, Ghalia; Merkle, Bernadette; Huber, Cristina; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Norbert; Garate, Teresa; Doherr, Marcus G.

    2014-01-01

    Two recombinant Fasciola hepatica antigens, saposin-like protein-2 (recSAP2) and cathepsin L-1 (recCL1), were assessed individually and in combination in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the specific serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis in areas of low endemicity as encountered in Central Europe. Antibody detection was conducted using ProteinA/ProteinG (PAG) conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Test characteristics as well as agreement with results from an ELISA using excretory–secretory products (FhES) from adult stage liver flukes was assessed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, specificity, sensitivity, Youdens J and overall accuracy. Cross-reactivity was assessed using three different groups of serum samples from healthy individuals (n = 20), patients with other parasitic infections (n = 87) and patients with malignancies (n = 121). The best combined diagnostic results for recombinant antigens were obtained using the recSAP2-ELISA (87% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% overall accuracy) employing the threshold (cut-off) to discriminate between positive and negative reactions that maximized Youdens J. The findings showed that recSAP2-ELISA can be used for the routine serodiagnosis of chronic fasciolosis in clinical laboratories; the use of the PAG-conjugate offers the opportunity to employ, for example, rabbit hyperimmune serum for the standardization of positive controls. PMID:24922050

  14. Linear B-cell epitope mapping of MAPK3 and MAPK4 from Leishmania braziliensis: implications for the serodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; de Araújo Leão, Ana Carolina; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2015-02-01

    The correct and early identification of humans and dogs infected with Leishmania are key steps in the control of leishmaniasis. Additionally, a method with high sensitivity and specificity at low cost that allows the screening of a large number of samples would be extremely valuable. In this study, we analyzed the potential of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) proteins from Leishmania braziliensis to serve as antigen candidates for the serodiagnosis of human visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral disease. Moreover, we mapped linear B-cell epitopes in these proteins and selected those epitopes with sequences that were divergent in the corresponding orthologs in Homo sapiens, in Canis familiaris, and in Trypanosoma cruzi. We compared the performance of these peptides with the recombinant protein using ELISA. Both MAPK3 and MAPK4 recombinant proteins showed better specificity in the immunodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis than soluble parasite antigens and the EIE-leishmaniose-visceral-canina-bio-manguinhos (EIE-LVC) kit. Furthermore, the performance of this serodiagnosis assay was improved using synthetic peptides corresponding to B-cell epitopes derived from both proteins.

  15. Comparative assessment of ELISAs using recombinant saposin-like protein 2 and recombinant cathepsin L-1 from Fasciola hepatica for the serodiagnosis of human Fasciolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gottstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant Fasciola hepatica antigens, saposin-like protein-2 (recSAP2 and cathepsin L-1 (recCL1, were assessed individually and in combination in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the specific serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis in areas of low endemicity as encountered in Central Europe. Antibody detection was conducted using ProteinA/ProteinG (PAG conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Test characteristics as well as agreement with results from an ELISA using excretory-secretory products (FhES from adult stage liver flukes was assessed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis, specificity, sensitivity, Youdens J and overall accuracy. Cross-reactivity was assessed using three different groups of serum samples from healthy individuals (n=20, patients with other parasitic infections (n=87 and patients with malignancies (n=121. The best combined diagnostic results for recombinant antigens were obtained using the recSAP2-ELISA (87% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% overall accuracy employing the threshold (cut-off to discriminate between positive and negative reactions that maximized Youdens J. The findings showed that recSAP2-ELISA can be used for the routine serodiagnosis of chronic fasciolosis in clinical laboratories; the use of the PAG-conjugate offers the opportunity to employ, for example, rabbit hyperimmune serum for the standardization of positive controls.

  16. ORF Sequence: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39933242 >gi|39933242|ref|NP_945518.1| possible nicotinate-nucleotide adn...WWLVSPGNPLKDISSLREIDARVAAAQAIADDPRIQVSRLEAVIGTRYTADTLRYLRRHCPGARFVWIMGADNLAQFHRWQQWQQIAAEIPIAVIDRPPTSFRALAAPAAQRLMRMRIPNNKAATLADREPPAWVYLTGLKSLVSSTALRNPDGSWKT

  17. ORF Sequence: NC_005814 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005814 gi|45476500 >gi|45476500|ref|NP_995415.1| putative RepA protein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VNEANKFGLEALCELMLAILDDLDLRDWQTIHNLETLADRAGLTTRSDAGHKSISRASRGCDRLSWLNAIISEKAPFNPYDARCACKHIEVTEDFFAILGIPLKQVYRERARLLKANPEEIISSGDVRLIAIKVENWTRKAAAGLARMKARRDAARQRKQEYYSPTFA

  18. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440883 >gi|45440883|ref|NP_992422.1| heat shock protein GrpE [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...RRRTELDVEKAHKFALERFSSELLPVIDNLERALDTADKTNTELTSMIEGVELTLKSLLDAVGKFGIEVVGETHVPFNPEVHQAMTMLESADHEPNHVMMVMQKGYTLNGRLLRPAMVAVSKAKS

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439868 >gi|45439868|ref|NP_991407.1| aspartate-ammonia ligase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MKKQFIQKQQQISFVKSFFSRQLEQQLGLIEVQAPILSRVGDGTQDNLSGSEKAVQVKVKSLPDST

  20. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440421 >gi|45440421|ref|NP_991960.1| malate dehydrogenase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...DIVLISAGVARKPGMDRSDLFNVNAGIVRNLVEQIARTCPNALIGIITNPVNTTVAIAAEVLKKAGVYDKNKLFGITTLDTIRSNTFVAELKGKQPQDIEVPVIGGHS

  1. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441614 >gi|45441614|ref|NP_993153.1| putative lipoprotein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VGTHFDYVLSSGADEFLTLLVTGQIDKKKIEVVRDGSFNLNKKKDGFTGKIALKYRYQTAEERGKIEPLIKGADWNCPSLTETTGICNINLNNLVGTIHRKGATPADIFRFEHPLQVKFYSKNTTSAKRALYPVAVAADVVMLPVYLLSAAAVAAFYGVVSLN

  2. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45443443 >gi|45443443|ref|NP_994982.1| chaperone protein DnaJ [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...IFEREGNNLYCEVPINFAMAALGGEIEVPTLDGRVKLKIPAETQTGKMFRMRGKGVKSVRGGSQGDLLCRVVVETPVSLSEKQKQLLRELEESFVGAAGEKNSPRAKSFLDGVKKFFDDLTR

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MTTTTPIRLLVRPITAGDNLAIANVIREVSAEFGLTADKGYTVSDPNLDHLYELYSQPRSAYWVIEV... NC_005810 gi|45440492 >gi|45440492|ref|NP_992031.1| putative acetyltransferase [Ye

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PIVLEIGFGMGTSLVTMATNNPQQNFLGIEVHSPGVGACLSSAHDAGLSNLRIMCHDAVEVLENMIPEASLDMVQLFFPDPWHKARHNKRRIVQTPFVELVKSKLKVGGVFHMATDWQPYAEHMLEVMSGVSGYLNLSEQNDYVPRPDSRPLTKFELRGQRLGHGVWDLMFERKE ... NC_005810 gi|45443229 >gi|45443229|ref|NP_994768.1| Putative methyltransferase [Ye...rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MINDVISPEFDENGRALRRIRSFVRRQGRLTKGQQLALDSYWPVMGVEYQAAPVDLNTLFGREA

  5. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441658 >gi|45441658|ref|NP_993197.1| putative esterase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MNINTVPLATDFANLLAARRLFFGKGAQHETDYGRQRVARWIANVSAPLSGKIEVTGHVRRFIPEKLRSAEPI

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439934 >gi|45439934|ref|NP_991473.1| serine acetyltransferase [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...VSILQSVTLGGTGKTSGDRHPKIREGVMIGAGAKILGNIEVGRGAKIGAGSVVLQSVPAHTTAAGVPARIVGKPESDKPSLDMDQHFNGSIQGFEYGDGI

  7. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442769 >gi|45442769|ref|NP_994308.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...NKTKGMENGIAIDSKSMSSKQRQKYSLNNVIPDMPILSIKTYSPEELSVKNNKNNKTEEYSLGYIEVIMKIQDLEFIHTVEKAGEVFLTPKSGDHKRIDLDDIIPTLQTIRELRG

  8. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442616 >gi|45442616|ref|NP_994155.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...sinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MSYVMFLQHLFSAKRRVLLLYLLVISIPIVYYITSRVIEVRNNKLLIKYSELSYHLQQHSIMAKK

  9. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45439885 >gi|45439885|ref|NP_991424.1| Predicted GTPases [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MTIRNYNYHMTHFVISAPDIRHLPRDEGIEVAFAGRSNAGKSSALNTLTNQKGLARTSKTPGRTQLINLFEVV

  10. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45443717 >gi|45443717|ref|NP_995256.1| heat shock protein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MATYYLASKKELTYMRNYDLSPLLRQWIGFDKLASTMQGGQEPQGFPPYNIEKTDDNHYRISLALAGFKQSELDIEV

  11. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45440351 >gi|45440351|ref|NP_991890.1| 4Fe-4S ferrodoxin [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...AIITGSHGVQLLASRCIGCKTCMLVCPFGAMSIIERPADGQQAADSQPVMASGSGRAQAHKCDLCHQRESGPACIEVCPTNALKLVTPGVLEALQREKQLRAARGSAPGIAR

  12. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442659 >gi|45442659|ref|NP_994198.1| putative membrane protein [Yer...sinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MINFRGRFGRPLWHYLVLPVVLLLLAVILLTPMIVQTESTLKIRPNQQGLSLPDGFYLYQHLNGRGIHIKSIIPENDSLVVSLEFPEQQMQAIEVLQDVLPAGYAIVASESKKRHRLLPVFRSNQQNLG

  13. ORF Sequence: NC_006155 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g protein (involved in environmental [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP 32953] MTKTDYLMRLRKCTTIDTLERVIEKNKYELSDDELELFYSAADHRLAELTMNKLYDKIPPTVWQHVK ... NC_006155 gi|51595328 >gi|51595328|ref|YP_069519.1| hemolysin expression modulatin

  14. ORF Sequence: NC_003078 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etitiveness [Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021] MQLSACARRREAVRYRRRMARILILLFSLLSAFAFPVTPVP... NC_003078 gi|16264863 >gi|16264863|ref|NP_437655.1| probable membrane protein necessary for nodulation comp

  15. ORF Sequence: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13471138 >gi|13471138|ref|NP_102707.1| transcriptional regulatory protein, nodulation competit...iveness determinant [Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099] MTNESDTRSAELAELTADIVSAYVSNNPLPV

  16. ORF Sequence: NC_002607 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MRRDDRDDPFDDIFREIERMMEDMMADGQRLDRGDQSGFASSTHVDVHETEDAIRVIADLPGVEKDDISIQCDGTSVTVSAQSGHREYDERVDLPGRVDAHSGAATYNNGILEVAFDRTESSTNIDVQ ... NC_002607 gi|15789422 >gi|15789422|ref|NP_279246.1| Hsp2 [Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

  17. ORF Sequence: NC_004088 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis KIM] MVKQFTSGLIISTFFLAVPGYAASFDCDNAKGYVETSICTNPVLSKLDDTLLSVYAKAQAAAPDQEINIRNEQREWLKNSRNTLTSEDALILSYEARIAQLSKANVSIPASAASETPVSTPD ... NC_004088 gi|22125156 >gi|22125156|ref|NP_668579.1| hypothetical protein y1256 [Ye

  18. ORF Sequence: NC_004431 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004431 gi|26249430 >gi|26249430|ref|NP_755470.1| Transposase [Escherichia coli ...CFT073] MPLLDKLREQYGVGPVCSELHIAPSTYYHCQQQRHHPDKRSARAQRDDWLKKEIQRVYDENHQVYGVRKVWRQLLREGIRVARCTVARLMAVMGLAGVLRGKKVRTTSAGKPLLQVTA

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_002128 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available O157:H7] MPLLDKLREQYGVGPVCSELHIAPSTYYHCQQQRHHPDKRSARAQRDDWLKREIQRVYDENHQVYGVRKVWRQLLREGIRVARCTVARLMAVMGLAGVL... NC_002128 gi|10955343 >gi|10955343|ref|NP_052684.1| transposase [Escherichia coli

  20. ORF Sequence: NC_003070 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003070 gi|18407972 >gi|18407972|ref|NP_564823.1| no apical meristem (NAM) famil...y protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] MQAEEIICRVSDEEIIENYLRPKINGETSSIPRYVVELAEELYTVEPWLLPRQTAPILNPGEWFYFGKRNRKYSN

  1. ORF Sequence: NC_003901 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anosarcina mazei Go1] MMFATIGASFHKGWRAGPSIFMGHALVECILFMLILIGASSFLRQSIISYLSIVGGFVMVAFGLLMIKKAKEASTMDVSISASSLN... NC_003901 gi|21228124 >gi|21228124|ref|NP_634046.1| transporter, LysE family [Meth

  2. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  3. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  4. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  5. 76 FR 49664 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Beaufort Channel, Beaufort, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Beaufort Channel, Beaufort, NC AGENCY... the Grayden Paul Bridge across the Beaufort (Gallants) Channel, mile 0.1 at Beaufort, NC. The... current operating regulations of the Grayden Paul Bridge, across the Beaufort (Gallants) Channel, mile 0.1...

  6. 33 CFR 117.822 - Beaufort Channel, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaufort Channel, NC. 117.822 Section 117.822 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.822 Beaufort Channel, NC. The...

  7. 77 FR 45247 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Gallants Channel, Beaufort, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Gallants Channel, Beaufort, NC... operation of the US 70 (Grayden Paul) Bridge, at mile 0.1, over Gallants Channel, at Beaufort, NC. The... out in 33 CFR 117.823, the draw of the US 70 (Grayden Paul) Bridge, at mile 0.1, over Gallants Channel...

  8. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  9. Cognitive and Surgical Outcome in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis Plus Neurocysticercosis: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M.; Velasco, Tonicarlo R.; Coimbra, Erica R.; Gargaro, Ana C.; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R.; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Terra, Vera C.; Alexandre, Veriano; Araujo, David; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Fernandes, Regina M. F.; Assirati, João A.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Leite, João P.; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M.; Markowitsch, Hans J.; Sakamoto, Américo C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Where neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic, chronic calcified neurocysticercosis (cNCC) can be observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Considering that both disorders cause recurrent seizures or cognitive impairment, we evaluated if temporal lobectomy is cognitively safe and effective for seizure control in MTLE-HS plus cNCC. Methods Retrospective cohort study of neuropsychological profile and surgical outcome of 324 MTLE-HS patients submitted to temporal lobectomy, comparing the results according to the presence or absence of cNCC. Findings cNCC occurred in 126 (38.9%) of our MTLE-HS patients, a frequency higher than expected, more frequently in women than in men (O.R. = 1.66; 95% C.I. = 1.05–2.61; p = 0.03). Left-side (but not right side) surgery caused impairment in selected neuropsychological tests, but this impairment was not accentuated by the presence of cNCC. Ninety-four (74.6%) patients with MTLE-HS plus cNCC and 153 patients (77.3%) with MTLE-HS alone were Engel class I after surgery (O.R. = 1.16; 95% C.I. = 0.69–1.95; p = 0.58). However, the chances of Engel class IA were significantly lower in MTLE-HS plus cNCC than in patients with MTLE-HS alone (31.7% versus 48.5%; O.R. = 2.02; 95% C.I. = 1.27–3.23; p = 0.003). Patients with MTLE-HS plus cNCC showed higher rates of Engel class ID (15.1% versus 6.6%; O.R. = 2.50; 95% C.I. = 1.20–5.32; p = 0.012). Interpretation cNCC can be highly prevalent among MTLE-HS patients living in areas where neurocysticercosis is endemic, suggesting a cause-effect relationship between the two diseases. cNCC does not add further risk for cognitive decline after surgery in MTLE-HS patients. The rates of Engel class I outcome were very similar for the two groups; however, MTLE-HS plus cNCC patients achieved Engel IA status less frequently, and Engel ID status more frequently. Temporal lobectomy can be

  10. Scedosporium boydii CatA1 and SODC recombinant proteins, new tools for serodiagnosis of Scedosporium infection of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; Marot, Agnès; Godon, Charlotte; Calenda, Alphonse; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2017-12-01

    Scedosporium species rank the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus. In CF, these fungi may cause various respiratory infections similar to those caused by A. fumigatus, including bronchitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary mycoses. Diagnosis of these infections relies on the detection of serum antibodies using crude antigenic extracts. However, many components of these extracts are common to Scedosporium and Aspergillus species, leading to cross-reactions. Here, 5 recombinant proteins from S. apiospermum or S. boydii were produced, and their value in serodiagnosis of Scedosporium infections was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two of them, corresponding to the Scedosporium catalase A1 or cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxyde dismutase, allowed the detection of Scedosporium infection, and the differentiation with an Aspergillus infection. These recombinant proteins therefore may serve as a basis for the development of a standardized serological test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of refolded Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and its use for serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Abolfazl; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Babaie, Jalal; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On pseudorandom generators in NC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryan, Mary; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question of whether NC 0 circuits can generate pseudorandom distributions. While we leave the general question unanswered, we show – • Generators computed by NC 0 circuits where each output bit depends on at most 3 input bits (i.e, DNC 3 0 circuits) and with stretch....... – • There is an NC 4 0 generator with a super-linear stretch that passes the linear dependency test as well as k-wise independence tests, for any constant k....

  13. Development of NC1 and NC2 domains of type VII collagen ELISA for the diagnosis and analysis of the time course of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Marwah Adly; Ishii, Ken; Kim, Yool-Ja; Murakami, Akihiro; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Schmidt, Enno; Zillikens, Detlef; Shirakata, Yuji; Hashimoto, Koji; Kitajima, Yasuo; Amagai, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired autoimmune mechanobullous disease. EBA patients possess autoantibodies against type VII collagen which is composed of a collagenous domain flanked by non-collagenous NC1 and NC2 domains. It was reported that major epitopes reside within the NC1 domain and minor epitopes reside within NC2 domain. The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive and specific ELISA to facilitate the diagnosis of EBA. We developed ELISAs using recombinant NC1 domain produced by mammalian expression system and recombinant NC2 domain produced by mammalian or bacterial expression system to characterize autoantibodies in EBA. Next, we developed an ELISA using a combination of the NC1 (mammalian expression) and NC2 (bacterial expression). We tested the ELISAs with 49 EBA sera, 55 normal control sera, 20 pemphigus vulgaris and 20 bullous pemphigoid sera. When we evaluated the 49 EBA sera using the NC1 and NC2 ELISAs, 38 (77.5%) reacted with NC1 domain only, 7 sera (14.2%) reacted with both NC1 and NC2 domains, and one serum (2%) reacted with NC2 domain only. Therefore, to increase the sensitivity of the assay, we developed an ELISA coated with a mixture of recombinant NC1 and NC2 domains, resulting in 93.8% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. By analyzing the time course of two EBA patients, ELISA scores fluctuated in parallel with their disease activity. We conclude that the NC1+NC2 ELISA can be a practical assay for the diagnosis and follow up of the antibody titers of EBA patients. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of Diagnostic Criteria for Neurocysticercosis for Patients with Ventricular Cystic Lesions or Granulomas: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; García, Hector H; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2017-09-01

    Intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a severe form of NCC requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to assess the reliability of the most recent version of diagnostic criteria for this form of NCC. Two systematic literature reviews were performed; one included case reports of patients with intraventricular cysticercosis and the other included case reports of patients with intraventricular cystic lesions or granulomas caused by infections other than NCC. All assessed cases were categorized according to the last revision of the long-standing Del Brutto's set of diagnostic criteria to determine its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for this form of NCC. The search disclosed 128 patients with intraventricular NCC and 41 with other infections. The set of diagnostic criteria classified as definitive NCC 93 cases with intraventricular NCC (sensitivity 72.7%, 95% CI, 63.9-79.9%), as well as four cases with other infections (specificity 90.2%, 95% CI, 75.9-96.8%). The positive and negative predictive values of the criteria were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.39-0.63), respectively. The revised Del Brutto's set of diagnostic criteria for NCC is acceptably sensitive and highly specific for diagnosing patients with the ventricular form of the disease.

  15. On the relationship between neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis: coincidence or a pathogenic relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) are two common worldwide forms of focal epilepsy. In regions where NCC is endemic, both diseases can be observed in the same patient. There is recent and growing evidence suggesting that NCC might contribute to or even cause MTLE-HS. In this article, we review the literature regarding NCC and temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically addressing the relationship between NCC and MTLE-HS. In addition, we review some scenarios where NCC seems to emerge as a causative agent or contributor to the development of MTLE-HS in some patients. This association is important because it may have an impact on the evaluation and treatment of a sizable proportion of patients with epilepsy. Insights from these clinical observations might also contribute to the understanding of the neurobiology of both NCC and MTLE-HS. We hope that our review might shed some light on this interesting interplay between two of the most common worldwide conditions associated with human focal epilepsy. PMID:23265552

  16. Distúrbios psíquicos na neurocisticercose em crianças Psychic disturbances in children with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Lefèvre

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam as observações clínicas de 6 casos de neurocisticercose em crianças, todas do sexo feminino. De um total de 54 casos de neurocisticercose em crianças, destacaram estes 6 nos quais havia, de comum, o fato das pacientes apresentarem intensa agitação psicomotora, com alucinações visuais terroríficas (zoopsias, sendo que 5 destas crianças haviam perdido totalmente a visão, o que tornava o quadro ainda mais dramático. As características clínicas destes casos são relatadas sendo destacada a evolução relativamente satisfatória, tendo em vista o mau prognóstico da neurocisticercose.Six cases of neurocysticercosis in children are reported. These 6 patients were selected from a total number of 54 cases, in view of their particular symptomatology, represented by terrifying visual hallucinations (zoopsias and psichic disturbances. Five of the patients also had a total loss of sight. The clinical characteristics of the patients are reported. The relatively satisfactory response to treatment in 5 cases is commented.

  17. Usefulness of gel filtration fraction as potential biomarker for neurocysticercosis in serum: towards a new diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, D S; Gonzaga, H T; Ribeiro, V S; Cunha-Júnior, J P; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in improving neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis through the search of new and alternative antigenic sources, as those obtained from heterologous antigens. The aim of this study was to obtain potential biomarkers for NCC diagnosis after gel filtration chromatography [gel filtration fraction (GFF)] from the total saline extract (SE) from Taenia saginata metacestodes, followed by protein identification and application in immunodiagnostic. SE and GFF proteic profiles were characterized in gel electrophoresis, and diagnostic performance was verified by testing 160 serum samples through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and other diagnostic parameters were calculated. Polypeptides of interest in the diagnosis of human NCC present at GFF were analysed by mass spectrometry (MS) and B-cell epitopes were predicted. GFF had the best diagnostic parameters: Se 93·3%; Sp 93%; AUC 0·990; LR+ = 13·42 and LR- = 0·07, and proved to be useful reacting with serum samples in immunoblotting. Proteic profile ranged from 64 to 68 kDa and enolase and calcium binding protein calreticulin precursor were identified after MS. The enolase and calcium-binding protein calreticulin precursor showed 18 and 10 predicted B-cell epitopes, respectively. In conclusion we identified important markers in the GFF with high efficiency to diagnose NCC.

  18. Saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Moura, Leandro P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blotting (WB) tests compared with the use of metacestodes antigen of Taenia solium in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The samples were obtained from 35 patients with definitive neurocysticercosis (NCC)-group 1-and 44 patients with other neurological disorders (control)-group 2. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, using antigen obtained from T. solium, applied to the patients of group 1 yielded results of 100%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 100% and 93.2%, respectively. The 47-52-, 64-68-, and 70-kDa antigens showed high frequencies in CSF samples from patients with NCC when WB was conducted with both antigens. The results indicate that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of human NCC in CSF samples.

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006513 gi|56476405 >gi|56476405|ref|YP_157994.1| outer membrane protein, ortholog involved in agglutinat...ion in some bacteria [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] MKNLRTVICVAALAALPRFAAAEVPEALRDAARKAVVANPEV

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_006138 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006138 gi|51244364 >1ek9A 2 411 56 457 3e-44 ... ref|YP_064248.1| similar to outer membrane (agglutination...ter ... membrane (agglutination) protein [Desulfotalea ... psychrophila LSv54] ... Lengt

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_006371 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006371 gi|54302263 >1ek9A 1 410 26 423 9e-60 ... ref|YP_132256.1| putative agglutination... protein [Photobacterium profundum SS9] ... emb|CAG22456.1| putative agglutination protein ...

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_005085 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005085 gi|34495763 >1ek9A 2 407 6 404 7e-54 ... gb|AAQ57987.2| probable agglutination... protein [Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC ... 12472] ref|NP_899978.1| probable agglutination protei

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_001144 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efective in mating and agglutination, expression is downregulated by alpha-factor; Ccw12p [Saccharomyces cer... NC_001144 gi|6323139 >gi|6323139|ref|NP_013211.1| Cell wall protein, mutants are d

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_001139 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Spo12p; overexpression bypasses need for Spo12p, but not required for meiosis; Bns1p [Saccharomyces cerevisi... NC_001139 gi|6321669 >gi|6321669|ref|NP_011746.1| Protein with some similarity to

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_006086 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006086 gi|50914876 >1edt0 6 248 223 459 1e-24 ... emb|CAE84954.1| chitin binding protein [Debaryomyces robe...rtsiae] ... Length = 237 ... Query: 138 WHDKTSDPTEKDKVNSMGELPKEVDLAFIFHDWTKDYSL

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_006270 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006270 gi|52079925 >gi|52079925|ref|YP_078716.1| Hypothetical Lambda integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA brea...king-rejoining enzyme, catalytic core [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580] MYMRGRRRP

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_003295 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003295 gi|17546126 >1wqgA 1 184 3 186 8e-57 ... emb|CAD15109.1| PROBABLE RIBOSOME RECYCLING... ... PROBABLE RIBOSOME RECYCLING FACTOR (RIBOSOME RELEASING ... FACTOR) PROTEIN [Ralstonia solana

  8. ORF Sequence: NC_001137 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001137 gi|6320997 >gi|6320997|ref|NP_011076.1| Coiled-coil polarisome protein r...equired for polarized morphogenesis, cell fusion, and low affinity Ca2+ influx; forms polarisome complex wit

  9. ORF Sequence: NC_003995 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vities [Bacillus anthracis str. A2012] MKEVLEVLPKTMKQLVESCKQYDALEEIRVRIGRPLECIAHGEV... NC_003995 gi|21402245 >gi|21402245|ref|NP_658230.1| AAA, ATPases associated with a variety of cellular acti

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_005125 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005125 gi|37520491 >1vp6A 12 129 11 134 4e-08 ... ref|NP_923868.1| nitrogen assimilation... regulatory protein [Gloeobacter violaceus PCC ... 7421] dbj|BAC88863.1| nitrogen assimilation

  11. ORF Sequence: NC_001135 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001135 gi|10383790 >gi|10383790|ref|NP_009956.2| Putative Rheb-related GTPase involved in regulating can...avanine resistance and arginine uptake; member of the Ras superfamily of G-proteins

  12. ORF Sequence: NC_003281 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003281 gi|17557043 >gi|17557043|ref|NP_498707.1| copper (CU) Chaperonin, functi...onal, complements yeast atx1 mutant (7.6 kD) (cuc-1) [Caenorhabditis elegans] MTQYVFEMGMTCNGCANAARKVLGKLGEDKIKIDDINVETKKITVTTDLPASDVLEALKKTGKEIKQLQ

  13. ORF Sequence: NC_001133 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001133 gi|6319307 >gi|6319307|ref|NP_009390.1| Cystathionine gamma-lyase, catalyzes one of the two react...ions involved in the transsulfuration pathway that yields cysteine from homocystein

  14. ORF Sequence: NC_003281 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003281 gi|25151987 >gi|25151987|ref|NP_499440.2| TRAnsformer : XX animals trans...formed into males TRA-1, HERmaphrodization of XO animals HER-2, sex determination zinc-finger protein, alter

  15. ORF Sequence: NC_003282 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inization of XX and XO animals FEM-3 (46.2 kD) (fem-3) [Caenorhabditis elegans] MEVDPGSDDVEADRETRAQKLKLKRNVK... NC_003282 gi|17540880 >gi|17540880|ref|NP_501587.1| sex determination protein, FEM

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_006274 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006274 gi|52140937 >1y0yA 3 348 7 355 e-103 ... ref|YP_085892.1| glucanase/ deblocking... aminopeptidase [Bacillus cereus ZK] ... gb|AAU15956.1| glucanase/ deblocking aminopeptidase ...

  17. ORF Sequence: NC_001136 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001136 gi|6320315 >gi|6320315|ref|NP_010395.1| Nucleolar protein required for DNA replication fork block...ing and recombinational hotspot activities; binds to the replication fork barrier s

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004307 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004307 gi|23465117 >1g5aA 80 628 2 589 5e-59 ... gb|AAL05573.1| alpha-glucosidase [Bifidobacterium adolesce...ntis] ... Length = 588 ... Query: 1 ... MTANNLNDDWWKQAVVYQIYPRSFKDVNGDGLGDIAGVTEK

  19. ORF Sequence: NC_001146 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available factor, as suggested by computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data; Ist1p [Sacch... NC_001146 gi|6324064 >gi|6324064|ref|NP_014134.1| Putative translation initiation

  20. Observations of NC stop nets for bottlenose dolphin takes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To observe the NC stop net fishery to document the entanglement of bottlenose dolphins and movement of dolphins around the nets.

  1. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45442575 >gi|45442575|ref|NP_994114.1| 30S ribosomal protein S2 [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MIVINRLWGRCYGTRGGITPTDTIEVLIMATVSMRDMLQAGVHFGHQTRYWNPKMKPFIFGARNKV

  2. ORF Sequence: NC_003030 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003030 gi|15895978 >gi|15895978|ref|NP_349327.1| Response regulator (CheY-like reciev...er domain and HTH-type DNA-binding domain) [Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824] MDNRVVVAEDEPITRMDICEMLTGAGYSVVGQVPNGLEAIEV

  3. ORF Sequence: NC_005813 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MIMTQPKQTKRRFSPEFKLEAIEQVVKYQRSTIEVARALELDPSQLRKWIRQYKEEVSGVTPDNPALTPEQREIQSLRAQIKRLEMEKEILKQAAVLMSEFPIKSLR ... NC_005813 gi|45478586 >gi|45478587|ref|NP_995414.1| hypothetical protein pCD98 [Ye

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441608 >gi|45441608|ref|NP_993147.1| YjgF-family lipoprotein [Yersinia pestis biovar Mediev...alis str. 91001] MPQHHNRNRRMIIKTQNAPAAIGPYSQGVVAGNLLFISGCCPFSEKDGSVVGIDITEQTIQAMKNLKAIVEATGSYMNDVVKTTCFISDMNNFQSFNTIYAGYFPSGTFPARSCVEVARLPKDVLIEVEAIVSLK

  5. ORF Sequence: NC_005813 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsinia pestis biovar Medievalis str. 91001] MIMTQPKQTKRRFSPEFKLEAIEQVVKYQRSTIEVARALELDPSQLRKWIRQYKEEVSGMTPDNPALTPEQREIQSLRAQIKRLEMEKEILKQAAVLMSEFPIKSLR ... NC_005813 gi|45478566 >gi|45478566|ref|NP_995393.1| hypothetical protein pCD71 [Ye

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_001145 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001145 gi|6323710 >gi|6323710|ref|NP_013781.1| Protein required for nuclear mem...brane fusion during karyogamy, localizes to the membrane with a soluble portion in the endoplasmic reticulum

  7. ORF Sequence: NC_003070 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003070 gi|15219789 >gi|15219789|ref|NP_176868.1| lupeol synthase, putative / 2,3-oxidosqualene-triterpen...oid cyclase, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana] MWRLKVGEGKGKDPYLFSSNNFVGRQTWEFDPKAGTRE

  8. ORF Sequence: NC_003070 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003070 gi|30699377 >gi|30699377|ref|NP_178017.2| lupeol synthase, putative / 2,3-oxidosqualene-triterpen...oid cyclase, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana] MWKLKIGEGNGEDPYLFSSNNFVGRQTWEFDPKAGTPE

  9. ORF Sequence: NC_000964 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000964 gi|16079850 >gi|16079850|ref|NP_390676.1| inhibition of SpoIVFB (negative regulation) and hypothe...sised to stabilize the thermolabile spoIVFB product (positive regulation) (stage IV

  10. ORF Sequence: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of cations and cationic drugs [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] MFYWILL... NC_006905 gi|62180070 >gi|62180070|ref|YP_216487.1| putative membrane transporter

  11. ORF Sequence: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of cations and cationic drugs [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] MQQFEWI... NC_006905 gi|62180071 >gi|62180071|ref|YP_216488.1| putative membrane transporter

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936399 >1qr0A 1 183 5 186 1e-25 ... emb|CAE28777.1| possible lipopeptide antibiotics... ... possible lipopeptide antibiotics iturin a biosynthesis ... protein [Rhodopseudomonas palu

  13. Large-Nc Gauge Theory and Chiral Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masanori; Lee, Jong-Wan; Yamada, Norikazu

    Effective theory approaches and the large-Nc limit are useful for studying the strongly coupled gauge theories. In this talk we consider how the chiral random matrix theory (χRMT) can be used in the study of large-Nc gauge theories. It turns out the parameter regions, in which each of these two approaches are valid, are different. Still, however, we show that the breakdown of chiral symmetry can be detected by combining the large-Nc argument and the χRMT with some cares. As a demonstration, we numerically study the four dimensional SU(Nc) gauge theory with Nf = 2 heavy adjoint fermions on a 24 lattice by using Monte-Carlo simulations, which is related to the infinite volume lattice through the Eguchi-Kawai equivalence.

  14. ORF Sequence: NC_003282 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003282 gi|17540144 >gi|17540144|ref|NP_500824.1| feminization 1 homolog a, FEMinization of XX and XO ani...mals FEM-1 (fem-1) [Caenorhabditis elegans] MTPNGHHFRTVIYNAAAVGNLQRIKVFTINSRNDRQWII

  15. ORF Sequence: NC_001137 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ull mutation has global effects on transcription; Yer064cp [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] MIDDTENSKIHLEGSHKTGKYT... NC_001137 gi|6320907 >gi|6320907|ref|NP_010986.1| Non-essential nuclear protein; n

  16. ORF Sequence: NC_003423 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e nuclear protein with effects on N-glycosylation of proteins in the secretory pathway by similarity to yeas... NC_003423 gi|19113351 >gi|19113351|ref|NP_596559.1| bystin-family protein; putativ

  17. ORF Sequence: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g protein (involved in environmental regulation of virulence factors) [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica s... NC_006905 gi|62179085 >gi|62179085|ref|YP_215502.1| hemolysin expression modulatin

  18. ORF Sequence: NC_004307 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se/invertase); possible inulinase [Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705] MTDFTPETPVLTPIHDHAAELAKAEAGVAEMAANRNNRWYP... NC_004307 gi|23464731 >gi|23464731|ref|NP_695334.1| beta-fructofuranosidase (sucra

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_001145 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001145 gi|6323724 >1lv7A 48 256 339 536 1e-04 ... gb|AAW44927.1| sister chromatid cohesion...1| ... sister chromatid cohesion-related protein, putative ... [Cryptococcus neoformans var. n

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003070 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003070 gi|15219798 >1lv7A 48 256 339 536 1e-04 ... gb|AAW44927.1| sister chromatid cohesion....1| ... sister chromatid cohesion-related protein, putative ... [Cryptococcus neoformans var.

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_003423 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003423 gi|19111992 >1lv7A 48 256 339 536 1e-04 ... gb|AAW44927.1| sister chromatid cohesion....1| ... sister chromatid cohesion-related protein, putative ... [Cryptococcus neoformans var.

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_005783 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005783 gi|45185248 >1lv7A 48 256 339 536 1e-04 ... gb|AAW44927.1| sister chromatid cohesion....1| ... sister chromatid cohesion-related protein, putative ... [Cryptococcus neoformans var.

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_003282 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003282 gi|17541368 >1lv7A 48 256 339 536 1e-04 ... gb|AAW44927.1| sister chromatid cohesion....1| ... sister chromatid cohesion-related protein, putative ... [Cryptococcus neoformans var.

  4. ORF Sequence: NC_001148 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_001148 gi|6325264 >gi|6325264|ref|NP_015332.1| Meiosis-specific component of sister chromatid cohesion... complex; maintains cohesion between sister chromatids during meiosis I; maintains cohesion

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_006371 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006371 gi|54302237 >1r690 2 63 15 79 7e-05 ... ref|YP_132230.1| hypotethical trans...criptional regulator [Photobacterium profundum ... SS9] emb|CAG22430.1| hypotethical transcriptional ...

  6. ORF Sequence: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006905 gi|62182728 >gi|62182728|ref|YP_219145.1| putative nitrite reductase; formate-dependent, Fe-S cen...ters [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] MSCTRRQ

  7. ORF Sequence: NC_006824 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006824 gi|58616603 >gi|58616603|ref|YP_195734.1| thiolase, related to ditF possibly involved in diterpen...oid metabolism [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] MTIRDKTAIVGLGSTPYYKRGQSAPQTLIELVGKSVLAALDDAGLSVR

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_003295 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003295 gi|17546028 >1fjgR 2 71 22 91 5e-16 ... emb|CAD15011.1| PROBABLE PRIMOSOMAL REPLICATION... PROTEIN [Ralstonia solanacearum] ... ref|NP_519430.1| PROBABLE PRIMOSOMAL REPLICATION ...

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_003295 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003295 gi|17545851 >1xjhA 4 62 266 325 7e-15 ... emb|CAD14834.1| PUTATIVE REDOX REGULATED MOLECULA... ... PUTATIVE REDOX REGULATED MOLECULAR CHAPERONE ... HEAT-SHOCK-LIKE PROTEIN [Ralstonia solanacea

  10. ORF Sequence: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000962 gi|15608520 >gi|15608520|ref|NP_215896.1| PROBABLE ASPARTATE CARBAMOYLTR...ANSFERASE PYRB (ATCase) (Aspartate transcarbamylase) [Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv] MTPRHLLTAADLSRDDATAI

  11. ORF Sequence: NC_002945 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002945 gi|31792574 >gi|31792574|ref|NP_855067.1| PROBABLE ASPARTATE CARBAMOYLTR...ANSFERASE PYRB (ATCase) (Aspartate transcarbamylase) [Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97] MTPRHLLTAADLSRDDATAILDD

  12. ORF Sequence: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000962 gi|15608523 >gi|15608523|ref|NP_215899.1| PROBABLE CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE S...YNTHASE SMALL CHAIN CARA (Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase glutamine chain) [Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

  13. SU(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients at large Nc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Fl.

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that several papers where SU (3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients were calculated in order to describe properties of hadronic systems are, up to a phase convention, particular cases of analytic formulae derived by Hecht in 1965 in the context of nuclear physics. This is valid for irreducible representations with multiplicity one in the corresponding Clebsch-Gordan series. For multiplicity two, Hecht has proposed an alternative which can provide correct 1 /Nc sub-leading orders in large Nc studies.

  14. precision deburring using NC and robot equipment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-05-01

    Deburring precision miniature components is often time consuming and inconsistent. Although robots are available for deburring parts, they are not precise enough for precision miniature parts. Numerical control (NC) machining can provide edge break consistencies to meet requirements such as 76.2-..mu..m maximum edge break (chamfer). Although NC machining has a number of technical limitations which prohibits its use on many geometries, it can be an effective approach to features that are particularly difficult to deburr.

  15. Intraventricular neurocysticercosis. Presentation of a case located in the third ventricle; Neurocisticercosis intraventricular. Presentacion de un caso localizado en el tercer ventriculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L.; Abad, L.; Lozano, E.; Maldonado, G. [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common cerebral parasitosis. Of the three forms in which it can present itself, intraventricular cysticercosis is the least common and has the poorest prognosis. Diagnosis is principally made through the use of neuroimaging methods, especially MR, which is also indispensable both as a preoperative control and in the choice and response evaluation of postoperative treatment. We present the case of a 24-year-old Ecuadoran woman with clinical intracraneal hypertension due to a cysticercus cyst in the third ventricle. We analyze the imaging findings and their usefulness in assessing possible treatments. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  17. Structural studies of n-type nc-Si-QD thin films for nc-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Kar, Debjit

    2017-12-01

    A wide optical gap nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) dielectric material is a basic requirement at the n-type window layer of nc-Si solar cells in thin film n-i-p structure on glass substrates. Taking advantage of the high atomic-H density inherent to the planar inductively coupled low-pressure (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma, development of an analogous material in P-doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H network has been tried. Incorporation of C in the Si-network extracted from the CH4 widens the optical band gap; however, at enhanced PH3-dilution of the plasma spontaneous miniaturization of the nc-Si-QDs below the dimension of Bohr radius (∼4.5 nm) further enhances the band gap by virtue of the quantum size effect. At increased flow rate of PH3, dopant induced continuous amorphization of the intrinsic crystalline network is counterbalanced by the further crystallization promoted by the supplementary atomic-H extracted from PH3 (1% in H2) in the plasma, eventually holding a moderately high degree of crystallinity. The n-type wide band gap (∼1.93 eV) window layer with nc-Si-QDs in adequate volume fraction (∼52%) could furthermore be instrumental as an effective seed layer for advancing sequential crystallization in the i-layer of nc-Si solar cells with n-i-p structure in superstrate configuration.

  18. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Hector H

    2015-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC.

  20. Reprint of "Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurocysticercosis in a rural population with extensive pig production in Angónia district, Tete Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assane, Yunus Amade; Trevisan, Chiara; Schutte, Clara Maria; Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Johansen, Maria Vang; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important neurological disease in countries with high prevalence of Taenia solium infection and is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique based on: prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis assessed by antigen Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (Ag-ELISA) seropositivity, history of epilepsy, and brain computed tomography (CT) scan results. A cross sectional study was conducted between September and November 2007 in Angónia district. Questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 1,723 study subjects. Brain CT-scans were carried out on 151 study subjects with confirmed history of epilepsy. A total of 77 (51.0% (95% CI, 42.7-59.2)) and 38 (25.2% (95% CI, 18.5-32.9)) subjects met the criteria for definitive and probable diagnosis of NCC, respectively. T. solium Ag-ELISA seropositivity was found in 15.5% (95% CI, 12.8-16.2) of the study subjects. The estimated life time prevalence of epilepsy was 8.8% (95% CI, 7.5-10.2). Highly suggestive lesions of NCC were found on CT-scanning in 77 (71.9%, (95% CI, 62.4-80.2)) of the seropositive and 8 (18.1%, (95% CI, 8.2-32.7)) of the seronegative study subjects, respectively. The present findings revealed a high prevalence of NCC among people with epilepsy in Angónia district. Determination of effective strategies for prevention and control of T. solium cysticercosis are necessary to reduce the burden of NCC among the affected populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of People with Epilepsy and Neurocysticercosis in Tanzania: Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Joachim; Schmutzhard, Erich; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gupton, Paige N.; Schaffert, Matthias; Auer, Herbert; Gotwald, Thaddaeus; Matuja, William; Winkler, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of epilepsy in regions where pigs are free-ranging and hygiene is poor. Pork production is expected to increase in the next decade in sub-Saharan Africa, hence NCC will likely become more prevalent. In this study, people with epilepsy (PWE, n = 212) were followed up 28.6 months after diagnosis of epilepsy. CT scans were performed, and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of selected PWE were analysed. We compared the demographic data, clinical characteristics, and associated risk factors of PWE with and without NCC. PWE with NCC (n = 35) were more likely to be older at first seizure (24.3 vs. 16.3 years, p = 0.097), consumed more pork (97.1% vs. 73.6%, p = 0.001), and were more often a member of the Iraqw tribe (94.3% vs. 67.8%, p = 0.005) than PWE without NCC (n = 177). PWE and NCC who were compliant with anti-epileptic medications had a significantly higher reduction of seizures (98.6% vs. 89.2%, p = 0.046). Other characteristics such as gender, seizure frequency, compliance, past medical history, close contact with pigs, use of latrines and family history of seizures did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of NCC lesions and active NCC lesions were significantly associated with a positive antibody result. The electroimmunotransfer blot, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was more sensitive than a commercial western blot, especially in PWE and cerebral calcifications. This is the first study to systematically compare the clinical characteristics of PWE due to NCC or other causes and to explore the utility of two different antibody tests for diagnosis of NCC in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21666796

  3. Comparison of monocyte gene expression among patients with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy, Idiopathic Epilepsy and idiopathic headaches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Vasudevan; Drevets, Douglas A; Ramajayam, Govindan; Manoj, Josephine J; Anderson, Michael P; Hanas, Jay S; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Oommen, Anna; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a neglected tropical disease, inflicts substantial health and economic costs on people living in endemic areas such as India. Nevertheless, accurate diagnosis using brain imaging remains poorly accessible and too costly in endemic countries. The goal of this study was to test if blood monocyte gene expression could distinguish patients with NCC-associated epilepsy, from NCC-negative imaging lesion-free patients presenting with idiopathic epilepsy or idiopathic headaches. Patients aged 18 to 51 were recruited from the Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, between January 2013 and October 2014. mRNA from CD14+ blood monocytes was isolated from 76 patients with NCC, 10 Recovered NCC (RNCC), 29 idiopathic epilepsy and 17 idiopathic headaches patients. A preliminary microarray analysis was performed on six NCC, six idiopathic epilepsy and four idiopathic headaches patients to identify genes differentially expressed in NCC-associated epilepsy compared with other groups. This analysis identified 1411 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes in patients with NCC compared to Idiopathic Epilepsy. Fifteen genes up-regulated in NCC patients compared with other groups were selected based on possible relevance to NCC, and analyzed by qPCR in all patients' samples. Differential gene expression among patients was assessed using linear regression models. qPCR analysis of 15 selected genes showed generally higher gene expression among NCC patients, followed by RNCC, idiopathic headaches and Idiopathic Epilepsy. Gene expression was also generally higher among NCC patients with single cyst granulomas, followed by mixed lesions and single calcifications. Expression of certain genes in blood monocytes can distinguish patients with NCC-related epilepsy from patients with active Idiopathic Epilepsy and idiopathic headaches. These findings are significant because they may lead to the development of new tools to

  4. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  6. A cross-sectional study of people with epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Tanzania: clinical characteristics and diagnostic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Blocher

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a major cause of epilepsy in regions where pigs are free-ranging and hygiene is poor. Pork production is expected to increase in the next decade in sub-Saharan Africa, hence NCC will likely become more prevalent. In this study, people with epilepsy (PWE, n=212 were followed up 28.6 months after diagnosis of epilepsy. CT scans were performed, and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of selected PWE were analysed. We compared the demographic data, clinical characteristics, and associated risk factors of PWE with and without NCC. PWE with NCC (n=35 were more likely to be older at first seizure (24.3 vs. 16.3 years, p=0.097, consumed more pork (97.1% vs. 73.6%, p=0.001, and were more often a member of the Iraqw tribe (94.3% vs. 67.8%, p=0.005 than PWE without NCC (n=177. PWE and NCC who were compliant with anti-epileptic medications had a significantly higher reduction of seizures (98.6% vs. 89.2%, p=0.046. Other characteristics such as gender, seizure frequency, compliance, past medical history, close contact with pigs, use of latrines and family history of seizures did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of NCC lesions and active NCC lesions were significantly associated with a positive antibody result. The electroimmunotransfer blot, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was more sensitive than a commercial western blot, especially in PWE and cerebral calcifications. This is the first study to systematically compare the clinical characteristics of PWE due to NCC or other causes and to explore the utility of two different antibody tests for diagnosis of NCC in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  8. Adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases response after albendazole and albendazole plus steroid therapy in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Aloukick K; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Singh, Amrita; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) varies with location, number and stage of the Taenia solium cysticerci (cysts). Albendazole (ABZ) effectively kills cysticerci, and subsequently induces neuro-inflammation facilitated by leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesize that immune response varies around drug responder (degenerating/dying) and non-responder (viable) cysts after ABZ and ABZ plus steroid (ABZS) therapy, which may determine the disease pathogenesis. Twenty cysticercotic swine were treated with ABZ (n = 10; group1) and ABZS (n = 10; group2). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) was measured by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed to detect the activity of MMP-2 and -9. In group1, ABZ therapy induced higher expressions of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), Eotaxin-1, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), MMP-2 and MMP-9 around ABZ responder (AR) cysts. Three pigs with cyst burdens ≥10 died following ABZ therapy. However, in group2, moderate expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, RANTES and MMP-9 were associated with ABZS responder (ASR), whereas low expressions of these molecules were associated with ABZS non-responder (ASNR) cysts. In conclusion, ABZ alone therapy is not safe since it causes death of pigs due to higher inflammatory immune response around dying cysts. However, combination therapy is an effective treatment regimen even with the high cyst burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of Serological Testing for the Diagnosis of Prevalent Neurocysticercosis in Outpatients with Epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyaca-Sibat, Humberto; Cowan, Linda D.; Carabin, Hélène; Targonska, Irene; Anwary, Mushtaq A.; Serrano-Ocaña, Gilberto; Krecek, Rosina C.; Willingham, A. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. Methodology/Principal Findings All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%–48%). Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%–71.9%) and 69.2% (52.4%–83.0%), respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%–95.3%) for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. Conclusions/Significance The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using

  10. Volume independence in large Nc QCD-like gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Pavel; Ünsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2007-06-01

    Volume independence in large Nc gauge theories may be viewed as a generalized orbifold equivalence. The reduction to zero volume (or Eguchi-Kawai reduction) is a special case of this equivalence. So is temperature independence in confining phases. A natural generalization concerns volume independence in ``theory space'' of quiver gauge theories. In pure Yang-Mills theory, the failure of volume independence for sufficiently small volumes (at weak coupling) due to spontaneous breaking of center symmetry, together with its validity above a critical size, nicely illustrate the symmetry realization conditions which are both necessary and sufficient for large Nc orbifold equivalence. The existence of a minimal size below which volume independence fails also applies to Yang-Mills theory with antisymmetric representation fermions [QCD(AS)]. However, in Yang-Mills theory with adjoint representation fermions [QCD(Adj)], endowed with periodic boundary conditions, volume independence remains valid down to arbitrarily small size. In sufficiently large volumes, QCD(Adj) and QCD(AS) have a large Nc ``orientifold'' equivalence, provided charge conjugation symmetry is unbroken in the latter theory. Therefore, via a combined orbifold-orientifold mapping, a well-defined large Nc equivalence exists between QCD(AS) in large, or infinite, volume and QCD(Adj) in arbitrarily small volume. Since asymptotically free gauge theories, such as QCD(Adj), are much easier to study (analytically or numerically) in small volume, this equivalence should allow greater understanding of large Nc QCD in infinite volume.

  11. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  12. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  14. Development of monoclonal antibody-linked ELISA for sero-diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-IN) using baculovirus expressed glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Chang Hee; Kwon, Byung Joon; Kim, In Joong; Lee, Se Young; Ko, Young Joon

    2005-12-01

    The gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype, Indiana (VSV-IN), was expressed under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. The recombinant GP was applied as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of cattle and horse antibodies to VSV. In addition, the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Mab) to GP of VSV-IN was used as trapping antibody in a Mab-linked indirect ELISA (MLI-ELISA) or detecting antibody in a Mab-linked competitive ELISA (MLC-ELISA). The diagnostic efficiencies of MLI-ELISA and MLC-ELISA were evaluated with currently available C-ELISA from OIE reference laboratory for vesicular stomatitis as a gold standard by using VSV-positive equine sera and negative bovine sera vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the field. When naturally infected equine sera and FMDV vaccinated bovine sera were tested, MLI-ELISA and MLC-ELISA showed relative sensitivities of 80% and 95% with relative specificity of 97% and 99%, respectively. However, both ELISAs cross-reacted with equine sera against New Jersey (VSV-NJ) serotype. The comparison of the two ELISAs revealed that MLC-ELISA was relatively more sensitive and specific than MLI-ELISA, indicating that MLC-ELISA can be applied to sero-diagnosis for VSV-IN infection.

  15. SEVA TB ELISA - Multi antigen and antibody assays for serodiagnosis of suspected cases of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis in tertiary care hospital -A retrospective study

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    Pranita J Waghmare

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the usefulness of in-house developed multiantigen and antibody assays, in diagnosis of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Method: Clinically suspected cases of 31 pulmonary and 171 extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB were screened by ELISA using cocktail (ES-31 + EST-6 antigen and their specific antibodies (anti ES-31 + anti EST-6 IgG for detection of antibody and and antigen (circulating antigen and immune complexed antigen respectively and correlated with antituberculosis therapy in retrospective study. Results: Out of 31 cases of pulmonary TB screened, 15 patients showed ELISA positivity out of which five cases were given antituberculosis therapy. Out of 171 cases of EPTB screened, 76 cases showed ELISA positivity out of which 18 were given antituberculosis therapy. Further 4 EPTB cases which showed AFB negativity were given ATT. The data was further analyzed based on PTB & EPTB, adults and children, OPD and IPD patients to understand false positivity in clinically suspected PTB and EPTB cases. There was significant correlation (108/202 cases with ELISA negativity and no ATT advised in clinically suspected PTB and EPTB patients. Conclusions: In house developed multi antigen and antibody assays have been observed to be quite useful as adjunct test in serodiagnosis of suspected cases of tuberculosis in particular extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

  16. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a

  17. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due

  18. Diagnóstico y manejo de la neurocisticercosis en el Perú Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

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    Herbert Saavedra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis (NCC es la parasitosis humana más frecuente del sistema nervioso central y es causada por las larvas del céstodo Taenia solium. La NCC es endémica en prácticamente todos los paises en vías de desarrollo. En general se presenta como formas intraparenquimales asociadas con convulsiones o formas extraparenquimales asociadas con hipertensión endocraneana. La sospecha clínica y epidemiológica es importante pero el diagnóstico se realiza primariamente por imágenes y se confirma con serología. La tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas imagenológicas usadas. Como prueba confirmatoria se usa el diagnóstico inmunológico a través de western blot, que actualmente se pude realizar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas tanto en suero como en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento involucra medidas sintomáticas (control de convulsiones o hipertensión endocraneana según sea el caso y tratamiento antiparasitario (albendazol o praziquantel. El tratamiento antiparasitario debe hacerse bajo condiciones de hospitalización y en hospitales de tercer nivel.Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging tests are used. Inmunodiagnosis by Western Blot, which is currently perform in the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas in serum and cerebrospinal fluid serves as confirmatory test. Treatment involves symptomatic measures (control of seizures or intracranial hypertension and anticysticercal medications

  19. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Ron-Garrido

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC. In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC.Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%-1.8% and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59% for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC.Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936401 >1xktA 8 266 465 736 4e-19 ... emb|CAE28779.1| possible Condensation... domain, peptide synthetase [Rhodopseudomonas ... palustris CGA009] ref|NP_948677.1| possible Condensation

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936401 >1l5aA 5 413 24 449 2e-42 ... emb|CAE28779.1| possible Condensation... domain, peptide synthetase [Rhodopseudomonas ... palustris CGA009] ref|NP_948677.1| possible Condensation

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_003911 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003911 gi|56696929 >1vkmA 3 282 10 299 3e-80 ... gb|AAV95332.1| indigoidine syntha...se A family protein [Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3] ... ref|YP_167291.1| indigoidine synthase A family

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_004461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004461 gi|27467261 >1swvA 2 252 3 215 2e-17 ... ref|NP_763898.1| indigoidine systh...esis protein [Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC ... 12228] gb|AAO03940.1| indigoidine systhesis protein

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006138 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006138 gi|51246320 >1swvA 5 256 3 215 9e-25 ... ref|YP_066204.1| similar to indigo...idine systhesis protein [Desulfotalea psychrophila ... LSv54] emb|CAG37197.1| related to indigoidine

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_002942 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002942 gi|52842146 >1vkmA 3 284 12 301 3e-86 ... ref|YP_095945.1| indigoidine synt...ila ... subsp. pneumophila str. Philadelphia 1] gb|AAU27998.1| ... indigoidine synthase A-like

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_006461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006461 gi|55981146 >1vkmA 10 271 2 266 5e-61 ... ref|YP_144443.1| indigoidine synt...hase A like protein [Thermus thermophilus HB8] ... dbj|BAD71000.1| indigoidine synthase A like protei

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_006834 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006834 gi|58583037 >1o08A 5 191 6 187 1e-21 ... ref|YP_202053.1| indigoidine synth...esis-like protein [Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ... KACC10331] gb|AAW76668.1| indigoidine synthesis-

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_003919 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003919 gi|21244071 >1swvA 4 253 5 214 5e-24 ... gb|AAM38189.1| indigoidine synthes...is-like protein [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ... citri str. 306] ref|NP_643653.1| indigoidine ...

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_002973 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002973 gi|46908510 >1vkmA 3 283 11 301 6e-86 ... ref|YP_014899.1| indigoidine synt...hase A-like protein [Listeria monocytogenes str. 4b ... F2365] gb|AAT05076.1| indigoidine synthase A-

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_003902 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003902 gi|21232616 >1o08A 5 215 6 212 5e-21 ... ref|NP_638533.1| indigoidine synth...esis like protein [Xanthomonas campestris pv. ... campestris str. ATCC 33913] gb|AAM42457.1| indigoid

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_003098 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003098 gi|15902282 >1in4A 3 311 20 328 5e-98 ... ref|NP_357832.1| Branch migration of Holliday structures... [Streptococcus pneumoniae ... R6] gb|AAK99042.1| Branch migration of Holliday ... structures... [Streptococcus pneumoniae R6] pir||F97901 ... branch migration of Holliday structures

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_004605 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004605 gi|28900809 >1ek9A 1 415 22 427 8e-60 ... ref|NP_800464.1| agglutination pr...otein [Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633] ... dbj|BAC62297.1| agglutination protein [Vibrio ...

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_004603 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004603 gi|28898408 >1yc9A 8 414 18 416 1e-11 ... ref|NP_798013.1| agglutination pr...otein [Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633] ... dbj|BAC59897.1| agglutination protein [Vibrio ...

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006368 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006368 gi|54296848 >1ek9A 1 407 19 420 7e-57 ... ref|YP_094862.1| agglutination pr...al ... protein lpp0889 [Legionella pneumophila str. Paris] ... gb|AAU26915.1| agglutination pr

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_004347 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004347 gi|24375802 >1ek9A 1 407 30 447 5e-60 ... ref|NP_719845.1| agglutination pr...otein [Shewanella oneidensis MR-1] gb|AAN57289.1| ... agglutination protein [Shewanella oneidensis MR

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_002942 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002942 gi|52841063 >1ek9A 1 407 19 420 7e-57 ... ref|YP_094862.1| agglutination pr...al ... protein lpp0889 [Legionella pneumophila str. Paris] ... gb|AAU26915.1| agglutination pr

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_002942 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002942 gi|52841063 >1utaA 3 74 495 567 3e-08 ... ref|YP_094862.1| agglutination pr...al ... protein lpp0889 [Legionella pneumophila str. Paris] ... gb|AAU26915.1| agglutination pr

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004603 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004603 gi|28898405 >1yc9A 9 413 34 438 1e-12 ... ref|NP_798010.1| agglutination pr...otein [Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633] ... dbj|BAC59894.1| agglutination protein [Vibrio ...

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_002505 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002505 gi|15641628 >1ek9A 1 415 30 435 2e-58 ... gb|AAF94774.1| agglutination prot...ein [Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor str. N16961] ... ref|NP_231260.1| agglutination protein [Vibrio ...cholerae ... O1 biovar eltor str. N16961] pir||F82176 agglutination ... protein VC1621 [import

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_002947 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002947 gi|26991204 >1ek9A 2 420 24 438 4e-55 ... ref|NP_746629.1| agglutination pr...otein [Pseudomonas putida KT2440] gb|AAN70093.1| ... agglutination protein [Pseudomonas putida KT2440

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_004547 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004547 gi|50122189 >1ek9A 1 407 23 422 2e-51 ... ref|YP_051356.1| agglutination pr...otein [Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica ... SCRI1043] emb|CAG76165.1| agglutination protein [Erw

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_006368 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006368 gi|54296848 >1utaA 3 74 495 567 3e-08 ... ref|YP_094862.1| agglutination pr...al ... protein lpp0889 [Legionella pneumophila str. Paris] ... gb|AAU26915.1| agglutination pr

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_003283 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003283 gi|17561408 >1bor0 2 53 282 342 3e-04 ... ref|NP_757385.1| synoviolin 1 iso...form b [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH30530.1| Synoviolin 1, ... isoform b [Homo sapiens] ... Length = 61

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379191 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_002947 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002947 gi|26987442 >1bl0A 2 102 80 179 2e-10 ... ref|NP_742867.1| adaptive respons...e regulator protein [Pseudomonas putida KT2440] ... gb|AAN66331.1| adaptive response regulator protei

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379906 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55377160 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_002947 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002947 gi|26987442 >1qntA 2 167 187 346 1e-37 ... ref|NP_742867.1| adaptive respon...se regulator protein [Pseudomonas putida KT2440] ... gb|AAN66331.1| adaptive response regulator prote

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006576 gi|56751987 >1wwjA 6 96 12 108 5e-10 ... pir||JN0793 adaptive-response sens... ... sp.] sp|Q06904|SASA_SYNP7 Adaptive-response ... sensory-kinase sasA (Synechococcus adaptive

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379191 >1joyA 3 67 419 484 2e-09 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response ...sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-kin

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379191 >1d06A 9 130 294 412 4e-10 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006905 gi|62182821 >1u8vA 3 432 60 444 4e-31 ... ref|YP_219238.1| putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; adaptive...nterica ... serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] gb|AAX68157.1| ... putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; adaptive

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379124 >1d06A 4 130 22 144 2e-07 ... gb|AAV47268.1| adaptive-response ...sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_136974.1| adaptive-response sensory-kin

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379124 >1joyA 5 67 153 216 8e-05 ... gb|AAV47268.1| adaptive-response ...sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_136974.1| adaptive-response sensory-kin

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_002607 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002607 gi|15790044 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_002947 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002947 gi|26987442 >1adn0 5 92 3 88 3e-20 ... ref|NP_742867.1| adaptive response r...egulator protein [Pseudomonas putida KT2440] ... gb|AAN66331.1| adaptive response regulator protein ...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379321 >1d06A 18 130 102 213 5e-04 ... gb|AAV47403.1| adaptive-respons...e sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137109.1| adaptive-response sensory-k

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55379259 >1d06A 18 130 102 213 5e-04 ... gb|AAV47403.1| adaptive-respons...e sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137109.1| adaptive-response sensory-k

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_006397 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006397 gi|55380322 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC 43049] ... ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-k

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55378274 >1d06A 18 130 102 213 5e-04 ... gb|AAV47403.1| adaptive-respons...e sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC 43049] ... ref|YP_137109.1| adaptive-response sensory-

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_006397 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006397 gi|55380202 >1f5mB 8 174 129 282 5e-12 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_006396 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006396 gi|55378395 >1d06A 9 130 294 412 4e-10 ... gb|AAV47335.1| adaptive-response... sensory-kinase [Haloarcula marismortui ATCC ... 43049] ref|YP_137041.1| adaptive-response sensory-ki

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002516 gi|15600436 >1w5qA 1 330 6 335 e-132 ... pdb|1W5M|B Chain B, Stepwise Introduction...Mutations A129c And D139c) pdb|1W5M|A Chain A, Stepwise ... Introduction Of Zinc Binding Site Into Po

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006905 gi|62179304 >1k3xA 1 261 2 262 9e-97 ... ref|YP_215721.1| endonuclease VIII removing...nella ... enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis str. ... SC-B67] gb|AAX64640.1| endonuclease VIII removing

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_003281 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003281 gi|17554732 >1yovB 5 426 11 433 e-114 ... ref|NP_498534.1| UBiquitin Activating enzme related, ectop...ic membrane RuFfLes in ... embryo RFL-1, CYtoKinesis defect CYK-5 (rfl-1) ...

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_000868 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abyssi (strain Orsay) ... sp|Q9UZC9|MRE11_PYRAB DNA double-strand break re... NC_000868 gi|14521424 >1ii7A 1 329 11 340 4e-97 ... emb|CAB50130.1| Rad32/mre11 DNA r...pair ... protein mre11 ... Length = 330 ... Query: 11 ... IKFAHLADVHLGYEQFNRSQRAEEFAKAFEDAIKICVDEKVD

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_002689 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002689 gi|13541059 >1ii7A 1 295 2 273 6e-36 ... sp|Q97C75|MRE11_THEVO DNA double-s...trand break repair protein mre11 dbj|BAB59371.1| ... phosphoesterase [Thermoplasma volcanium GSS1] ...

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_006322 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egrase-like, ... N-terminal,DNA breaking-rejoining enzyme, catalytic core ... NC_006322 gi|52787324 >1p7dA 2 283 62 348 9e-30 ... gb|AAU25093.1| Lambda integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA break...ing-rejoining enzyme, ... catalytic core [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_006270 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f|YP_078757.1| Lambda ... integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA breaking-rejoinin... NC_006270 gi|52079966 >1a0p0 7 288 72 370 1e-14 ... gb|AAU23119.1| Lambda integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA break...ing-rejoining enzyme, ... catalytic core [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_006322 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f|YP_078757.1| Lambda ... integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA breaking-rejoinin... NC_006322 gi|52785338 >1a0p0 7 288 72 370 1e-14 ... gb|AAU23119.1| Lambda integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA break...ing-rejoining enzyme, ... catalytic core [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_006270 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egrase-like, ... N-terminal,DNA breaking-rejoining enzyme, catalytic core ... NC_006270 gi|52081940 >1p7dA 2 283 62 348 9e-30 ... gb|AAU25093.1| Lambda integrase-like, N-terminal,DNA break...ing-rejoining enzyme, ... catalytic core [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_006511 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006511 gi|56413338 >1u07A 2 90 193 281 2e-32 ... ref|YP_216720.1| energy transduce...terica ... serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] gb|AAX65639.1| energy ... transducer; uptake of i

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004463 gi|27379019 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13471241 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... CGA009] ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer ...

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_002940 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002940 gi|33151562 >1u07A 8 84 201 279 1e-08 ... gb|AAP95304.1| TobB energy transd...ucing protein [Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP] ... ref|NP_872915.1| TobB energy transducing protein ...

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39996799 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39995137 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39935198 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936538 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006905 gi|62180303 >1u07A 2 90 193 281 2e-32 ... ref|YP_216720.1| energy transduce...terica ... serovar Choleraesuis str. SC-B67] gb|AAX65639.1| energy ... transducer; uptake of i

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13473528 >1u07A 4 89 172 254 2e-09 ... ref|NP_105096.1| energy transduce...r TonB [Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099] ... dbj|BAB50882.1| energy transducer; TonB [Mesorhizobium ...

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_000921 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000921 gi|15612242 >1wqgA 21 184 22 185 2e-45 ... ref|NP_223895.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING... FACTOR (RIBOSOME RELEASING FACTOR) (RRF) ... [Helicobacter pylori J99] gb|AAD06763.1| RIBOSOME ... RECYCLING

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_003450 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003450 gi|19553226 >1wqgA 1 184 2 185 9e-56 ... ref|YP_226264.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING...ling factor [Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032] ... emb|CAF20363.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING FACTOR ...

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_005090 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005090 gi|34556750 >1wqgA 1 184 3 186 4e-49 ... ref|NP_906565.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING... FACTOR [Wolinella succinogenes DSM 1740] ... emb|CAE09465.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING FACTOR [Wolinella ...

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_002771 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002771 gi|15828690 >1wqgA 1 184 6 187 4e-39 ... ref|NP_326050.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING... FACTOR (RIBOSOME RELEASING FACTOR) [Mycoplasma ... pulmonis UAB CTIP] emb|CAC13392.1| RIBOSOME RECYCLING

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_003071 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003071 gi|42569531 >1wd2A 1 58 290 342 7e-13 ... gb|AAD32294.1| similar to Ariadne... protein from Drosophila [Arabidopsis thaliana] ... emb|CAD52893.1| ARIADNE-like protein ARI11 [Arabi...dopsis ... thaliana] pir||A84725 similar to Ariadne protein from ... Drosophila [imported] - A

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_006677 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006677 gi|58038940 >1etoB 4 97 143 238 4e-18 ... ref|YP_190904.1| Nitrogen assimilation... regulatory protein NtrC [Gluconobacter ... oxydans 621H] gb|AAW60248.1| Nitrogen assimilation ...

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_000911 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000911 gi|16330893 >1vp6A 10 132 9 130 6e-11 ... ref|NP_441621.1| nitrogen assimilation... regulatory protein [Synechocystis sp. PCC ... 6803] dbj|BAA18301.1| nitrogen assimilation regul...atory ... protein [Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803] pir||S75842 ... nitrogen assimilation regulator

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_005810 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005810 gi|45441793 >1u07A 1 89 164 251 4e-26 ... ref|NP_669352.1| energy transduce...] ... ref|NP_993332.1| TonB protein [Yersinia pestis biovar ... Medievalis str. 91001] gb|AAM85603.1| energy

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_000913 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000913 gi|16131246 >1pjqA 1 457 1 457 0.0 ... ref|NP_417827.1| siroheme synthase, catalyses four reactions...alyses four ... reactions between uroporphyrinogen III and siroheme ... ... ... gb|AAC76393.1| uroporphyrinogen III methylase; sirohaeme ... biosynthesis; siroheme synthase, cat

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_002695 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002695 gi|15833473 >1pjqA 1 457 1 457 0.0 ... ref|NP_417827.1| siroheme synthase, catalyses four reactions...alyses four ... reactions between uroporphyrinogen III and siroheme ... ... ... gb|AAC76393.1| uroporphyrinogen III methylase; sirohaeme ... biosynthesis; siroheme synthase, cat

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_002655 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002655 gi|15803881 >1pjqA 1 457 1 457 0.0 ... ref|NP_417827.1| siroheme synthase, catalyses four reactions...alyses four ... reactions between uroporphyrinogen III and siroheme ... ... ... gb|AAC76393.1| uroporphyrinogen III methylase; sirohaeme ... biosynthesis; siroheme synthase, cat

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gb|AAX67317.1| ... siroheme synthase, catalyses four separate reactions ... ...catalyses four separate reactions that are ... required for the transformation of uroporphyrinogen II... NC_006905 gi|62181981 >1pjqA 1 457 1 457 0.0 ... ref|YP_218398.1| siroheme synthase,

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006142 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006142 gi|51473766 >1xvqA 17 163 40 196 7e-07 ... ref|YP_067523.1| Sco2-like prote...in [Rickettsia typhi str. Wilmington] gb|AAU04041.1| ... Sco2-like protein [Rickettsia typhi str. Wil

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_000963 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000963 gi|15604438 >1xvqA 17 163 47 203 4e-07 ... ref|NP_220956.1| SCO2 PROTEIN PRECURSOR (sco2...) [Rickettsia prowazekii str. Madrid E] ... emb|CAA15032.1| SCO2 PROTEIN PRECURSOR (sco2...) ... [Rickettsia prowazekii] pir||F71663 sco2 protein ... precursor (sco2) RP587 - Rickettsia

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_000117 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000117 gi|15605545 >1u7nA 1 327 4 316 2e-67 ... ref|NP_220331.1| FA/Phospholipid Synthesis... Protein [Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/CX] ... gb|AAC68407.1| FA/Phospholipid Synthesis Prote

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_000117 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000117 gi|15605507 >2bjiA 3 266 5 313 9e-29 ... ref|NP_220293.1| Sulfite Synthesis.../biphosphate phosphatase [Chlamydia trachomatis ... D/UW-3/CX] gb|AAC68369.1| Sulfite Synthesis/bipho

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004722 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004722 gi|30022646 >1y0yA 3 348 9 357 e-103 ... ref|NP_834277.1| Deblocking aminop...eptidase [Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579] ... gb|AAP11478.1| Deblocking aminopeptidase [Bacillus ...

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_006274 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006274 gi|52144427 >1y0yA 3 340 8 342 3e-73 ... ref|YP_082403.1| glucanase; deblocking... aminopeptidase [Bacillus cereus ZK] ... gb|AAU19446.1| glucanase; deblocking aminopeptidase ...

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_002758 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002758 gi|15924356 >1y0yA 4 339 5 337 4e-71 ... dbj|BAB57528.1| simila to deblocking...8 ... [imported] - Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315) ... ref|NP_371890.1| simila to deblocking

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_002953 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002953 gi|49486209 >1y0yA 4 339 5 337 4e-71 ... dbj|BAB57528.1| simila to deblocking...8 ... [imported] - Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315) ... ref|NP_371890.1| simila to deblocking

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_006624 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006624 gi|57641112 >1y0yA 1 348 1 344 7e-94 ... dbj|BAD85366.1| deblocking aminope...ptidase [Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1] ... ref|YP_183590.1| deblocking aminopeptidase [Thermococcu

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_002745 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002745 gi|15926946 >1y0yA 4 339 5 337 4e-71 ... dbj|BAB57528.1| simila to deblocking...8 ... [imported] - Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315) ... ref|NP_371890.1| simila to deblocking

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006274 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006274 gi|52140807 >1y0yA 3 341 5 343 e-100 ... ref|YP_086023.1| deblocking aminop...eptidase, M42 family [Bacillus cereus ZK] ... gb|AAU15826.1| deblocking aminopeptidase, M42 family ...

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_005957 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005957 gi|49479831 >1y0yA 3 340 8 342 4e-73 ... ref|YP_035138.1| glucanase; deblocking... aminopeptidase [Bacillus thuringiensis ... serovar konkukian str. 97-27] gb|AAT62033.1| glucanase; ... deblocking

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002952 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002952 gi|49483560 >1y0yA 4 339 5 337 4e-71 ... dbj|BAB57528.1| simila to deblocking...8 ... [imported] - Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315) ... ref|NP_371890.1| simila to deblocking

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_004722 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004722 gi|30022768 >1y0yA 3 341 5 343 3e-99 ... ref|NP_834399.1| Deblocking aminop...eptidase [Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579] ... gb|AAP11600.1| Deblocking aminopeptidase [Bacillus ...

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_005957 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005957 gi|49481331 >1y0yA 3 348 7 355 e-103 ... ref|YP_038617.1| glucanase/ deblocking... ... peptidase, M42 family [Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987] ... gb|AAT63533.1| glucanase/ deblocking amin

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_004722 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004722 gi|30019056 >1y0yA 3 340 8 342 3e-72 ... ref|NP_830687.1| Deblocking aminop...eptidase [Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579] ... gb|AAP07888.1| Deblocking aminopeptidase [Bacillus ...

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_006624 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006624 gi|57640716 >1y0yA 1 348 1 348 e-126 ... dbj|BAD84970.1| deblocking aminope...ptidase [Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1] ... ref|YP_183194.1| deblocking aminopeptidase [Thermococcu

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_003923 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003923 gi|21282982 >1y0yA 4 339 5 337 4e-71 ... dbj|BAB57528.1| simila to deblocking...8 ... [imported] - Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315) ... ref|NP_371890.1| simila to deblocking

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003454 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003454 gi|19704334 >1y0yA 9 340 17 347 8e-60 ... ref|NP_603896.1| Deblocking amino...peptidase [Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ... ATCC 25586] gb|AAL95195.1| Deblocking aminope

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_003909 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003909 gi|42783748 >1y0yA 3 348 7 355 e-103 ... ref|YP_038617.1| glucanase/ deblocking... ... peptidase, M42 family [Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987] ... gb|AAT63533.1| glucanase/ deblocking amin

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_000854 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_000854 gi|14601341 >1y0yA 4 336 2 331 2e-73 ... ref|NP_147876.1| deblocking aminop...eptidase [Aeropyrum pernix K1] dbj|BAA80327.1| ... 339aa long hypothetical deblocking aminopeptidase ... ... [Aeropyrum pernix K1] pir||A72609 probable deblocking ... aminopeptidase APE1335 - Aeropyr

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_006624 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006624 gi|57640710 >1y0yA 5 342 6 334 1e-64 ... dbj|BAD84964.1| deblocking aminope...ptidase [Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1] ... ref|YP_183188.1| deblocking aminopeptidase [Thermococcu

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004578 gi|28869788 >1jmkC 1 228 15 268 2e-21 ... ref|NP_792407.1| yersiniabactin s...ynthetase, thioesterase component [Pseudomonas ... syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000] gb|AAO56102.1| ... yersinia

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004578 gi|28869790 >1nkvC 10 234 2577 2809 2e-09 ... ref|NP_792409.1| yersiniabact... ... gb|AAO56104.1| yersiniabactin polyketide/non-ribosomal ... peptide synthetase [Pseudomonas ...in polyketide/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase ... [Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000] ...

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66.1| ... non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, initiating component ... [Pseudomonas syringae p... NC_004578 gi|28871652 >1l5aA 1 423 692 1134 6e-67 ... ref|NP_794271.1| non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, initi...ating component [Pseudomonas ... syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000] gb|AAO579

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 966.1| ... non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, initiating component ... [Pseudomonas syringae ...iating component [Pseudomonas ... syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000] gb|AAO57... NC_004578 gi|28871652 >1amuA 3 508 1132 1645 4e-98 ... ref|NP_794271.1| non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, init

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003282 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003282 gi|17540144 >1n0rA 2 124 89 212 5e-26 ... gb|AAA96093.1| Feminization of xx and xo animals... ... homolog a, FEMinization of XX and XO animals FEM-1 ... (fem-1) [Caenorhabditis elegans] pir||