WorldWideScience

Sample records for neurocritical care unit

  1. Nutrition in the neurocritical care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of intensive care is to support the physiology of the body till the treatment or the reparative process of the body kicks in to the rescue. Maintaining an adequate nutrition during this period is of vital importance to counteract the catabolic effect of the critical disease process. The guidelines for nutritional care in the neuro intensive care unit (ICU are sparse. This article collates the current evidence and best practice recommendations as applicable to the critically ill patient in the neuro ICU. The use of screening tests to identify patients at a risk of malnutrition and related complications is presently recommended for all patients with an emphasis on early initiation of caloric support. Over-aggressive feeding in an attempt to revert the catabolic effects of critical illness have not proven beneficial, just as the attempts to improve patient outcomes by altering the routes of nutrition administration. Special patient population such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or spinal cord injury may have varying nutritional requirements; individualised approach in the neurocritical ICU with the help of the intensivist, nutritionist and pharmacology team may be of benefit.

  2. [Development of neurocritical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piradov, M A; Moroz, V V

    2012-01-01

    In this review we provide the definition, goals and objectives of neurocritical care, evaluation of brief history of its development. Mechanical ventilation, intracranial hypertension, neuromonitoring as underlying basics of neurocritical care approaches are discussed. The main types of pathology and specific methods used in neurocritical care units are discussed. The results of our own research on brain death--the development of national criteria; for Guillain-Barre syndrome--a double decrease in the length of mechanical ventilation and in 2.5 times of the recovery time for independent walking ability; on diphteric polyneuropathy--reduced by 11 times mortality compared with nation-wide indicators of nontraumatic persistent vegetative state--the development of diagnostic and predictive neurophysiologic criteria are demonstrated. Research data of multiple organ disfunction syndrome in severe stroke are described. Further development of neurocritical care is being discussed.

  3. Parenchymal brain oxygen monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Peter D; Oddo, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    Patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) often have serious conditions that can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic agents or neuroprotectants have disappointed in the clinical environment. Current NCCU management therefore is directed toward identification, prevention, and treatment of secondary cerebral insults that evolve over time and are known to aggravate outcome. This strategy is based on a variety of monitoring techniques including use of intraparenchymal monitors. This article reviews parenchymal brain oxygen monitors, including the available technologies, practical aspects of use, the physiologic rationale behind their use, and patient management based on brain oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric Neurocritical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is an emerging multidisciplinary field of medicine and a new frontier in pediatric critical care and pediatric neurology. Central to pediatric neurocritical care is the goal of improving outcomes in critically ill pediatric patients with neurological illness or injury and limiting secondary brain injury through optimal critical care delivery and the support of brain function. There is a pressing need for evidence based guidelines in pediatric neurocritical care, n...

  5. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction.

  6. Coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy: initial applications in the neurocritical care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Cai, Xuemei; Kornbluth, Joshua; Fantini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    We used coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral autoregulation efficiency of a patient with intraventricular hemorrhage in the neurocritical care unit. Mean arterial pressure oscillations were induced with cyclic thigh cuff inflations at a super-systolic pressure. The oscillations in oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2]) and deoxyhemoglobin ([Hb]) cerebral concentrations were used to compute CHS amplitude and phase spectra that were fit with the frequency-domain equations of our hemodynamic model. From the fitted parameters, we obtained measures of local autoregulation efficiency (cutoff frequency: 0.07 +/- 0.02 Hz) and absolute regional CBF (33 +/- 9 ml/100g/min). We introduce a new approach for computing CHS spectra using coherence criteria and time-varying transfer function analysis. We show that with this approach we can maximize the number of frequency points in the CHS spectra for more effective fitting with our hemodynamic model. Finally, we show how absolute measurements of the cerebral concentrations of [HbO2] and [Hb] at baseline can be used to further enhance the fitting procedure.

  7. The history of neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, E F M

    2017-01-01

    Critical care medicine came into sharp focus in the second part of the 20th century. The care of acutely ill neurologic patients in the USA may have originated in postoperative neurosurgical units, but for many years patients with neurocritical illness were admitted to intensive care units next to patients with general medical or surgical conditions. Neurologists may have had their first exposure to the complexity of neurocritical care during the poliomyelitis epidemics, but few were interested. Much later, the development of neurocritical care as a legitimate subspecialty was possible as a result of a new cadre of neurologists, with support by departments of neurosurgery and anesthesia, who appreciated their added knowledge and expertise in care of acute neurologic illness. Fellowship programs have matured in the US and training programs in certain European countries. Certification in the USA is possible through the American Academy of Neurology United Council of Neurologic Specialties. Most neurointensivists had a formal neurology training. This chapter is a brief analysis of the development of the specialty critical care neurology and how it gained strength, what it is to be a neurointensivist, what the future of care of these patients may hold, and what it takes for neurointensivists to stay exemplary. This chapter revisits some of the earlier known and previously unknown landmarks in the history of neurocritical care. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Palliative Care Practice in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Andrea K; Hwang, David Y

    2016-12-01

    Many neurocritically ill patients and their families have high amounts of palliative care needs. Multiple professional societies relevant to neurocritical care have released consensus statements on meeting palliative care needs in neuroscience intensive care units. In this review, the authors discuss the ongoing debate regarding what model of palliative care delivery is optimal, focus on the process of shared decision making during goals-of-care discussions, and briefly comment on transitions from intensive care to comfort care. Regardless of an institution's model of palliative care practice, every neurocritical care clinician should possess core competencies necessary to provide basic, integrative palliative care for neurocritically ill patients. Given the high proportion of neurocritically ill patients who lack decision-making capacity, communication skills that enable clinicians to facilitate shared decision making with patients' surrogates are of particular relevance, especially when the limitation of life support is in the discussion. High-quality decision aids to assist neurocritical care teams and surrogate decision makers during common goals-of-care discussions may have the potential for further promotion of best palliative care practices. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Neurocritical care update

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the c...

  10. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636

  11. A Secure, Social Media-Based "Case of the Month" Module in a Neurocritical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Briana; Braunlin, Kathryn; Kumar, Avinash B

    2016-07-01

    Systems to meet the on-demand learning needs of nurses in intensive care units are not well studied beyond the traditional classroom models. To study the feasibility and effect of implementing an online discussion forum for nurses in a busy neuroscience intensive care unit. A baseline survey was done to highlight the areas of educational need in the unit. Freeform-a password-protected, online discussion forum supported by the university-was used for the pilot project. Freeform has functions similar to Facebook, with "likes," "follow," discussion/comment spaces, and the capacity for uploading images and files. A page called "All things NeuroCritical Care" was created. All nurses working in the intensive care unit were automatically enrolled. Clinical vignettes relevant to neurocritical care were posted once a month with 1 to 2 lead questions. All participation was voluntary, and topics were chosen on the basis of the needs survey. At the end of each case, a recent review article on the topic was posted for secure download. Eight sentinel diagnoses have been presented as clinical vignettes, and 34 of 76 members formally follow the page. The mean number of discussion strings per case is 8.3 posts. The number of unique visitors to the page during active case discussions exceeds 100. A secure, online, problem-based learning discussion format is a feasible point-of-care learning opportunity that can help overcome some of the traditional barriers to ongoing nursing education needs in a busy intensive care unit. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Principal Applications in Neurocritical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Cavallaro, Massimo; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive ultrasound study, which has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It involves the use of a low-frequency (≤2 MHz) transducer, placed on the scalp, to insonate the basal cerebral arteries through relatively thin bone windows and to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. In neurointensive care setting, TCD is useful for both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and brain stem death. It also allows to investigate the cerebrovascular autoregulation in setting of carotid disease and syncope. In this review, we will describe physical principles underlying TCD, flow indices most frequently used in clinical practice and critical care applications in Neurocritical Unit care. PMID:28465958

  13. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound: Physical Principles and Principal Applications in Neurocritical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Conte, Marianna; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Cocchia, Rosangela; Pezzullo, Enrica; Cavallaro, Massimo; Carbone, Andreina; Natale, Francesco; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Gregorio, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive ultrasound study, which has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It involves the use of a low-frequency (≤2 MHz) transducer, placed on the scalp, to insonate the basal cerebral arteries through relatively thin bone windows and to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. In neurointensive care setting, TCD is useful for both adults and children for day-to-day bedside assessment of critical conditions including vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and brain stem death. It also allows to investigate the cerebrovascular autoregulation in setting of carotid disease and syncope. In this review, we will describe physical principles underlying TCD, flow indices most frequently used in clinical practice and critical care applications in Neurocritical Unit care.

  14. Drug Interactions in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelhof, Brian; Farrokh, Salia; Rivera-Lara, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are common and avoidable complications that are associated with poor patient outcomes. Neurocritical care patients may be at particular risk for DDIs due to alterations in pharmacokinetic profiles and exposure to medications with a high DDI risk. This review describes the principles of DDI pharmacology, common and severe DDIs in Neurocritical care, and recommendations to minimize adverse outcomes. A review of published literature was performed using PubMed by searching for 'Drug Interaction' and several high DDI risk and common neurocritical care medications. Key medication classes included anticoagulants, antimicrobials, antiepileptics, antihypertensives, sedatives, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Additional literature was also reviewed to determine the risk in neurocritical care and potential therapeutic alternatives. Clinicians should be aware of interactions in this setting, the long-term complications, and therapeutic alternatives.

  15. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  16. Case Studies in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakusic, Amra; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2016-08-01

    The practice of neurocritical care encompasses multiple acute neurologic and neurosurgical diseases and requires detailed knowledge of neurology and critical care. This article presents 5 cases that illustrate just some of the conditions encountered in the daily practice of neurocritical care and exemplify some of the common diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic challenges facing the neurointensivist. Life-threatening medical complications after severe acute ischemic stroke, seizures and extreme agitation from autoimmune encephalitis, refractory seizures after subdural hemorrhage, neurologic and systemic complications related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus after cardiac arrest are discussed in this article. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Delivering neurocritical care in resource-challenged environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gentle S; Goffi, Alberto; Aryal, Diptesh

    2016-04-01

    Resource-challenged environments of low and middle-income countries face a significant burden of neurocritical illness. This review attempts to elaborate on the multiple barriers to delivering neurocritical care in these settings and the possible solutions to overcome such barriers. Epidemiology of neurocritical illness appears to have changed over time in low and middle-income countries. In addition to neuro-infection, noncommunicable neurological illnesses like stroke, traumatic brain injury, and traumatic spinal cord injury pose a significant neurocritical burden in resource-limited settings. Many barriers that exist hinder effective delivery of neurocritical care in resource-challenged environments. Very little information exists about the neurocritical care capacity. Research and publications are few. Intensive care unit beds and trained personnel are significantly lacking. Awareness about the risk factors of preventable conditions, including stroke, is lacking. Prehospital care and trauma systems are poorly developed. There should be attempts to leverage neurocritical care in these settings with focus on promoting research, local training, capacity building, preventive measures like vaccination, raising awareness, and developing prehospital care. Considering the disease burden and potentials to improve outcome, attempts should be made to develop neurocritical care in resource-challenged environments. http://links.lww.com/COCC/A11.

  18. Pain Management in Neurocritical Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petzold, A.; Girbes, A.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The core challenge of pain management in neurocritical care is to keep the patient comfortable without masking or overlooking any neurological deterioration. Clearly in patients with a neurological problem there is a conflict of clinical judgement and adequate pain relief. Here we review the

  19. Comparison of Two Surface Cooling Devices for Temperature Management in a Neurocritical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Gurpreet Singh; Nattanmai, Premkumar; Premkumar, Keerthivaas; Newey, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Fever increases mortality and morbidity and length of stay in neurocritically ill patients. Various methods are used in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) to control fever. Two such methods involve the Arctic Sun hydrogel wraps and the Gaymar cooling wraps. The purpose of our study was to compare these two methods in neurocritical care patients who had temperature >37.5°C for more than three consecutive hours and that was refractory to standard treatments. Data of patients requiring cooling wraps for treatment of hyperthermia at an NSICU at an academic, tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed. The average temperature before cooling was 38.5°C ± 0.38°C and 38.4°C ± 0.99°C for the Gaymar and Arctic Sun groups, respectively (p = 0.89). The Gaymar group took on average 16 ± 21.9 hours to reach goal temperature, whereas the Arctic Sun group took 2.22 ± 1.39 hours (p = 0.08). The average time outside of the target temperature was 57.0 ± 58.0 hours in the Gaymar group compared with 13.7 ± 17.1 hours in the Arctic Sun group (p = 0.04). Average duration of using the cooling wraps was similar between the two groups; 81.8% of patients had rebound hyperthermia in the Gaymar group compared with 20% in the Arctic Sun group (p = 0.0089). The Arctic Sun group had a nonsignificant increased incidence of shivering compared with the Gaymar group (40% vs. 18.18%, p = 0.36). We found that Arctic Sun surface cooling device was more efficient in attaining the target temperature, had less incidence of rebound hyperthermia, and was able to maintain normothermia better than Gaymar cooling wraps. The incidence of shivering tended to be more common in the Arctic Sun group.

  20. Biomarkers in Neurocritical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly, W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The gold standard for assessing neurological function is the bedside clinical examination. However, in neurocritical patients, the signs and symptoms related to the severity of illness can often be ambiguous. It can be hard to distinguish between a severe but stable disease state and one that is dynamic and in a critical decline. Clinicians and family members alike may struggle with the uncertainty of functional outcome prediction. Intermediate biomarkers of brain injury can assist with ongoi...

  1. Neurocritical Care Education During Residency: Opinions (NEURON) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, David P; Kim, Jennifer; Izzy, Saef

    2017-02-01

    The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has established a core curriculum of topics for residency training in neurocritical care. At present there is limited data evaluating neurology residency education within the neurological intensive care unit. This study evaluates learner concerns with the neurological intensive care unit. The Communication Committee and Resident & Fellow Taskforce within the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) developed an online survey that consisted of 20 selection and free-text based questions. The survey was distributed to NCS members and then to neurology residency program directors. Statistical analysis of neurocritical care exposure were completed with t or Fisher exact test with p-value <0.05 considered significant. A total of 95 individuals from 32 different residency programs (36.5 % response rate) responded to the questionnaire. Most individuals train with neurocritical care attendings, fellows and advanced practitioners and have neurocritical care exposure during multiple years of residency training. 54 % of responders cite improvement in education as a means to improve neurocritical care training. Those that raised concern had no difference in time in the neurocritical care unit (9.4 weeks vs 8.8 weeks), exposure to trained neurointensivists, neurocritical care fellows or advanced providers (p value 0.53, 0.19, 0.83, respectively). There is significant learner concern regarding education within the neurointensive care unit. Although there are educational guidelines and focused neurocritical care educational materials, these alone do not satisfy residents' educational needs. This study demonstrates the need for educational changes, but it does not assess best strategies nor curricular content.

  2. Evidence-Based Neurocritical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Diana J.; Kumar, Monisha A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocritical care is a pioneering subspecialty dedicated to the treatment of patients with life-threatening neurological illnesses, postoperative neurosurgical complications, and neurological manifestations of systemic disease. The care of these patients requires specialized neurological monitoring and specific clinical expertise and has generated a body of literature commensurate with the expansion of the field. This article reviews landmark studies over the last 10 years in the management ...

  3. Neurocritical Care in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu; Ayşe Sağduyu Kocaman; Şerefnur Öztürk; Bijen Nazlıel; Hadiye Şirin

    2011-01-01

    Since the last 20 years, entry of neurointensive care units (NICU) has provided a significant increase of survival rate and quality of post-ICU life of the patients with life-threatening neurological and neurosurgical catastrophies. Therefore, NICU has become a fundamental part of contemporary third-level hospitals or reference centers. Because extensiveness of specific examination, monitoring and treatment techniques and methods unique to neurology makes impossible to manage critical neurolo...

  4. Procalcitonin is a Poor Predictor of Non-Infectious Fever in the Neurocritical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Karin; Shah, Sameer; Fehnel, Corey; Thompson, Bradford; Stevenson Potter, N; Levy, Mitchell; Wendell, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Fever is a common occurrence in the Neurocritical Care Unit (NCCU). It is reported that up to 50 % of these fevers are associated with a non-infectious source. As this is a diagnosis of exclusion, a complete fever evaluation must be done to rule out infection. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been identified as a possible biomarker to distinguish infectious from non-infectious etiologies of fever. We hypothesized that PCT could be used as a predictor of infectious fever in febrile patients with intracranial hemorrhage admitted to the NCCU. A prospective observational cohort of patients admitted to a 12-bed NCCU in a tertiary-care university hospital from January 1, 2014, to October 1, 2014, was studied. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage (aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, or non-traumatic subdural hemorrhage) and fever defined as ≥101.4 °F were included. All patients had a urinalysis, chest X-ray, two sets of blood cultures, and PCT as part of their fever evaluation. Patients also had urine, sputum, CSF cultures, and Clostridium difficile toxin PCR as clinically indicated. Patients with incomplete fever evaluations were excluded. Seventy-three patients met inclusion criteria: 36 had infections identified and 37 did not. Type of intracranial hemorrhage was similar between groups. For those with identified infection, median PCT was 0.15 ng/mL (IQR 0.06-0.5 ng/mL). For those without identified infection, median PCT was 0.09 ng/mL (IQR 0.05-0.45 ng/mL), p = 0.30. Analyzing subgroups of intracranial hemorrhage patients revealed no group with a significant difference in PCT values. Patients with identified infection did have higher white blood cell counts (median 14.1 × 109/L (11.6-17.4 × 109/L) compared to those without identified infection 12 × 109/L (9.9-14.1 × 109/L), p = 0.02. Among patients with intracranial hemorrhage, PCT did not differentiate infectious fever from non-infectious fever.

  5. Decompressive Craniectomy in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Erik G; Kurland, David B; Grunwald, Zachary; Urday, Sebastian; Sheth, Kevin N; Simard, J Marc

    2016-12-01

    Neurosurgeons increasingly use decompressive craniectomy (DC) in neurocritical care. In this review, the authors summarize the topic of DC for the neurointensivist. Following a brief overview of the procedure, the major indications for the procedure are described. This includes a review of the literature regarding well-established indications, such as infarction and traumatic brain injury, as well as lesser known indications, including intracerebral hemorrhage, ruptured cerebrovascular malformations, sinus thrombosis, and infection. Complications unique to DC, specifically syndrome of the trephined, hygroma, and hydrocephalus, also are reviewed with a discussion of their management, both in the immediate and the postoperative period. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. [Topical respiratory strategies in neurocritical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, M B; Kruglyakov, N M; Semenov, M S; Zabelin, M V; Udalov, Yu D; Samoylov, A S; Popugaev, K A

    2017-01-01

    Management of the respiratory tract and maintenance of adequate gas exchange are the basic goals of critical care. Injury to the nervous system is often accompanied by development of respiratory disorders. On the other hand, changes in the gas composition of arterial blood can cause brain damage. In addition, approaches to the patient with respiratory failure, which are used in general critical care and neurocritical care, may differ. The presented literature review is devoted to modern respiratory strategies used in neurocritical care.

  7. Update on Neurocritical Care of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason; Pizzi, Michael A; Brent Peel, J; Alejos, David; Mbabuike, Nnenne; Brown, Benjamin L; Hodge, David; David Freeman, W

    2017-08-01

    This review will highlight the recent advancements in acute ischemic stroke diagnosis and treatment, with special attention to new features and recommendations of stroke care in the neurocritical care unit. New studies suggest that pre-hospital treatment of stroke with mobile stroke units and telestroke technology may lead to earlier stroke therapy with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and recent studies show tPA can be given in previously contraindicated situations. More rapid automated CT perfusion and angiography may demonstrate a vascular penumbra for neuroendovascular intervention. Further, the greatest advance in acute stroke treatment since 2014 is the demonstration that neuroendovascular catheter-based thrombectomy with stent retrievers recanalizing intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO) improves both recanalization and long-term outcomes in several trials. Hemorrhagic transformation and severe large infarct cerebral edema remain serious post-stroke challenges, with new guidelines describing who and when patients should get medical or surgical intervention. The adage "time is brain" directs the most evidence-based approach for rapid stroke diagnosis for tPA eligible and LVO recanalization using an orchestrated team approach. The neurocritical care unit is the appropriate location to optimize stroke outcomes for the most severely affected stroke patients.

  8. Infections in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sampathkumar, Priya

    2017-12-01

    Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.

  9. Neurocritical Care in China: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingwei; Wang, Jian; Ni, Xiaowei; Chen, Gang; Kong, Laifa

    2016-11-01

    Despite the lack of resources and materials, there has been an increasing demand for acute neurologic care owing to the heavy burden of neurocritical illness in most developing countries, including China, where the morbidity and mortality of severe neurologic and neurosurgical disorders remains high. Neurointensive care units did not start appearing in China until the late 1980s. Although great progress has been made over the past 2 decades in the establishment of equipped neurocritical care centers, advancements in medical infrastructure, streamlining of resident training programs, and implementation of multidisciplinary care teams, there remain areas that warrant improvement to care for our growing patient population. Here we review and discuss the history, present state, and future of neurocritical care in the People's Republic of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Techniques and strategies in neurocritical care originating from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Jacobsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years.......To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years....

  11. Neurocritical care complications of pregnancy and puerperum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Ahmed, Wamda

    2014-12-01

    Neurocritical care complications of pregnancy and puerperum such as preeclampsia/eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, seizures, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, postpartum angiopathy, cerebral sinus thrombosis, amniotic fluid emboli, choriocarcinoma, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are rare but can be devastating. These conditions can present a challenge to physicians because pregnancy is a unique physiologic state, most therapeutic options available in the intensive care unit were not studied in pregnant patients, and in many situations, physicians need to deliver care to both the mother and the fetus, simultaneously. Timely recognition and management of critical neurologic complications of pregnancy/puerperum can be life saving for both the mother and fetus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurocritical care in the treatment of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos Iii, David; Powers, Ciaran J; Ding, Yuchuan; Liu, Liping

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we briefly introduce recent developments and updates in neurocritical care in the treatment of stroke, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Time to recanalization remains the major rate limiting step in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke as only a minority of patients arrive within a timeframe appropriate for treatment. Whether caring for a patient following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, the principle focus of neurocritical care for acute brain catastrophes is the identification and prevention of secondary brain injury. While much advancement is still needed for optimum care of patients suffering from ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, the field continues to evolve in ways that promote improved patient outcomes.

  13. Management of the Pediatric Neurocritical Care Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Christopher M; Mtaweh, Haifa; Bell, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Neurocritical Care Audit in A Tertiary Institution | Idowu | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Neurological patients account for most of our ICU admission. Hospitals with ICUs should ensure that they have a proper high dependency unit. We also recommend that appropriate equipments and staff training in the area of neurocritical care be incorporated into existing 'open' ICUs in our environment.

  15. Implementation strategies in pediatric neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christopher; Proctor, Enola K; Pineda, Jose A

    2017-06-01

    Brain-directed critical care for children is a relatively new area of subspecialization in pediatric critical care. Pediatric neurocritical care teams combine the expertise of neurology, neurosurgery, and critical care medicine. The positive impact of delivering specialized care to pediatric patients with acute neurological illness is becoming more apparent, but the optimum way to implement and sustain the delivery of this is complicated and poorly understood. We aim to provide emerging evidence supporting that effective implementation of pediatric neurocritical care pathways can improve patient survival and outcomes. We also provide an overview of the most effective strategies across the field of implementation science that can facilitate deployment of neurocritical care pathways in the pediatric ICU. Implementation strategies can broadly be grouped according to six categories: planning, educating, restructuring, financing, managing quality, and attending to the policy context. Using a combination of these strategies in the last decade, several institutions have improved patient morbidity and mortality. Although much work remains to be done, emerging evidence supports that implementation of evidence-based care pathways for critically ill children with two common neurological diagnoses - status epilepticus and traumatic brain injury - improves outcomes. Pediatric and neonatal neurocritical care programs that support evidence-based care can be effectively structured using appropriately sequenced implementation strategies to improve outcomes across a variety of patient populations and in a variety of healthcare settings.

  16. Blood Pressure Management Controversies in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly; Koren, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) management is essential in neurocritical care settings to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion and prevent secondary brain injury. Despite consensus on the importance of BP monitoring, significant practice variations persist regarding optimal methods for monitoring and treatment of BP values among patients with neurologic injuries. This article provides a summary of research investigating various approaches for BP management in neurocritical care. Evidence-based recommendations, areas for future research, and current technological advancements for BP management are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multimodal monitoring and neurocritical care bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, J Claude; Andrews, Peter; De Georgia, Michael

    2011-07-12

    Neurocritical care bioinformatics is a new field that focuses on the acquisition, storage and analysis of physiological and other data relevant to the bedside care of patients with acute neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury or stroke. The main focus of neurocritical care for these conditions relates to prevention, detection and management of secondary brain injury, which relies heavily on monitoring of systemic and cerebral parameters (such as blood-pressure level and intracranial pressure). Advanced neuromonitoring tools also exist that enable measurement of brain tissue oxygen tension, cerebral oxygen utilization, and aerobic metabolism. The ability to analyze these advanced data for real-time clinical care, however, remains intuitive and primitive. Advanced statistical and mathematical tools are now being applied to the large volume of clinical physiological data routinely monitored in neurocritical care with the goal of identifying better markers of brain injury and providing clinicians with improved ability to target specific goals in the management of these patients. This Review provides an introduction to the concepts of multimodal monitoring for secondary brain injury in neurocritical care and outlines initial and future approaches using informatics tools for understanding and applying these data to clinical care.

  18. Improvement in Quality Metrics Outcomes and Patient and Family Satisfaction in a Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit after Creation of a Dedicated Neurocritical Care Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Sarpong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dedicated neurointensivists have been shown to improve outcome measurements in the neurosciences intensive care unit (NSICU. Quality outcome data in relation to patient and family satisfaction is lacking. This study evaluated the impact of newly appointed neurointensivists and creation of a neurocritical care team on quality outcome measures including patient satisfaction in a NSICU. Methods. This is a retrospective study of data over 36 months from a 14-bed NSICU evaluating quality outcome measures and anonymous patient satisfaction questionnaires before and after neurointensivists appointment. Results. After appointment of neurointensivists, patient acuity of the NSICU increased by 33.4% while LOS decreased by 3.5%. There was a decrease in neurosciences mortality (35.8%, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (50%, central line associated bloodstream infection (100%, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (50%. During the same time, patient satisfaction increased by 28.3% on physicians/nurses consistency (p=0.025, by 69.5% in confidence/trust in physicians (p<0.0001, by 78.3% on physicians treated me with courtesy/respect (p<0.0001, and by 46.4% on physicians’ attentiveness (p<0.0001. Ultimately, patients recommending the hospital to others increased by 67.5% (p<0.0001. Conclusion. Dedicated neurointensivists and the subsequent development of a neurocritical care team positively impacted quality outcome metrics, particularly significantly improving patient satisfaction.

  19. Improvement in Quality Metrics Outcomes and Patient and Family Satisfaction in a Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit after Creation of a Dedicated Neurocritical Care Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Yaw; Nattanmai, Premkumar; Schelp, Ginger; Bell, Robert; Premkumar, Keerthivaas; Stapleton, Erin; McCormick, Ashley; Newey, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated neurointensivists have been shown to improve outcome measurements in the neurosciences intensive care unit (NSICU). Quality outcome data in relation to patient and family satisfaction is lacking. This study evaluated the impact of newly appointed neurointensivists and creation of a neurocritical care team on quality outcome measures including patient satisfaction in a NSICU. This is a retrospective study of data over 36 months from a 14-bed NSICU evaluating quality outcome measures and anonymous patient satisfaction questionnaires before and after neurointensivists appointment. After appointment of neurointensivists, patient acuity of the NSICU increased by 33.4% while LOS decreased by 3.5%. There was a decrease in neurosciences mortality (35.8%), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (50%), central line associated bloodstream infection (100%), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (50%). During the same time, patient satisfaction increased by 28.3% on physicians/nurses consistency (p = 0.025), by 69.5% in confidence/trust in physicians (p < 0.0001), by 78.3% on physicians treated me with courtesy/respect (p < 0.0001), and by 46.4% on physicians' attentiveness (p < 0.0001). Ultimately, patients recommending the hospital to others increased by 67.5% (p < 0.0001). Dedicated neurointensivists and the subsequent development of a neurocritical care team positively impacted quality outcome metrics, particularly significantly improving patient satisfaction.

  20. Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Jeffrey F; Mangram, Alicia J; Sucher, Joseph F; Zach, Victor

    2017-09-19

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) with acid-suppressive drug therapy is widely utilized in critically ill patients following neurologic injury for the prevention of clinically important stress-related gastrointestinal bleeding (CIB). Data supporting SUP, however, largely originates from studies conducted during an era where practices were vastly different than what is considered routine by today's standard. This is particularly true in neurocritical care patients. In fact, the routine provision of SUP has been challenged due to an increasing prevalence of adverse drug events with acid-suppressive therapy and the perception that CIB rates are sparse. This narrative review will discuss current controversies with SUP as they apply to neurocritical care patients. Specifically, the pathophysiology, prevalence, and risk factors for CIB along with the comparative efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of acid-suppressive therapy will be described.

  1. Evaluating the use of dexmedetomidine in neurocritical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof, Tina M; Bledsoe, Kathleen A

    2010-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist that produces dose-dependent sedation, anxiolysis, and analgesia without respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine has been used in critically ill medical, surgical, and pediatric patients, as an adjunct to sedation and/or for treating drug or alcohol withdrawal. Information regarding the dosing and utilization of dexmedetomidine has been derived primarily from studies in critically ill patients in the medical intensive care unit. There has been no study designed specifically to evaluate dexmedetomidine for these therapeutic uses in the neurocritical care population. The primary and secondary objectives were to evaluate the starting dose of dexmedetomidine for neurocritical care patients and to assess the effect on hemodynamic parameters, respectively. This was a prospective, observational study conducted from October 2007 to March 2008. Patients were included if they were admitted to the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit and received dexmedetomidine infusion. Six patients met the criteria for the study. The mean initial dexmedetomidine infusion rate and mean maximum infusion rate were 0.67 +/- 0.2 and 1.3 +/- 0.5 mcg/kg/h, respectively. The mean duration of dexmedetomidine infusion was 66 +/- 10 h. Two patients (33%) experienced a significant change in mean heart rate and systolic blood pressure after starting dexmedetomidine infusion. Neurocritically ill patients may require high doses of dexmedetomidine to achieve desired levels of sedation. The high rates and long duration of dexmedetomidine infusion had a statistically, but not clinically, significant impact on hemodynamic parameters.

  2. Risk factors for hypoglycaemia in neurocritical care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, F.M. van; Slooter, A.J.; Vroegop, R.; Wolters, A.E.; Tiemessen, C.A.; Rosken, R.H.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Peelen, L.M.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for hypoglycaemia in neurocritical care patients receiving intensive insulin therapy (IIT). METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study. All first episodes of hypoglycaemia (glucose <80 mg/dL, <4.4 mmol/L) in neurocritical care patients between 1 March

  3. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency: AAN survey of US program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, K N; Drogan, O; Manno, E; Geocadin, R G; Ziai, W

    2012-05-29

    Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents.

  4. Traumatic brain injury: pathophysiology for neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Severe cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) require neurocritical care, the goal being to stabilize hemodynamics and systemic oxygenation to prevent secondary brain injury. It is reported that approximately 45 % of dysoxygenation episodes during critical care have both extracranial and intracranial causes, such as intracranial hypertension and brain edema. For this reason, neurocritical care is incomplete if it only focuses on prevention of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Arterial hypotension is a major risk factor for secondary brain injury, but hypertension with a loss of autoregulation response or excess hyperventilation to reduce ICP can also result in a critical condition in the brain and is associated with a poor outcome after TBI. Moreover, brain injury itself stimulates systemic inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, exacerbated by secondary brain injury and resulting in increased ICP. Indeed, systemic inflammatory response syndrome after TBI reflects the extent of tissue damage at onset and predicts further tissue disruption, producing a worsening clinical condition and ultimately a poor outcome. Elevation of blood catecholamine levels after severe brain damage has been reported to contribute to the regulation of the cytokine network, but this phenomenon is a systemic protective response against systemic insults. Catecholamines are directly involved in the regulation of cytokines, and elevated levels appear to influence the immune system during stress. Medical complications are the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality in many types of brain damage. Neurocritical care after severe TBI has therefore been refined to focus not only on secondary brain injury but also on systemic organ damage after excitation of sympathetic nerves following a stress reaction.

  5. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients.

  6. Mechanical ventilation in neurocritical care patients: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsellino, Beatrice; Schultz, Marcus J.; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Robba, Chiara; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Neurocritical care (NCC) patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and they are at high risk of respiratory complications. Therefore, the potential benefit role of protective lung ventilation (PLV), which demonstrated to reduce postoperative complications in patients with acute

  7. Induced Hypothermia in Neurocritical Care: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Courtney J

    2017-02-01

    Induced hypothermia (IH) continues to become a more prevalent treatment modality in neurocritical care. Reducing core temperature has been shown to protect brain tissue during injury and disease. IH has been particularly beneficial in the medical management of refractory intracranial hypertension and malignant cerebral edema. These pathologies are often the result of diffuse cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury, malignant ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Although there are many benefits to IH, it is not without complications. Chief among these is shivering, which decreases oxygen delivery to brain tissue, increases metabolic demands, and consequently reduces nutrient delivery. This article will review indications for IH administration, methods of providing IH, nursing responsibilities, and identifying and/or managing complications.

  8. Therapeutic Use of Music and Television in Neurocritical Care: A Practice Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, DaiWai M; Batjer, H Hunt; Zanders, Michael L; Harrison, Kimberly; Suarez, Jose I

    2016-03-01

    Although health care providers often play music via radio, or play television, to calm and soothe patients, limited research is available to guide practice. This study used a 17-item practice survey that was distributed electronically to neurocritical care society members in July 2014. Responses were collated and analyzed using SAS (Version 9.3). There were 118 completed responses, including from 71 attending physicians, 9 resident or fellow physicians, 30 nurses, and 8 affiliate professional members. The majority of respondents sometimes or always play music (65%) and agree that music is therapeutic (70%). However, there was no clear practice pattern regarding when or why music or TV should be used as an intervention in the neurocritical care unit. The use of music and TV is a common intervention in the neurocritical care unit but lacks a strong scientific foundation and is associated with a high practice variance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The State of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Training and Attitudes toward Accreditation and Certification: A Survey of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Program Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Dhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocritical care as a recognized and distinct subspecialty of critical care has grown remarkably since its inception in the 1980s. As of 2016, there were 61 fellowship training programs accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS in the United States and more than 1,000 UCNS-certified neurointensivists from diverse medical backgrounds. In late 2015, the Program Accreditation, Physician Certification, and Fellowship Training (PACT Committee of the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS was convened to promote and support excellence in the training and certification of neurointensivists. One of the first tasks of the committee was to survey neurocritical care fellowship training program directors to ascertain the current state of fellowship training and attitudes regarding transition to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME accreditation of training programs and American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS certification of physicians. First, the survey revealed significant heterogeneities in the manner of neurocritical care training and a lack of consistency in requirements for fellow procedural competency. Second, although a majority of the 33 respondents indicated that a move toward ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification would facilitate further growth and mainstreaming of training in neurocritical care, many programs do not currently meet administrative requirements and do not receive the level of institutional support that would be needed for such a transition. In summary, the results revealed that there is an opportunity for future harmonization of training standards and that a transition to ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification is preferred. While the results reflect the opinions of more than half of the survey respondents, they represent only a small sample of neurointensivists.

  10. The State of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Training and Attitudes toward Accreditation and Certification: A Survey of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Finley Caulfield, Anna; Maas, Matthew B; James, Michael L; Kumar, Avinash Bhargava; Figueroa, Stephen A; McDonagh, David; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care as a recognized and distinct subspecialty of critical care has grown remarkably since its inception in the 1980s. As of 2016, there were 61 fellowship training programs accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS) in the United States and more than 1,000 UCNS-certified neurointensivists from diverse medical backgrounds. In late 2015, the Program Accreditation, Physician Certification, and Fellowship Training (PACT) Committee of the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) was convened to promote and support excellence in the training and certification of neurointensivists. One of the first tasks of the committee was to survey neurocritical care fellowship training program directors to ascertain the current state of fellowship training and attitudes regarding transition to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation of training programs and American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) certification of physicians. First, the survey revealed significant heterogeneities in the manner of neurocritical care training and a lack of consistency in requirements for fellow procedural competency. Second, although a majority of the 33 respondents indicated that a move toward ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification would facilitate further growth and mainstreaming of training in neurocritical care, many programs do not currently meet administrative requirements and do not receive the level of institutional support that would be needed for such a transition. In summary, the results revealed that there is an opportunity for future harmonization of training standards and that a transition to ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification is preferred. While the results reflect the opinions of more than half of the survey respondents, they represent only a small sample of neurointensivists.

  11. Health indicators in the care for neurocritical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida Silva de Morais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop indicators to evaluate the care for neurocritical patients. Methodological study for development and validation of indicators of health evaluation, conducted on the Intensive Care Unit of a large hospital. The opinionated validation method was used, where seven experts (five nurses and two doctors participated on the content analysis through operational manual from May to August 2012. The values obtained from the expert judgment were all above 80%, in which the literature reference was above 75%. The results revealed that all the indicators were considered valid as regards the agreement percentage. Therefore, it is possible to establish reliable indicators to evaluate the proposed care and establish the quality of the service. From the theoretical prerequisites, its use will support the control of assistance quality whilst collaborates with designing intervention plans.

  12. Family discussions on life-sustaining interventions in neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, M M; Larriviere, D

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 20% of all deaths in the USA occur in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the majority of ICU deaths involves decision of de-escalation of life-sustaining interventions. Life-sustaining interventions may include intubation and mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition and hydration, antibiotic treatment, brain surgery, or vasoactive support. Decision making about goals of care can be defined as an end-of-life communication and the decision-making process between a clinician and a patient (or a surrogate decision maker if the patient is incapable) in an institutional setting to establish a plan of care. This process includes deciding whether to use life-sustaining treatments. Therefore, family discussion is a critical element in the decision-making process throughout the patient's stay in the neurocritical care unit. A large part of care in the neurosciences intensive care unit is discussion of proportionality of care. This chapter provides a stepwise approach to hold these conferences and discusses ways to do it effectively. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of brain and systemic oxygenation in neurocritical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Bösel, Julian

    2014-12-01

    Maintenance of adequate oxygenation is a mainstay of intensive care, however, recommendations on the safety, accuracy, and the potential clinical utility of invasive and non-invasive tools to monitor brain and systemic oxygenation in neurocritical care are lacking. A literature search was conducted for English language articles describing bedside brain and systemic oxygen monitoring in neurocritical care patients from 1980 to August 2013. Imaging techniques e.g., PET are not considered. A total of 281 studies were included, the majority described patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). All tools for oxygen monitoring are safe. Parenchymal brain oxygen (PbtO2) monitoring is accurate to detect brain hypoxia, and it is recommended to titrate individual targets of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), ventilator parameters (PaCO2, PaO2), and transfusion, and to manage intracranial hypertension, in combination with ICP monitoring. SjvO2 is less accurate than PbtO2. Given limited data, NIRS is not recommended at present for adult patients who require neurocritical care. Systemic monitoring of oxygen (PaO2, SaO2, SpO2) and CO2 (PaCO2, end-tidal CO2) is recommended in patients who require neurocritical care.

  14. The role of neurocritical care: a brief report on the survey results of neurosciences and critical care specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandaya, Manjunath; Thomas, Katherine P; Jahromi, Babak; Koenig, Mathew; Lockwood, Alan H; Nyquist, Paul A; Mirski, Marek; Geocadin, Romergryko; Ziai, Wendy C

    2012-02-01

    Neurocritical care is a new subspecialty field in medicine that intersects with many of the neuroscience and critical care specialties, and continues to evolve in its scope of practice and practitioners. The objective of this study was to assess the perceived need for and roles of neurocritical care intensivists and neurointensive care units among physicians involved with intensive care and the neurosciences. An online survey of physicians practicing critical care medicine, and neurology was performed during the 2008 Leapfrog initiative to formally recognize neurocritical care training. The survey closed in July 2009 and achieved a 13% response rate (980/7524 physicians surveyed). Survey respondents (mostly from North America) included 362 (41.4%) neurologists, 164 (18.8%) internists, 104 (11.9%) pediatric intensivists, 82 (9.4%) anesthesiologists, and 162 (18.5%) from other specialties. Over 70% of respondents reported that the availability of neurocritical care units staffed with neurointensivists would improve the quality of care of critically ill neurological/neurosurgical patients. Neurologists were reported as the most appropriate specialty for training in neurointensive care by 53.3%, and 57% of respondents responded positively that neurology residency programs should offer a separate training track for those interested in neurocritical care. Broad level of support exists among the survey respondents (mostly neurologists and intensivists) for the establishment of neurological critical care units. Since neurology remains the predominant career path from which to draw neurointensivists, there may be a role for more comprehensive neurointensive care training within neurology residencies or an alternative training track for interested residents.

  15. Informatics in neurocritical care: new ideas for Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechet, Marine; Grandas, Fabian Güiza; Meyfroidt, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Big data is the new hype in business and healthcare. Data storage and processing has become cheap, fast, and easy. Business analysts and scientists are trying to design methods to mine these data for hidden knowledge. Neurocritical care is a field that typically produces large amounts of patient-related data, and these data are increasingly being digitized and stored. This review will try to look beyond the hype, and focus on possible applications in neurointensive care amenable to Big Data research that can potentially improve patient care. The first challenge in Big Data research will be the development of large, multicenter, and high-quality databases. These databases could be used to further investigate recent findings from mathematical models, developed in smaller datasets. Randomized clinical trials and Big Data research are complementary. Big Data research might be used to identify subgroups of patients that could benefit most from a certain intervention, or can be an alternative in areas where randomized clinical trials are not possible. The processing and the analysis of the large amount of patient-related information stored in clinical databases is beyond normal human cognitive ability. Big Data research applications have the potential to discover new medical knowledge, and improve care in the neurointensive care unit.

  16. Shared Decision Making in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Muehlschlegel, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Shared decision making is a collaborative decision-making process between health care providers and patients or their surrogates, taking into account the best scientific evidence available while considering the patient's values, goals, and preferences. Decision aids are tools enabling SDM. This article discusses shared decision making in general and in the intensive care unit in particular and facilitators and barriers for the creation and implementation of International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration-compliant decision aids for the intensive care unit and neuro-intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anemia and red blood cell transfusion in neurocritical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas H; Zygun, David A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Anemia is one of the most common medical complications to be encountered in critically ill patients. Based on the results of clinical trials, transfusion practices across the world have generally become more restrictive. However, because reduced oxygen delivery contributes to 'secondary' cerebral injury, anemia may not be as well tolerated among neurocritical care patients. Methods The first portion of this paper is a narrative review of the physiologic implications of anemia, hemodilution, and transfusion in the setting of brain-injury and stroke. The second portion is a systematic review to identify studies assessing the association between anemia or the use of red blood cell transfusions and relevant clinical outcomes in various neurocritical care populations. Results There have been no randomized controlled trials that have adequately assessed optimal transfusion thresholds specifically among brain-injured patients. The importance of ischemia and the implications of anemia are not necessarily the same for all neurocritical care conditions. Nevertheless, there exists an extensive body of experimental work, as well as human observational and physiologic studies, which have advanced knowledge in this area and provide some guidance to clinicians. Lower hemoglobin concentrations are consistently associated with worse physiologic parameters and clinical outcomes; however, this relationship may not be altered by more aggressive use of red blood cell transfusions. Conclusions Although hemoglobin concentrations as low as 7 g/dl are well tolerated in most critical care patients, such a severe degree of anemia could be harmful in brain-injured patients. Randomized controlled trials of different transfusion thresholds, specifically in neurocritical care settings, are required. The impact of the duration of blood storage on the neurologic implications of transfusion also requires further investigation. PMID:19519893

  18. Targeted temperature management in neurocritical care: Boon or bust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bindra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature management in neurocritical care is important and has gained due importance in recent years. Targeted temperature management (TTM includes deliberate reduction of core body temperature to a range of 32–34°C in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest after return of spontaneous circulation and also therapeutic hypothermia (33–35°C in normothermic patients or controlled normothermia (cooling patients to 37°C in hyperthermic patients. This review focuses on the practical aspects of cooling and temperature management in neurocritical care. An electronic search of Google Scholar, MEDLINE (OVID, EMBASE and the Cochrane library was performed. The physiological changes, potential side effects along with significant research and clinical applications in the field of temperature management are main highlights. Currently, the research evidence is available for TTM in adults following cardiac arrest, neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and raised intracranial pressure. Controlled normothermia in neurocritical care population is rapidly gaining popularity. However, data on disease specific therapeutic markers, therapeutic depth and duration and prognostication of this modality are limited. Overall in experienced hands, the technique is safe to execute without the major morbidity and a potential to improve the outcome. Though over the years, clinical applications are unable to consistently demonstrate its benefits, but TTM in neurological insult has become an established and promising concept.

  19. Optimizing Medication Outcomes in Neurocritical Care: Focus on Clinical Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoney, Denise H; Morbitzer, Kathryn; Hatton-Kolpek, Jimmi

    2016-12-01

    Drug dosing in neurocritically ill patients presents enormous challenges for clinicians due to the complex pathophysiological alterations. These alterations are dynamic both between and within patients. Unpredictable exposure from standard dosing regimens, which were extrapolated to intensive care unit patients from healthy volunteer studies, may influence medication outcomes. Knowledge of potential alterations in pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in these patients could be applied to maximize the clinical response and minimize adverse effects. Recognizing potential confounding clinical and treatment factors affecting drug response is an important step, but it is not enough. Overcoming absorption and distribution challenges by using specialized formulations and delivery systems is an area of active research. Improved methods for measuring drug concentrations in clinical settings across different matrices are also needed. Even with these advances, defining endogenous mediators signaling drug-target activation is necessary. Identifying biomarkers in disease and changes when a drug has reached its target will be pivotal. This information will improve our understanding of the pharmacogenomic and pharmacokinetic variables affecting pharmacodynamic endpoints across a spectrum of neurologic diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Intersection of prognosis and palliation in neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Michael; Bonomo, Jordan; Hemphill, J Claude

    2017-04-01

    Difficult discussions regarding end-of-life care are common in neurocritical care. Because of a patient's neurological impairment, decisions regarding continuing or limiting aggressive care must often be made by patients' families in conjunction with medical providers. This review provides perspective on three major aspects of this circumstance: prognostication, family-physician discussions, and determination of death (specifically as it impacts on organ donation). Numerous studies have now demonstrated that prediction models developed from populations of brain-injured patients may be misleading when applied to individual patients. Early care limitations may lead to the self-fulfilling prophecy of poor outcomes because of care decisions rather than disease course. A shared decision-making approach that emphasizes transmission of information and trust between families and medical providers is ethically appropriate in severely brain-injured patients and as part of the transition to end-of-life palliative care. Standard definitions of death by neurological criteria exist, although worldwide variation and the relationship to organ donation make this complex. End-of-life care in patients with severe brain injuries is common and represents a complex intersection of prognostication, family communication, and decision-making. Skills to optimize this should be emphasized in neurocritical care providers.

  1. Complications of invasive intracranial pressure monitoring devices in neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samon; Peitz, Geoffrey; Ares, William; Hafeez, Shaheryar; Grandhi, Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    Intracranial pressure monitoring devices have become the standard of care for the management of patients with pathologies associated with intracranial hypertension. Given the importance of invasive intracranial monitoring devices in the modern neurointensive care setting, gaining a thorough understanding of the potential complications related to device placement-and misplacement-is crucial. The increased prevalence of intracranial pressure monitoring as a management tool for neurosurgical patients has led to the publication of a plethora of papers regarding their indications and complications. The authors aim to provide a concise review of key contemporary articles in the literature concerning important complications with the hope of elucidating practices that improve outcomes for neurocritically ill patients.

  2. Neurocritical Care of Emergent Large-Vessel Occlusion: The Era of a New Standard of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Dancour, Elie; Amuluru, Krishna; Prestigiacomo, Charles; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander; Claassen, Jan; Willey, Joshua Z; Meyers, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Acute ischemic stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in mechanical thrombectomy techniques combined with prereperfusion computed tomographic angiography for patient selection have revolutionized stroke care in the past year. Peri- and postinterventional neurocritical care of the patient who has had an emergent large-vessel occlusion is likely an equally important contributor to the outcome but has been relatively neglected. Critical periprocedural management issues include streamlining care to speed intervention, blood pressure optimization, reversal of anticoagulation, management of agitation, and selection of anesthetic technique (ie, general vs monitored anesthesia care). Postprocedural critical care issues that might modulate neurological outcome include blood pressure and glucose optimization, avoidance of fever or hyperoxia, fluid and nutritional management, and early integration of rehabilitation into the intensive care unit setting. In this review, we sought to lay down an evidence-based strategy for patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing emergent endovascular reperfusion.

  3. Management of infections associated with neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Lara, L; Ziai, W; Nyquist, P

    2017-01-01

    The reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in the neurointensive care unit (NICU) ranges from 20% to 30%. HAIs in US hospitals cost between $28 and $45 billion per year in direct medical costs. These infections are associated with increased length of hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Infection risk is increased in NICU patients due to medication side-effects, catheter and line placement, neurosurgical procedures, and acquired immune suppression secondary to steroid/barbiturate use and brain injury itself. Some of these infections may be preventable but many are not. Their appearance do not always constitute a failure of prevention or physician error. Neurointensivists require indepth knowledge of common nosocomial infections, their diagnosis and treatment, and an approach to evidence-based practices that improve processes of care and reduce HAIs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential brain dead organ donation in neurocritical care mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatenkova, Vera; Bradac, Ondrej; Suchomel, Petr

    2017-05-11

    Mortality is a marker of quality in neurocritical care, but it also provides potential for donors after brain death (DBD) following irreversible acute brain damage. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurointensive care unit (NICU) mortality rate and recovery of potential DBD. We performed a 10-year prospective observational cohort computer database analysis of 6138 acute neurological and neurosurgical patients (pts, 58.2% male, mean: age 55.9±14.7 years, body weight 78.3±15.6 kg, body mass index 26.9±4.7, NICU stay 3.8±5.3 days): 3462 (56.4%) pts with brain disease (mostly stroke 43.2%, tumour 31.1%, trauma 13.6%); 10.3% pts with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis; 32.6% pts with spine diseases, and others. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission was 10.63±5.2 and Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was 13.79±2.51. There were 159 (2.6%) cases of mortality with a significantly higher mortality rate in pts with brain diseases (95.6% of deceased pts, p<0.001) than in ICA stenosis (0.6%), spine (1.9%) and from others (1.9%). There were 23 (14.5%) pts with clinical signs of brain death, of whom 13 (56.5%) became donors. The main reasons for non-recovery of potential donors were hemodynamic instability (16.7%) and family reluctance (12.5%). The study showed that our NICU mortality was 2.6%. There were relatively few clinical signs of brain death and not all potential donors were recovered.

  5. Analgesia in Neurocritical Care: An International Survey and Practice Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; AlSubaie, Fahd; Zeiler, Kaitlin; Bernard, Francis; Skrobik, Yoanna

    2016-05-01

    To characterize analgesic administration in neurocritical care. ICU pharmacy database analgesic delivery audits from five countries. A 31-question analgesic agent survey was constructed, validated, and e-distributed in four countries. International multicenter neuro-ICU database audit and electronic survey. Six ICUs provided individual, anonymized analgesic delivery data in primary neurological diagnosis patients. Prescriber surveys were disseminated by neurocritical care societies. None. Analgesic delivery data from 173 patients in French, Canadian, American, and Australian and New Zealand ICUs suggest that acetaminophen/paracetamol is the most common first-line analgesic (49.1% of patients); opiates are the "second line" in 31.5% of patients; however, 33% patients received no second agent. In the 2.3% with demyelinating disease, gabapentin was the most likely second analgesic (50.0%). Third-line analgesics were scarce across sites and neuropathologies. Few national or regional differences were found. The analgesic preference rankings noted by the 95 international physicians who completed the survey matched the audits. However, self-reported analgesic prescription rates were much higher than pharmacy records indicate, with self-reported prescribing of both acetaminophen/paracetamol and opiates in 97% of patients and gabapentin in 45% of patients. Third-line analgesic variability appeared to be driven by neuropathology; ibuprofen was preferred for traumatic brain injury, postcraniotomy, and thromboembolic stroke patients, whereas gabapentin/pregabalin were favored in subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, spine, demyelinating disease, and epileptic patients. Opiates and acetaminophen are preferred analgesic agents, and gabapentin is a contextual third choice, in neurocritically ill patients. Other agents are rarely prescribed. The discordance in physician self-reports and objective audits suggest that pain management optimization studies are warranted.

  6. The effect of a neurocritical care service without a dedicated neuro-ICU on quality of care in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph D; Green, Deborah M; Lau, Helena; Winter, Michael; Koyfman, Feliks; DeFusco, Christina M; Holsapple, James W; Kase, Carlos S

    2013-06-01

    Introduction of neurocritical care services to dedicated neuro-ICUs is associated with improved quality of care. The impact of a neurocritical care service without a dedicated neuro-ICU has not been studied. We retrospectively identified all patients admitted to our institution with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in two 12-month periods: immediately before the arrival of the first neurointensivist ("before") and after the neurocritical care service was established ("after"). There was no nursing team, ICU housestaff/physician extender team, or physical unit dedicated to the care of patients with critical neurologic illness during either period. Using an uncontrolled before-after design, we compared clinical outcomes and performance on quality metrics between groups. We included 74 patients with primary supratentorial ICH. Mortality, length of stay (LOS), proportion of patients with modified Rankin Score 0-3, and destination on discharge did not differ between groups when adjusted for confounders. Time to first two consecutive systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements neuro-ICU at our institution was associated with a trend toward longer ICU LOS and improvement in some key metrics of quality of care for patients with ICH.

  7. S100 B: A new concept in neurocritical care.

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    Rezaei, Omidvar; Pakdaman, Hossein; Gharehgozli, Kurosh; Simani, Leila; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Asaadi, Sina; Sahraei, Zahra; Hajiesmaeili, Mohammadreza

    2017-04-04

    After brain injuries, concentrations of some brain markers such as S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated with the severity and outcome of brain damage. To perform an updated review of S100B roles in human neurocritical care domain, an electronic literature search was carried among articles published in English prior to March 2017. They were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBSCO, CINAHL, ISC and the Cochrane Library using keywords including "brain", "neurobiochemical marker", "neurocritical care", and "S100B protein". The integrative review included 48 studies until March 2017. S100B protein can be considered as a marker for blood brain barrier damage. The marker has an important role in the development and recovery of normal central nervous system (CNS) after injury. In addition to extra cerebral sources of S100B, the marker is principally built in the astroglial and Schwann cells. The neurobiochemical marker, S100B, has a pathognomonic role in the diagnosis of a broad spectrum of brain damage including traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, and stroke. Moreover, a potential predicting role for the neurobiochemical marker has been presumed in the efficiency of brain damage treatment and prognosis. However further animal and human studies are required before widespread routine clinical introduction of S100 protein.

  8. Intensive insulin therapy increases the risk of hypoglycemia in neurocritical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Charlotte A M; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W E; van Iersel, Freya M; Rösken, Gerrit H J; van der Hoeven, Johannes; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Slooter, Arjen J C

    2011-07-01

    Intensive insulin therapy protocols are widely used in intensive care medicine. A disadvantage of these protocols may be the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Neurocritical care patients are particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypoglycemia. We aimed to study the risk of hypoglycemia in neurocritical care patients in relation to intensive insulin therapy. To determine the effects of 2 different intensive insulin therapy protocols on glucose levels and hypoglycemia incidence, we collected data before and after implementation of the protocols in 2 university hospitals. The risk of hypoglycemia (blood glucose level below 3.0 mmol/L) was studied retrospectively with logistic regression analyses. In hospital A, data were obtained on 152 patients before implementation of the protocol and on 649 patients after implementation of the protocol. In hospital B, data were obtained on 111 patients before implementation of the protocol and on 118 patients thereafter. Implementation of intensive insulin therapy protocols increased the time spent in the desired blood glucose range of 4.6 to 6.0 mmol/L in both hospitals, but increased the risk of hypoglycemia: the absolute risk of hypoglycemia during intensive care unit admission increased in hospital A from 14.5% to 20.3% (adjusted odds ratio=1.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-2.3) and in hospital B from 3.6% to 29.7% (adjusted odds ratio=28.6; 95% confidence interval: 5.9-138.9). Implementation of intensive insulin therapy protocols in neurocritical care patients not only seems to increase the time spent in the desired blood glucose range, but also seems to increase the risk of hypoglycemia. The risk of hypoglycemia strongly depends on characteristics of the intensive insulin therapy protocol.

  9. Neurocritical Care of Acute Subdural Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Mayer, Stephan A

    2017-04-01

    Although urgent surgical hematoma evacuation is necessary for most patients with subdural hematoma (SDH), well-orchestrated, evidenced-based, multidisciplinary, postoperative critical care is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. Acute SDH complicates approximately 11% of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that require hospitalization, and approximately 20% of severe TBIs. Acute SDH usually is related to a clear traumatic event, but in some cases can occur spontaneously. Management of SDH in the setting of TBI typically conforms to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol with airway taking priority, and management breathing and circulation occurring in parallel rather than sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Code of Professional Conduct for the Neurocritical Care Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Michael; Bonomo, Jordan; Bar, Barak; Collins, Edward; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Garvin, Rachel; Glickman, Scott; Grossman, Jonah; Henderson, Galen; Lawson, Tom; Mahanes, Dea; McFarlin, Jessica; Monchar, Sarah; Peled, Harry; Szalados, James

    2015-10-01

    Part of the responsibility of a professional society is to establish the expectations for appropriate behavior for its members. Some codes are so essential to a society that the code itself becomes the central document defining the organization and its tenets, as we see with the Hippocratic Oath. In that tradition, we have revised the code of professional conduct for the Neurocritical Care Society into its current version, which emphasizes guidelines for personal behavior, relationships with fellow members, relationships with patients, and our interactions with society as a whole. This will be a living document and updated as the needs of our society change in time.Available online: http://www.neurocriticalcare.org/about-us/bylaws-procedures-and-code-professional-conduct (1) Code of professional conduct (this document) (2) Leadership code of conduct (3) Disciplinary policy.

  11. 327 A Prospective Analysis of Hypovitaminosis D and Mortality in 400 Patients in the Neurocritical Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Brock, Andrea Archambault; Eli, Ilyas; Ledyard, Holly; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Park, Min S

    2016-08-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent among the general population. Studies have shown an association between hypovitaminosis D and multiple negative outcomes in critical care patients, but there has been no prospective evaluation of hypovitaminosis D in the neurological critical care population. The authors examined the impact of vitamin D deficiency on in-hospital mortality and a variety of secondary outcomes in the neurocritical care unit. The authors prospectively collected 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels on all patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit of a quaternary-care center over a 3-month period. Demographic data, illness acuity, in-hospital mortality, infection, and length of hospitalization were collected. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the effects of vitamin D deficiency. Four hundred sixty-one patients met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was slightly worse (9.3% vs 4.5%, P = .059) among patients with deficient vitamin D (≤20 ng/dL). There was also a higher rate of urinary tract infection in patients with vitamin D deficiency (12.4% vs 4.2%, P = .002). For patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit emergently (n = 285), higher SAPS II score (odds ratio [OR], 13.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-100; P = .014) and vitamin D deficiency (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.14-8.06; P = .027) were significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality on multivariable analysis. In the subset of patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit emergently, vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation in these patients.

  12. Alpha-2 agonists for sedation in mechanically ventilated neurocritical care patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexandre; Blinder, Henrietta; Hutton, Brian; English, Shane

    2016-09-08

    Sedation is an important consideration in the care of the neurocritically ill patient. It provides anxiety and relief, facilitates procedures and nursing tasks, and minimizes intolerance of mechanical ventilation. Alpha-2 agonists such as dexmedetomidine and clonidine have been shown to be an effective alternative in the general critical care population by reducing duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), as compared to traditional sedative agents such as propofol or benzodiazepines. However, there is a paucity of literature detailing their utility and safety in neurocritical care, a population that presents unique considerations for management of global and cerebral hemodynamics, agitation, and facilitation of neurological assessments. The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety of alpha-2 agonists for non-procedural sedation in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients. We will search the Embase and MEDLINE databases for all randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies examining neurocritically ill adult patients aged 18 years and older who are on mechanical ventilation and receiving alpha-2 agonists for non-procedural sedation. Primary outcomes of interest include effect on mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Secondary outcomes include adverse events, duration of mechanical ventilation, 30-day mortality, ICU length of stay, incidence of delirium, and quality of sedation. Continuous outcomes will be presented as means and mean differences and discrete counting events will be presented as event rates. Pre-defined criteria for heterogeneity are provided for determination of pooling eligibility. Where appropriate, we will pool estimates for individual outcomes. Planned subgroup analyses include specific alpha-2 agonist agent, study design, clinical diagnosis, dosing regimen, and use of adjunctive

  13. The potential for bio-mediators and biomarkers in pediatric traumatic brain injury and neurocritical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Kochanek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers of brain injury in pediatric neurocritical care has been explored for at least 15 years. Two general lines of research on biomarkers in pediatric brain injury have been pursued, 1 studies of bio-mediators in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI to explore the components of the secondary injury cascades in an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets and 2 studies of the release of structural proteins into the CSF, serum, or urine in order to diagnose, monitor, and/or prognosticate in patients with TBI or other pediatric neurocritical care conditions. Unique age-related differences in brain biology, disease processes, and clinical applications mandate the development and testing of brain injury bio-mediators and biomarkers specifically in pediatric neurocritical care applications. Finally, although much of the early work on biomarkers of brain injury in pediatrics has focused on TBI, new applications are emerging across a wide range of applications specifically for pediatric neurocritical care including abusive head trauma, cardiopulmonary arrest, septic shock, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocephalus, and cardiopulmonary bypass. The potential scope of the utility of biomarkers in pediatric neurocritical care is thus also discussed.

  14. Mechanical ventilation in neurocritical care patients: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsellino, Beatrice; Schultz, Marcus J; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Robba, Chiara; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Neurocritical care (NCC) patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and they are at high risk of respiratory complications. Therefore, the potential benefit role of protective lung ventilation (PLV), which demonstrated to reduce postoperative complications in patients with acute distress respiratory syndrome, has been suggested even on NCC patients. However, PLV can increase intracranial pressure as result of permissive hypercapnia and of high airway pressures during recruitment maneuvers. The aim of this review (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015027011) is to describe the ventilatory strategies, and in particular PLV, commonly used in NCC patients. We selected a total of 16 clinical studies, searching on PubMed and EMBASE databases, reporting original information on the MV on patients receiving NCC after acute brain injury, published in the last 10 years, in English language. Some of the included studies report data on a limited sample size. Expert commentary: The use of PLV techniques (PEEP, recruitment maneuvers, etc) in NCC patients is controversial. There is a wide variability among different centers in the treatment strategies and respiratory management of NCC patients, and there is the need for shared diagnostics and therapeutic studies, in order to improve the patients' outcome.

  15. ′ROSE concept′ of fluid management: Relevance in neuroanaesthesia and neurocritical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid therapy in neurosurgical patients aims to restore intravascular volume, optimise haemodynamic parameters and maintain tissue perfusion, integrity and function. The goal is to minimise the risk of inadequate cerebral perfusion pressure and to maintain good neurosurgical conditions. However, fluid management in brain-injured patients has several distinctive features compared with non-brain-injured critically ill patients. The ROSE concept advocates the restriction of fluids, which is consistent with the prevention of a ′tight brain′ in neurosurgery. Whether this imbalance in fluid management studies between different types of brain injuries is a reflection of differences in clinical relevance of fluid management is not clear. Further randomised controlled trials in the future are essential in subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury patients who are critical and need long-term Intensive Care Unit stay to elucidate and define the role and relevance of the ROSE concept in neuroanaesthesia and neurocritical care.

  16. Hyponatremia in the neurocritical care patient: An approach based on current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, W; Aramendi, I; Langlois, P L; Biestro, A

    2015-05-01

    In the neurocritical care setting, hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder, which is associated with significant morbimortality. Cerebral salt wasting and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone have been classically described as the 2 most frequent entities responsible of hyponatremia in neurocritical care patients. Nevertheless, to distinguish between both syndromes is usually difficult and useless as volume status is difficult to be determined, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully understood, fluid restriction is usually contraindicated in these patients, and the first option in the therapeutic strategy is always the same: 3% hypertonic saline solution. Therefore, we definitively agree with the current concept of "cerebral salt wasting", which means that whatever is the etiology of hyponatremia, initially in neurocritical care patients the treatment will be the same: hypertonic saline solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Olivecrona, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care (NCC) is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia) or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance, the

  18. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Henrik Nordström

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocritical care (NCC is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP and cerebral blood flow (CBF and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood–brain barrier (BBB and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2 and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance

  19. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Olivecrona, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care (NCC) is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia) or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance, the

  20. Intensive Insulin Therapy Increases the Risk of Hypoglycemia in Neurocritical Care Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, Charlotte A. M.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; van Iersel, Freya M.; Rosken, Gerrit H. J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Slooter, Arjen J. C.

    Background: Intensive insulin therapy protocols are widely used in intensive care medicine. A disadvantage of these protocols may be the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Neurocritical care patients are particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypoglycemia. We aimed to study the risk of

  1. Intensive insulin therapy increases the risk of hypoglycemia in neurocritical care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, C.A.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Iersel, F.M. van; Rosken, G.H.; Hoeven, J. van der; Biessels, G.J.; Slooter, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intensive insulin therapy protocols are widely used in intensive care medicine. A disadvantage of these protocols may be the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Neurocritical care patients are particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypoglycemia. We aimed to study the risk of

  2. A Systematic Review of Alpha-2 Agonists for Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alexandre; Blinder, Henrietta; Hutton, Brian; English, Shane W

    2017-05-25

    The use of sedative medications is commonplace in intensive care units (ICUs) and an invaluable clinical tool for the intensive care physician. Sedation for critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients provides an opportunity to reduce anxiety, discomfort as well as ventilator intolerance and dyssynchrony. Alpha-2 agonists in particular have become increasingly popular for use in the neurocritical care population due to their proposed effectiveness in facilitating examinations and procedures as well as reducing the need for adjunctive agents. However, there is a paucity of literature to assess the safety of their use in the neurocritically ill patients, a population that presents unique sensitivities and considerations for management of global and cerebral hemodynamics, agitation and facilitation of neurological assessments. This review assesses the safety and efficacy of alpha-2 agonists for non-procedural sedation in critically ill brain-injured patients on mechanical ventilation. In June 2016, we searched the EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL Cochrane Databases for randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies examining neurocritically ill adult patients aged 18 years and older who are on mechanical ventilation and receiving alpha-2 agonists for non-procedural sedation. Primary outcomes of interest include mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Secondary outcomes include adverse events, duration of mechanical ventilation, 30-day mortality, ICU length of stay, incidence of delirium, and quality of sedation. We identified 17 studies for inclusion, all reporting on dexmedetomidine use, only 7 of which reported on our primary outcomes of interest. We found mixed results with regard to statistically significant changes in ICP, CPP, and MAP but did not find evidence of severe hemodynamic disturbances. However, the studies are notably limited by lack of reporting on sedative and

  3. Fellowship Training in the Emerging Fields of Fetal-Neonatal Neurology and Neonatal Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Christopher D; Tam, Emily W Y; Chang, Taeun; Soul, Janet S; Miller, Steven P; Glass, Hannah C

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal neurocritical care is a growing and rapidly evolving medical subspecialty, with increasing numbers of dedicated multidisciplinary clinical, educational, and research programs established at academic institutions. The growth of these programs has provided trainees in neurology, neonatology, and pediatrics with increased exposure to the field, sparking interest in dedicated fellowship training in fetal-neonatal neurology. To meet this rising demand, increasing numbers of training programs are being established to provide trainees with the requisite knowledge and skills to independently deliver care for infants with neurological injury or impairment from the fetal care center and neonatal intensive care unit to the outpatient clinic. This article provides an initial framework for standardization of training across these programs. Recommendations include goals and objectives for training in the field; core areas where clinical competency must be demonstrated; training activities and neuroimaging and neurodiagnostic modalities which require proficiency; and programmatic requirements necessary to support a comprehensive and well-rounded training program. With consistent implementation, the proposed model has the potential to establish recognized standards of professional excellence for training in the field, provide a pathway toward Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education certification for program graduates, and lead to continued improvements in medical and neurological care provided to patients in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new strategy in neurocritical care nurse continuing stroke education: A hybrid simulation pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Christopher Ryan; Bell, Robert; Burks, Melody; Nattanmai, Premkumar

    2017-05-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently utilized in medical education. Its use in the neurosciences is limited by the inherent limitations of the manikin to simulate neurological changes. We report here the use of a hybrid simulation - a combination of lecture and high-fidelity manikin - in the education of neurosciences nurses, involved in care of neurocritical care patients. Neurosciences nurses from at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA, which is an academic, tertiary-care medical center participated in the simulation during Spring of 2016. The simulation involved a patient presenting with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who neurologically deteriorated to brain death. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires were administered using a questionnaire with five-point Liker scale. Seventy-two responses were returned. The majority had 0-5 years of nursing experience with 83.8% having prior critical care experience. Pre-simulation, the majority of nurses (85.7%) agreed or strongly agreed with managing patients with ICH. When the responses of "agree" were compared to "strongly agree", a significant improvement (p<0.001) in all responses except confidence in speaking with other healthcare providers was found. Nurses reported significant improvement in understanding and managing patients with acute ICH and neurological deterioration after participating in a neurocritical care hybrid simulation. This study shows the benefit of using hybrid simulation in the education of neurocritical care nurses.

  5. The Implementation of Targeted Temperature Management: An Evidence-Based Guideline from the Neurocritical Care Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lori Kennedy; Hill, Michelle; May, Teresa L; Human, Theresa; Guanci, Mary McKenna; Jacobi, Judith; Moreda, Melissa V; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) is often used in neurocritical care to minimize secondary neurologic injury and improve outcomes. TTM encompasses therapeutic hypothermia, controlled normothermia, and treatment of fever. TTM is best supported by evidence from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although it has also been explored in ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage patients. Critical care clinicians using TTM must select appropriate cooling techniques, provide a reasonable rate of cooling, manage shivering, and ensure adequate patient monitoring among other challenges. The Neurocritical Care Society recruited experts in neurocritical care, nursing, and pharmacotherapy to form a writing Committee in 2015. The group generated a set of 16 clinical questions relevant to TTM using the PICO format. With the assistance of a research librarian, the Committee undertook a comprehensive literature search with no back date through November 2016 with additional references up to March 2017. The Committee utilized GRADE methodology to adjudicate the quality of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low based on their confidence that the estimate of effect approximated the true effect. They generated recommendations regarding the implementation of TTM based on this systematic review only after considering the quality of evidence, relative risks and benefits, patient values and preferences, and resource allocation. This guideline is intended for neurocritical care clinicians who have chosen to use TTM in patient care; it is not meant to provide guidance regarding the clinical indications for TTM itself. While there are areas of TTM practice where clear evidence guides strong recommendations, many of the recommendations are conditional, and must be contextualized to individual patient and system needs.

  6. Implementation of Neurocritical Care Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Mypinder S; Gooderham, Peter; Toyota, Brian; Kherzi, Navid; Hu, Vivien; Dhingra, Vinay K; Hameed, Morad S; Chittock, Dean R; Griesdale, Donald E

    2017-07-01

    Background Traditionally, the delivery of dedicated neurocritical care (NCC) occurs in distinct NCC units and is associated with improved outcomes. Institution-specific logistical challenges pose barriers to the development of distinct NCC units; therefore, we developed a consultancy NCC service coupled with the implementation of invasive multimodal neuromonitoring, within a medical-surgical intensive care unit. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a consultancy NCC program on neurologic outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury patients. We conducted a single-center quasi-experimental uncontrolled pre- and post-NCC study in severe traumatic brain injury patients (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8). The NCC program includes consultation with a neurointensivist and neurosurgeon and multimodal neuromonitoring. Demographic, injury severity metrics, neurophysiologic data, and therapeutic interventions were collected. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months was the primary outcome. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to model the association between NCC implementation and GOS at 6 months. A total of 113 patients were identified: 76 pre-NCC and 37 post-NCC. Mean age was 39 years (standard deviation [SD], 2) and 87 of 113 (77%) patients were male. Median admission motor score was 3 (interquartile ratio, 1-4). Daily mean arterial pressure was higher (95 mmHg [SD, 10]) versus (88 mmHg [SD, 10], p<0.001) and daily mean core body temperature was lower (36.6°C [SD, 0.90]) versus (37.2°C [SD, 1.0], p=0.001) post-NCC compared with pre-NCC, respectively. Multivariable regression modelling revealed the NCC program was associated with a 2.5 increased odds (odds ratios, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3; p=0.022) of improved 6-month GOS. Implementation of a NCC program is associated with improved 6 month GOS in severe TBI patients.

  7. A prospective analysis of hypovitaminosis D and mortality in 400 patients in the neurocritical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Brock, Andrea A; Eli, Ilyas M; Ledyard, Holly K; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Park, Min S

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent among the general population. Studies have shown an association between hypovitaminosis D and multiple negative outcomes in critical care patients, but there has been no prospective evaluation of vitamin D in the neurological critical care population. The authors examined the impact of vitamin D deficiency on in-hospital mortality and a variety of secondary outcomes. METHODS The authors prospectively collected 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels of all patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) of a quaternary-care center over a 3-month period. Demographic data, illness acuity, in-hospital mortality, infection, and length of hospitalization were collected. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the effects of vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS Four hundred fifteen patients met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was slightly worse (9.3% vs 4.5%; p = 0.059) among patients with deficient vitamin D (≤ 20 ng/dl). There was also a higher rate of urinary tract infection in patients with vitamin D deficiency (12.4% vs 4.2%; p = 0.002). For patients admitted to the NCCU on an emergency basis (n = 285), higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.7-110.8; p = 0.014), and vitamin D deficiency (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.6; p = 0.042) were significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS In the subset of patients admitted to the NCCU on an emergency basis, vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation in these patients.

  8. The cost of a pediatric neurocritical care program for traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven W; Zhang, Zidong; Buchanan, Paula; Bernell, Stephanie L; Williams, Christine; Pearson, Lindsey; Huetsch, Michael; Gill, Jeff; Pineda, Jose A

    2018-01-12

    Inpatient care for children with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is expensive, with inpatient charges averaging over $70,000 per case (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). This ranks sTBI in the top quartile of pediatric conditions with the greatest inpatient costs (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). The Brain Trauma Foundation developed sTBI intensive care guidelines in 2003, with revisions in 2012 (Kochanek, Carney, et. al. PCCM 3:S1-S2, 2012). These guidelines have been widely disseminated, and are associated with improved health outcomes (Pineda, Leonard. et. al. LN 12:45-52, 2013), yet research on the cost of associated hospital care is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of providing hospital care to sTBI patients through a guideline-based Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program (PNCP) implemented at St. Louis Children's Hospital, a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwest United States. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used multi-level regression to estimate pre-/post-implementation effects of the PNCP program on inflation adjusted total cost of in-hospital sTBI care. The study population included 58 pediatric patient discharges in the pre-PNCP implementation group (July 15, 1999 - September 17, 2005), and 59 post-implementation patient discharges (September 18, 2005 - January 15, 2012). Implementation of the PNCP was associated with a non-significant difference in the cost of care between the pre- and post-implementation periods (eβ = 1.028, p = 0

  9. Comparison of enteral ethanol and benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal in neurocritical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Gregory; Tran, Kim; Hoang, Cuong; Treggiari, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    We designed a study to evaluate the use of benzodiazepines and ethanol in patients being assessed for alcohol withdrawal and compare outcomes between the two agents. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to neurocritical care or neurosurgical services who were at risk for ethanol withdrawal between June 2011 and September 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on the first medication administered for alcohol withdrawal management, either benzodiazepine (n=50) or enteral ethanol (n=50). The primary endpoint was the maximum change in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol scale (CIWA) score within the first 24hours. Secondary endpoints included maximum and minimum CIWA score in 5days, length of stay, and change in Glasgow Coma Scale. Study groups differed by mortality risk, level of coma at admission, and other clinical characteristics, with the ethanol group appearing less severely ill. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the maximum change in CIWA score at 24hours (-0.97, 95%CI: -3.21 to 1.27, p=0.39). Hospital and intensive care unit length of stay was 6.5 days and 1 day shorter for the ethanol group (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). In summary, enteral ethanol was preferentially used in patients who are more likely to be capable of tolerating oral intake. We found that the change from baseline in CIWA score or other physiologic variables was not substantially different between the two agents. The overall utility of benzodiazepines and enteral ethanol remains unclear for this population and further study is needed to determine superiority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravenous Versus Oral Acetaminophen for Pain Control in Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Dan C; Nadpara, Pramit A; Taylor, Perry D; Brophy, Gretchen M

    2016-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is used in neurocritical care (NCC) patients for analgesia without sedation or antiplatelet activity. Research suggests that intravenous (IV) APAP produces earlier and higher serum levels compared to oral (PO) APAP. This retrospective study evaluates the associated analgesic effects of IV and PO APAP and use of adjunctive opioids in NCC patients with moderate-severe pain. Patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) between May 2012 and April 2013 who received ≥1 dose of IV APAP were included in the study. IV and PO APAP doses administered with a predose pain score ≥4 within 1 h of dosing were compared. Pain intensity difference (PID) was calculated as the change between the pain score prior to each dose and scores at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, and 6 h postdose. Pre- and postdose morphine milligram equivalents (MME) were also calculated. 309 NSICU patients received 459 doses of IV and 440 doses of PO APAP meeting our inclusion criteria. The PID at 30 min postdosing was significantly higher among those receiving IV APAP compared to those receiving PO APAP (p = 0.003). No significant difference in PID was seen at 1, 2, 3, and 6 h; and there was no significant difference in pre- or postdose MME between the two groups. IV APAP was more effective than PO APAP at relieving pain within 30 min of dosing, but this difference was not sustained over 6 h. Further studies are needed to assess the benefits of this rapid onset of action.

  11. Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury in Neurocritical Care Patients Receiving Continuous Hypertonic Saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Michael J; Riha, Heidi; Bode, Lauren; Chang, Jason J; Jones, G Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Continuous intravenous 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) infusions are commonly used for the management of cerebral edema following severe neurologic injuries. Despite widespread use, data regarding the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity are lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and identify predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neurocritical care patients administered continuous infusion HTS. This was an institutional review board-approved, multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving HTS infusions at 2 academic medical centers. A univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify predictors of AKI. Data regarding AKI were evaluated during treatment with HTS and up to 24 hours after discontinuation. A total of 329 patients were included in our analysis, with 54 (16%) developing AKI. Those who developed AKI experienced significantly longer stays in the intensive care unit (14.8 vs 11.5 days; P = .006) and higher mortality (48.1% vs 21.9%; P < .001). We identified past medical history of chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 9.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-50.6; P = .007), serum sodium greater than 155 mmol/L (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.1-8.0; P < .001), concomitant administration of piperacillin/tazobactam (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-9.3; P = .002), male gender (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.5-6.6; P = .002), and African American race (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.2; P = .007) as independent predictors of AKI. Acute kidney injury is relatively common in patients receiving continuous HTS and may significantly impact clinical outcomes.

  12. Vitamin D status and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in patients in neurocritical care: prospective analysis of 497 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Brock, Andrea A; Eli, Ilyas M; Manton, Gabrielle M; Ledyard, Holly K; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Park, Min S

    2017-08-11

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a variety of negative outcomes in critically ill patients, but little focused study on the effects of hypovitaminosis D has been performed in the neurocritical care population. In this study, the authors examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on 3-month outcomes after discharge from a neurocritical care unit (NCCU). METHODS The authors prospectively analyzed 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients admitted to the NCCU of a quaternary care center over a 6-month period. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were used to evaluate their 3-month outcome, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS Four hundred ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. In the binomial logistic regression model, patients without vitamin D deficiency (> 20 ng/dl) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 4 or 5 than those who were vitamin D deficient (OR 1.768 [95% CI 1.095-2.852]). Patients with a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (OR 0.925 [95% CI 0.910-0.940]) and those admitted for stroke (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.209-0.803]) or those with an "other" diagnosis (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.217-0.772]) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 3 or less. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse 3-month postdischarge GOS scores in patients admitted to an NCCU. Additional study is needed to determine the role of vitamin D supplementation in the NCCU population.

  13. Early versus late readmission of subarachnoid haemorrhage patients into neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jacob C M; Welbourne, Jessie; McMillan, Helen; Whitfield, Peter C

    2016-10-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients will typically require monitoring in a specialised Neurocritical Care Unit (NCCU) regardless of the primary treatment modality. Once discharged from NCCU, readmission within 48 h is regarded as a "failed" discharge. The aims of this study are to (1) Evaluate the readmission rate of SAH patients into NCCU, (2) Identify the indications for readmission, (3) Analyse clinical parameters on discharge between patients readmitted early and late. Retrospective observational study of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) database of patients from our unit diagnosed with SAH from January 2009-December 2014, who were readmitted into NCCU. Demographic data, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, Fisher grade, length of initial and subsequent NCCU stay, time of readmission, indication for readmission, and mortality rate data were collected. Patients were categorised by early (48 h) readmission, and their clinical parameters on NCCU discharge were statistically analysed. Five hundred and seventy-five SAH patients were admitted into NCCU, of which 49 patients (9%) were readmitted after discharge to ward-level care. The mean age of readmitted patients was 64.1 ± 11.6 years old. The most common indications were delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) (50%) and infection (19%). Readmitted SAH patients were typically WFNS grade I-II (n = 22) and Fisher grade III-IV (n = 44). 17 (35%) patients were readmitted early, and were older (p = 0.0049) with a lower GCS (p = 0.0077) compared to patients readmitted later. White cell count and C-reactive protein were higher in patients readmitted early, but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.09, p = 0.07). DCI and infection were the most common indications for NCCU readmission in SAH patients. "Failed" discharged patients from NCCU are typically older with a lower GCS than patients readmitted after 48 h, and therefore

  14. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: A New Tool in Neurocritical Care of Comatose Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasneem, Nudrat; Samaniego, Edgar A; Pieper, Connie; Leira, Enrique C; Adams, Harold P; Hasan, David; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care patients are at risk of developing secondary brain injury from inflammation, ischemia, and edema that follows the primary insult. Recognizing clinical deterioration due to secondary injury is frequently challenging in comatose patients. Multimodality monitoring (MMM) encompasses various tools to monitor cerebral metabolism, perfusion, and oxygenation aimed at detecting these changes to help modify therapies before irreversible injury sets in. These tools include intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors, transcranial Doppler (TCD), Hemedex™ (thermal diffusion probe used to measure regional cerebral blood flow), microdialysis catheter (used to measure cerebral metabolism), Licox™ (probe used to measure regional brain tissue oxygen tension), and continuous electroencephalography. Although further research is needed to demonstrate their impact on improving clinical outcomes, their contribution to illuminate the black box of the brain in comatose patients is indisputable. In this review, we further elaborate on commonly used MMM parameters, tools used to measure them, and the indications for monitoring per current consensus guidelines.

  15. Transcranial Doppler: a stethoscope for the brain-neurocritical care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Cardim, Danilo; Sekhon, Mypinder; Budohoski, Karol; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-09-07

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive bedside monitoring technique that can evaluate cerebral blood flow hemodynamics in the intracranial arterial vasculature. TCD allows assessment of linear cerebral blood flow velocity, with a high temporal resolution and is inexpensive, reproducible, and portable. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the most commonly used TCD derived signals and measurements used commonly in neurocritical care. We describe both basic (flow velocity, pulsatility index) and advanced concepts, including critical closing pressure, wall tension, autoregulation, noninvasive intracranial pressure, brain compliance, and cerebrovascular time constant; we also describe the clinical applications of TCD to highlight their utility in the diagnosis and monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases as the "stethoscope for the brain." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: A New Tool in Neurocritical Care of Comatose Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudrat Tasneem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocritical care patients are at risk of developing secondary brain injury from inflammation, ischemia, and edema that follows the primary insult. Recognizing clinical deterioration due to secondary injury is frequently challenging in comatose patients. Multimodality monitoring (MMM encompasses various tools to monitor cerebral metabolism, perfusion, and oxygenation aimed at detecting these changes to help modify therapies before irreversible injury sets in. These tools include intracranial pressure (ICP monitors, transcranial Doppler (TCD, Hemedex™ (thermal diffusion probe used to measure regional cerebral blood flow, microdialysis catheter (used to measure cerebral metabolism, Licox™ (probe used to measure regional brain tissue oxygen tension, and continuous electroencephalography. Although further research is needed to demonstrate their impact on improving clinical outcomes, their contribution to illuminate the black box of the brain in comatose patients is indisputable. In this review, we further elaborate on commonly used MMM parameters, tools used to measure them, and the indications for monitoring per current consensus guidelines.

  17. Is there still a role for hypothermia in neurocritical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Broessner, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (i.e. induced body core temperature ≈ 33-35°C) in neurological patients with cerebrovascular disease and traumatic brain injury is a controversially discussed issue in the literature. In this review, we have included the most recently published research covering the use of therapeutic hypothermia and targeted temperature management in neurologic diseases and translated the results into a clinical decision support for the professional healthcare community. Recent findings from large multicenter studies investigating therapeutic hypothermia in patients with various acute neurologic diseases have revealed that although short-term and long-term temperature modulation on different temperature levels is feasible with the latest device technology, the effect on outcome is controversial. There is overwhelming evidence that fever is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute severe neurologic diseases. Although therapeutic hypothermia has been proven to be a potent neuroprotective measure acting on various levels in animal models, many questions such as optimal depth of target temperature, speed of rewarming, duration of cooling and management of side-effects accompanying therapeutic hypothermia are unresolved in human. Therefore, the application of therapeutic hypothermia outside of strictly supervised clinical trials must be carefully considered.

  18. [Risk of ventriculitis associated to the care of the ventricular drain in neurocritical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Rodriguez, Aida; Suarez-Mier, Belén; Rivas-Rodriguez, Lidia; Lana, Alberto

    2016-04-16

    To analyze the risk of ventriculitis associated to the care of the external ventricular drain. Case-control study among a sample of neurocritical patients of the University Hospital of Asturias (Spain) who carried a ventricular catheter (n = 127; 49 cases and 78 controls). Main outcome was the diagnosis of ventriculitus, according to established criteria. Independent variables were related to the catheter management, including nursing cares of the insertion point, administration of intrathecal medication, flushes, changes and mobilization of the catheter. Other variables (age, sex, APACHE score, admission diagnosis, comorbidity, antibiotics, time to insertion and permanence time of the drain) were studied as covariates. Nursing catheter cares (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.1-13.9) and administration of intrathecal medication (OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.1-23.6) were significantly associated with ventriculitis. After adjustment by the number of days at risk, the effect of nursing cares disappeared (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 0.3-6.6). Intrathecal medication and nursing cares seem to be associated with ventriculitis. The administration of medication by the ventricular drain really reflects that the physicians suspect ventriculitis before the diagnosis is confirmed and, therefore, they prescribe this medication. However, as the duration of drain increases the frequency of nursing cares, it seems prudent to recommend not lengthen the permanence of the ventricular drain and to improve the training of nurses.

  19. Current practice in neurocritical care of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and severe traumatic brain injury : Results of the Austrian Neurosurvey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Günther; Illievich, Udo; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Trimmel, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The task force Neuroanaesthesia of the Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care Medicine (ÖGARI) is aiming to develop and provide recommendations in order to improve neurocritical care in Austria. Thus, a survey on neurocritical care concepts in Austria regarding intensive care of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed to assess the current status. An online internet questionnaire comprising 59 items on current concepts of SAH and TBI critical care was sent to 117 anaesthesiology departments. The survey was answered by 30 (25.6 %) of the hospitals, 24 (80 %) of them treating patients with SAH and/or TBI. Data from ten SAH centres reveal that definitive care was achieved within 24 h in all hospitals; a case load >50 per year is noted in 70 % of intensive care units (ICU). In all, 50 % of departments employ written protocols for treatment. Regarding the treatment of TBI patients, 14 answers were received, indicating that 42.9 % of departments provide care for >50 patients per year. Time between arrival and CT scan is discharge from the ICU, there is no evaluation of 1‑year outcome. Definitive care of SAH and TBI patients is achieved timely in Austria. When compared with SAH, more hospitals with lower case loads take care of TBI patients. Written guidelines and protocols at institutional level are often missing. Since routine morbidity and mortality conferences are sparse, and long-term outcome is not assessed, there is room for improvement.

  20. Pediatric neurocritical care in the 21st century: from empiricism to evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Mark S; Hansen, Gregory; Piantino, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Approximately one in five children admitted to a pediatric ICU have a new central nervous system injury or a neurological complication of their critical illness. The spectrum of neurologic insults in children is diverse and clinical practice is largely empirical, as few randomized, controlled trials have been reported. This lack of data poses a substantial challenge to the practice of pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC). PNCC has emerged as a novel subspecialty, and its presence is expanding within tertiary care centers. This review highlights the recent advances in the field, with a focus on traumatic brain injury (TBI), cardiac arrest, and stroke as disease models. Variable approaches to the structure of a PNCC service have been reported, comprising multidisciplinary teams from neurology, critical care, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, and anesthesia. Neurologic morbidity is substantial in critically ill children and the increased use of continuous electroencephalography monitoring has highlighted this burden. Therapeutic hypothermia has not proven effective for treatment of children with severe TBI or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, results of studies of severe TBI suggest that multidisciplinary care in the ICU and adherence to guidelines for care can reduce mortality and improve outcome. There is an unmet need for clinicians with expertise in the practice of brain-directed critical care for children. Although much of the practice of PNCC may remain empiric, a focus on the regionalization of care, creating defined training paths, practice within multidisciplinary teams, protocol-directed care, and improved measures of long-term outcome to quantify the impact of such care can provide evidence to direct the maturation of this field.

  1. Safety of Continuous Peripheral Infusion of 3% Sodium Chloride Solution in Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G Morgan; Bode, Lauren; Riha, Heidi; Erdman, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Numerous drug information resources recommend that continuous intravenous 3% sodium chloride solution be administered via a central catheter. To evaluate the incidence of infusion-related reactions and electrolyte abnormalities in neurocritical care patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution via a peripheral catheter. Data on patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution at 2 academic medical centers were evaluated retrospectively to determine the administration site. Electronic notes on catheter status were reviewed to determine the occurrence of infusion-related reactions. Prespecified thresholds were used to assess electrolyte abnormalities. Of 213 patients who had peripheral continuous intravenous infusions of 3% sodium chloride solution, 15 (7%) had infusion-related reactions. Administration was changed to a central catheter in 56 patients (26.3%), but only 5 changes were due to an infusion-related reaction. Most (157 patients, 73.7%) received their entire treatment peripherally, for a median duration of 44 hours, 3 minutes. The most common electrolyte abnormalities were hyperchloremia in 49.3% and hypokalemia in 46.9% of patients. Current recommendations that a central catheter is required for continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution should be reevaluated. Only a few patients who had peripheral infusions had infusion-related reactions. Electrolyte abnormalities occurred frequently with peripheral infusion, but the clinical importance of the abnormalities remains unclear. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. The Neurological Wake-up Test—A Role in Neurocritical Care Monitoring of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Marklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP. However, it has not been established whether these short-lived ICP and CPP changes are detrimental to the injured brain. Daily interruption of sedation is associated with a reduced ventilator time, shorter hospital stay and reduced mortality in many studies of general intensive care unit patients, although such clinical benefits have not been firmly established in TBI. To date, there is no consensus on the use of the NWT among NCC units and systematic studies are scarce. Thus, additional studies evaluating the role of the NWT in clinical decision-making are needed. Multimodal NCC monitoring may be an adjunct in assessing in which TBI patients the NWT can be safely performed. At present, the NWT remains the golden standard for clinical monitoring and detection of neurological changes in NCC and could be considered in TBI patients with stable baseline ICP and CPP readings. The focus of the present review is an overview of the existing literature on the role of the NWT as a clinical

  3. The Neurological Wake-up Test-A Role in Neurocritical Care Monitoring of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). However, it has not been established whether these short-lived ICP and CPP changes are detrimental to the injured brain. Daily interruption of sedation is associated with a reduced ventilator time, shorter hospital stay and reduced mortality in many studies of general intensive care unit patients, although such clinical benefits have not been firmly established in TBI. To date, there is no consensus on the use of the NWT among NCC units and systematic studies are scarce. Thus, additional studies evaluating the role of the NWT in clinical decision-making are needed. Multimodal NCC monitoring may be an adjunct in assessing in which TBI patients the NWT can be safely performed. At present, the NWT remains the golden standard for clinical monitoring and detection of neurological changes in NCC and could be considered in TBI patients with stable baseline ICP and CPP readings. The focus of the present review is an overview of the existing literature on the role of the NWT as a clinical monitoring tool

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of meropenem in neurocritical care patients with proven or suspected ventriculitis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blassmann, Ute; Roehr, Anka C; Frey, Otto R; Vetter-Kerkhoff, Cornelia; Thon, Niklas; Hope, William; Briegel, Josef; Huge, Volker

    2016-10-24

    Ventriculitis is a complication of temporary intraventricular drains. The limited penetration of meropenem into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is well known. However, ventricular CSF pharmacokinetic data in patients with ventriculitis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate meropenem pharmacokinetics in the serum and CSF of neurocritical care patients with proven or suspected ventriculitis. We conducted an observational pharmacokinetic study of neurocritical care patients with proven or suspected ventriculitis receiving meropenem. Multiple blood and CSF samples were taken and were described using nonparametric pharmacokinetic modelling with Pmetrics. In total, 21 patients (median age 52 years, median weight 76 kg) were included. The median (range) of peak and trough concentrations in serum were 20.16 (4.40-69.00) mg/L and 2.54 (0.00-31.40) mg/L, respectively. The corresponding peak and trough concentrations in CSF were 1.20 (0.00-6.20) mg/L and 1.28 (0.00-4.10) mg/L, respectively, with a median CSF/serum ratio (range) of 0.09 (0.03-0.16). Median creatinine clearance ranged from 60.7 to 217.6 ml/minute (median 122.5 ml/minute). A three-compartment linear population pharmacokinetic model was most appropriate. No covariate relationships could be supported for any of the model parameters. Meropenem demonstrated poor penetration into CSF, with a median CSF/serum ratio of 9 % and high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Administration of higher-than-standard doses of meropenem and therapeutic drug monitoring in both serum and CSF should be considered to individualise meropenem dosing in neurocritical care patients with ventriculitis.

  5. Effect of Probiotics on the Incidence of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Mechanically Ventilated Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, John; Mahmoud, Leana; Zullo, Andrew R; Potter, N Stevenson; Fehnel, Corey R; Thompson, Bradford B; Wendell, Linda C

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are seen in 17% of critically ill patients. Probiotics, live nonpathogenic microorganisms, may aid in reducing the incidence of infection in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would be safe and reduce the incidence of HAIs among mechanically ventilated neurocritical care patients. We assembled 2 retrospective cohorts of mechanically ventilated neurocritical care patients. In the preintervention cohort from July 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011, probiotics were not used. In the postintervention group from July 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012, 1 g of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus was administered twice daily to all patients who were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hours. There were a total of 167 patients included, 80 patients in the preintervention group and 87 patients in the postintervention group. No patients in the preintervention group received probiotics. Eighty-five (98%) patients in the postintervention group received probiotics for a median of 10 days (interquartile range, 4-20 days). There were 14 (18%) HAIs in the preintervention group and 8 (9%) HAIs in the postintervention group (P = .17). Ventilator days, lengths of stay, in-hospital mortality, and discharge disposition were similar between the pre- and postintervention groups. There were no cases of Lactobacillus bacteremia or other adverse events associated with probiotics use. Probiotics are safe to administer in neurocritical care patients; however, this study failed to demonstrate a significant decrease in HAIs or secondary outcomes associated with probiotics. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Autoregulation monitoring and outcome prediction in neurocritical care patients: Does one index fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Reinhard, Matthias; Lezaic, Vesna; McLeod, Damian D; Weinhold, Marco; Mattes, Heinz; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Indexes PRx and Mx have been formerly introduced to assess cerebral autoregulation and have been shown to be associated with 3-month clinical outcome. In a mixed cohort of neurocritical care patients, we retrospectively investigated the impact of selected clinical characteristics on this association. Forty-one patients (18-77 years) with severe traumatic (TBI, N = 20) and non-traumatic (N = 21) brain injuries were studied. Cerebral blood flow velocity, arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure were repeatedly recorded during 1-h periods. Calculated PRx and Mx were correlated with 3-month clinical outcome score of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) in different subgroups with specific clinical characteristics. Both PRx and Mx correlated significantly with outcome (PRx: r = 0.38, p < 0.05; AUC = 0.64, n.s./Mx: r = 0.48, p < 0.005; AUC = 0.80, p < 0.005) in the overall group, and in patients with hemicraniectomy (N = 17; PRx: r = 0.73, p < 0.001; AUC = 0.89, p < 0.01/Mx: r = 0.69, p < 0.005; AUC = 0.87, p < 0.05). Mx, not PRx, correlated significantly with mRS in patients with heart failure (N = 17; r = 0.69, p < 0.005; AUC = 0.92, p < 0.005), and in non-traumatic patients (r = 0.49, p < 0.05; AUC = 0.79, p < 0.05). PRx, not Mx, correlated significantly with mRS in TBI patients (r = 0.63, p < 0.01; AUC = 0.89, p < 0.01). Both indexes did not correlate with mRS in diabetes patients (N = 15), PRx failed in hypocapnic patients (N = 26). Both PRx and Mx were significantly associated with 3-month clinical outcome, even in patients with hemicraniectomy. PRx was more appropriate for TBI patients, while Mx was better suited for non-traumatic patients and patients with heart failure. Prognostic values of indexes were affected by diabetes (both Mx and PRx) and hypocapnia (PRx only).

  7. Effect of implementation of a paediatric neurocritical care programme on outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jose A; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Mazotas, Ioanna G; Noetzel, Michael; Limbrick, David D; Keller, Martin S; Gill, Jeff; Doctor, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes after traumatic brain injury are worsened by secondary insults; modern intensive-care units address such challenges through use of best-practice pathways. Organisation of intensive-care units has an important role in pathway effectiveness. We aimed to assess the effect of a paediatric neurocritical care programme (PNCP) on outcomes for children with severe traumatic brain injury. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 123 paediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow coma scale scores ≤8, without gunshot or abusive head trauma, cardiac arrest, or Glasgow coma scale scores of 3 with fixed and dilated pupils) admitted to the paediatric intensive-care unit of the St Louis Children's Hospital (St Louis, MO, USA) between July 15, 1999, and Jan 15, 2012. The primary outcome was rate of categorised hospital discharge disposition before and after implementation of a PNCP on Sept 17, 2005. We developed an ordered probit statistical model to assess adjusted outcome as a function of initial injury severity. We assessed care-team behaviour by comparing timing of invasive neuromonitoring and scored intensity of therapies targeting intracranial hypertension. Characteristics of treated patients (aged 3-219 months) were much the same between treatment periods. Before PNCP implementation, 33 (52%) of 63 patients had unfavourable disposition at hospital discharge (death or admission to an inpatient facility) and 30 (48%) had a favourable disposition (home with or without treatment); after PNCP implementation, 20 (33%) of 60 patients had unfavourable disposition and 40 (67%) had favourable disposition (p=0·01). Seven (11%) patients died before PNCP implementation compared with two (3%) deaths after implementation. The probit model indicated that outcome improved across the spectrum of Glasgow coma scale scores after resuscitation (p=0·02); this improvement progressed with increasing injury severity. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that

  8. If You Build It, They Will Come: Initial Experience with a Multi-Disciplinary Pediatric Neurocritical Care Follow-Up Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cydni N. Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Critical Care created a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic providing specialized evaluations after discharge. Clinic referrals apply to all Pediatric Neurocritical Care patients regardless of admission severity of illness. Here, we report an initial case series, which revealed a population that is heterogenous in age, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity as well as neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases accounted for the majority of referrals. Most patients (87% seen in the clinic had morbidities identified, requiring ongoing evaluation and expansion of the clinic. Cognitive and psychological disturbance were seen in over half of patients at the initial clinic follow-up. Sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, headache or chronic pain, and vision or hearing concerns were also common at initial follow-up. Data from this initial population of clinic patients reiterates the need for specialized follow-up care, but also highlights the difficulties related to providing this comprehensive care and evaluating interventions to improve outcomes.

  9. If You Build It, They Will Come: Initial Experience with a Multi-Disciplinary Pediatric Neurocritical Care Follow-Up Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cydni N; Kirby, Aileen; Piantino, Juan

    2017-09-19

    Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Critical Care created a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic providing specialized evaluations after discharge. Clinic referrals apply to all Pediatric Neurocritical Care patients regardless of admission severity of illness. Here, we report an initial case series, which revealed a population that is heterogenous in age, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity as well as neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases accounted for the majority of referrals. Most patients (87%) seen in the clinic had morbidities identified, requiring ongoing evaluation and expansion of the clinic. Cognitive and psychological disturbance were seen in over half of patients at the initial clinic follow-up. Sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, headache or chronic pain, and vision or hearing concerns were also common at initial follow-up. Data from this initial population of clinic patients reiterates the need for specialized follow-up care, but also highlights the difficulties related to providing this comprehensive care and evaluating interventions to improve outcomes.

  10. Guideline for Reversal of Antithrombotics in Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and Society of Critical Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Lewin, John J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Aisiku, Imo P; Alexandrov, Anne W; Cook, Aaron M; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Kumar, Monisha A; Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Stiefel, Michael F; Teitelbaum, Jeanne S; Wartenberg, Katja E; Zerfoss, Cindy L

    2016-02-01

    The use of antithrombotic agents, including anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and thrombolytics has increased over the last decade and is expected to continue to rise. Although antithrombotic-associated intracranial hemorrhage can be devastating, rapid reversal of coagulopathy may help limit hematoma expansion and improve outcomes. The Neurocritical Care Society, in conjunction with the Society of Critical Care Medicine, organized an international, multi-institutional committee with expertise in neurocritical care, neurology, neurosurgery, stroke, hematology, hemato-pathology, emergency medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and guideline development to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based practice guideline. Formalized literature searches were conducted, and studies meeting the criteria established by the committee were evaluated. Utilizing the GRADE methodology, the committee developed recommendations for reversal of vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa antagonists, direct thrombin inhibitors, unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, heparinoids, pentasaccharides, thrombolytics, and antiplatelet agents in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. This guideline provides timely, evidence-based reversal strategies to assist practitioners in the care of patients with antithrombotic-associated intracranial hemorrhage.

  11. Role of Dexmedetomidine for Sedation in Neurocritical Care Patients: A Qualitative Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousi, Georgia G; Lamperti, Massimo; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review appraises the clinical evidence on efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine (DEX), as a sole sedative or as sedative adjunct in adult neurocritical care (NCC) patients. A database search was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting the use of DEX alone or as adjunct for sedation in NCC setting. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hemodynamic changes, whereas the secondary outcomes were sedative and analgesic efficacy, quality and time to awakening, and development of adverse events. Eight trials including 3 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies, enrolling 650 patients, were selected. All the retrieved studies had a high risk of bias and a low to moderate quality. Dexmedetomidine provided a better sedation score and reduced analgesic requirements when compared to propofol or midazolam sedation. No statistically significant difference in the combined hemodynamic effect (hypotension or bradycardia) between DEX and controls (risk ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-3.48; P = 0.34; I = 56%) was identified. Adverse events were not consistently reported. Available clinical literature supporting the efficacy and safety of DEX use in adult NCC setting is of limited quantity and quality. However, from the current evidence on the use of DEX in NCC, as sole sedative agent or as an adjunct, seems to be both efficient and safe.

  12. To wake-up, or not to wake-up: that is the Hamletic neurocritical care question!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need for a reliable neurological evaluation in severely brain-injured patients conflicts with sedation, which is routinely administered. Helbok and colleagues prospectively evaluated in a small cohort of 20 sedated severely brain-injured patients the effects of a wakeup test on intracranial pressure (ICP), brain tissue oxygen tension and brain metabolism. The test has been considered potentially risky on 34% of the study days. When the test is performed, ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure increase, usually slightly, except in a subgroup of patients with lower cerebral compliance where marked ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure changes were recorded. In this cohort, the information gained with the wake-up test has been negligible. Given the current little knowledge about the benefits of interruption of continuous sedation in brain-injured patients, it is extremely important to adopt multiple monitoring modalities in neurocritical care in order to escape wake-up tests in those patients who will potentially be harmed by this procedure. Once the clinical condition will improve, sedation needs to be tapered and suspended as soon as possible. PMID:23273166

  13. Postoperative Care of Patients with High-grade Glioma: Is There a Real Need for the Neurocritical ICU and Early CT Scan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Roberto; Cofano, Fabio; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Fornaro, Riccardo; Ajello, Marco; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego

    2017-03-24

    Background Pressure on economic resources now requires a careful rationalization of services. For adult patients with supratentorial gliomas, there is no consensus on the real need for care in a postoperative neurocritical intensive care unit (NICU) and on the timing of a postsurgical computed tomography (CT) scan. In this retrospective nonrandomized study, we assessed if and when there is a real need for NICU and if an early CT scan could be justified in the absence of neurologic worsening. Methods Of 264 patients, 21 were admitted to the NICU after the procedure as planned before the surgery for their clinical features (Karnofsky performance status  2, or Charlson Comorbidity Index > 5). Results The mean stay in the NICU was 19.7 hours. One of these patients had developed a postoperative hematoma that was subsequently removed, and died afterward. The other 243 patients were followed clinically after the procedure: 219 underwent a cerebral CT scan 24 hours after the procedure and were discharged in good condition. The other 24 patients had a cerebral CT scan within 24 hours after the procedure. The early CT showed the presence of a local edema in five cases and a hematoma surgically treated with a subsequent admission to the NICU in two cases. Conclusion Considering our data, we suggest that NICU should not always be used after craniotomy for supratentorial gliomas. Clinical observation was sufficient to predict early postoperative complications. A CT scan before 24 hours after surgery is not recommended in the absence of clinical worsening. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. An abrupt reduction in end tidal carbon di oxide concentration in a mechanically ventilated patient in neurocritical care ward: a capnogram artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Byrappa

    2017-02-21

    In patients with normal lung and reasonable cardiac function such as head injury patients, the PETCo2 can be used as a surrogate for partial pressure of Carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients. Thus early interpretation and accurate assessment of capnogram is crucial in neurocritical care patients. Here we present and discuss a scenario where in connection of a jet nebulizer to the ventilator lead to abrupt decrease in end tidal carbon dioxide leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Also this report highlights and discusses the importance of the proper placement of breathing circuit components to ensure accurate CO2 readings in particular the use of a jet nebulizer.

  15. Head computed tomography scanning during pediatric neurocritical care: diagnostic yield and the utility of portable studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRovere, Kerri L; Brett, Molly S; Tasker, Robert C; Strauss, Keith J; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2012-04-01

    We report our use of portable head computed tomography (CT) and the diagnostic yield and radiation dose from head CT in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). 204 PICU patients underwent head CT during 2008-2009. Therapeutic interventions and resource intensity during CT were categorized. Severity of illness was summarized using the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM-III) model. Estimates of patient radiation dose were based on dose measurements made in four anthropomorphic head phantoms. 242 (62%) out of 391 head CT studies were portable. New pathology was identified on 80 (40%) scans. CT findings prompted a change in management in 46 (23%) patients; 25 of these resulted in life-extending treatments and 21 had forgoing of life-sustaining treatments within 24 hours. 26 patients with PRISM score greater than 30% underwent CT; 23 (88%) of these were portable. More portable versus fixed examinations were performed in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, inhaled nitric oxide, high levels of positive end expiratory pressure, and those with high vasopressor scores (P change in management in 1/4 of higher acuity patients scanned. The estimated radiation dose from portable CT is within the current national guidelines.

  16. The SETscore to Predict Tracheostomy Need in Cerebrovascular Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Silvia; Al-Suwaidan, Faisal; Kieser, Meinhard; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Bösel, Julian

    2016-08-01

    Patients with severe stroke who require mechanical ventilation and neurointensive care unit (NICU) management often require a tracheostomy (TT). The optimal time point for TT remains unclear and a controversy in everyday NICU life. Here, we prospectively evaluated a score for prediction of TT need in NICU patients with cerebrovascular disease. Seventy-five consecutively ventilated stroke patients were prospectively included in the study and assessed by the stroke-related early tracheostomy score (SETscore) within the first 24 h of admission. Endpoints were TT need, NICU-length of stay (NICU-LOS), and ventilation time (VT). We examined the correlation of these variables with the SETscore using regression analysis and determined a cut-off by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Twenty-six patients had to be tracheostomized. The mean VT was 8.7 ±8 days and the mean NICU-LOS was 11.6 ± 8 days. The SETscore predicted NICU-LOS with a positive predictive value of 0.748 (p < 0.001) and VT with a positive predictive value of 0.799 (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis demonstrated a SETscore value of 8 to be the optimal cut-off to predict prolonged NICU-LOS, VT, and TT need with a sensitivity of 64 % and a specificity of 86 %. Based on this monocentric study, the SETscore seems to be a valid tool to indicate prolonged NICU-LOS and VT, as well as TT need in cerebrovascular NICU patients. Confirmation of these results in larger cohorts with various settings may help to develop the SETscore as a decisive tool on primary TT early in time to avoid extubation failure.

  17. Extubating the Neurocritical Care Patient: A Spontaneous Breathing Trial Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaguri, Naresh; Khan, Zalan; Nattanmai, Premkumar; Newey, Christopher R

    2017-05-25

    Delaying extubation in neurologically impaired patients otherwise ready for extubation is a source for significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. There is no consensus to suggest one spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) over another in predicting extubation success. We studied an algorithm using zero pressure support and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) SBT followed by 5-cm H2O pressure support and 5-cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (i.e., 5/5) SBT in those who failed ZEEP SBT. This is a retrospective analysis of intubated patients in a neurosciences intensive care unit. All eligible patients were initially challenged with ZEEP SBT. If failed, a 5/5 SBT was immediately performed. If passed either the ZEEP SBT or the subsequent 5/5 SBT, patients were liberated from mechanical ventilation. In total, 108 adult patients were included. The majority of patients were successfully liberated from mechanical ventilation using ZEEP SBT alone (82.4%; p = 0.0007). Fifteen (13.8%) patients failed ZEEP SBT but immediately passed 5/5 SBT (p = 0.0005). One patient (0.93%) required reintubation. We found high sensitivity of this extubation algorithm (100; 95% CI 95.94-100%) but poor specificity (6.67; 95% CI 0.17-31.95%). This study showed that the majority of patients could be successfully liberated from mechanical ventilation after a ZEEP SBT. In those who failed, a 5/5 SBT increased the successful liberation from mechanical ventilation.

  18. Understanding and Managing the Ictal-Interictal Continuum in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Gilmore, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    Continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of brain function in critically ill patients. However, interpretation of EEG waveforms, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is fraught with ambiguity. The term ictal-interictal continuum encompasses EEG patterns that are potentially harmful and can cause neuronal injury. There are no clear guidelines on how to treat EEG patterns that lie on this continuum. We advocate the following approaches in a step wise manner: (1) identify and exclude clear electrographic seizures and status epilepticus (SE), i.e., generalized spike-wave discharges at 3/s or faster; and clearly evolving discharges of any type (rhythmic, periodic, fast activity), whether focal or generalized; (2) exclude clear interictal patterns, i.e., spike-wave discharges, periodic discharges, and rhythmic patterns at 1/s or slower with no evolution, unless accompanied by a clear clinical correlate, which would make them ictal regardless of the frequency; (3) consider any EEG patterns that lie in between the above two categories as being on the ictal-interictal continuum; (4) compare the electrographic pattern of the ictal-incterictal continuum to the normal background and unequivocal seizures (if present) from the same patient; (5) when available, correlate ictal-interictal continuum pattern with other markers of neuronal injury such as neuronal specific enolase (NSE) levels, brain imaging findings, depth electrode recordings, data from microdialysis, intracranial pressure fluctuations, and brain oxygen measurement; and (6) perform a diagnostic trial with preferably a nonsedating antiepileptic drug with the endpoint being both clinical and electrographic improvement. Minimize the use of anesthetics or multiple AEDs unless there is clear supporting evidence from ancillary tests or worsening of the EEG patterns over time, which could indicate possible neuronal injury.

  19. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimodality monitoring and telemonitoring in neurocritical care: from microdialysis to robotic telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    This review will highlight the state-of-the-art in brain monitoring in neurointensive care and define methods of integrating this technology into patient care using telemedicine methods. Several new methods of brain monitoring have been established over the last several years including continuous EEG monitoring, brain tissue oxygenation, jugular venous oxygenation, and cerebral microdialysis. Observational research using these monitors has documented that the brain metabolism, blood flow and function are dynamic after a primary insult. The dynamic nature of the brain can predispose the brain to secondary insults that can occur in the setting of intensive care. Several variables of brain metabolism and function can be monitored and directly impact treatment decisions as well as provide diagnostic and prognostic information. General treatment guidelines for brain injury and brain hemorrhage were developed, in part, prior to implementation of use of these monitors, and there is a trend away from adoption of a one-size-fits-all approach and a trend towards monitor-guided therapy. Dealing with the data provided by multimodality monitoring can be overwhelming. Efficient use of such information requires methods to integrate diverse sets of information, and methods to access the online monitoring information remotely and at any time, day or night. Such remote access integration methods will be reviewed. Multimodality and telemedicine techniques have advanced the state of knowledge about brain function in critically ill patients, and are presently being implemented to direct therapy. Increasing complexity of care will become commonplace, but will be facilitated by computer-enhanced tools that permit the intensivist to integrate this information into an improved treatment regimen.

  1. 24/7 Neurocritical Care Nurse Practitioner Coverage Reduced Door-to-Needle Time in Stroke Patients Treated with Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Asai, Susan M; Koenig, Matthew A

    2016-05-01

    Stroke centers with limited on-site neurovascular physician coverage may experience delays in acute stroke treatment. We sought to assess the impact of providing 24/7 neurocritical care acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) "stroke code" first responder coverage on treatment delays in acute stroke patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tPA at a primary stroke center on Oahu between 2009 and 2014were retrospectively studied. 24/7 ACNP stroke code coverage (intervention) was introduced on July 1, 2011. The tPA utilization, door-to-needle (DTN) time, imaging-to-needle (ITN) time, and independent ambulation at hospital discharge were compared between the preintervention period (24 months) and the postintervention period (33 months). We studied 166 stroke code patients who were treated with intravenous tPA, 44 of whom were treated during the preintervention period and 122 of whom were treated during the postintervention period. After the intervention, the median DTN time was reduced from 53 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 45-73) to 45 minutes (IQR 35-58) (P = .001), and the median ITN time was reduced from 36 minutes (IQR 28-64) to 21 minutes (IQR 16-31) (P < .0001). Compliance with the 60-minute target DTN improved from 61.4% (27 of 44 patients) in the preintervention period to 81.2% (99 of 122 patients) in the postintervention period (P = .004). The tPA treatment rates were similar between the preintervention and postintervention periods (P = .60). Addition of 24/7 on-site neurocritical care ACNP first responder coverage for acute stroke code significantly reduced the DTN time among acute stroke patients treated with tPA. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of a Neurocritical Care Program: Improved Seizure Detection and Decreased Antiseizure Medication at Discharge in Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Rani Ameena; Espinoza, Liza; Vayalthrikkovil, Sakeer; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Irvine, Leigh; Bello-Espinosa, Luis; Mohammad, Khorshid

    2016-11-01

    We report the impact of implementing continuous video electroencephalography monitoring for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via a protocol in the context of neonatal neuro-critical care program. Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied retrospectively two years before and after implementing continuous video electroencephalography for 72 hours as a care protocol. Before continuous video electroencephalography, a 60-minute routine electroencephalography was performed at the discretion of the provider. electrographic seizure detection; secondary outcome: use of maintenance antiseizure medications, discharge antiseizure medications, and cumulative burden for each antiseizure medication defined as total mg/kg during hospital stay. A total of 157 patients with a median gestation of 40 weeks were analyzed; 103 (66%) underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Baseline and clinical characteristics including disease severity and cooling were similar. Before continuous video-electroencephalography (n = 86), 44 (51.2%) had clinical seizures, of those 35 had available routine electroencephalography; 12 of 35 (34%) had electrographic seizures. None of the infants without clinical seizures showed electrographic seizures. After continuous video-electroencephalography (n = 71), 34 (47.9%) had clinical seizures, of those 18 (53%) had electrographic seizures; five of 37 (14%) of infants with no clinical seizures had electrographic seizures. The introduction of continuous video-electroencephalography significantly increased electrographic seizure detection (P = 0.016). Although there was no significant difference in the initiation and maintenance use of antiseizure medications after continuous video-electroencephalography, fewer infants were discharged on any antiseizure medication (P = 0.008). Also, the mean phenobarbital burden reduced (P = 0.04), without increase in other antiseizure medications use or burden. Use of continuous video

  3. Decannulation and assessment of deglutition in the tracheostomized patient in non-neurocritical intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvo, Andrés; Olavarría, Christian

    2014-01-01

    With intensive care patients, decannulation and deglutition disorders are frequent reasons for otorhinolaryngological assessment. The objective of a tracheostomy is to maintain a patent airway. It does not necessarily prevent episodes of aspiration and may even favour them. When the cause that led to the tracheostomy resolves, a decannulation may be proposed. Deglutition is a complex act involving the coordinated interaction of several structures of the aerodigestive tract. Fibre-optic endoscopy and videofluoroscopy are 2 useful, complementary tools for the evaluation of patients with swallowing disorders. In managing these patients, a thorough knowledge of laryngeal and swallowing physiology, as well as of the different therapeutic alternatives, is required. Although it is not uncommon for swallowing disorders to coexist in tracheostomy patients, decannulation evaluation is not synonymous with deglutition assessment. A patient could be a candidate for decannulation and have a swallowing disorder, or a tracheostomy patient could swallow adequately. Knowing and understanding these concepts will lead to more efficient management and help to clarify communication between the intensive care physician and the otorhinolaryngologist. Ideally, a multidisciplinary team should be formed to evaluate and manage these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrition in neurocritical care

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Azim; Armin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutritional therapy is essential for recovery from critical illness. Nutritional requirement varies in different patients and varies daily in a single patient. Both under and over feeding are associated with complications. Besides this, not all patients behave in a similar way to nutritional therapy. Appropriate nutritional therapy requires identification of patients “at nutritional risk” and providing aggressive nutritional support to them. The current article deals with nutritional...

  5. Effectiveness and Tolerability of Conivaptan and Tolvaptan for the Treatment of Hyponatremia in Neurocritically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Nigoghossian, Caroline; Lesch, Christine; Berger, Karen

    2017-05-01

    To describe the effectiveness and tolerability of conivaptan and tolvaptan for the correction of hyponatremia in neurocritically ill patients. Retrospective cohort study. Neurointensive care units at two academic medical centers. Thirty-six adults admitted to the neurocritical care unit who received at least one dose of conivaptan (5 patients) or tolvaptan (31 patients) between June 2012 and May 2013. A single oral dose or intravenous bolus was administered to 23 (74%) patients who received tolvaptan and 2 (40%) patients who received conivaptan, respectively. The mean maximal increase in serum sodium level at 24 hours following the last dose compared with baseline was 5.2 mEq/L for conivaptan (p=0.05) and 7.9 mEq/L for tolvaptan (ptolvaptan and none of the patients receiving conivaptan. Hypotension occurred in 20% of patients receiving conivaptan and 52% of patients receiving tolvaptan, whereas hypokalemia was observed in 40% of patients receiving conivaptan. Use of vaptans in neurocritically ill patients led to a significant increase in serum sodium level at 24 hours after the last dose, which was sustained for 96 hours, with the majority of patients receiving a single dose. Risk of sodium overcorrection was high and necessitates appropriate patient selection and frequent monitoring. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Early Physiotherapy by Passive Range of Motion Does Not Affect Partial Brain Tissue Oxygenation in Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian; Stitz, Hubertus; Kleffmann, Jens; Kaestner, Stefanie; Deinsberger, Wolfgang; Ferbert, Andreas; Gehling, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies investigating multimodal cerebral monitoring including partial brain tissue oxygen monitoring (ptiO2) in neuro-intensive care patients during physiotherapy are completely lacking in the literature. Materials and Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data of patients on multimodal cerebral monitoring by intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) measurement as well as ptiO2. Patients with severe brain diseases were treated with passive range of motion (PROM). We recorded ICP, CPP, and ptiO2 continuously every minute at baseline (15 minutes), during treatment (26 minutes), and 15 minutes after treatment with PROM. Results Overall, 25 treatment units with PROM in 10 patients with combined ICP/CPP and ptiO2 monitoring were evaluated. Median ICP, CPP, and ptiO2 at baseline were 12 ± 6.1 mm Hg, 86 ± 17.1 mm Hg, and 27 ± 14.3 mm Hg, respectively. Values for ICP, CPP, and ptiO2 did not change significantly when comparing mean values before, during, and after therapy. Conclusions Based on ptiO2 measurements, our data provide new information about the feasibility and safety of physiotherapy in patients with severe brain diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Assessment of Platelet Function in Traumatic Brain Injury—A Retrospective Observational Study in the Neuro-Critical Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lindblad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite seemingly functional coagulation, hemorrhagic lesion progression is a common and devastating condition following traumatic brain injury (TBI, stressing the need for new diagnostic techniques. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA measures platelet function and could aid in coagulopathy assessment following TBI. The aims of this study were to evaluate MEA temporal dynamics, influence of concomitant therapy, and its capabilities to predict lesion progression and clinical outcome in a TBI cohort.Material and methodsAdult TBI patients in a neurointensive care unit that underwent MEA sampling were retrospectively included. MEA was sampled if the patient was treated with antiplatelet therapy, bled heavily during surgery, or had abnormal baseline coagulation values. We assessed platelet activation pathways involving the arachidonic acid receptor (ASPI, P2Y12 receptor, and thrombin receptor (TRAP. ASPI was the primary focus of analysis. If several samples were obtained, they were included. Retrospective data were extracted from hospital charts. Outcome variables were radiologic hemorrhagic progression and Glasgow Outcome Scale assessed prospectively at 12 months posttrauma. MEA levels were compared between patients on antiplatelet therapy. Linear mixed effect models and uni-/multivariable regression models were used to study longitudinal dynamics, hemorrhagic progression and outcome, respectively.ResultsIn total, 178 patients were included (48% unfavorable outcome. ASPI levels increased from initially low values in a time-dependent fashion (p < 0.001. Patients on cyclooxygenase inhibitors demonstrated low ASPI levels (p < 0.001, while platelet transfusion increased them (p < 0.001. The first ASPI (p = 0.039 and TRAP (p = 0.009 were significant predictors of outcome, but not lesion progression, in univariate analyses. In multivariable analysis, MEA values were not independently correlated with outcome

  8. Effect of IV Acetaminophen on Patients in the Neurocritical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    Post-operative Craniotomy Patients; Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Artery Stenosis Patients; Post-op Spine Patients Admitted to the NCCU; Endovascular Patients Undergoing Intracranial Intervention; Traumatic Brain Injuries NPO for at Least 12 Hours

  9. Translating biomarkers from research to clinical use in pediatric neurocritical care: focus on traumatic brain injury and cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Andrew J; Wolf, Michael S; Fink, Ericka L

    2017-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cardiac arrest are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Improved diagnosis and outcome prognostication using validated biomarkers could allow clinicians to better tailor therapies for optimal efficacy. Contemporary investigation has yielded plentiful biomarker candidates of central nervous system (CNS) injury, including macromolecules, genetic, inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic biomarkers. Biomarkers have yet to be validated and translated into bedside point-of-care or cost-effective and efficient laboratory tests. Validation testing should consider developmental status, injury mechanism, and time trajectory with patient-centered outcomes. Recent investigation of biomarkers of CNS injury may soon improve diagnosis, management, and prognostication in children with traumatic brain injury and cardiac arrest.

  10. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  11. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Ultrasound Evaluation in Intensive Care Unit: Possible Role and Clinical Aspects in Neurological Critical Patients' Daily Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, M; Spadetta, G; Pulitano, P; Rocco, M; Di Piero, V; Mecarelli, O; Vicenzini, E

    2017-01-01

    Background. The increase of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a reliable, noninvasive sonographic marker of intracranial hypertension. Aim of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ONSD evaluation, when monitoring neurocritical patients, to early identify malignant intracranial hypertension in patients with brain death (BD). Methods. Data from ultrasound ONSD evaluation have been retrospectively analyzed in 21 sedated critical patients with neurological diseases who, during their clinical course, developed BD. 31 nonneurological controls were used for standard ONSD reference. Results. Patients with neurological diseases, before BD, showed higher ONSD values than control group (CTRL: RT 0.45 ± 0.03 cm; LT 0.45 ± 0.02 cm; pre-BD: RT 0.54 ± 0.02 cm; LT 0.55 ± 0.02 cm; p evaluated with invasive monitoring. ONSD was further significantly markedly increased in respect to the pre-BD evaluation in neurocritical patients after BD, with mean values above 0.7 cm (RT 0.7 ± 0.02 cm; LT 0.71 ± 0.02 cm; p monitoring could be of help in Intensive Care Units when invasive intracranial pressure monitoring is not available, to early recognize intracranial hypertension and to suspect BD in neurocritical patients.

  12. Palliative care in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restau, Jame; Green, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who receive terminal care in the intensive care setting die after withdrawing or limiting of life-sustaining measures provided in the intensive care setting. The integration of palliative care into the intensive care unit (ICU) provides care, comfort, and planning for patients, families, and the medical staff to help decrease the emotional, spiritual, and psychological stress of a patient's death. Quality measures for palliative care in the ICU are discussed along with case studies to demonstrate how this integration is beneficial for a patient and family. Integrating palliative care into the ICU is also examined in regards to the complex adaptive system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Burnout in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricou, Bara; Merlani, Paolo

    2012-12-12

    Intensive care units are highly stressful for the patients but for the caregivers as well, including nurse-assistants, nurses and physicians. The psychological syndrome of work exhaustion more commonly named burnout threatens these caregivers. The aims of the present paper are to describe: a) the incidence of burnout in intensive care units; b) the factors favoring burnout and c) the impacts of burnout at the individual, at the unit and institutional level. We suggest some possible ways to decrease the incidence of burnout. Finally, since the problematic of burnout is not specific to intensive care, we sought to underline some possible consequences of the burnout of caregivers on health systems.

  14. Safety management of the patient with tracheostomy from a critical care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny CASASOLA-GIRÓN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: A patient with a tracheostomy has a high morbidity and mortality when comes to a general ward from the critical care unit. This situation has led us to develop a quality and safety program, in order to improve care and reduce the number of incidents that could endanger his life.Methodology: Adapting to our environment the recommendations of literature, the program is composed of four elements: standardized information, training of the staff involved, patient follow up and general scheme.Results: The elaborate documentation, offers the way of assessing a patient with tracheostomy, and carry out its assistance. Through interactive workshops, this information is transmitted to the staff responsible for these patients. The periodic inspection by an Otolaryngologist (ENT, an ENT nurse and an intensive care physicians, allows to register the clinical situation and possible complications, applying specific protocols of decannulation and swallowing. Finally we add a set of general rules, in order to decrease variability.Discussion: The multidisciplinary care in the patient with a tracheostomy is a complex intervention where the lack of previous data, the important number of neurocritically ill patients, the multiplicity of general wards that can accommodate these patients and its clinical diversity, make difficult proper monitoring.Conclusions: We are confident that this project can reach its goals, improving the quality and safety of patient carrier of a tracheal cannula.

  15. Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United ... Facilities Seventeen percent of residential care communities had dementia special care units. Figure 1. Number and percent ...

  16. Pediatric Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kevin; Wolfe, Joanne; Collura, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    The chronicity of illness that afflicts children in Pediatric Palliative Care and the medical technology that has improved their lifespan and quality of life make prognostication extremely difficult. The uncertainty of prognostication and the available medical technologies make both the neonatal intensive care unit and the pediatric intensive care unit locations where many children will receive Pediatric Palliative Care. Health care providers in the neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric intensive care unit should integrate fundamental Pediatric Palliative Care principles into their everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional progression of patients with neurological diseases in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga Revilla, P; López Pisón, J; Samper Villagrasa, P; García Íñiguez, J P; Garcés Gómez, R; Domínguez Cajal, M; Gil Hernández, I

    2017-11-23

    Neurological diseases explain a considerable proportion of admissions to paediatric intensive care units (PICU), and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to analyse the functional progression of children with critical neurological conditions. Retrospective descriptive study of children admitted to PICU with neurological diseases over a period of 3 years (2012-2014), assessing vital and functional prognosis at PICU discharge and at one year according to the Pediatric Cerebral and Overall Performance Category scales (PCPC-POPC) and the Functional Status Scale (FSS). The results are compared with our previous data (1990-1999), and those of the international multicentre PANGEA study. A total of 266 children were studied. The mortality rate was 3%; the PRISM-III and PIM2 models did not show predictive ability. Clinically significant worsening was observed in functional health at discharge in 30% of the sample, according to POPC, 15% according to PCPC, and 5% according to FSS. After one year, functional performance improved according to PCPC-POPC, but not according to FSS. Children with no underlying neurological disease had a higher degree of functional impairment; this was prolonged over time. We observed a decrease in overall and neurocritical mortality compared with our previous data (5.60 vs. 2.1%, P=.0003, and 8.44 vs. 2.63%, P=.0014, respectively). Compared with the PANGEA study, both mortality and cerebral functional impairment in neurocritical children were lower in our study (1.05 vs. 13.32%, P<.0001, and 10.47% vs. 23.79%, P<.0001, respectively). Nearly one-third of critically ill children have neurological diseases. A significant percentage, mainly children without underlying neurological diseases, had a clinically significant functional impact at PICU discharge and after a year. Neuromonitoring and neuroprotection measures and the evaluation of functional progression are necessary to improve critical child care. Copyright

  18. Structure, Process, and Culture of Intensive Care Units Treating Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Survey of Centers Participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Aziz S; McCredie, Victoria A; Mainprize, Todd G; Gomez, David; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-10-01

    Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) differs substantially between hospitals. Explaining this variation begins with understanding the differences in structures and processes of care, particularly at intensive care units (ICUs) where acute TBI care takes place. We invited trauma medical directors (TMDs) from 187 centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS TQIP) to complete a survey. The survey domains included ICU model, type, availability of specialized units, staff, training programs, standard protocols and order sets, approach to withdrawal of life support, and perceived level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI. One hundred forty-two TMDs (76%) completed the survey. Severe TBI patients are admitted to dedicated neurocritical care units in 52 hospitals (37%), trauma ICUs in 44 hospitals (31%), general ICUs in 34 hospitals (24%), and surgical ICUs in 11 hospitals (8%). Fifty-seven percent are closed units. Board-certified intensivists directed 89% of ICUs, whereas 17% were led by neurointensivists. Sixty percent of ICU directors were general surgeons. Thirty-nine percent of hospitals had critical care fellowships and 11% had neurocritical care fellowships. Fifty-nine percent of ICUs had standard order sets and 61% had standard protocols specific for TBI, with the most common protocol relating to intracranial pressure management (53%). Only 43% of TMDs were satisfied with the current level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI; 46% believed that neurosurgeons should be more engaged; 11% believed they should be less engaged. In the largest survey of North American ICUs caring for TBI patients, there is substantial variation in the current approaches to ICU care for TBI, highlighting multiple opportunities for comparative effectiveness research.

  19. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine......" protocol was directed toward improving ICU environment between 10pm and 6am. Noise levels during control and intervention nights were recorded. Patients on mechanical ventilation and able to give consent were eligible for the study. We monitored sleep by PSG.The standard (American Association of Sleep...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...

  20. The Relationship of Paranasal Sinus Opacification to Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in the Neurologic Intensive Care Unit Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyett, Phillip; Rowan, Nicholas R; Ferguson, Berrylin J; Lee, Stella; Wang, Eric W

    2017-01-01

    The association between intensive care unit (ICU) sinusitis and the development of lower airway infections remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the development of radiographic sinus opacification and pneumonia in the neurologic ICU setting. A retrospective review of head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of 612 patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit at a tertiary care center from April 2013 through April 2014 was performed. Paranasal sinus opacification was measured using Lund-Mackay scores (LMS). A diagnosis of pneumonia was determined by the ICU team from radiographic, laboratory, and pulmonary data. Exclusion criteria included a history of endonasal surgery, sinonasal malignancy, facial fractures, ICU admission less than 3 days, or inadequate imaging. Worsening sinus opacification occurred in 42.6% of patients and pneumonia in 18.5% of patients during ICU admission. Of the patients who developed pneumonia, 71.7% also developed worsening sinus opacification ( P patients who developed pneumonia was 4.24 compared to 1.99 in patients who did not develop pneumonia ( P patients who developed pneumonia (46.9% vs 19.4%, P patients with no pneumonia or sinusitis, pneumonia only, sinusitis only, and sinusitis with pneumonia were 7.6%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 25.9%, respectively ( P relationship between worsening sinus opacification in the neurologic ICU patient to the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia and increased mortality.

  1. Care needs of older patients in the intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yuh-Min; Su, Ching-Ching

    2012-03-01

    To explore the care needs of older patients in the intensive care units. Background.  As the numbers of older patients admitted to the intensive care units are growing, care quality of critically ill older patients has become an important issue. However, there are few studies directly investigating perceived care needs of hospitalised older patients and the studies on care needs of older patients in the intensive care units are even fewer. The identification of care needs from older patients' perspective will help develop qualified nursing practice. A qualitative exploratory design. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 35 older patients from three hospitals in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results revealed that care needs of older patients in the intensive care units are multidimensional, including physical, informational and psychosocial dimensions. Older patients' needs of the physical dimension included relieving pain and discomfort, starting oral intake as soon as possible and having continuous sleep. Informational needs included adequate explanations about their disease progression and prognosis and information on recovery-promoting activity. Psychosocial needs included caring behaviour of intensive care units staff, flexible visiting hours, increase in control ability and maintenance of good communication with intensive care units staff. The findings can assist nurses in understanding the interventions necessary to meet care needs of critically ill older patients. The critically ill older adults need more than medical-technical care. They need more holistic care. The psychosocial and informational needs must be considered commensurate with the presenting physical needs. Nurses have an important role in meeting intensive care units older patients' care needs. Intensive care units nurses should conduct comprehensive assessment regarding older patients' needs at the beginning and at various points

  2. Care management in nursing within emergency care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Juliane Tono de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Understand the conditions involved in the management of nursing care in emergency care units. Methodology. Qualitative research using the methodological framework of the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred from September 2011 to June 2012 through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants of the two emergency care units in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Results. Hindering factors to care management are: lack of experience and knowledge of professionals in emergency services; inadequate number of professionals; work overload of emergency care units in the urgent care network; difficulty in implementing nursing care systematization, and need for team meetings. Facilitating factors are: teamwork; importance of professionals; and confidence of the nursing technicians in the presence of the nurse. Conclusion. Whereas the hindering factors in care management are related to the organizational aspects of the emergency care units in the urgency care network, the facilitating ones include specific aspects of teamwork.

  3. Care management in nursing within emergency care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono de Oliveira, Roberta Juliane; Vieira Hermida, Patrícia Madalena; da Silva Copelli, Fernanda Hannah; Guedes Dos Santos, José Luís; Lorenzini Erdmann, Alacoque; Regina de Andrade, Selma

    2015-12-01

    Understand the conditions involved in the management of nursing care in emergency care units. Qualitative research using the methodological framework of the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred from September 2011 to June 2012 through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants of the two emergency care units in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Hindering factors to care management are: lack of experience and knowledge of professionals in emergency services; inadequate number of professionals; work overload of emergency care units in the urgent care network; difficulty in implementing nursing care systematization, and need for team meetings. Facilitating factors are: teamwork; importance of professionals; and confidence of the nursing technicians in the presence of the nurse. Whereas the hindering factors in care management are related to the organizational aspects of the emergency care units in the urgency care network, the facilitating ones include specific aspects of teamwork.

  4. Predicting hospital mortality using APACHE II scores in neurocritically ill patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying-Ying; Li, Xia; Li, Si-jie; Luo, Rong; Ding, Jian-ping; Wang, Lin; Cao, Gui-hua; Wang, Dong-yu; Gao, Jin-xia

    2009-09-01

    Four versions of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation are limited in predicting hospital mortality for neurocritically ill patients. This prospective study aimed to develop and assess the accuracy of a modified APACHE II model in predicting mortality in neurologic intensive care unit (N-ICU). A total of 653 patients entered the study. APACHE II scores on admission, and worst 24-, 48-, and 72-h scores were obtained. Neurologic diagnoses on admission were classified into five categories: cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, neurologic infection, neuromuscular disease, and other neurologic diseases. We developed a modified APACHE II model based on the variables of the 72-h APACHE II score and disease category using a multivariate logistic regression procedure to estimate probability of death. We assessed the calibration and discrimination of the modified APACHE II model using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit chi-squared statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC). The modified APACHE II model had good discrimination (AU-ROC = 0.88) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic: chi (2) = 3.707, P = 0.834). The discrimination of the 72-h APACHE II score for cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and neurologic infection was satisfactory, with AU-ROC of 0.858, 0.863, and 1.000, respectively, but it was poor in discriminating for the categories of other neurologic diseases and neuromuscular disease. The results showed that our modified APACHE II model can accurately predict hospital mortality for patients in N-ICU. It is more applicable to clinical practice than the previous model because of its simplicity and ease of use.

  5. A58 CRITICAL CARE CASE REPORTS: NEURO-CRITICAL CARE: Zika Virus-Associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome In A Returning United States Traveler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Beattie; S Parajuli; M Sanger; G Lee; P Pleninger; G Crowley; S Kwon; V Murthy; J Manko; A Caplan; E Dufort; J E Staples; D Pastula; A Nolan

    2017-01-01

    ZIKV has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute autoimmune attack on the peripheral nerves and/or nerve roots resulting in progressive weakness with significant morbidity and potential mortality...

  6. Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... The process of intensive care triage. Intensive Care. Med 2001;27:1441‑5. 4. Marshall MF, Schwenzer KJ, Orsina M, Fletcher JC, Durbin CG Jr. Influence of political power, medical provincialism, and economic incentives on the rationing of surgical intensive care unit beds. Crit Care Med 1992;20:387‑94. 5.

  7. Burnout in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, B; Malacarne, P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to study in intensive care unit (ICU) the impact of variable ''professional role'' and ''gender'' on the defence mechanisms, on the troubles of mood and on the markers of the burnout syndrome, and to study the correlation between specific defence mechanisms or specific troubles of mood and the onset of burnout syndrome. An observational study by administration of psychometric tests was carried out. Twenty-five nurses and 25 doctors working in two differents ICU of the Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Pisana were enrolled. Three psychometric tests concerning the defence mechanisms (Defense Mechanism Inventory), the troubles of mood (Profile of Moods States) and the burnout syndrome (Maslach Burnout Inventory) were administered and the three tests were analysed to study the features of each person enrolled. The study shows the presence within doctors of two dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion in women and depersonalization in men) much greater than nurses. The doctors show the presence of defence mechanism as overturning, aggressiveness and rationalization, and troubles of mood as depression-despondency and aggressiveness-anger. Compared to men, women show turning to one self as defence mechanisms, whereas the men show aggressiveness-anger as trouble of mood. The women doctors show depression-disheartement as trouble of mood, the men doctors show tension-anxiety. We showed a correlation between tiredness-indolence, depression-disheartement and onset of emotional exhaustion, as a correlation between aggressiveness, aggressiveness-anger in man and oncet of depersonalization. Finally we correlated the absence of tension-anxiety as trouble of mood and overturning as defence mechanism with a good personal accomplishment at work. The burnout syndrome is present in health-care workers in ICU and it is significantly affected by operating role and gender. We must be aware of this phenomenon in order to study it and to reduce it.

  8. [Tetanus in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-San Martín, C; Su, H; Bustamante-Durán, D; Velásquez-Pagoaga, L

    Tetanus is medical disease with a high mortality rate, even in high tech centres and in Intensive Care Units (ICU). AIMS. To analyse the appearance and evolution of tetanus in the ICU at our hospital. This retrospective descriptive study, made up of 26 patients admitted to hospital with tetanus in the ICU at the Hospital Escuela during the period between January 1995 and December 2001, examined the clinico epidemiological of the disease and the clinical evolution of the patients. Of the cases reviewed (n= 26), 34.6% were females and 65.4% males. The main clinical manifestations were: trismus (88%), dysphagia (77%) and cervical rigidity (69%). The incubation period varies from 3 days to 4 weeks. Most cases resulted from cut wounds (54%), to a lesser extent from excoriations (15%), and one case was associated with gynaecological surgery. The entry sites of the injuries were mainly on the upper (42%) and lower limbs (34.6%). Three patients had been vaccinated and 17 had not. Six cases were not recorded. The chief complications that developed were: dysautonomia (73%) and pneumonia (42%). The mortality rate was 69%. In spite of having suitable equipment available with which to treat tetanus, mortality is high, mainly because of dysautonomias. Prevention is therefore the most effective way of controlling this disease

  9. Patient stress in intensive care: comparison between a coronary care unit and a general postoperative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "being bored". For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "not being able to communicate". The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. "Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed" was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, "hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises" and "hearing people talk about you" were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units.

  10. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, J.; Hermans, G.

    2017-01-01

    When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is

  11. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring

  12. Patient experiences in a critial care unit

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Intensive General Nursing Science) "Patient experiences in a critical contextual, qualitative research phenomenological method to obtain and objectives of the study are: care unit" is a study using the analyse data. The - to establish and describe how myocardial infarction patients experience the critical care unit (CeU) environment, and - to propose guidelines for optimal nursing care. The Nursing for the Whole Person Theory forms the paradigmatic framework of the study. The centr...

  13. The psychological aspects of intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    G. Dannenfeldt

    1982-01-01

    The technical and physical care of the critically ill patient has been perfected, but the psychological aspects of intensive nursing care have to a greater or lesser extent been neglected. The objective of this article is to highlight the causes of psychological problems in an intensive care unit, how to recognise these problems and above all how to prevent or correct them.

  14. Relationship-based care in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    At St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center in Paterson, New Jersey, implementation of the Relationship-Based Care (RBC) model of care delivery and enculturation of the philosophy of care embodied in Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring (Watson, 2007) improved patient outcomes and supported quality nursing care across the continuum of care in our organization. The ability of staff nurses to create an atmosphere of professional inquiry that places patients and families at the center of practice supported implementation of RBC in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

  15. National survey on thromboprophylaxis and anticoagulant or antiplatelet management in neurosurgical and neurocritical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, E; Fábregas, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Valero Castell, R; Valencia Sola, L; Iturri Clavero, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine the protocols used by Spanish anaesthesiologists for thromboprophylaxis and anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs management in neurosurgical or neurocritical care patients. An online survey with 22 questions, with one or multiple options, launched by the Neuroscience Subcommittee of the Spanish Anaesthesia Society and available between June and October 2012. Of the 73 hospitals included in the National Hospitals Catalogue, a valid response to the online questionnaire was received by 41 anaesthesiologists from 37 sites (response rate 50.7%). Only one response per site was used. A specific protocol was available in 27% of these centres. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is used, intraoperatively or postoperatively, in 80%, and pharmacological treatment is used by 75% of respondents. Enoxaparin was the most frequent heparin used in craniotomy patients (78%). Craniotomies were performed maintaining acetylsalicylic acid treatment in patients with coronary stents and double anti-platelet treatment in a half of the centres. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is used more frequently than the pharmacological approach in neurosurgical or neurocritical populations in Spanish hospitals. Management of patients under previous anticoagulant treatment was highly heterogeneous among hospitals included in this survey. Previous antiplatelet treatment is modified depending on primary or secondary prescription. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d) decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e) end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f) ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g) other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b) family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d) end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e) ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care.

  17. The Ambulatory Care Unit at Derriford Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Annabel

    2014-06-01

    Ambulatory emergency care (AEC) is an essential component of any acute medical unit (AMU). This statement is predicated on the clinical and financial benefits it confers. In this article, the author outlines the implementation of the Ambulatory Care Unit at Derriford Hospital and the first 6 months of service provision. The initial data collated demonstrates the impact the service has had locally on patient care and experience. It recommends ambulatory care as driver of better patient flow and enhanced patient experience within the AMU. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  18. Intensive care unit family satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S M; So, H M; Fok, S K; Li, S C; Ng, C P; Lui, W K; Heyland, D K; Yan, W W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the level of family satisfaction in a local intensive care unit and its performance in comparison with international standards, and to determine the factors independently associated with higher family satisfaction. Questionnaire survey. A medical-surgical adult intensive care unit in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Adult family members of patients admitted to the intensive care unit for 48 hours or more between 15 June 2012 and 31 January 2014, and who had visited the patient at least once during their stay. Of the 961 eligible families, 736 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 76.6%). The mean (± standard deviation) total satisfaction score, and subscores on satisfaction with overall intensive care unit care and with decision-making were 78.1 ± 14.3, 78.0 ± 16.8, and 78.6 ± 13.6, respectively. When compared with a Canadian multicentre database with respective mean scores of 82.9 ± 14.8, 83.5 ± 15.4, and 82.6 ± 16.0 (Pcare were concern for patients and families, agitation management, frequency of communication by nurses, physician skill and competence, and the intensive care unit environment. A performance-importance plot identified the intensive care unit environment and agitation management as factors that required more urgent attention. This is the first intensive care unit family satisfaction survey published in Hong Kong. Although comparable with published data from other parts of the world, the results indicate room for improvement when compared with a Canadian multicentre database. Future directions should focus on improving the intensive care unit environment, agitation management, and communication with families.

  19. Thought outside the box: intensive care unit freakonomics and decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Deepika; Angus, Derek C

    2010-10-01

    Despite concerted efforts to improve the quality of care provided in the intensive care unit, inconsistency continues to characterize physician decision making. The resulting variations in care compromise outcomes and impose unnecessary decisional regret on clinicians and patients alike. Critical care is not the only arena where decisions fail to conform to the dictates of logic. Behavioral psychology uses scientific methods to analyze the influence of social, cognitive, and emotional factors on decisions. The overarching hypothesis underlying this "thought outside the box" is that the application of behavioral psychology to physician decision making in the intensive care unit will demonstrate the existence of cognitive biases associated with classic intensive care unit decisions; provide insight into novel strategies to train intensive care unit clinicians to better use data; and improve the quality of decision making in the intensive care unit as characterized by more consistent, patient-centered decisions with reduced decisional regret and work-related stress experienced by physicians.

  20. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K.; Sherry Wachtel; Antara Mallampalli; Salim Surani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT). Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Results: The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses...

  1. Informatics for the Modern Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diana C; Jackson, Ashley A; Halpern, Neil A

    Advanced informatics systems can help improve health care delivery and the environment of care for critically ill patients. However, identifying, testing, and deploying advanced informatics systems can be quite challenging. These processes often require involvement from a collaborative group of health care professionals of varied disciplines with knowledge of the complexities related to designing the modern and "smart" intensive care unit (ICU). In this article, we explore the connectivity environment within the ICU, middleware technologies to address a host of patient care initiatives, and the core informatics concepts necessary for both the design and implementation of advanced informatics systems.

  2. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  3. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  4. The psychological aspects of intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dannenfeldt

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical and physical care of the critically ill patient has been perfected, but the psychological aspects of intensive nursing care have to a greater or lesser extent been neglected. The objective of this article is to highlight the causes of psychological problems in an intensive care unit, how to recognise these problems and above all how to prevent or correct them.

  5. Parenting in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to answer the following 2 questions: (a) What are the needs of parents who have infants in the neonatal intensive care unit? (b) What behaviors support parents with an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit? Using the search terms "parents or parenting" and the "neonatal intensive care unit," computer library databases including Medline and CINAHL were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies. Only research published in English between 1998 and 2008 was included in the review. Based on the inclusion criteria, 60 studies were selected. Study contents were analyzed with the 2 research questions in mind. Existing research was organized into 1 of 3 tables based on the question answered. Nineteen articles addressed the first question, 24 addressed the second, and 17 addressed both. Six needs were identified for parents who had an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit: (a) accurate information and inclusion in the infant's care, (b) vigilant watching-over and protecting the infant, (c) contact with the infant, (d) being positively perceived by the nursery staff, (e) individualized care, and (f) a therapeutic relationship with the nursing staff. Four nursing behaviors were identified to assist parents in meeting these needs: (a) emotional support, (b) parent empowerment, (c) a welcoming environment with supportive unit policies, and (d) parent education with an opportunity to practice new skills through guided participation.

  6. Outcome of External Ventricular Drainage according to the Operating Place: the Intensive Care Unit versus Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si On Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: External ventricular drainage (EVD is an important procedure for draining excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and monitoring intracranial pressure. Generally, EVD is performed in the operating room (OR under aseptic conditions. However, in emergency circumstances, the operation may be performed in the intensive care unit (ICU to save neuro-critical time and to avoid the unnecessary transfer of patients. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the risk of EVD-induced CNS infections and their outcomes according to the operating place (ICU versus OR. In addition, we compared mortalities as well as hospital and ICU days between the CNS infection and non-CNS infection groups. Methods: We reviewed medical records, laboratory data and radiographic images of patients who had received EVD operations between January, 2013 and March, 2015. Results: A total of 75 patients (45 men and 30 women, mean age: 58.7 ± 15.6 years were enrolled in this study. An average of 1.4 catheters were used for each patient and the mean period of the indwelling catheter was 7.5 ± 5.0 days. Twenty-six patients were included in the ICU group, and EVD-induced CNS infection had occurred in 3 (11.5% patients. For the OR group, forty-nine patients were included and EVD-induced CNS infection had occurred in 7 (14.3% patients. The EVD-induced CNS infection of the ICU group did not increase above that of the OR group. The ICU days and mortality rate were higher in the CNS infection group compared to the non-CNS infection group. The period of the indwelling EVD catheter and the number of inserted EVD catheters were both higher in the CNS infection group. Conclusions: If the aseptic protocols and barrier precautions are strictly kept, EVD in the ICU does not have a higher risk of CNS infections compared to the OR. In addition, EVD in the ICU can decrease the hospital and ICU days by saving neuro-critical time and avoiding the unnecessary transfer of patients. Therefore

  7. Is the coronary care unit a coronary scare unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelie, J.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Dunning, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of stress associated with admission to a coronary care unit (CCU), we measured the plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations during the first CCU hour in 47 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These values were compared with those in

  8. Intensive care unit nurses' opinions about euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaş, Gülşah; Oztunç, Gürsel; Nazan Alparslan, Z

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to gain opinions about euthanasia from nurses who work in intensive care units. The research was planned as a descriptive study and conducted with 186 nurses who worked in intensive care units in a university hospital, a public hospital, and a private not-for-profit hospital in Adana, Turkey, and who agreed to complete a questionnaire. Euthanasia is not legal in Turkey. One third (33.9%) of the nurses supported the legalization of euthanasia, whereas 39.8% did not. In some specific circumstances, 44.1% of the nurses thought that euthanasia was being practiced in our country. The most significant finding was that these Turkish intensive care unit nurses did not overwhelmingly support the legalization of euthanasia. Those who did support it were inclined to agree with passive rather than active euthanasia (P = 0.011).

  9. Antibiotic Policies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Saltoglu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial management of patients in the Intensive Care Units are complex. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. Effective strategies for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs have focused on limiting the unnecessary use of antibiotics and increasing compliance with infection control practices. Antibiotic policies have been implemented to modify antibiotic use, including national or regional formulary manipulations, antibiotic restriction forms, care plans, antibiotic cycling and computer assigned antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, infectious diseases consultation is a simple way to limit antibiotic use in ICU units. To improve rational antimicrobial using a multidisiplinary approach is suggested. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 299-309

  10. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Keijsers, G.J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Leblanc, P; Zwerts, C.; Miranda, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit performance. Subjective performance measures relate negatively to burnout levels of nurses, whereas an objective performance measure relates positively to burnout. Furthermore, subjectively assessed...

  11. Ethics and palliative care consultation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulisio, Mark P; Chaitin, Elizabeth; Arnold, Robert M

    2004-07-01

    It is clear that ethics and palliative care consultation have, in our view, much to offer intensivists as they attempt to work through the very complex and often tragic cases they face in their daily practice.Potential strengths include clarification of tangled normative issues, facilitation of shared decision making, conflict resolution,and expertise in the provision of comfort care. Despite this, it is an unfortunate fact that many intensivists remain reluctant to use ethics and palliative care services. There are, of course, many possible reasons for this, including the absence of quality services in certain institutions, issues, or power and control, and role misperceptions. It is our hope that we have helped to clarify appropriate roles for ethics and palliative care in the intensive care unit. We urge the continued development of quality ethics and palliative care services, and the use of those services by intensivists.

  12. [Beliefs about humanized care in a pediatric intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Maria Cristina; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nurses' beliefs about humanized care in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Data collection was accomplished through open interviews with five nurses, which were then taped and fully transcribed. The content analyzed was realized in the framework of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical reference base, and used the Grounded Theory methodology. This study allowed for the understanding that the nurse, although she has difficulties in rendering humanized assistance, seems to be giving up the belief that the PICU is a technicist unit and starts looking for strategies to deliver a more humanized assistance.

  13. Alcohol withdrawal in the critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfee, Flora A

    2011-05-01

    Managing acute alcohol withdrawal in critical care presents a unique challenge to the critical care nurse. The prominence of alcohol use within the Australian community means that many critical care admissions involve acute alcohol withdrawal, an alcohol induced illness, or indeed an unrelated admission with underlying heavy alcohol intake. Current statistics suggest 1 in 5 Australians drink to 'risky' levels each month. This suggests that most critical care nurses will encounter a patient who is experiencing active withdrawal from alcohol, often without clear physiological symptomatology. Acute alcohol withdrawal delirium can be difficult to distinguish from other forms of delirium and in the absence of a comprehensive history, alcohol withdrawal and its sequelae may go untreated. Contemporary management guidelines for alcohol withdrawal suggest a common framework of first line benzodiazepine usage, with emerging research focusing on adjunctive therapy aimed at reducing benzodiazepine doses, and therefore reducing length of stay in the critical care unit. The controversial therapy of ethanol infusion and common assessment and withdrawal scales are examined in relation to their usefulness in critical care. Alcohol withdrawal management in critical care necessitates careful nursing assessment, including alcohol usage history, delirium management, withdrawal assessment and symptomatic relief using an evidence-based protocol. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors' perception and attitude. ... In addition, each of the 4 possible actions in the setting of a full ICU was graded from 0 (least likely) to 5 (most likely). The result was analyzed as appropriate. Results: Sixty‑four doctors participated in the survey. Inappropriate ...

  15. Interdisciplinary model for palliative care in the trauma and surgical intensive care unit: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Demonstration Project for Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, Anne C; Murphy, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Integrating palliative care into the surgical and trauma intensive care unit is challenging. The nature of surgical illness, practice patterns of surgeons and critical care nurses, and the culture of the intensive care unit all suggest that familiar models of palliative care do not apply in this setting. We describe a novel interdisciplinary model of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit, which addresses communication, shared decision making, and pain and symptom management for all critically ill patients, regardless of prognosis. This communication-based model integrates new processes of care into existing surgical critical care practice so that palliative care can be provided in parallel with surgical care.

  16. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Wachtel, Sherry; Mallampalli, Antara; Surani, Salim

    2014-03-01

    Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT). A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses 151 (71%) and RT 62 (29%). On the emotional exhaustion (EE) scale, 54% scored "Moderate" to "High" and 40% scored "Moderate" to "High" on the depersonalization (DP) scale. Notably 40.6% scored "Low" on personal accomplishment (PA) scale. High level of EE, DP and lower PAs were seen among two groups of health care providers in the ICUs.

  17. Neonatal intensive care unit nosocomial bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazvini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections increase patients' morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay especially in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs and have become a matter of major concern. Controlling and preventing nosocomial infections need enough information about epidemiology of these infections. This study aims at estimating the incidence rate and the most frequent bacteria which cause these infections in neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem university hospital, Mashhad. Methods: In this study which is performed during a twelve month period in 2004 and 2005 at neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem hospital, 971 hospitalized neonates were studied. Data were collected considering the standard surveillance protocols. Early onset neonatal nosocomial infections and late onset neonatal infections were defined as illness appearing from birth to seven days and from eight to twenty-eight days postnatal age respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test. Results: In this study 32 cases of nosocomial infections were identified so the incidence rate of nosocomial infection in this ward was 3.29%. Fifteen babies identified with early onset neonatal nosocomial infection and the rest have presented with late onset neonatal infections. In order of frequency, the sites of infection were: primary bloodstream (84.4% and pneumonia (15.62%. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria (43.74% isolated in these patients. Other isolated bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia (31.42% and other gram negative bacilli such as E.coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Acintobacter spp. The mechanical ventilation and umbilical catheter were associated with nosocomial infections as risk factors in our study (p<0.01. Conclusion: Our findings show that the neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem hospital has low rate of nosocomial infections. However, as neonatal intensive care unit is an area of great concern in terms of nosocomial

  18. Nursing Care Disparities in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Edwards, Erika Miles; Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2017-09-14

    To describe the variation across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in missed nursing care in disproportionately black and non-black-serving hospitals. To analyze the nursing factors associated with missing nursing care. Survey of random samples of licensed nurses in four large U.S. states. This was a retrospective, secondary analysis of 1,037 staff nurses in 134 NICUs classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Measures included the average patient load, individual nurses' patient loads, professional nursing characteristics, nurse work environment, and nursing care missed on the last shift. Survey data from a Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety Study were analyzed (39 percent response rate). The patient-to-nurse ratio was significantly higher in high-black hospitals. Nurses in high-black NICUs missed nearly 50 percent more nursing care than in low-black NICUs. Lower nurse staffing (an additional patient per nurse) significantly increased the odds of missed care, while better practice environments decreased the odds. Nurses in high-black NICUs face inadequate staffing. They are more likely to miss required nursing care. Improving staffing and workloads may improve the quality of care for the infants born in high-black hospitals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Sleep and nursing care activities in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Virtanen, Irina; Leivo, Sanna; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the quality of sleep of non-intubated patients and the night-time nursing care activities in an intensive care unit. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of nursing care activities on the quality of sleep. An overnight polysomnography was performed in 21 alert, non-intubated, non-sedated adult patients, and all nursing care activities that involved touching the patient were documented by the bedside nurse. The median (interquartile range) amount of sleep was 387 (170, 486) minutes. The portion of deep non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep varied from 0% to 42% and REM sleep from 0% to 65%. The frequency of arousals and awakenings varied from two to 73 per hour. The median amount of nursing care activities was 0.6/h. Every tenth activity presumably awakened the patient. Patients who had more care activities had more light N1 sleep, less light N2 sleep, and less deep sleep. Nursing care was often performed while patients were awake. However, only 31% of the intervals between nursing care activities were over 90 min. More attention should be paid to better clustering of care activities. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Prediction of potential for organ donation after circulatory death in neurocritical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guixing; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Wenhua; Xin, Erye; Liu, Bin; Xu, Ye; Luan, Zhongqin; Schroder, Paul Michael; Manyalich, Martí; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung; He, Xiaoshun

    2018-03-01

    The success or failure of donation after circulatory death depends largely on the functional warm ischemia time, which is closely related to the duration between withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and circulatory arrest. However, a reliable predictive model for the duration is absent. We aimed to compare the performance of the Chinese Donation after Circulatory Death Nomogram (C-DCD-Nomogram) and 3 other tools in a cohort of potential donors. In this prospective, multicenter, observational study, data were obtained from 219 consecutive neurocritical patients in China. The patients were followed until circulatory death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment. The C-DCD-Nomogram performed well in predicting patient death within 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment with c-statistics of 0.87, 0.88, 0.86 and 0.95, respectively. The DCD-N score was a poor predictor of death within 30, 60 and 240 minutes, with c-statistics of 0.63, 0.69 and 0.59, respectively, although it was able to predict patient death within 120 minutes, with a c-statistic of 0.73. Neither the University of Wisconsin DCD evaluation tool (UWDCD) nor the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) criteria was able to predict patient death within 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (UWDCD tool: 0.48, 0.45, 0.49 and 0.57; UNOS criteria: 0.50, 0.53, 0.51 and 0.63). The C-DCD-Nomogram is superior to the other 3 tools for predicting death within a limited duration after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in Chinese neurocritical patients. Thus, it appears to be a reliable tool identifying potential donors after circulatory death. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Dying Care Interventions in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisvetrová, Helena; Školoudík, David; Joanovič, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Mikšová, Zdeňka

    2016-03-01

    Providing high-quality end-of-life care is a challenging area in intensive care practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the practice of registered nurses (RNs) with respect to dying care and spiritual support interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) in the Czech Republic (CR) and find correlations between particular factors or conditions and the frequency of NIC interventions usage. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was designed. A questionnaire with Likert scales included the particular activities of dying care and spiritual support interventions and an evaluation of the factors influencing the implementation of the interventions in the ICU. The group of respondents consisted of 277 RNs working in 29 ICUs in four CR regions. The Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical evaluation. The most and least frequently reported RN activities were "treat individuals with dignity and respect" and "facilitate discussion of funeral arrangements," respectively. The frequencies of the activities in the biological, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions were negatively correlated with the frequency of providing care to dying patients. A larger number of activities were related to longer lengths of stay in the ICU, higher staffing, more positive opinions of the RNs regarding the importance of education in a palliative care setting, and attending a palliative care education course. The psychosocial and spiritual activities in the care of dying patients are used infrequently by RNs in CR ICUs. The factors limiting the implementation of palliative care interventions and strategies improving implementation warrant further study. Assessment of nursing activities implemented in the care of dying patients in the ICU may help identify issues specific to nursing practice. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Dynamic monitors of brain function: a new target in neurointensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Enrico; Marton, Elisabetta; Feletti, Alberto; Scarpa, Bruno; Longatti, Pierluigi; Zanatta, Paolo; Giorgi, Emanuele; Sorbara, Carlo

    2011-07-15

    Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recordings and continuous electroencephalography (EEG) are important tools with which to predict Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Their combined use may potentially allow for early detection of neurological impairment and more effective treatment of clinical deterioration. We followed up 68 selected comatose patients between 2007 and 2009 who had been admitted to the Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit of Treviso Hospital after being diagnosed with subarachnoid haemorrhage (51 cases) or intracerebral haemorrhage (17 cases). Quantitative brain function monitoring was carried out using a remote EEG-SEP recording system connected to a small amplification head box with 28 channels and a multimodal stimulator (NEMO; EBNeuro, Italy NeMus 2; EBNeuro S.p.A., Via P. Fanfani 97/A - 50127 Firenze, Italy). For statistical analysis, we fit a binary logistic regression model to estimate the effect of brain function monitoring on the probability of GOS scores equal to 1. We also designed a proportional odds model for GOS scores, depending on amplitude and changes in both SEPs and EEG as well as on the joint effect of other related variables. Both families of models, logistic regression analysis and proportional odds ratios, were fit by using a maximum likelihood test and the partial effect of each variable was assessed by using a likelihood ratio test. Using the logistic regression model, we observed that progressive deterioration on the basis of EEG was associated with an increased risk of dying by almost 24% compared to patients whose condition did not worsen according to EEG. SEP decreases were also significant; for patients with worsening SEPs, the odds of dying increased to approximately 32%. In the proportional odds model, only modifications of Modified Glasgow Coma Scale scores and SEPs during hospitalisation statistically significantly predicted GOS scores. Patients whose SEPs worsened during the last time interval had an

  3. Inhalation Therapy in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilaver Tas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled drug therapy in respiratory critical care units is an important treatment choice. İnhalation therapy has been in use since beginning of 1900%u2019s with the production of first liquid spray (atomiser. Today, there are numerous drugs given by inhalation. In this review, inhalational drugs and characteristics of inhalation therapy during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation is described.

  4. Nursing diagnosis in intenzive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Bartošová, Simona

    2013-01-01

    v AJ: This diploma thesis deals with the field of nursing diagnosis in internal intensive care units. The theoretical part describes the basics of the nursing process and mainly focuses on the nursing diagnosis. Subsequently, it informs the reader about history, development and structure of the NANDA Taxonomy II. The main part of the thesis consists of a quantitative survey which aims at general nurses' knowledge about the nursing diagnosis NANDA - International. It also comments on how nursi...

  5. Antimicrobial therapy in neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tzialla, C.; Borghesi, A.; Serra, G.; Stronati, M.; Corsello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Sepsis has often nonspecific signs and symptoms and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated in high risk of sepsis or symptomatic infants. However continued us...

  6. Medical futility treatment in intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Jukić; Lenko Šarić; Ivana Prkić; Livia Puljak

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate cases of potential medical futility treatment in intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods. Retrospective review of 1567 charts of patients treated during the three-year period (2012 - 2014) in the ICU of the University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia, was conducted. More detailed analysis of the deceased patients’ (n=429) charts was performed to identify cases of potential medical futility treatment. There were 99 patients for which ICU treatment was questiona...

  7. Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare

  8. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  9. Caring for critically ill patients outside intensive care units due to full units: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urizzi, Fabiane; Tanita, Marcos T; Festti, Josiane; Cardoso, Lucienne T Q; Matsuo, Tiemi; Grion, Cintia M C

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to analyze the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of critically ill patients who were denied intensive care unit admission due to the unavailability of beds and to estimate the direct costs of treatment. A prospective cohort study was performed with critically ill patients treated in a university hospital. All consecutive patients denied intensive care unit beds due to a full unit from February 2012 to February 2013 were included. The data collected included clinical data, calculation of costs, prognostic scores, and outcomes. The patients were followed for data collection until intensive care unit admission or cancellation of the request for the intensive care unit bed. Vital status at hospital discharge was noted, and patients were classified as survivors or non-survivors considering this endpoint. Four hundred and fifty-four patients were analyzed. Patients were predominantly male (54.6%), and the median age was 62 (interquartile range (ITQ): 47 - 73) years. The median APACHE II score was 22.5 (ITQ: 16 - 29). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 298 patients (65.6%), and vasoactive drugs were used in 44.9% of patients. The median time of follow-up was 3 days (ITQ: 2 - 6); after this time, 204 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and 250 had the intensive care unit bed request canceled. The median total cost per patient was US$ 5,945.98. Patients presented a high severity in terms of disease scores, had multiple organ dysfunction and needed multiple invasive therapeutic interventions. The study patients received intensive care with specialized consultation during their stay in the hospital wards and presented high costs of treatment.

  10. General care plan in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teresa Martín Alonso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The care plan we expose is a general one applicable to all the children who are admitted in the unit, no matter what pathology they present/display, their physiopathological situation or their age. We present the common nursing actions which are applied to all the patients at the time of their admittance. The factor related to the studied problems is the hospitalization and what it has associate, from separation of the parents and rupture familiar ties, up to immobilization, the use of bloody devices and the generally hostile and stranger background.The protocol is based on the NANDA, the nursing outcomes classification NOC and the nursing intervention classification NIC. It is part of the nursing process and promotes systematized, humanistic and effective care, focuses on the child and his parents.We have selected the most relevant problems, ordered according to the deficits in the different selfcare requirements of Dorotea E. Orem. Each problem has its definition, the outcomes we pretend to reach with our care and the interventions to get the outcomes (these two last topics have the corresponding codification. In them all the most important factor is hospitalization in a unit of intensive care and the separation of the child from his habitual environment.

  11. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  12. Medical futility treatment in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jukić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate cases of potential medical futility treatment in intensive care unit (ICU. Materials and Methods. Retrospective review of 1567 charts of patients treated during the three-year period (2012 - 2014 in the ICU of the University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia, was conducted. More detailed analysis of the deceased patients’ (n=429 charts was performed to identify cases of potential medical futility treatment. There were 99 patients for which ICU treatment was questionable due to their low Glasgow coma scale (GCS score. For those patients types and duration of treatment were analyzed. Results. Among patients who were treated during that period, 27% had died. Treatment of 99 patients (6.3% of the deceased was considered a potential medical futility. Mean age of those 99 patients was 68±14 years and the mean stay in the ICU was 14±11 days. They spent 1302 patient days in the ICU, of which 52% days they had GCS 3 score. They were treated with catecholamines during 40% of the patient days. Minimal therapy was provided during 44% of the patient days. Conclusions. Analysis of the deceased patients’ charts in the ICU indicated that a certain percentage of patients did not need prolonged ICU treatment. Instead, they were supposed to be treated in a palliative care unit. To avoid medical futility treatment in ICUs, palliative care unit needs to be established, as well as protocols for determining medical futility cases and ethical committee that will decide which patients will be transferred to palliative care.

  13. Patient participation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandl, Anna; Falk, Ann-Charlotte; Frank, Catharina

    2017-10-01

    Patient participation in healthcare is important for optimizing treatment outcomes and for ensuring satisfaction with care. The purpose of the study wasto explore critical care nurses' perceptions of patient participation for critically ill patients. Qualitative data were collected in four separate focus group interviews with 17 nurses from two hospitals. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Initially, the nurses stated that patient participation in the intensive care unit (ICU) was dependent on the patient's health condition and consciousness. However, during the interviews three descriptive categories emerged from their experience, that is: passive patient participation, one-way communication and nurse/patient interaction. In the ICU, the possibilities for patient participation in nursing care are not only dependent on the patient's health condition but also on the nurse's ability to include patients in various care actions despite physical and/or mental limitations. When the patient is not able to participate, nurses strive to achieve participation through relatives' knowledge and/or other external sources of information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Infectious endocarditis in the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Montero, S; Rodríguez-Esteban, M; Alvarez-Acosta, L; Lubillo-Montenegro, S; Pérez-Hernández, H; Llorens-León, R

    2012-10-01

    To study the characteristics, evolution and prognosis of patients with infectious endocarditis requiring treatment in the Intensive Care Unit. A prospective, observational cohort study of patients admitted due to infectious endocarditis. Nuestra Señora de Candelaria University Hospital, a third - level center with a recruitment population of 493,145. All patients consecutively diagnosed with infectious endocarditis in our center according to the Duke criteria, between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2011. Demographic data, clinical severity scores, microbiological and echocardiographic data, hospital mortality and complications. Out of 102 patients diagnosed with endocarditis, 38 (37%) were admitted to Intensive Care. Compared with those patients not admitted to the ICU, these subjects suffered more frequent mitral valve alterations (OR= 7.13; 95%CI: 2.12-24; p= 0.002) and cerebral embolism (OR= 3.89; 95%CI: 1.06-14.3; p= 0.041). In turn, mortality was greater (42.1% vs 18.8%, p= 0.011), as was the proportion of emergency surgeries (45.8% vs 5.9%, pendocarditis require admission to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting a much poorer prognosis. Staphylococcus aureus infection, heart failure, cerebral embolism and SAPS II scores are independent predictors of hospital mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. The myasthenic patient in crisis: an update of the management in Neurointensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustin Godoy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular transmission leading to generalized or localized muscle weakness due most frequently to the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic motor end-plate. Myasthenic crisis (MC is a complication of MG characterized by worsening muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. It also includes postsurgical patients, in whom exacerbation of muscle weakness from MG causes a delay in extubation. MC is a very important, serious, and reversible neurological emergency that affects 20–30% of the myasthenic patients, usually within the first year of illness and maybe the debut form of the disease. Most patients have a predisposing factor that triggers the crisis, generally an infection of the respiratory tract. Immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, and steroids are the cornerstones of immunotherapy. Today with the modern neurocritical care, mortality rate of MC is less than 5%.

  16. Metabolic encephalopathies in the critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Jennifer A

    2012-06-01

    This article summarizes the most common etiologies and approaches to management of metabolic encephalopathy. Metabolic encephalopathy is a frequent occurrence in the intensive care unit setting. Common etiologies include hepatic failure, renal failure, sepsis, electrolyte disarray, and Wernicke encephalopathy. Current treatment paradigms typically focus on supportive care and management of the underlying etiology. Directed therapies that target neurochemical and neurotransmitter pathways that mediate encephalopathy are not currently available and represent an important area for future research. Although commonly thought of as reversible neurologic insults, delirium and encephalopathy have been associated with increased mortality, prolonged length of stay and hospital complications, and worse long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Recognition and treatment of encephalopathy is critical to improving outcomes in critically ill patients.

  17. [Nutritional therapy in Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Iára Kallyanna Cavalcante

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to approach the main necessary aspects for the accomplishment of safety and efficient nutritional therapy to the critically ill patient. Bibliographical survey with didactic books and scientific articles was made in Portuguese, English and Spanish with results of the last 20 years. Nutritional support is an integrant part in the care of patients in intensive care units. The success of the nutritional therapy involves the stages of nutritional assessment, determines the route of diet infusion and the calories and nutrients needs. The use of nutrients with immune function (immunonutrients) is each more frequents, however, its use is not well established for critical illness. More clinical studies are necessary to establish the best form to nourish the critical ill patient.

  18. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    On one hand, advances in neonatal care and rescue technology allow for the healthy survival or prolonged survival time of critically ill newborns who, in the past, would have been non-viable. On the other hand, many of the surviving critically ill infants have serious long-term disabilities. If an infant eventually cannot survive or is likely to suffer severe disability after surviving, ethical issues in the treatment process are inevitable, and this problem arises not only in developed countries but is also becoming increasingly prominent in developing countries. In addition, ethical concerns cannot be avoided in medical research. This review article introduces basic ethical guidelines that should be followed in clinical practice, including respecting the autonomy of the parents, giving priority to the best interests of the infant, the principle of doing no harm, and consent and the right to be informed. Furthermore, the major ethical concerns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China are briefly introduced.

  19. Neurologic Intensive Care Unit Electrolyte Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Craig; French, Mindy

    2017-06-01

    Dysnatremia is a common finding in the intensive care unit (ICU) and may be a predictor for mortality and poor clinical outcomes. Depending on the time of onset (ie, on admission vs later in the ICU stay), the incidence of dysnatremias in critically ill patients ranges from 6.9% to 15%, respectively. The symptoms of sodium derangement and their effect on brain physiology make early recognition and correction paramount in the neurologic ICU. Hyponatremia in brain injured patients can lead to life-threatening conditions such as seizures and may worsen cerebral edema and contribute to alterations in intracranial pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of futile care and caring behaviors of nurses in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Somaye; Esmaeali, Ravanbakhsh; Jafari, Hedayat; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2017-01-01

    Futile medical care is considered as the care or treatment that does not benefit the patient. Staff of intensive care units experience moral distress when they perceive the futility of care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between perceptions of nurses regarding futile medical care and their caring behaviors toward patients in the final stages of life admitted to intensive care units. This correlation, analytical study was conducted with 181 nursing staff of the intensive care units of health centers affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran. The data collection tool included a three-part questionnaire containing demographic characteristics form, perception of futile care questionnaire, and caring behaviors inventory. To analyze the data, statistical tests and central indices of tendency and dispersion were investigated using SPSS, version 19. Pearson's correlation coefficient, partial correlation, t-test, and analysis of variance tests were performed to assess the relationship between the variables. Ethical considerations: The study was reviewed by the ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Informed consent was obtained from participants. Our findings illustrated that the majority of nurses (65.7%) had a moderate perception of futile care, and most of them (98.9%) had desirable caring behaviors in taking care of patients in the final stages of life. The nurses believed that psychosocial aspects of care were of utmost importance. There was a significant negative relationship between perception of futile care and caring behavior. Given the moderate perception of nurses concerning futile care, and its negative impact on caring behaviors toward patients, implementing suitable interventions for minimizing the frequency of futile care and its resulting tension seems to be mandatory. It is imperative to train nurses on adjustment mechanisms and raise their awareness as to situations

  1. Innovation and Technology: Electronic Intensive Care Unit Diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruth, Elizabeth A; Oveisi, Nazanin; Liu, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalization in the intensive care unit can be a stressful time for patients and their family members. Patients' family members often have difficulty processing all of the information that is given to them. Therefore, an intensive care unit diary can serve as a conduit for synthesizing information, maintaining connection with patients, and maintaining a connection with family members outside the intensive care unit. Paper intensive care unit diaries have been used outside the United States for many years. This article explores the development of an electronic intensive care unit diary using a rapid prototyping model to accelerate the process. Initial results of design testing demonstrate that it is feasible, useful, and desirable to consider the implementation of electronic intensive care unit diaries for patients at risk for post-intensive care syndrome. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... and qualitative interviews, we adapted 2 previously validated North American questionnaires: "Family Satisfaction with the ICU" and "Quality of Dying and Death." Family members were asked to assess relevance and understandability of each question. Validation also included test-retest reliability and construct...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test...

  3. Prescription errors in UK critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Booth, S A; Thompson, C M

    2004-12-01

    Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may be largely preventable. The incidence of prescription errors in UK critical care units is unknown. The aim of this study was to collect data about prescription errors and so calculate the incidence and variation of errors nationally. Twenty-four critical care units took part in the study for a 4-week period. The total numbers of new and re-written prescriptions were recorded daily. Errors were classified according to the nature of the error. Over the 4-week period, 21,589 new prescriptions (or 15.3 new prescriptions per patient) were written. Eighty-five per cent (18,448 prescriptions) were error free, but 3141 (15%) prescriptions had one or more errors (2.2 erroneous prescriptions per patient, or 145.5 erroneous prescriptions per 1000 new prescriptions). The five most common incorrect prescriptions were for potassium chloride (10.2% errors), heparin (5.3%), magnesium sulphate (5.2%), paracetamol (3.2%) and propofol (3.1%). Most of the errors were minor or would have had no adverse effects but 618 (19.6%) errors were considered significant, serious or potentially life threatening. Four categories (not writing the order according to the British National Formulary recommendations, an ambiguous medication order, non-standard nomenclature and writing illegibly) accounted for 47.9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice.

  4. Intelligence Care: A Nursing Care Strategy in Respiratory Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Ebadi, Abbas; Saadat, Soheil; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-11-01

    Working in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) is multidimensional that requires nurses with special attributes to involve with the accountability of the critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to explore the appropriate nursing care strategy in the RICU in order to unify and coordinate the nursing care in special atmosphere of the RICU. This conventional content analysis study was conducted on 23 health care providers working in the RICU of Sina and Shariati hospitals affiliated to Tehran university of medical sciences and the RICU of Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences from August 2012 to the end of July 2013. In addition to in-depth semistructured interviews, uninterrupted observations, field notes, logs, patient's reports and documents were used. Information saturation was determined as an interview termination criterion. Intelligence care emerged as a main theme, has a broad spectrum of categories and subcategories with bridges and barriers, including equality of bridges and barriers (contingency care, forced oriented task); bridges are more than barriers (human-center care, innovative care, cultural care, participatory care, feedback of nursing services, therapeutic-professional communication, specialized and independent care, and independent nurse practice), and barriers are higher than bridges (personalized care, neglecting to provide proper care, ineffectiveness of supportive caring wards, futility care, nurse burnout, and nonethical-nonprofessional communications). Intelligence care is a comprehensive strategy that in addition to recognizing barriers and bridges of nursing care, with predisposing and precipitating forces it can convert barriers to bridges.

  5. Measuring Outcomes of an Intensive Care Unit Family Diary Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Covalesky, Miranda; Sinclair, Samantha; Gunter, Heather; Norton, Tamara; Chen, Alice; Yi, Cassia

    2017-01-01

    Patients discharged from intensive care units are at risk of short- and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms known as post-intensive care syndrome. Family members of intensive care unit patients are at risk of similar symptoms known as post-intensive care syndrome-family. Both syndromes are common, and strategies to reduce risk factors should be employed. An intensive care unit diary project to help reduce these syndromes was implemented in 2 intensive care units using an evidence-based framework. The effects of these diaries were studied using the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit survey. Rates of referrals to a postintensive care unit recovery clinic were also observed in relation to the diaries. Although preliminary data did not reveal a significant increase in family satisfaction, the surveys provided important staff feedback. The diaries fostered feelings of compassion and caring as well as built trust between staff and family members of intensive care unit patients. The diaries increased referrals to the postintensive care unit recovery clinic. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Percutaneus Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Tok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early 1980s, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG technique has been used to create a reliable route for long term enteral feeding in cri0,0tically ill patients. Our goals were to determine the complications of PEG in ICU patients.We evaluated the data of 13 intensive care unit patients undergoing bedside PEG for gastric tube placement using the “pull” technique. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was completed and gastric tube was placed successfully in all patients. Tubes remained in stomach from 13 to 831 days (mean 146 days. Six patients died because of the reasons unrelated to the PEG tube and seven patients were discharged from the hospital while being fed via the PEG. Nutritional intolerance (in 4 patients and bleeding (in 3 patients were observed and could be eradicated by appropriate maintenance. Bleeding was the main PEG complication observed in critically ill patients.

  7. Nosocomial diarrhea in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marcon

    Full Text Available We made an epidemiological case-control study to examine risk factors for the development of diarrhea in the intensive care unit (ICU of a public hospital in Santo André, SP, from January to October 2002. Forty-nine patients with diarrhea (cases and 49 patients without diarrhea (controls, matched for age and gender, were included in the study. A stool culture and enzyme immunoassays for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were performed on fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Fourteen of them presented positive cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 22 patients presented positive ELISA for Clostridium diffícile. Nosocomial diarrhea was associated with several factors, including use of antibiotics (P=0.001, use of ceftriaxone (P=0.001, presence of infection (P=0.010 and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001.

  8. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Randall S.; Gehlbach, Brian K.; Schwab, Richard J.; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Jones, Shirley F.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important physiologic process, and lack of sleep is associated with a host of adverse outcomes. Basic and clinical research has documented the important role circadian rhythm plays in biologic function. Critical illness is a time of extreme vulnerability for patients, and the important role sleep may play in recovery for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is just beginning to be explored. This concise clinical review focuses on the current state of research examining sleep in critical illness. We discuss sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities that occur in ICU patients and the challenges to measuring alterations in circadian rhythm in critical illness and review methods to measure sleep in the ICU, including polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. We discuss data on the impact of potentially modifiable disruptors to patient sleep, such as noise, light, and patient care activities, and report on potential methods to improve sleep in the setting of critical illness. Finally, we review the latest literature on sleep disturbances that persist or develop after critical illness. PMID:25594808

  9. Sleep in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Margaret A; Friese, Randall S; Gehlbach, Brian K; Schwab, Richard J; Weinhouse, Gerald L; Jones, Shirley F

    2015-04-01

    Sleep is an important physiologic process, and lack of sleep is associated with a host of adverse outcomes. Basic and clinical research has documented the important role circadian rhythm plays in biologic function. Critical illness is a time of extreme vulnerability for patients, and the important role sleep may play in recovery for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is just beginning to be explored. This concise clinical review focuses on the current state of research examining sleep in critical illness. We discuss sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities that occur in ICU patients and the challenges to measuring alterations in circadian rhythm in critical illness and review methods to measure sleep in the ICU, including polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. We discuss data on the impact of potentially modifiable disruptors to patient sleep, such as noise, light, and patient care activities, and report on potential methods to improve sleep in the setting of critical illness. Finally, we review the latest literature on sleep disturbances that persist or develop after critical illness.

  10. Respiratory monitoring in adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawit, Pongdhep; Sutherasan, Yuda; Ball, Lorenzo; Pelosi, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    The mortality of patients with respiratory failure has steadily decreased with the advancements in protective ventilation and treatment options. Although respiratory monitoring per se has not been proven to affect the mortality of critically ill patients, it plays a crucial role in patients' care, as it helps to titrate the ventilatory support. Several new monitoring techniques have recently been made available at the bedside. The goals of monitoring comprise alerting physicians to detect the change in the patients' conditions, to improve the understanding of pathophysiology to guide the diagnosis and provide cost-effective clinical management. Areas covered: We performed a review of the recent scientific literature to provide an overview of the different methods used for respiratory monitoring in adult intensive care units, including bedside imaging techniques such as ultrasound and electrical impedance tomography. Expert commentary: Appropriate respiratory monitoring plays an important role in patients with and without respiratory failure as a guiding tool for the optimization of ventilation support, avoiding further complications and decreasing morbidity and mortality. The physician should tailor the monitoring strategy for each individual patient and know how to correctly interpret the data.

  11. [Nosocomial infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Spreading depolarization monitoring in neurocritical care of acute brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartings, Jed A

    2017-04-01

    Spreading depolarizations are unique in being discrete pathologic entities that are well characterized experimentally and also occur commonly in patients with substantial acute brain injury. Here, we review essential concepts in depolarization monitoring, highlighting its clinical significance, interpretation, and future potential. Cortical lesion development in diverse animal models is mediated by tissue waves of mass spreading depolarization that cause the toxic loss of ion homeostasis and limit energy substrate supply through associated vasoconstriction. The signatures of such deterioration are observed in electrocorticographic recordings from perilesional cortex of patients with acute stroke or brain trauma. Experimental work suggests that depolarizations are triggered by energy supply-demand mismatch in focal hotspots of the injury penumbra, and depolarizations are usually observed clinically when other monitoring variables are within recommended ranges. These results suggest that depolarizations are a sensitive measure of relative ischemia and ongoing secondary injury, and may serve as a clinical guide for personalized, mechanistically targeted therapy. Both existing and future candidate therapies offer hope to limit depolarization recurrence. Electrocorticographic monitoring of spreading depolarizations in patients with acute brain injury provides a sensitive measure of relative energy shortage in focal, vulnerable brains regions and indicates ongoing secondary damage. Depolarization monitoring holds potential for targeted clinical trial design and implementation of precision medicine approaches to acute brain injury therapy.

  13. Brain injury following cardiac arrest: pathophysiology for neurocritical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroyuki; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Fukui, Hidekimi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Sekine, Shusuke; Hara, Naomi; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces the cessation of cerebral blood flow, which can result in brain damage. The primary intervention to salvage the brain under such a pathological condition is to restore the cerebral blood flow to the ischemic region. Ischemia is defined as a reduction in blood flow to a level that is sufficient to alter normal cellular function. Brain tissue is highly sensitive to ischemia, such that even brief ischemic periods in neurons can initiate a complex sequence of events that may ultimately culminate in cell death. However, paradoxically, restoration of blood flow can cause additional damage and exacerbate the neurocognitive deficits in patients who suffered a brain ischemic event, which is a phenomenon referred to as "reperfusion injury." Transient brain ischemia following cardiac arrest results from the complex interplay of multiple pathways including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, peri-infarct depolarization, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest brain injury involves a complex cascade of molecular events, most of which remain unknown. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction based on the mitochondrial permeability transition after reperfusion, particularly involving the calcineurin/immunophilin signal transduction pathway, appears to play a pivotal role in the induction of neuronal cell death. The aim of this article is to discuss the underlying pathophysiology of brain damage, which is a devastating pathological condition, and highlight the central signal transduction pathway involved in brain damage, which reveals potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Advanced units: quality measures in urgency and emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Dan Carai Maia; Cordioli, Eduardo; Pedrotti, Carlos Henrique Sartorato; Iervolino, Mauro; Bastos Neto, Antonio da Silva; Almeida, Luis Roberto Natel de; Neves, Henrique Sutton de Sousa; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate, through care indicators, the quality of services rendered to patients considered urgency and emergency cases at an advanced emergency care unit. We analyzed data from managerial reports of 64,891 medical visits performed in the Emergency Care Unit of the Ibirapuera Unit at Care during the period from June 1st, 2012 through May 31st, 2013. The proposed indicators for the assessment of care were rate of death in the emergency care unit; average length of stay of patients in the unit; rate of unplanned return visits; admission rate for patients screened as level 1 according to the Emergency Severity Index; rate of non-finalized medical consultations; rate of complaints; and door-to-electrocardiogram time. The rate of death in the emergency care unit was zero. Five of the 22 patients classified as Emergency Severity Index 1 (22.7%) arrived presenting cardiac arrest. All were treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and reestablishment of vital functions. The average length of stay of patients in the unit was 3 hours, 33 minutes, and 7 seconds. The rate of unscheduled return visits at the emergency care unit of the Ibirapuera unit was 13.64%. Rate of complaints was 2.8/1,000 patients seen during the period. The model of urgency and emergency care in advanced units provides an efficient and efficaious service to patients. Both critically ill patients and those considered less complex can receive proper treatment for their needs.

  15. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chien-Huai; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Burnout has been described as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stress on the job that is often the result of a period of expending excessive effort at work while having too little recovery time. Healthcare workers who work in a stressful medical environment, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU), may be particularly susceptible to burnout. In healthcare workers, burnout may affect their well-being and the quality of professional care they provide and can, therefore, be detrimental to patient safety. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of burnout in the ICU setting; and to identify factors associated with burnout in ICU professionals. Methods: The original articles for observational studies were retrieved from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science in June 2016 using the following MeSH terms: “burnout” and “intensive care unit”. Articles that were published in English between January 1996 and June 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified using our search criteria prior to full text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to have employed an observational study design and examined the associations between any risk factors and burnout in the ICU setting. Results: Overall, 203 full text articles were identified in the electronic databases after the exclusion of duplicate articles. After the initial review, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of burnout in ICU professionals in the included studies ranged from 6% to 47%. The following factors were reported to be associated with burnout: age, sex, marital status, personality traits, work experience in an ICU, work environment, workload and shift work, ethical issues, and end-of-life decision-making. Conclusions: The impact of the identified factors on burnout remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, this review presents important information

  16. Intensive care unit team perception of palliative care: the discourse of the collective subject

    OpenAIRE

    Gulini, Juliana El Hage Meyer de Barros; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Moritz, Rachel Duarte; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To learn the perception of health professionals in an intensive care unit towards palliative care. METHOD This was a descriptive and qualitative study based on the converging care approach conducted at an intensive care unit in the South of Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the understanding of the professionals about palliative care in this unit. The data were organized and analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject method with the h...

  17. [Burnout syndrome in different intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade Mera, M J; Vinagre Gaspar, R; Zaragoza García, I; Viñas Sánchez, S; Antúnez Melero, E; Alvarez González, S; Malpartida Martín, P

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the professional burnout syndrome in health care personnel of different Intensive Care Units (ICUs). To know the association between burnout, its dimensions and sociodemographic-laboral variables. To compare the dimensions of burnout, characteristics of the personnel and of the patients of the different ICUs. Analytic, comparative, cross-sectional study performed in the ICU of a tertiary hospital in November 2006 performed in a sample of 289 professionals. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire and sociodemographic-laboral variables were provided. The following were evaluated in the ICUs: Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS), Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS), mortality, stay, isolations and travel of third parties. The chi2 test, Fischer test, Kruskall-Wallis test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A total of 73% of the workers answered. Ages ranged from 37 +/- 9 and 81% were women. The prevalence of burnout was 14%, this affecting 16% of the nurses, 14% of residents, 13% physicians and 10% auxiliary workers. Burnout was associated to low professional satisfactions, relationship with regular colleagues, low work recognition and time worked and experience in the ICU to high emotional tiredness, with a p burnout syndrome 17%, elevated emotional tiredness 49%, elevated depersonalization 63% and low professional performance 44%. The prevalence of the burnout syndrome in our sample was 14%, those being affected most being the nursing professionals. We detected elevated levels of depersonalization and middle levels of emotional tiredness and professional performance. The variables related with professional burnout syndrome were low professional satisfaction, relationship with regular colleagues, low work recognition, and elevated emotional tiredness in the more expert personnel. The ICU with the greatest prevalence of burnout during the month studied attended patients with greater

  18. Survey of caregiver opinions on the practicalities of family-centred care in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soury-Lavergne, Aude; Hauchard, Inès; Dray, Sandrine; Baillot, Marie-Lou; Bertholet, Emmanuelle; Clabault, Karine; Jeune, Sylvie; Ledroit, Christelle; Lelias, Isabelle; Lombardo, Véronique; Maetens, Yves; Meziani, Ferhat; Reignier, Jean; Souweine, Bertrand; Tabah, Alexis; Barrau, Karine; Roch, Antoine

    2012-04-01

    To determine caregiver opinion on their intensive care unit's policies with regard to visiting hours, how families are informed and participate in patient care. Benefits of improving family access to the intensive care unit, information delivery and participation of families in care have been suggested. Survey of caregivers working in French-speaking intensive care units. An e-mail invitation to complete an online, closed-ended questionnaire was issued to caregivers registered in the mailing list of the French society of intensive care. Caregivers (n = 731) working in 222 adult and 41 paediatric intensive care units completed the questionnaire. Unlike in paediatric intensive care units, 58% of adult intensive care unit had restricted visiting hours (caregivers thought that families should be informed of patient progress in a designated room in the presence of the patient's nurse and that patient records should report family meetings. This policy was only implemented in half of the cases. Family participation in care procedures was strongly encouraged in only 0·5% of adult intensive care units. Intensive care unit caregivers are in favour of longer visiting hours, increased use of designated rooms for, and nurse participation in, meetings with families. Although caregivers do not associate families with care procedures, they considered that their presence during most interventions should be authorised. Our results could help in implementing intensive care unit policies concerning visiting hours, how families are informed and participate in patient care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Withholding or withdrawing therapy in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Ammentorp, Jette; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the views of intensive care nurses, intensivists, and primary physicians regarding collaboration and other aspects of withholding and withdrawing therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU).......The purpose of the study was to determine the views of intensive care nurses, intensivists, and primary physicians regarding collaboration and other aspects of withholding and withdrawing therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU)....

  20. Transition from neonatal intensive care unit to special care nurseries: Experiences of parents and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Verweij; O.K. Helder; Dr. A.L. van Staa

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five

  1. Perceptions of patients and nurses towards nurse caring behaviors in coronary care units in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Ferdous H; AbuAlRub, Raeda; Ayasreh, Ibrahim R A

    2013-11-01

    To (1) identify the perceptions of Jordanian patients who suffer from coronary artery diseases towards nurse caring behaviours in critical care units; (2) identify the perceptions of Jordanian nurses who work in critical care units towards nurse caring behaviours; and (3) compare the perceptions of both patients and nurses towards nurse caring behaviours in critical care units. Caring is an important concept in nursing, when nursing behaviours were perceived by patients as caring behaviours, and thus, their satisfaction with the quality of care can be improved. Therefore, it is important for nurses to be knowledgeable about the caring behaviours as perceived by patients who complained from coronary artery diseases themselves. A descriptive comparative design was used. A convenience sample of 150 patients who complained from coronary artery diseases and 60 critical care unit nurses completed the demographic form and the Caring Behavior Assessment scale. Patients in critical care units perceived physical and technical behaviours as most important caring behaviours, whereas nurses in critical care units perceived teaching behaviours as most important caring behaviours. There were significant differences between patient participants' and nurse participants' perceptions towards four subscales of Caring Behavior Assessment scale that should be considered when caring for patients with coronary artery diseases. Patients with coronary artery diseases need well-trained and clinically competent nurses to meet their needs. 'Spiritual needs' was an important nurse caring behaviour that should be emphasised in nursing practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  3. Probiotics in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lee E; Gogineni, Vijaya; Malesker, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, provide benefits to the host. The benefits include either a shortened duration of infections or decreased susceptibility to pathogens. Proposed mechanisms of beneficial effects include improving gastrointestinal barrier function, modification of the gut flora by inducing host cell antimicrobial peptides and/or local release of probiotic antimicrobial factors, competition for epithelial adherence, and immunomodulation. With increasing intensive care unit (ICU) antibacterial resistance rates and fewer new antibiotics in the research pipeline, focus has been shifted to non-antibiotic approaches for the prevention and treatment of nosocomial infections. Probiotics offer promise to ICU patients for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Our current understanding of probiotics is confounded by inconsistency in probiotic strains studied, optimal dosages, study durations, and suboptimal sample sizes. Although probiotics are generally safe in the critically ill, adverse event monitoring must be rigorous in these vulnerable patients. Delineation of clinical differences of various effective probiotic strains, their mechanisms of action, and optimal dosing regimens will better establish the role of probiotics in various disorders. However, probiotic research will likely be hindered in the future given a recent ruling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Airborne fungi in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas – RS, with the attempt to know the place’s environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp. (15.18%, genus with the higher frequency, followed by Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Paecelomyces spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria spp., Zygomycetes and sterile mycelium. The most predominant fungi genus were Aspergillus spp. (13.92% in the morning and Cladosporium spp. (13.92% in the afternoon. Due to their involvement in different diseases, the identified fungi genera can be classified as potential pathogens of inpatients. These results reinforce the need of monitoring the environmental microorganisms with high frequency and efficiently in health institutions.

  5. Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Deep, Akash

    2009-10-01

    Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.

  6. The process of implementation of emergency care units in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele O'Dwyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the process of implementation of emergency care units in Brazil. METHODS We have carried out a documentary analysis, with interviews with twenty-four state urgency coordinators and a panel of experts. We have analyzed issues related to policy background and trajectory, players involved in the implementation, expansion process, advances, limits, and implementation difficulties, and state coordination capacity. We have used the theoretical framework of the analysis of the strategic conduct of the Giddens theory of structuration. RESULTS Emergency care units have been implemented after 2007, initially in the Southeast region, and 446 emergency care units were present in all Brazilian regions in 2016. Currently, 620 emergency care units are under construction, which indicates expectation of expansion. Federal funding was a strong driver for the implementation. The states have planned their emergency care units, but the existence of direct negotiation between municipalities and the Union has contributed with the significant number of emergency care units that have been built but that do not work. In relation to the urgency network, there is tension with the hospital because of the lack of beds in the country, which generates hospitalizations in the emergency care unit. The management of emergency care units is predominantly municipal, and most of the emergency care units are located outside the capitals and classified as Size III. The main challenges identified were: under-funding and difficulty in recruiting physicians. CONCLUSIONS The emergency care unit has the merit of having technological resources and being architecturally differentiated, but it will only succeed within an urgency network. Federal induction has generated contradictory responses, since not all states consider the emergency care unit a priority. The strengthening of the state management has been identified as a challenge for the implementation of the

  7. The process of implementation of emergency care units in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Konder, Mariana Teixeira; Reciputti, Luciano Pereira; Lopes, Mônica Guimarães Macau; Agostinho, Danielle Fernandes; Alves, Gabriel Farias

    2017-12-11

    To analyze the process of implementation of emergency care units in Brazil. We have carried out a documentary analysis, with interviews with twenty-four state urgency coordinators and a panel of experts. We have analyzed issues related to policy background and trajectory, players involved in the implementation, expansion process, advances, limits, and implementation difficulties, and state coordination capacity. We have used the theoretical framework of the analysis of the strategic conduct of the Giddens theory of structuration. Emergency care units have been implemented after 2007, initially in the Southeast region, and 446 emergency care units were present in all Brazilian regions in 2016. Currently, 620 emergency care units are under construction, which indicates expectation of expansion. Federal funding was a strong driver for the implementation. The states have planned their emergency care units, but the existence of direct negotiation between municipalities and the Union has contributed with the significant number of emergency care units that have been built but that do not work. In relation to the urgency network, there is tension with the hospital because of the lack of beds in the country, which generates hospitalizations in the emergency care unit. The management of emergency care units is predominantly municipal, and most of the emergency care units are located outside the capitals and classified as Size III. The main challenges identified were: under-funding and difficulty in recruiting physicians. The emergency care unit has the merit of having technological resources and being architecturally differentiated, but it will only succeed within an urgency network. Federal induction has generated contradictory responses, since not all states consider the emergency care unit a priority. The strengthening of the state management has been identified as a challenge for the implementation of the urgency network.

  8. Demand for nursing care for patients in intensive care units in Southeast Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokinski, Mariusz; Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna; Fidecki, Wieslaw

    2010-03-01

    The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System is widely used in both Western Europe and the United States to assess the level of patients' need for nursing care. Poland currently has 3 types of intensive care according to a territorial division of the country and the scope of medical treatment offered: poviat, voivodeship, and clinical. To determine the need for nursing care for patients in the 3 types of intensive care units in southeastern Poland. The investigation was conducted at 6 intensive care units in southeastern Poland in 2005 and 2006. Two units were randomly selected from each type of intensive care unit. A total of 155 patients from the units were categorized according to scores on the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System 28. Among the 3 types of units, patients varied significantly with respect to age, length of hospitalization, and scores on the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System 28. Nevertheless, demand for nursing care during night and day shifts was similar in all 3 types. On the basis of the patients' scores, all 3 types of units provided appropriate staffing levels necessary to meet the demands for nursing care. Most patients required category III level of care. Need or demand for nursing care in intensive care units in Poland varies according to the type of intensive care unit and can be determined on the basis of scores on the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System 28.

  9. Effectiveness of supporting intensive care units on implementing the guideline 'End-of-life care in the intensive care unit, nursing care': a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Dijkstra, B.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Vloet, L.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of supporting intensive care units on implementing the guidelines. BACKGROUND: Quality of care can be achieved through evidence-based practice. Guidelines can facilitate evidence-based practice, such as the guidelines 'End-of-life care in

  10. Nursing Management of Delirium in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Neziha; Yaman Aktaş, Yeşim

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine nurses' approaches to care of patients with postoperative delirium in the postanesthesia care unit and intensive care unit. A descriptive survey design was used. Eighty-seven nurses who have been working at a Training and Research Hospital in Erzurum, east of Turkey, were enrolled in this study between October 1 and November 20, 2012. 83.9% of the nurses reported that they had given pharmacologic therapy for pain management in delirium patients, 39.1% massage, 31.0% rhythmic breathing exercise, and 26.4% music therapy. 90.8% of nurses also stated that they reduced noise and lighting at night to ensure normal sleep pattern. Nurses need to be supported to take part in courses, conferences, and training seminars. A standard data tool or scale needs to be used to assess delirium routinely in all patients admitted. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preterm Admissions in a Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugochukwu EF, Ezechukwu CC, Agbata CC, Ezumba I. Preterm Admissions in a. Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi Experience. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 2002;29:75. A review of all preterm admissions into the Special Care Bay Unit' of the. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a ...

  12. Glucose variability is associated with intensive care unit mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, Jeroen; Vriesendorp, Titia M.; Bosman, Robert J.; Zandstra, Durk F.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests a role for glucose variability in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. We investigated the association between glucose variability and intensive care unit and in-hospital deaths across several ranges of mean glucose. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort

  13. Prophylaxis for stress ulcer bleeding in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Avendaño-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Admittance to the intensive care unit in itself does not justify prophylaxis. PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. We should individualize the treatment of each patient in the intensive care unit, determining risk and evaluating the need to begin prophylaxis.

  14. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness : Pathophysiology and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) develop generalized muscle weakness. This condition, called intensive care unit- acquired weakness (ICU-AW), is caused by dysfunction or damage of muscles, nerves, or both. ICU-AW is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and

  15. Unplanned extubations in an academic intensive care unit: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the incidence, risk factors and outcome of unplanned extubations (UEXs) in our intensive care unit. Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: Intensive care unit (ICU) of the Dr. George Mukhari Hospital, which is a teaching hospital. Patients: All patients who experienced an episode of ...

  16. Hypoglycemia is associated with intensive care unit mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, J.; Bosman, R.J.; Vriesendorp, T.M.; Dotsch, R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Zandstra, D.F.; Hoekstra, J.B.L.; DeVries, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The implementation of intensive insulin therapy in the intensive care unit is accompanied by an increase in hypoglycemia. We studied the relation between hypoglycemia on intensive care unit mortality, because the evidence on this subject is conflicting. Design: Retrospective database

  17. Insulin therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Insulin therapy has emerged in adult intensive care units, and several pediatric studies are currently being conducted. This review discusses hyperglycemia and the effects of insulin on metabolic a...

  18. Safety of milrinone use in neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; S.R. Raman (Sudha R.); J.N. van den Anker (John); K. McHutchison (Kerstin); C.P. Hornik; R.H. Clark; P.B. Smith; D.K. Benjamin (Daniel K.); K. Berezny (Katherine); J. Barrett (Jeffrey); E.V. Capparelli (Edmund); M. Cohen-Wolkowiez (Michael); G.L. Kearns (Greg); M. Laughon (Matthew); A. Muelenaer (Andre); T. Michael O'Shea; I.M. Paul (Ian M.); K. Wade (Kelly); T.J. Walsh (Thomas J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Milrinone use in the neonatal intensive care unit has increased over the last 10. years despite a paucity of published safety data in infants. We sought to determine the safety of milrinone therapy among infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: We conducted a

  19. Insulin therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, Sascha C. A. T.; Joosten, Koen F. M.; Castillo, Leticia; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Insulin therapy has emerged in adult intensive care units and several pediatric studies are currently being conducted. This review discusses hyperglycemia and the effects of insulin on metabolic

  20. Intensive care unit visitation policies in Brazil: a multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando José da Silva; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Schettino, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which visitation policy was the most predominant in Brazilian intensive care units and what amenities were provided to visitors. Eight hundred invitations were sent to the e-mail addresses of intensivist physicians and nurses who were listed in the research groups of the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Network and the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network. The e-mail contained a link to a 33-item questionnaire about the profile of their intensive care unit. One hundred sixty-two questionnaires from intensive care units located in all regions of the country, but predominantly in the Southeast and South (58% and 16%), were included in the study. Only 2.6% of the intensive care units reported having liberal visitation policies, while 45.1% of the intensive care units allowed 2 visitation periods and 69.1% allowed 31-60 minutes of visitation per period. In special situations, such as end-of-life cases, 98.7% of them allowed flexible visitation. About half of them (50.8%) did not offer any bedside amenities for visitors. Only 46.9% of the intensive care units had a family meeting room, and 37% did not have a waiting room. Restrictive visitation policies are predominant in Brazilian intensive care units, with most of them allowing just two periods of visitation per day. There is also a lack of amenities for visitors.

  1. Organizational Factors Associated With Perceived Quality of Patient Care in Closed Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Nathalie; Oppel, Eva; Mohr, David; Meterko, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Improving patient care quality in intensive care units is increasingly important as intensive care unit services account for a growing proportion of hospital services. Organizational factors associated with quality of patient care in such units have been identified; however, most were examined in isolation, making it difficult to assess the relative importance of each. Furthermore, though most intensive care units now use a closed model, little research has been done in this specific context. To examine the relative importance of organizational factors associated with patient care quality in closed intensive care units. In a national exploratory, cross-sectional study focused on intensive care units at US Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals, unit directors were surveyed about nurse and physician staffing, work resources and training, patient care coordination, rounding, and perceptions of patient care quality. Administrative records yielded data on patient volume and facility teaching status. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and regression modeling were used for data analysis. Sixty-nine completed surveys from directors of closed intensive care units were returned. Regression model results showed that better patient care coordination (β = 0.43; P = .01) and having adequate work resources (β = 0.26; P = .02) were significantly associated with higher levels of patient care quality in such units (R2 = 0.22). Augmenting work resources and/or focusing limited hospital resources on improving patient care coordination may be the most productive ways to improve patient care quality in closed intensive care units. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Facilitating learning in the operating theatre and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W; Morris, R W

    2006-12-01

    Almost every aspect of anaesthetic and intensive care practice can be taught within the operating theatre and intensive care unit. This includes knowledge in the areas of medicine, anatomy, pharmacology, physiology, measurement and statistics, invaluable psychomotor and global skills and abilities, as well as the many important non-clinical aspects of anaesthesia and intensive care including effective communication, leadership, management, ethics and teaching. The operating theatre and intensive care unit offer many advantages and pose numerous challenges to education. This paper briefly discusses what can be taught in the operating theatre and intensive care unit, the educational challenges and benefits of teaching in these unique environments, implications for teaching and what consultants and trainees can do to positively influence the educational activity. The paper concludes with suggestions for facilitating learning in the operating theatre and intensive care unit including the Soldier's Five, practice vivas, skills training, endoscopic dexterity, interesting article exchange, in-service sessions, electronic resources and use out of hours.

  3. Intensive Care Unit Delirium and Intensive Care Unit-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Annachiara; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Patel, Mayur B

    2017-12-01

    Delirium is one of the most common behavioral manifestations of acute brain dysfunction in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is a strong predictor of worse outcome. Routine monitoring for delirium is recommended for all ICU patients using validated tools. In delirious patients, a search for all reversible precipitants is the first line of action and pharmacologic treatment should be considered when all causes have been ruled out, and it is not contraindicated. Long-term morbidity has significant consequences for survivors of critical illness and for their caregivers. ICU patients may develop posttraumatic stress disorder related to their critical illness experience. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nursing workload in public and private intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Koike, Karina Mitie; Sardinha, Débora Souza; Padilha, Katia Grillo; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare patients at public and private intensive care units according to the nursing workload and interventions provided. This retrospective, comparative cohort study included 600 patients admitted to 4 intensive care units in São Paulo. The nursing workload and interventions were assessed using the Nursing Activities Score during the first and last 24 hours of the patient's stay at the intensive care unit. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Student's t test were used to compare the patient groups. The average Nursing Activities Score upon admission to the intensive care unit was 61.9, with a score of 52.8 upon discharge. Significant differences were found among the patients at public and private intensive care units relative to the average Nursing Activities Score upon admission, as well as for 12 out of 23 nursing interventions performed during the first 24 hours of stay at the intensive care units. The patients at the public intensive care units exhibited a higher average score and overall more frequent nursing interventions, with the exception of those involved in the "care of drains", "mobilization and positioning", and "intravenous hyperalimentation". The groups also differed with regard to the evolution of the Nursing Activities Score among the total case series as well as the groups of survivors from the time of admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Patients admitted to public and private intensive care units exhibit differences in their nursing care demands, which may help managers with nursing manpower planning.

  5. The experiences of qualified critical care nurses regarding students working in critical care units

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Cur. (Nursing Science (Critical Care)) Qualified critical care nurses are under internal and external stresses in the workplace, relating to role conflict, role ambiguity, increased workloads, the need for rapid decision making and the speedy delivery of care. However, having inexperienced students in critical care units put responsibility and additional stress on the qualified critical care nurses within the units. This may result in some of these qualified nurses not being willing to h...

  6. Designing and validity evaluation of Quality of Nursing Care Scale in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Mashaalah; Alavi, Negin Masoudi

    2014-01-01

    Quality of nursing care measurement is essential in critical care units. The aim of this study was to develop a scale to measure the quality of nursing care in intensive care units (ICUs). The 68 items of nursing care standards in critical care settings were explored in a literature review. Then, 30 experts evaluated the items' content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). Items with a low CVI score (nursing care scale in ICU (Quality of Nursing Care Scale- ICU) that was developed in this research had acceptable CVI and CVR.

  7. Telenursing in the intensive care unit: transforming nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa-Mae; Hubbard, Kenneth E; Daye, Olive; Barden, Connie

    2012-12-01

    In tele-intensive care units, informatics, telecommunication technology, telenursing, and telemedicine are merged to provide expert, evidence-based, and cutting-edge services to critically ill patients. Telenursing is an emerging subspecialty in critical care that is neither well documented in the extant literature nor well understood within the profession. Documentation and quantification of telenursing interventions help to clarify the impact of the telenurse's role on nursing practice, enhancement of patient care, patient safety, and outcomes. Tele-intensive care unit nursing will continue to transform how critical care nursing is practiced by enhancing/leveraging available resources through the use of technology.

  8. A comparison of private and public sector intensive care unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate spacing of beds and equipment are key factors that facilitate ... Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and ...

  9. Paediatric admissions and outcome in a general intensive care unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric admissions and outcome in a general intensive care unit. HY Embu, SJ Yiltok, ES Isamade, SI Nuhu, OO Oyeniran, FA Uba. Abstract. Background: It is believed that intensive care greatly improves the prognosis for critically ill children and that critically ill children admitted to a dedicated Paediatric Intensive Care ...

  10. Guideline for stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Rørbaek; Lorentzen, Kristian; Clausen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is recommended in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. The present guideline from the Danish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Danish Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine sums...

  11. Quality nursing care in dementia specific care units: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Julia; Ward, Louise; Gwinner, Karleen

    2017-01-01

    Background The concept of quality nursing care in a dementia specific unit is perceived as being subject to the interpretation of individuals, nurses and healthcare organisations. As the number of dementia diagnoses increases, understanding what constitutes quality nursing care within dementia specific care units is vital to inform policy makers and healthcare organisations globally. Efforts to identify quality nursing care and improve dementia care within dementia specific care units, may significantly reduce the financial and emotional burden of care-giving and improve the quality of life for individuals living with dementia. This scoping review aimed to examine current literature to gain an understanding of what constitutes quality nursing care in a dementia specific care unit. Design and methods Five electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Social Sciences Citation Index and Ovid) were used to search for articles published in English between 2011 and 2016 focusing on a definition of quality nursing care within dementia specific care units. Twenty journal articles were identified. From these articles, two content themes were identified: Challenges in the provision of quality nursing care in dementia specific care units, and Standardised approach to quality nursing care in a dementia specific care unit. The articles contained the following research designs, controlled pre-test and post-test design ( n = 1), focus group interviews ( n = 1), cross sectional survey ( n = 6), semi structured interviews ( n = 3), narrative review ( n = 1), survey ( n = 2), literature review ( n = 3), systematic review ( n = 1), and prospective longitudinal cohort study ( n = 2). Conclusions The concept of quality nursing care in a dementia specific unit remains subject to the interpretation of individuals, nurses and healthcare organisations, with current literature unable to provide a clear definition. Further research into what constitutes

  12. 77 FR 65581 - Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit..., Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Operating Unit in Illinois Who Report to East Hanover..., applicable to workers of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division...

  13. Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Montuclard, Luc; Timsit, Jean-François; Reignier, Jean; Desmettre, Thibault; Karoubi, Philippe; Moreau, Delphine; Montesino, Laurent; Duguet, Alexandre; Boussat, Sandrine; Ede, Christophe; Monseau, Yannick; Paule, Thierry; Misset, Benoit; Carlet, Jean

    2005-04-01

    To identify factors associated with granting or refusing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, to analyze ICU characteristics and triage decisions, and to describe mortality in admitted and refused patients. Observational, prospective, multiple-center study. Four university hospitals and seven primary-care hospitals in France. None. Age, underlying diseases (McCabe score and Knaus class), dependency, hospital mortality, and ICU characteristics were recorded. The crude ICU refusal rate was 23.8% (137/574), with variations from 7.1% to 63.1%. The reasons for refusal were too well to benefit (76/137, 55.4%), too sick to benefit (51/137, 37.2%), unit too busy (9/137, 6.5%), and refusal by the family (1/137). In logistic regression analyses, two patient-related factors were associated with ICU refusal: dependency (odds ratio [OR], 14.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-38.25; p refused patients, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.28-1.75) for later-admitted patients. ICU refusal rates varied greatly across ICUs and were dependent on both patient and organizational factors. Efforts to define ethically optimal ICU admission policies might lead to greater homogeneity in refusal rates, although case-mix variations would be expected to leave an irreducible amount of variation across ICUs.

  14. Nursing management and organizational ethics in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlody, Ginger Schafer

    2007-02-01

    This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.

  15. Development and validation of an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook; Yun, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses. Eye care guidelines and protocols have been developed for increasing eye care implementation in intensive care units. However, the guidelines lack consistency in assessment or intervention methodology. This was a one-sample pre/postprogramme evaluation study design for testing the effects of the eye care educational programme, developed for and applied to intensive care unit nurses, on their levels of knowledge and awareness. The eye care educational programme was developed based on literature review and survey of educational needs. Thirty intensive care unit nurses served as subjects for the study. The levels of eye care-related knowledge, awareness and practice were enhanced following the implementation of the educational programme. Moreover, satisfaction with the educational programme was high. It is necessary to intensify eye care education aimed at new nurses who are inexperienced in intensive care unit nursing and provide continuing education on the latest eye care methods and information to experienced nurses. The eye care educational programme developed in this study can be used as a strategy to periodically assess the eye status of patients and facilitate the appropriate eye care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Use of Transcranial Doppler in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viski Sandor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of transcranial Doppler has undergone much development since its introduction in 1982, making the technique suitable for general use in intensive care units. The main application in intensive care units is to assess intracranial pressure, confirm the lack of cerebral circulation in brain death, detect vasospasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage, and monitor the blood flow parameters during thrombolysis and carotid endarterectomy, as well as measuring stenosis of the main intracranial arteries in sickle cell disease in children. This review summarises the use of transcranial Doppler in intensive care units.

  17. Sleep and sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carno, Margaret-Ann; Connolly, Heidi V

    2005-09-01

    Sleep is an important and necessary function of the human body. Somatic growth and cellular repair occur during sleep. Critically ill children have disturbed sleep while in the pediatric intensive care unit related both to the illness itself and to light, noise, and caregiver activities disrupting an environment conducive to sleep. Medications administered in the pediatric intensive care unit can also disrupt sleep. This article reviews what is known about sleep in the pediatric intensive care unit and the effects of common sedation medications on sleep.

  18. A survey of oral care practices in South African intensive care units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Recent research has highlighted the importance of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although oral care is a fundamental aspect of nursing care, it is often given lower priority than other nursing interventions in intensive care units (ICUs). Objectives. The aim of this study was to ...

  19. Early mobility and walking program for patients in intensive care units: creating a standard of care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, Christiane; Chandrashekar, Rohini

    2009-01-01

    .... An early mobility and walking program was developed to provide guidelines for early mobility that would assist clinicians working in intensive care units, especially clinicians working with patients...

  20. Humanization of physiotherapy care: study with patients post-stay in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Maia; Brito, Eliana Sales

    2009-08-01

    The intensive care unit emerged to improve and concentrate material and human resources for the care of critical patients, and need for constant observation and continuous assistance. However, patients in intensive care unit requires exceptional care, directed not only to the physiopathological problem, but also towards the psychosocial issue, now intimately interlinked to the physical disease. In this ambient, very demanding for capability of the multiprofessional team, presence of the physiotherapist has become more frequent. This study aims to verify if the attitude of an experienced physiotherapist in the intensive care unit is humanized. To evaluate physiotherapy care humanization, a questionnaire was prepared and patients over 18 years of age, lucid and staying in intensive care unit for 24 hours or more were included. Forty four patients were interviewed and 95.5% of these considered the physiotherapy care as humanized. Positive association was observed between dissatisfaction with the items of dignity, communication, warranty and empathy, and a dehumannized physiotherapy care. Patients who evaluated warranty as negative had a twofold greater chance (0.7 - 5.3) of perceiving care as dehumanized. Patients who evaluated empathy as negative had a 1.6 (0.8 - 3.4) times greater chance of perceiving care as dehumanized. Physiotherapy care given in the intensive care unit was marked by good assistance, attention provided to the patient and quality of treatment, characterizing humanized care.

  1. Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II: a public-access intensive care unit database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohammed; Villarroel, Mauricio; Reisner, Andrew T; Clifford, Gari; Lehman, Li-Wei; Moody, George; Heldt, Thomas; Kyaw, Tin H; Moody, Benjamin; Mark, Roger G

    2011-05-01

    We sought to develop an intensive care unit research database applying automated techniques to aggregate high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic data from a large, diverse population of adult intensive care unit patients. This freely available database is intended to support epidemiologic research in critical care medicine and serve as a resource to evaluate new clinical decision support and monitoring algorithms. Data collection and retrospective analysis. All adult intensive care units (medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, cardiac care unit, cardiac surgery recovery unit) at a tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007. None. The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database consists of 25,328 intensive care unit stays. The investigators collected detailed information about intensive care unit patient stays, including laboratory data, therapeutic intervention profiles such as vasoactive medication drip rates and ventilator settings, nursing progress notes, discharge summaries, radiology reports, provider order entry data, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes, and, for a subset of patients, high-resolution vital sign trends and waveforms. Data were automatically deidentified to comply with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act standards and integrated with relational database software to create electronic intensive care unit records for each patient stay. The data were made freely available in February 2010 through the Internet along with a detailed user's guide and an assortment of data processing tools. The overall hospital mortality rate was 11.7%, which varied by critical care unit. The median intensive care unit length of stay was 2.2 days (interquartile range, 1.1-4.4 days). According to the primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes, the following disease categories each comprised at

  2. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  3. The decision to extubate in the intensive care unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thille, Arnaud W; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Brochard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The day of extubation is a critical time during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Extubation is usually decided after a weaning readiness test involving spontaneous breathing on a T-piece or low levels of ventilatory assist...

  4. Sound intensity and noise evaluation in a critical care unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Nancy; Thompson, Kim; Saunders, Gabrielle; Saiz, Jaya; Richardson, Jeannette; Brown, Deborah; Ince, Naomi; Caldwell, Marc; Pope, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Sound levels in intensive care units can be high. Unfortunately, high levels of sound tend to result in poor sleep quality, which leads to slower healing, poorer immune response, and decreased cognitive function...

  5. BURNOUT MIDWIVES WORKING IN NEONATAL INTESIVE CARE UNIT

    OpenAIRE

    Nanou, Christina; Gourounti, Kleanthi; Palaska, Ermioni; Mallidou, Anastasia; Sarantaki, Antigoni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The considerably low proportion of midwives in closed wards in Greek hospitals in combination with the highly stressful environment may lead to burnout syndrome (BS). Aim: It was to explore burnout syndrome (BS) that experience midwives working in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and the factors associated with its' occurrence. Methods: The sample studied consisted of midwives working in Νeonatal Intensive Care Unit in hospitals in Athens. Burnout syn...

  6. Needs of adult family members of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Kelley; Hilgenberg, Cheryl; Booker, Kathy

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine current perceptions of adult family members' needs of intensive care unit patients in the Midwest, USA. Examining family needs may help determine effectiveness of guideline implementation. Family needs of intensive care unit patients is a topic widely researched, but to date, the application of that research to the clinical practice guidelines is limited. Family members' of intensive care unit patients often experience stress and anxiety because of the high mortality rate of patients in intensive care. Family members are often involved with the patient's care especially as many units have open visitation policies. Survey. The Critical Care Family Needs Inventory was distributed to a convenience sample of 50 family members from a Central Illinois, not-for-profit, 22-bed intensive care unit in the USA. Forty-five adult family members returned completed questionnaires. The majority of the sample was female (66·7%), 40% were 49-64 years old. The majority of the sample of family members was spouses (36%) or adult children (36%). Eighty per cent of these family members reported they had previously visited a patient in the intensive care unit. Results of the survey revealed family members perceived assurance as the highest needs categories and support as the least important need. Findings were consistent with earlier studies identifying assurance as a very important need. After publication of clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centred intensive care unit, families continue to report the need for assurance. Nurses need to give increased attention to effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines in an effort to meet family members' needs, especially those related to assurance. Assurance may be expressed differently by various cultures. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Neurointensive care in Germany : Results of an inspection of intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, O; Hillmann, S; Grond, M

    2017-10-23

    The situation of neurointensive care in Germany is unclear. An inspection of neurointensive wards should help to clarify the situation. On the occasion of stroke unit certification audits, 320 intensive care units (39 independent neurological and 20 neurosurgical, 6 combined neurological/neurosurgical, 253 interdisciplinary intensive wards) were inspected. On the 39 neurological and the 20 neurosurgical intensive care units, a physician with intensive care specialization was available in 92% and 100% of units, respectively, and a physician with authorization for intensive care training was available in 74% and 80% of units, respectively. A whole day shiftwork existed in 59% and 55% of units, respectively. On the interdisciplinary wards a physician with intensive care specialization was available in 76% and a physician with authorization for intensive care training was available in 52% of units. A whole day shiftwork existed in 64% of units. A full-time neurological/neurosurgical presence during business hours was found only in 18% of units. The neurological/neurosurgical presence and the opportunities for intensive care training on the interdisciplinary wards are not sufficient. There is an urgent need for improvement.

  8. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intelligent ventilation in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acknowledgements. We would like to thank Professor P V van. Heerden, who worked for 6 months in our MICU on sabbatical, for his assistance in reviewing the manuscript. A part of this work was presented as a poster at the Annual Congress of the European. Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Berlin, Germany, in October.

  10. Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... therefore assessed the perception and attitude of Nigerian doctors working in the ICU about inappropriate admissions and request for ... In addition, each of the 4 possible actions in the setting of a full ICU was graded from 0 ... Key words: Intensive care, patient admission, perception, resource allocation.

  11. Improved nurse-parent communication in neonatal intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Janne; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Egerod, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    family-centred care was developed to facilitate person-centred communication by bridging the gap between theory and practice in family-centred care. Main mechanisms of guided family-centred care are structured dialogue, reflection and person-centred communication. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative...... and adjustment of nurse adherence to guided family-centred care was conducted by monitoring (1) knowledge, (2) delivery, (3) practice uptake and (4) certification. RESULTS: Implementation was improved by the development of a strategic framework and by adjusting the framework according to the real-life context...... of a busy neonatal care unit. Promoting practice uptake was initially underestimated, but nurse guided family-centred care training was improved by increasing the visibility of the study in the unit, demonstrating intervention progress to the nurses and assuring a sense of ownership among nurse leaders...

  12. The pitfalls of postoperative theatre to intensive care unit handovers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative handovers present a critical step in the management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. There are many challenges in the transportation of unstable patients with complex medical histories from theatre to the ICU, and the subsequent transfer of responsibility for care from one group of caregivers to another.

  13. Physical Therapy Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  14. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units (ICUs...

  15. Intensive Care Unit admissions and outcome in a university teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Critically ill patients are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. In resource-challenged economies like Nigeria, the number of deaths due to conditions requiring critical care is alarming. As in most other tertiary hospitals, critically ill patients are usually admitted into the Intensive Care Unit ...

  16. Physiotherapy practice in South African intensive care units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Physiotherapists are integral members of the interprofessional team that provides care and rehabilitation for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Objectives. To describe the current practice of physiotherapists in ICUs, determine if physiotherapists' practice has changed since a previous report and determine ...

  17. Magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in the intensive care unit: Do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium and phosphorus are important electrolytes involved in the regulation of homeostasis. However the utility in monitoring them in critically ill patients is still unclear. We therefore undertook a prospective, non-interventional, single center study in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in ...

  18. Empowerment of parents in the neonatal intensive care unit by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents of infants who are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) need to be empowered to improve bonding, attachment and care-giving skills. Neonatal nurses play a critical role in the empowerment of such parents, but often find it difficult due to a lack of clarity on how it has to be done. A qualitative contextual ...

  19. [The difficulties of staff retention in neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care units attract nurses due to the technical and highly specific nature of the work. However, there is a high turnover in these departments. Work-related distress and the lack of team cohesion are the two main causes of this problem. Support from the health care manager is essential in this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Morten Brøgger; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2013-01-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is regarded as standard of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, recent randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have questioned the rationale and level of evidence for this recommendation. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate...

  1. Unplanned extubations in an academic intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    17. Unplanned extubations in an academic intensive care unit and strong attachment of the endo-tracheal tube, particularly for orally intubated patients.7. Study population ... comprehensive treatment of agitated patients, more vigilance by nurses and .... extubations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients. Crit.

  2. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  3. Neonatal intensive care unit: Reservoirs of Nosocomial pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in the care and treatment of neonates had contributed to their increased survival. Nosocomial infection remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic ...

  4. Physiotherapy in the intensive care unit | Hanekom | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Physiotherapy in the intensive care unit. S Hanekom. Abstract.

  5. Intensive care unit admissions during the puerperium in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of parturients are rare and is about 0.2% of total number of maternities per year in the United Kingdom (UK) compared to 1.1% reported from a teaching hospital in Benin, Nigeria. Objective: This study sought the indications and outcome of critically ill obstetric patients admitted ...

  6. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress and mental health in neonatal intensive care units.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K; Oates, P

    1995-01-01

    The views of 34 neonatologists (a 78% response rate) and 192 neonatal intensive care nurses (a 66% response rate) were obtained on work, stress, and relationships in neonatal intensive care units. The survey was conducted by post and included Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A comparison of the responses of neonatologists and nurses to 21 identical statements showed significant differences in 12. Most neonatologists felt that they involved nurses in critical patient care decisio...

  8. 78 FR 3030 - Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit..., NJ and Off-Site Workers of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales... Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Primary Care Business Unit (Sales) Division, East Hanover, New Jersey. The Department...

  9. Intensive care organisation : Should there be a separate intensive care unit for critically injured patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.K. Timmers (Tim); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); L.P.H. Leenen (Luke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In the last two decennia, the mixed population general intensive care unit (ICU) with a ‘closed format’ setting has gained in favour compared to the specialized critical care units with an ‘open format’ setting. However, there are still questions whether surgical patients

  10. Clinical risk assessment in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin′s Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN was in respiratory care "Ventilator′s alarm malfunction (no alarm" with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal "not washing the NG-Tube" with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care.

  11. End-of-life care in intensive care units

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... euthanasia or assisted suicide, or in hastening death in response to a perceived overuse of technology or over- aggressive treatment, to relieve suffering or counter the perception of physician unresponsiveness to the patient's suffering. To care for the patient who is approaching death,. ICU clinicians need ...

  12. The effect of nocturnal patient care interventions on patient sleep and satisfaction with nursing care in neurosurgery intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğraş, Gülay Altun; Babayigit, Sultan; Tosun, Keziban; Aksoy, Güler; Turan, Yüksel

    2015-04-01

    Sleep disturbance in an intensive care unit is a common problem. One of the main factors causing sleep disturbances in an intensive care unit is nocturnal patient care interventions. This study aims to determine the impact of patient care interventions performed at night in a neurosurgical intensive care unit on patients' sleep and their nursing care satisfaction. The descriptive study was conducted on 82 patients in a neurosurgical intensive care unit between January 2009 and March 2010. The data were collected by data collection instruments and Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scales. The data were statistically analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U test. The study showed that 53.7% of the patients experienced sleep disturbances in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Because of nursing interventions at night, 39.1% of these patients had their sleep affected, but this problem did not cause any negative impact on the patients' satisfaction (Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scales score = 88.21 ± 9.83). The patients received, on average, 42.21 ± 7.45 times patient care interventions at night; however, the frequency of patient care interventions at night showed no effect on sleep disturbances in this study (p > .05). The most frequently given patient care interventions were, respectively, vital signs monitoring, neurological assessment, and repositioning in bed. These interventions were performed commonly at 6 a.m., 12 a.m., and 7 p.m. In this study, despite the patients reporting sleep disturbances in the neurosurgical intensive care unit because of nocturnal patient care interventions that prevented them from sleeping, the patients' satisfaction on the given nursing care was not negatively impacted. To reduce sleep disturbances because of nursing care initiatives and promote uninterrupted sleep in the intensive care unit, it can be useful to develop new protocols regulating night care activities.

  13. Perspectives on health care: United States, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J D; McMillan, A

    1986-09-01

    The National Medical Care Expenditure Survey (NMCUES) was designed to address numerous policy issues concerning costs of medical care, sources of payment, and access to care. Special emphasis is given in this volume to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries and the role of these programs as payors for health care. Among the findings presented here a few deserve special attention. These are grouped under the areas of coverage, utilization, and expenditures and are briefly outlined in the following. Coverage--Medicaid covers about half of the noninstitutionalized population living below the poverty level. Coverage is higher among poor children; 60 percent of those under age 6 have Medicaid coverage. Medicaid coverage is higher among black people (30 percent) and Hispanics (19 percent), groups with more low income people and people in poor health, than among white people (8 percent). Medicaid eligibles in all aid categories are in poorer health than others of their age; twice the percent of Aid to Families With Dependent Children eligibles report their health as fair or poor, compared with 18-44 years of age. A higher percentage of Medicaid eligibles have activity and functional limitations at all ages. Although high among all age groups, use of health services is highest among the elderly. Almost two-thirds report their health status as excellent or good. Among those with private insurance in addition to Medicare, over 80 percent saw a doctor at least once in a year and over 75 percent took at least one prescribed drug. About a fifth of those 65-74 years of age, and fewer than a third of those 75 years or over, were hospitalized in 1980. About two-thirds of aged Medicare beneficiaries had some type of private supplementary health insurance. The uninsured are likely to be young (19-24 years of age). Among black people, however, those 45-64 years of age are as likely to be uninsured (14.3 percent) as those 19-24 years of age (12.6 percent). The uninsured are likely to be

  14. Technology and the future of intensive care unit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2011-01-01

    Changing market demand, aging population, severity of illnesses, hospital acquired infection, clinical staff shortage, technological innovations, and environmental concerns-all are shaping the critical care practice in the United States today. However, how these will shape intensive care unit (ICU) design in the coming decade is anybody's guess. In a graduate architecture studio of a research university, students were asked to envision the ICU of the future while responding to the changing needs of the critical care practice through innovative technological means. This article reports the ICU design solutions proposed by these students.

  15. Nurturing nursing students during intensive care unit clinical practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Marlienne; Kautz, Donald D

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one-third of new graduates will quit their jobs in the first year. When nurses leave, vacant positions result in increased overtime for the remaining staff, which eventually results in burnout. Burnout leads to even more turnover. This article describes how the staff transformed a neurosurgical intensive care unit and nurture students through the application of Jean Watson's 10 Caritas processes. When nursing students complete their clinical practicum in the unit, learning is enhanced, the students seek to continue to work in the intensive care unit, recruitment and retention are encouraged, and burnout may be prevented.

  16. Patterns of research utilization on patient care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Janice

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational context plays a central role in shaping the use of research by healthcare professionals. The largest group of professionals employed in healthcare organizations is nurses, putting them in a position to influence patient and system outcomes significantly. However, investigators have often limited their study on the determinants of research use to individual factors over organizational or contextual factors. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of research use among nurses working in acute care hospitals, with an emphasis on identifying contextual determinants of research use. A comparative ethnographic case study design was used to examine seven patient care units (two adult and five pediatric units in four hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Alberta. Data were collected over a six-month period by means of quantitative and qualitative approaches using an array of instruments and extensive fieldwork. The patient care unit was the unit of analysis. Drawing on the quantitative data and using correspondence analysis, relationships between various factors were mapped using the coefficient of variation. Results Units with the highest mean research utilization scores clustered together on factors such as nurse critical thinking dispositions, unit culture (as measured by work creativity, work efficiency, questioning behavior, co-worker support, and the importance nurses place on access to continuing education, environmental complexity (as measured by changing patient acuity and re-sequencing of work, and nurses' attitudes towards research. Units with moderate research utilization clustered on organizational support, belief suspension, and intent to use research. Higher nursing workloads and lack of people support clustered more closely to units with the lowest research utilization scores. Conclusion Modifiable characteristics of organizational context at the patient care unit

  17. [Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Aline Piovezan; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa Mendes; Pinto, Márcia; Caetano, Rosângela; Magluta, Cynthia; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

  18. Integration of Palliative Care Services in the Intensive Care Unit: A Roadmap for Overcoming Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mary; Luce, Jim; Bosslet, Gabriel T

    2015-09-01

    Clinicians working in the intensive care unit (ICU) confront death and dying daily. ICU care can be inconsistent with a patient's values, preferences, and previously expressed goals of care. Current evidence promotes the integration of palliative care services within the ICU setting. Palliative care bridges the gap between comfort and cure, and these services are growing in the United States. This article discusses the benefits and barriers to integration of ICU and palliative care services, and a stepwise approach to implementation of palliative care services. Integration of palliative care services into ICU workflow is increasingly seen as essential to providing high-quality, comprehensive critical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Benchmarking rehabilitation practice in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anna; Stevenson, Matt; Harlow, Stephanie Km

    2015-02-01

    Early rehabilitation in critically ill patients has been demonstrated to be safe and is associated with many positive outcomes. Despite this, there are inconsistencies in the early active rehabilitation that patients receive on intensive care units. The aims of this study were to quantify the amount of active rehabilitation provided for patients in a District General Hospital intensive care unit and to identify specific barriers encountered. Data were collected over a six-week period during March and April 2013. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit at St Peter's Hospital for more than 48 h were included. For every treatment session, the treating physiotherapist recorded what type of treatment took place. Treatments were classified as either non-active or active rehabilitation. Non-active rehabilitation included chest physiotherapy, passive range of movement exercises and hoisting to a chair. Active rehabilitation was defined as any treatment including active/active-assisted exercises, sitting on the edge of the bed, sitting to standing, standing transfers, marching on the spot or ambulation. Classification of rehabilitation was based upon internationally agreed intensive care unit activity codes and definitions. All barriers to active rehabilitation were also recorded. The study included 35 patients with a total of 194 physiotherapy treatment sessions. Active rehabilitation was included in 51% of all treatment sessions. The median time to commencing active rehabilitation from intensive care unit admission was 3 days (range 3-42 [IQR 3-7]). The most frequent barriers to active rehabilitation were sedation and endotracheal tubes, which together accounted for 50% of the total barriers. The study provides useful benchmarking of current rehabilitation activity in a District General Hospital intensive care unit and highlights the most common barriers encountered to active rehabilitation. Longer duration studies incorporating larger sample sizes are

  20. The perception of the companion of the humanized care in a pediatric intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Louise Lisboa de Oliveira; Silva, Josielson Costa da; Costa, Fabiana Rodrigues; Camargo, Climene Laura de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To understand the perception of the companion of the hospitalized child about humanized care in the context of pediatric intensive care unit. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory study with a qualitative approach, developed in the pediatric intensive care unit of a pediatric hospital in Salvador to interview the caregivers of hospitalized children. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis technique. Results: Perceptions of family associate the meaning of human...

  1. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  2. Perceptions of Appropriateness of Care Among European and Israeli Intensive Care Unit Nurses and Physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Ruth D.; Azoulay, Elie; Ricou, Bara; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Decruyenaere, Johan; Max, Adeline; Michalsen, Andrej; Maia, Paulo Azevedo; Owczuk, Radoslaw; Rubulotta, Francesca; Depuydt, Pieter; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Reyners, Anna K.; Aquilina, Andrew; Bekaert, Maarten; Van den Noortgate, Nele J.; Schrauwen, Wim J.; Benoit, Dominique D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Clinicians in intensive care units (ICUs) who perceive the care they provide as inappropriate experience moral distress and are at risk for burnout. This situation may jeopardize patient quality of care and increase staff turnover. Objective To determine the prevalence of perceived

  3. The need for pharmaceutical care in an intensive care unit at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of routine care in medication monitoring to evaluate prescribing patterns or identify potential or actual medication errors in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at Steve Biko Academic Hospital. The study was initiated to address the need for pharmaceutical care and to evaluate the effect of the presence of a ...

  4. Effectiveness of supporting intensive care units on implementing the guideline 'End-of-life care in the intensive care unit, nursing care': a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noome, Marijke; Dijkstra, Boukje M; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vloet, Lilian C M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of supporting intensive care units on implementing the guidelines. Quality of care can be achieved through evidence-based practice. Guidelines can facilitate evidence-based practice, such as the guidelines 'End-of-life care in the intensive care unit, nursing care'. Before intensive care nurses are able to use these guidelines, they needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Implementation is a complex process and may need support. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Intensive care nurses of eight intensive care units in the intervention group followed a supportive programme that educated them on implementation, strategies, goals, project management and leadership. The intervention group focused on a stepwise approach to implement the guidelines. The control group (n = 5) implemented the guidelines independently or used the standard implementation plan supplementary to the guideline. The effectiveness of the programme was measured using questionnaires for nurses, interviews with nurses and a questionnaire for family of deceased patients, in the period from December 2014-December 2015. Overall, an increase in adherence to the guidelines was found in both groups. Overall, use of the guidelines in the intervention group was higher, but on some aspects the control group showed a higher score. Care for the patient and the overall nursing care scored significantly higher according to family in the intervention group. The increase in adherence to the guidelines and the significantly higher satisfaction of family in the intervention group indicate that the supportive programme had a more positive effect. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Candida Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Ronny M.; Linssen, Catharina F.; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N.; Bergmans, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make validation and the development of a clinical algorithm difficult. In the present study, we analyze whether Candida pneumonia exists in our critical care population. We used a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen database that we have built in a structural diagnostic approach to ventilator-associated pneumonia for more than a decade consisting of 832 samples. Microbiological data were linked to clinical information and available autopsy data. We searched for critically ill patients with respiratory failure with no other microbiological or clinical explanation than exclusive presence of Candida species in BAL fluid. Five cases could be identified with Candida as the likely cause of pneumonia. PMID:25734099

  6. The pediatric intensive care unit business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Charles L

    2013-06-01

    All pediatric intensivists need a primer on ICU finance. The author describes potential alternate revenue sources for the division. Differentiating units by size or academic affiliation, the author describes drivers of expense. Strategies to manage the bottom line including negotiations for hospital services are covered. Some of the current trends in physician productivity and its described metrics, with particular focus on clinical FTE management is detailed. Methods of using this data to enhance revenue are discussed. Some of the other current trends in the ICU business related to changes at the federal and state level as well as in the insurance sector, moving away from fee-for-service are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Care of Traumatic Conditions in an Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with certain traumatic conditions can be managed in observation units. The evidence base supporting the use of observation units to manage injured patients is smaller than the evidence base supporting the management of medical conditions in observation units. The conditions that are eligible for management in an observation unit are not limited to those described in this article, and investigators should continue to identify types of conditions that may benefit from this type of health care delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Infectious agents and antibiotic susceptibility in neurosurgery intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Güzel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Knowing the most frequent causative agents and their sensitivities to antibiotics may contribute to use of appropriate antibiotics. In this study, we aimed to inves-tigate the agents and their antibiotic sensitivity which is isolated from intensive care unit of neurosurgery clinic.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed from 2001 to 2005 at the Neurosurgery inten-sive care unit of Dicle University, Diyarbakir. The pa-tients charts who were followed up more than 48 hours in intensive care unit and their culture results were inves-tigated.Results: There was 457 of 2197 patients which were operated in neurosurgery clinic and it was obtained 1155 culture samples from these patients in five years period. 317 positive cultures were obtained from 123 patients including 73 cerebrospinal fluid, 45 wound, 47 deep tra-cheal aspirate, 96 were urine samples, 27 blood sam-ples and 29 venous catheters samples. Mostly Staphilo-coccus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS were growth in cultures. From the cerebrospinal fluidd, blood and wound the most growth bacteria was coagulase negative staphilococcus, from the urine Es-chericha coli, from deep tracheal aspiration. Klebsiella pnömonia, and from venous catheters Pseudomonas au-reginosa was mostly showed reproduction.Conclusion: S. aureus, CNS and P. aureginosa were mostly isolated bacteria in neurosurgery intensive care unit. Nosocomial intensive care unit infections can be decreased by appropriate preventive measures

  9. Scope of nursing care in Polish intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Mariusz; Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna; Fidecki, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation) and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours), that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ(2) = 16945.8,P Polish ICUs. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  10. Transfusional profile in different types of intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilusca Cardoso de Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: anemia is a common clinical finding in intensive care units. The red blood cell transfusion is the main form of treatment, despite the associated risks. Thus, we proposed to evaluate the profile of transfusional patients in different intensive care units. Methods: prospective analysis of patients admitted in the intensive care units of a tertiary university hospital with an indication for transfusion of packed red blood cells. Demographic profile and transfusional profile were collected, a univariate analysis was done, and the results were considered significant at p = 0.05. Results: 408 transfusions were analyzed in 71 patients. The mean hemoglobin concentration on admission was 9.7 ± 2.3 g/dL and the pre-transfusional concentration was 6.9 ± 1.1 g/dL. The main indications for transfusion were hemoglobin concentration (49% and active bleeding (32%. The median number of units transfused per episode was 2 (1-2 and the median storage time was 14 (7-21 days. The number of patients transfused with hemoglobin levels greater than 7 g/dL and the number of bags transfused per episode were significantly different among intensive care units. Patients who received three or more transfusions had longer mechanical ventilation time and intensive care unit stay and higher mortality after 60 days. There was an association of mortality with disease severity but not with transfusional characteristics. Conclusions: the practice of blood products transfusion was partially in agreement with the guidelines recommended, although there are differences in behavior between the different profiles of intensive care units. Transfused patients evolved with unfavorable outcomes. Despite the scarcity of blood in blood banks, the mean storage time of the bags was high.

  11. Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on ac...... for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller hospitals with more limited capabilities.......Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper...... on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi...

  12. [Leeches in the intensive care unit: nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Mozos-Pérez, Belén; Font-Jiménez, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Leeches have been used in medicine since ancient times. Leeches or Hirudos were used to treat multiple diseases, since the bleeding they induce was related to purification. This practice subsequently fell into disuse until the 1980s when leeches again began to be applied in the treatment of venous congestion and in plastic and reconstructive surgery, especially in the USA and Germany. The use of leeches is not yet widespread in Spain. One of the Spanish hospitals pioneering this practice is the University Hospital Joan XXIII de Tarragona, where leeches are employed in the Maxillofacial Service among patients with microvascularized grafts. The present article describes the therapeutic use of leeches (Hirudo medicinalis), as well as the nursing care and complications in patients undergoing this treatment. The aim is to ensure that this new technique is used with maximal safety and quality.

  13. Communication and Decision-Making About End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Laura Anne; Manias, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians in the intensive care unit commonly face decisions involving withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, which present many clinical and ethical challenges. Communication and shared decision-making are key aspects relating to the transition from active treatment to end-of-life care. To explore the experiences and perspectives of nurses and physicians when initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. The study was conducted in a 24-bed intensive care unit in Melbourne, Australia. An interpretative, qualitative inquiry was used, with focus groups as the data collection method. Intensive care nurses and physicians were recruited to participate in a discipline-specific focus group. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and subjected to thematic data analysis. Five focus groups were conducted; 17 nurses and 11 physicians participated. The key aspects discussed included communication and shared decision-making. Themes related to communication included the timing of end-of-life care discussions and conducting difficult conversations. Implementation and multidisciplinary acceptance of end-of-life care plans and collaborative decisions involving patients and families were themes related to shared decision-making. Effective communication and decision-making practices regarding initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit are important. Multidisciplinary implementation and acceptance of end-of-life care plans in the intensive care unit need improvement. Clear organizational processes that support the introduction of nurse and physician end-of-life care leaders are essential to optimize outcomes for patients, family members, and clinicians. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Colloids in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruer, Rachel M; Ensor, Christopher R

    2012-10-01

    The most recent published evidence on the use of colloids versus crystalloids in critical care is reviewed, with a focus on population-dependent differences in safety and efficacy. Colloids offer a number of theoretical advantages over crystalloids for fluid resuscitation, but some colloids (e.g., hydroxyethyl starch solutions, dextrans) can have serious adverse effects, and albumin products entail higher costs. The results of the influential Saline Versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) trial and a subsequent SAFE subgroup analysis indicated that colloid therapy should not be used in patients with traumatic brain injury and other forms of trauma due to an increased mortality risk relative to crystalloid therapy. With regard to patients with severe sepsis, two meta-analyses published in 2011, which collectively evaluated 82 trials involving nearly 10,000 patients, indicated comparable outcomes with the use of either crystalloids or albumins. For patients requiring extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during heart surgery, the available evidence supports the use of a colloid, particularly albumin, for CPB circuit priming and postoperative volume expansion. In select patients with burn injury, the published evidence supports the use of supplemental colloids if adequate urine output cannot be maintained with a crystalloid-only rescue strategy. The results of the SAFE trial and a subgroup analysis of SAFE data suggest that colloids should be avoided in patients with trauma and traumatic brain injury. There are minimal differences in outcome between crystalloids and hypo-oncotic or iso-oncotic albumin for fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis; in select populations, such as patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the use of iso-oncotic albumin may confer a survival advantage and should be considered a first-line alternative.

  15. Is there a role of palliative care in the neonatal intensive care unit in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri P Dighe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in medical care have improved the survival of newborn babies born with various problems. Despite this death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU is an inevitable reality. For babies who are not going to "get better," the health care team still has a duty to alleviate the physical suffering of the baby and to support the family. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to relieve the physical, psycho social, and spiritual suffering of patients and their families. Palliative care provision in the Indian NICU settings is almost nonexistent at present. In this paper we attempt to "build a case" for palliative care in the Indian NICU setting.

  16. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicia de Holanda Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the main nursing diagnostic titles used in the care of critically ill patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit, verifying the presence thereof in the diagnoses of NANDA International’s Taxonomy II. Methods: descriptive and documental study, in which 69 medical records of patients aged over 18 years were consulted. Results: 22 nursing diagnostic titles were found; the most frequent was risk for infection (99.0%, risk for skin integrity (75.0% and risk for aspiration (61.0%. Most diagnoses were in the domains safety/ protection (43.0% and activity/rest (26.5%. Conclusions: authors identified the main nursing diagnostic titles used in the care of critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and the presence thereof in the diagnoses of NANDA International’s Taxonomy II.

  17. Relocating an intensive care unit: An exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances Fengzhi; Foster, Michelle; Chaboyer, Wendy; Marshall, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    As new hospitals are built to replace old and ageing facilities, intensive care units are being constructed with single patient rooms rather than open plan environments. While single rooms may limit hospital infections and promote patient privacy, their effect on patient safety and work processes in the intensive care unit requires greater understanding. Strategies to manage changes to a different physical environment are also unknown. This study aimed to identify challenges and issues as perceived by staff related to relocating to a geographically and structurally new intensive care unit. This exploratory ethnographic study, underpinned by Donabedian's structure, process and outcome framework, was conducted in an Australian tertiary hospital intensive care unit. A total of 55 participants including nurses, doctors, allied health professionals, and support staff participated in the study. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group and eight individual interviews, and reviewed the hospital's documents specific to the relocation. After sorting the data deductively into structure, process and outcome domains, the data were then analysed inductively to identify themes. Three themes emerged: understanding of the relocation plan, preparing for the uncertainties and vulnerabilities of a new work environment, and acknowledging the need for change and engaging in the relocation process. A systematic change management strategy, dedicated change leadership and expertise, and an effective communication strategy are important factors to be considered in managing ICU relocation. Uncertainty and staff anxiety related to the relocation must be considered and supports put in place for a smooth transition. Work processes and model of care that are suited to the new single room environment should be developed, and patient safety issues in the single room setting should be considered and monitored. Future studies on managing multidisciplinary work processes during intensive care unit

  18. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out.......To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  19. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Intensive Care Unit: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy has substantial prognostic implications in an intensive care unit, given its increased mortality risk and association with life-threatening complications. This report seeks to discuss diagnostic modalities that can be useful in accurately differentiating Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy from Acute Coronary Syndrome, and also briefly discuss prevention and management of this cardiomyopathy in an intensive care unit. For critically ill Takotsubo patients, intensive clinicians can consider establishment of diagnosis by specific electrocardiograph changes, distinctive marked release of cardiac enzymes, characteristic echocardiograph findings, as well as invasive coronary angiography or noninvasive cardiac magnetic imaging.

  20. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.

  1. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness: Pathophysiology and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Witteveen, E

    2017-01-01

    Many patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) develop generalized muscle weakness. This condition, called intensive care unit- acquired weakness (ICU-AW), is caused by dysfunction or damage of muscles, nerves, or both. ICU-AW is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of ICU-AW is complex and remains to be elucidated. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of inflammation in ICU-AW. We reviewed the literature and we invest...

  2. The case against segregation in "specialized" care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, R

    Canadian public officials are demanding that prisons segregate HIV-positive individuals and require mandatory HIV testing similar to the procedures used in correctional institutions in the United States. These measures have been consistently rejected as ineffective and punitive in Canada. The commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) does not consider forced testing or segregation as a useful part of their HIV/AIDS strategy. The issue raises concerns about prisoners' rights. Proponents of segregation say that creating specialized care units in some Federal institutions would guarantee state-of-the-art care; others charge that it is an admission of substandard care throughout the system. Voluntary segregation forces prisoners to choose between health care and proximity to family. It also deters voluntary testing, as some prisoners will decline testing if they do not want to be moved to another facility. Segregation stigmatizes everyone associated with an institution that has a specialized care unit. There are also problems associated with combining prisoners of varying security levels in the same unit. Compassionate release is preferable to segregation.

  3. Gizmos and gadgets for the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mary Kay

    2006-08-01

    Managing the critical neuroscience patient population challenges practitioners because of both the devastating injury involved and the complexity of care required. Emerging technology provides the neuroscience intensive care unit team with better information on the intricate physiology and dynamics inside the cranium. In particular, the team is better able to detect changes in pressure, oxygen, and blood flow. With improved data in hand, the team can intervene to optimize intracranial dynamics, possibly reducing disability and death among such patients.

  4. Update of recommendations for Analgosedation in pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondardini, M C; Vasile, B; Amigoni, A; Baroncini, S; Conio, A; Mantovani, A; Corolli, E; Ferrero, F; Stoppa, F; Vigna, G; Lampugnani, E; L'Erario, M

    2014-09-01

    Effective and adequate therapy to control pain and stress are essential in managing children in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) undergoing painful invasive procedures, this should be, but is not yet, one of our main aims. Aware that this difficult mission must be pursued in a systematic, multimodal and multitasking way, the Studying Group on Analgosedation in PICU from the Italian Society of Neonatal and Paediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SARNePI) is providing its recommendations.

  5. Estimates of the need for palliative care consultation across united states intensive care units using a trigger-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, May S; Li, Guohua; Blinderman, Craig D; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-02-15

    Use of triggers for palliative care consultation has been advocated in intensive care units (ICUs) to ensure appropriate specialist involvement for patients at high risk of unmet palliative care needs. The volume of patients meeting these triggers, and thus the potential workload for providers, is unknown. To estimate the prevalence of ICU admissions who met criteria for palliative care consultation using different sets of triggers. Retrospective cohort study of ICU admissions from Project IMPACT for 2001-2008. We assessed the prevalence of ICU admissions meeting one or more primary palliative care triggers, and prevalence meeting any of multiple sets of triggers. Overall, 53,124 (13.8%) ICU admissions met one or more primary triggers for palliative care consultation. Variation in prevalence was minimal across different types of units (mean 13.3% in medical ICUs to 15.8% in trauma/burn ICUs; P = 0.41) and individual units (mean 13.8%, median 13.0%, interquartile range, 10.2-16.5%). A comprehensive model combining multiple sets of triggers identified a total of 75,923 (19.7%) ICU admissions requiring palliative care consultation; of them, 85.4% were captured by five triggers: (1) ICU admission after hospital stay greater than or equal to 10 days, (2) multisystem organ failure greater than or equal to three systems, (3) stage IV malignancy, (4) status post cardiac arrest, and (5) intracerebral hemorrhage requiring mechanical ventilation. Approximately one in seven ICU admissions met triggers for palliative care consultation using a single set of triggers, with an upper estimate of one in five patients using multiple sets of triggers; these estimates were consistent across different types of ICUs and individual units. These results may inform staffing requirements for providers to ensure delivery of specialized palliative care to ICU patients nationally.

  6. Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: Implications for Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nina R; Stanton, Marietta P

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a specific example of the disease trajectory for one patient's experience with intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). This case study provides those in case management with an overview of some of the common signs and symptoms of ICUAW, as well as the possible prognosis and recovery from ICUAW. The events in this case study take place in the acute care setting including the intensive care unit of a mid-sized health center, a general medical-surgical (med-surg) unit, and a long-term acute care facility. ICUAW affects the clinical, functional, and financial outcomes of patients. If the patient survives, their quality of life and the quality of life of their family members could be severely impacted. Case management practice has a significant role in coordinating care for those diagnosed with ICUAW. Case managers can use knowledge about ICUAW to improve the patient's transition throughout the hospital stay, improve discharge recommendations, and improve the patient's short-term and long-term outcomes. This may reduce unnecessary utilization of health care resources.

  7. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (Pneonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit) Guidelines for a Palliative Care Initiative in an ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eluned; Nakatsuka, Craig; Umbarger, Lillian; Ruta, Ruth; McCarty, Tracy; Machado, Cynthia; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: For improved utilization of the existing palliative care team in the intensive care unit (ICU), a process was needed to identify patients who might need a palliative care consultation in a timelier manner. Methods: A systematic method to create a new program that would be compatible with our specific ICU environment and patient population was developed. A literature review revealed a fairly extensive array of reports and numerous clinical practice guidelines, which were assessed for information and strategies that would be appropriate for our unit. Results: The recommendations provided by the Center to Advance Palliative Care from its Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were used to successfully implement a new palliative care initiative in our ICU. Conclusion: The guidelines provided by the Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were an important tool to direct the development of a new palliative care ICU initiative. PMID:28241905

  9. Guideline for stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Rørbaek; Lorentzen, Kristian; Clausen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is recommended in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. The present guideline from the Danish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Danish Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine sums...... critically ill patients in the ICU outside the context of randomized controlled trials (GRADE 1C). No robust evidence supports recommendations for subpopulations in the ICU such as septic, burn, trauma, cardiothoracic or enterally fed patients. However, if SUP is considered clinically indicated in individual...

  10. [The working process of a neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Patricia de Araújo; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the organization of the working process of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit through the relationships established between the social actors present in the micropolitical space. This study used an unconventional methodology, adapted to a qualitative study. A case series study was adopted, whose trajectory was referred to as sentinel-trajectory, through which it was possible to detect noises that affected the quality of the care provided. The analysis of the flowchart revealed weaknesses of the contract network, problems regarind the registers and documentations, and errors in the health care process.

  11. Nurse-Patient Communication Interactions in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth; Garrett, Kathryn; Thomas, Dana DiVirgilio; Tate, Judith; George, Elisabeth; Houze, Martin; Radtke, Jill; Sereika, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background The inability to speak during critical illness is a source of distress for patients, yet nurse-patient communication in the intensive care unit has not been systematically studied or measured. Objectives To describe communication interactions, methods, and assistive techniques between nurses and nonspeaking critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Methods Descriptive observational study of the nonintervention/usual care cohort from a larger clinical trial of nurse-patient communication in a medical and a cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit. Videorecorded interactions between 10 randomly selected nurses (5 per unit) and a convenience sample of 30 critically ill adults (15 per unit) who were awake, responsive, and unable to speak because of respiratory tract intubation were rated for frequency, success, quality, communication methods, and assistive communication techniques. Patients self-rated ease of communication. Results Nurses initiated most (86.2%) of the communication exchanges. Mean rate of completed communication exchange was 2.62 exchanges per minute. The most common positive nurse act was making eye contact with the patient. Although communication exchanges were generally (>70%) successful, more than one-third (37.7%) of communications about pain were unsuccessful. Patients rated 40% of the communication sessions with nurses as somewhat difficult to extremely difficult. Assistive communication strategies were uncommon, with little to no use of assistive communication materials (eg, writing supplies, alphabet or word boards). Conclusions Study results highlight specific areas for improvement in communication between nurses and nonspeaking patients in the intensive care unit, particularly in communication about pain and in the use of assistive communication strategies and communication materials. PMID:21362711

  12. Promoting Staff Resilience in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Jane; Forbes, Michael L; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J; Williams, Trisha; Sheets, Anna; Fischer, Kay; Niedner, Matthew F

    2015-09-01

    Health care professionals experience workplace stress, which may lead to impaired physical and mental health, job turnover, and burnout. Resilience allows people to handle stress positively. Little research is aimed at finding interventions to improve resilience in health care professionals. To describe the availability, use, and helpfulness of resilience-promoting resources and identify an intervention to implement across multiple pediatric intensive care units. A descriptive study collecting data on availability, utilization, and impact of resilience resources from leadership teams and individual staff members in pediatric intensive care units, along with resilience scores and teamwork climate scores. Leadership teams from 20 pediatric intensive care units completed the leadership survey. Individual surveys were completed by 1066 staff members (51% response rate). The 2 most used and impactful resources were 1-on-1 discussions with colleagues and informal social interactions with colleagues out of the hospital. Other resources (taking a break from stressful patients, being relieved of duty after your patient's death, palliative care support for staff, structured social activities out of hospital, and Schwartz Center rounds) were highly impactful but underused. Utilization and impact of resources differed significantly between professions, between those with higher versus lower resilience, and between individuals in units with low versus high teamwork climate. Institutions could facilitate access to peer discussions and social interactions to promote resilience. Highly impactful resources with low utilization could be targets for improved access. Differences in utilization and impact between groups suggest that varied interventions would be necessary to reach all individuals. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. Antibiogram of Medical Intensive Care Unit at Tertiary Care Hospital Setting of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qadeer, Aayesha; Akhtar, Aftab; Ain, Qurat Ul; Saadat, Shoab; Mansoor, Salman; Assad, Salman; Ishtiaq, Wasib; Ilyas, Abid; Khan, Ali Y; Ajam, Yousaf

    2016-01-01

    Objective:?To determine the frequency of micro-organisms causing sepsis as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of microorganisms isolated in a?medical intensive care unit. Materials and methods:?This is a?cross-sectional analysis of 802 patients from a?medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan over a one-year period from August 2015 to August 2016. Specimens collected were from blood, urine, endotracheal secretions, ca...

  14. Care zoning in a psychiatric intensive care unit: strengthening ongoing clinical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Antony; Drinkwater, Vincent; Lewin, Terry J

    2014-03-01

    To implement and evaluate the care zoning model in an eight-bed psychiatric intensive care unit and, specifically, to examine the model's ability to improve the documentation and communication of clinical risk assessment and management. Care zoning guides nurses in assessing clinical risk and planning care within a mental health context. Concerns about the varying quality of clinical risk assessment prompted a trial of the care zoning model in a psychiatric intensive care unit within a regional mental health facility. The care zoning model assigns patients to one of 3 'zones' according to their clinical risk, encouraging nurses to document and implement targeted interventions required to manage those risks. An implementation trial framework was used for this research to refine, implement and evaluate the impact of the model on nurses' clinical practice within the psychiatric intensive care unit, predominantly as a quality improvement initiative. The model was trialled for three months using a pre- and postimplementation staff survey, a pretrial file audit and a weekly file audit. Informal staff feedback was also sought via surveys and regular staff meetings. This trial demonstrated improvement in the quality of mental state documentation, and clinical risk information was identified more accurately. There was limited improvement in the quality of care planning and the documentation of clinical interventions. Nurses' initial concerns over the introduction of the model shifted into overall acceptance and recognition of the benefits. The results of this trial demonstrate that the care zoning model was able to improve the consistency and quality of risk assessment information documented. Care planning and evaluation of associated outcomes showed less improvement. Care zoning remains a highly applicable model for the psychiatric intensive care unit environment and is a useful tool in guiding nurses to carry out routine patient risk assessments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons

  15. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  16. Effects of stress management program on the quality of nursing care and intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanzadeh, Saied; Asgari, Zohreh; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    High level of stress in intensive care unit nurses affects the quality of their nursing care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of a stress management program on the quality of nursing care of intensive care unit nurses. This study is a randomized clinical trial that was conducted on 65 nurses. The samples were selected by stratified sampling of the nurses working in intensive care units 1, 2, 3 in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran and were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group underwent an intervention, including 10 sessions of stress management that was held twice a week. In the control group, placebo sessions were held simultaneously. Data were gathered by demographic checklist and Quality Patient Care Scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in both groups. Then, the data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS software version 18. Mean scores of overall and dimensions of quality of care in the intervention group were significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to pre-intervention (P quality of care in the intervention group was significantly higher immediately after and 1 month after the intervention, compared to the control group (P quality of care, the staffs are recommended to consider it in improvement of the quality of nursing care.

  17. [Nurses' perception, experience and knowledge of palliative care in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita-Susín, A B; Yoldi-Arzoz, E; Sánchez-Fernández, M; Zuazua-Ros, E; Vázquez-Calatayud, M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate provision of palliative care by nursing in intensive care units is essential to facilitate a "good death" to critically ill patients. To determine the perceptions, experiences and knowledge of intensive care nurses in caring for terminal patients. A literature review was conducted on the bases of Pubmed, Cinahl and PsicINFO data using as search terms: cuidados paliativos, UCI, percepciones, experiencias, conocimientos y enfermería and their alternatives in English (palliative care, ICU, perceptions, experiences, knowledge and nursing), and combined with AND and OR Boolean. Also, 3 journals in intensive care were reviewed. Twenty seven articles for review were selected, most of them qualitative studies (n=16). After analysis of the literature it has been identified that even though nurses perceive the need to respect the dignity of the patient, to provide care aimed to comfort and to encourage the inclusion of the family in patient care, there is a lack of knowledge of the end of life care in intensive care units' nurses. This review reveals that to achieve quality care at the end of life, is necessary to encourage the training of nurses in palliative care and foster their emotional support, to conduct an effective multidisciplinary work and the inclusion of nurses in decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  19. Preterm Admissions in a Special Care Baby Unit: The Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of all preterm admissions into the Special Care Bay Unit of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a period of 29 months (May 1998 October 2000) was carried out. Out of a total of 699 neonatal admissions, 133 (19 percent) were preterms with gestational ages ranging from 24 to ...

  20. Obstetric and gynaecological admissions in an intensive care unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Management of critically ill women in intensive care units (ICU) is crucial in reducing maternal mortality. This study sought to determine the ICU obstetric and gynaecology utilization rate, indications for admissions, assess the outcome and risk factors associated with mortality. Design/ settings: A retrospective ...

  1. Various scoring systems for predicting mortality in Intensive Care Unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... Context: Various scoring systems have been developed to predict mortality and morbidity in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), but different data has been reported so far. Aims: This retrospective clinical study aims to evaluate predictability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation. II (APACHE II) ...

  2. Utilisation of Intermediate Care Units : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plate, Joost D J; Leenen, Luke P H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071390596; Houwert, Marijn; Hietbrink, Falco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821713

    2017-01-01

    Background. The diversity in formats of Intermediate Care Units (IMCUs) makes it difficult to compare data from different settings. The purpose of this article was to describe and quantify these different formations and utilisation. Methods. We performed a systematic review extracting geographic

  3. An audit of unplanned postoperative intensive care unit admissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To carry out an audit of unplanned postoperative (anaesthetic and surgical) intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in our hospital. It was hoped that this would serve as a tool to assess the peri-operative management of surgical patients in our centre. Materials and methods. The hospital records of unbooked or ...

  4. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit measured by polysomnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J H; Boesen, Hans Christian Toft; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has deleterious effects on most organ systems. Patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) report sleep deprivation as the second worst experience during their stay only superseded by pain. The aim of the review is to provide the clinician with knowledge of the optimal sleep...

  5. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment if delirium in the intensive care unit. The page number in the footer is not for bibliographic referencing www.tandfonline.com/ojaa. 5. Table 1: Summary of DSM-5 criteria4. Diagnostic criteria: (a) Disturbance in attention (in terms of ability to direct, focus, sustain, or shift attention) and reduced awareness or ...

  6. Discomfort and factual recollection in intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, JP; van der Schans, CP; Loef, BG; Deelman, BG; Geertzen, JHB; Zwaveling, JH

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), although potentially life-saving, may cause considerable discomfort to patients. However, retrospective assessment of discomfort is difficult because recollection of stressful events may be impaired by sedation and severe illness during the ICU

  7. [Benefits of aromatherapy in dementia special care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilien, Corinne; Depas, Nathalie; Delaporte, Ghislaine; Baptiste, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Aromatherapy is classed as a non-pharmacological treatment, recognised as a therapy for certain disorders. This practice was the subject of a study in a special care unit for patients with dementia. The objective was to demonstrate the benefit of aromatherapy diffusion on major behavioural disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit | Kallenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium poses a significant burden on our healthcare, with patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at an increased risk for developing this disorder. In addition, the ICU environment poses unique challenges in the assessment of delirium. It is paramount that the healthcare provider has an understanding of delirium in ICU, ...

  9. Intelligent ventilation in the intensive care unit | Sviri | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Automated, microprocessor-controlled, closed-loop mechanical ventilation has been used in our Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at the Hadassah Hebrew-University Medical Center for the past 15 years; for 10 years it has been the primary (preferred) ventilator modality. Design and setting. We describe our ...

  10. Nursing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Nursing 205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varton, Deborah M.

    A description is provided of a course, "Nursing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit," offered for senior-level baccalaureate degree nursing students. The first section provides information on the place of the course within the curriculum, the allotment of class time, and target student populations. The next section looks at course content in…

  11. Human-centered environment design in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Albayrak, A.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Xiao, D.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of high risk and instability of the patients in Intensive care unit(ICU), the design of ICU is very difficult. ICU design, auxiliary building design, lighting design, noise control and other aspects can also enhance its management. In this paper, we compare ICU design in China and Holland

  12. [The multidisciplinary nature of support in a palliative care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Stéphanie

    2017-02-01

    A stay in a palliative care unit must not be considered as an end in itself but rather as the provision of specific support towards the end of life, whether it be in a hospital or before a return home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Rational Antimicrobial Use in an Intensive Care Unit in Jakarta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2010, Parisot et al evaluated the quality of antibiotic usage in intensive care units of two. Hospitals in France and results revealed that among 113 patients, 7 % were prescribed with too broad spectrum antimicrobial agents, 8 % unjustified associated, 20 % wrong posology, 1. % incorrect route of administration, 6 % wrong.

  14. Nosocomial Infections in Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 |. Address for correspondence: Dr. Mythri H,. Sree Siddhartha Dental College,. Tumkur ‑ 572 101, Karnataka, India. E‑mail: mythrisanya@gmail.com. Introduction. Infections in critical care unit are high, and of serious hospital problems.

  15. Nosocomial Infections in Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are a significant subgroup of all hospitalized patients, accounting for about a quarter of all hospital infections. Aim: The aim was to study, the current status of nosocomial infection, rate of infection and distribution of infection among patients admitted in Medical Intensive ...

  16. [Prophylaxis for stress ulcer bleeding in the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, J M; Jaramillo-Ramírez, H

    2014-01-01

    The critically ill patient can develop gastric erosions and, on occasion, stress ulcers with severe gastrointestinal bleeding that can be fatal. The purpose of this review was to provide current information on the pathophysiology, risk factors, and prophylaxis of digestive tract bleeding from stress ulcers in the intensive care unit. We identified articles through a PubMed search, covering the years 1970 to 2013. The most relevant articles were selected using the search phrases "stress ulcer", "stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis", and "stress-related mucosal bleeding" in combination with "intensive care unit". The incidence of clinically significant bleeding has decreased dramatically since 1980. The most important risk factors are respiratory failure and coagulopathy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used in stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis. Both drugs have been shown to be superior to placebo in reducing the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. Early enteral feeding has been shown to reduce the risk for stress ulcer bleeding, albeit in retrospective studies. Admittance to the intensive care unit in itself does not justify prophylaxis. PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. We should individualize the treatment of each patient in the intensive care unit, determining risk and evaluating the need to begin prophylaxis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion:  The average levels of noise in intensive care units and also emergency wards were  more than the standard levels and as it is known these wards have vital roles in treatment procedures, so more attention is needed in this area.

  18. Low Caspofungin Exposure in Patients in Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst , van der Kim C. M.; Veringa, Anette; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Klont, Rob; Brummelhuis-Visser, Petra; Uges, Donald R. A.; Touw, Daan J.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    In critically ill patients, drug exposure may be influenced by altered drug distribution and clearance. Earlier studies showed that the variability in caspofungin exposure was high in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the standard dose of

  19. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, M; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) may decrease the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), but the risk of infection may be increased. In this study, we aimed to describe SUP practices in adult ICUs. We hypothesised that patient selection...

  20. Intensive Care Unit Admissions in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia(FMCU) is a tertiary referral centre in Abia state, southeast Nigeria serving a catchment area made of Abia state and environs . An intensive care unit(ICU) was established in the hospital in December 2009 to improve healthcare delivery to critically ill patients. Objective: To ...

  1. Seasonal and recurrent intensive care unit admissions for acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life-threatening attacks of asthma requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town were noted to occur in some patients in the same or adjacent months of different years. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed of 21 such 'seasonal' patients who ...

  2. General surgical admissions in the intensive care unit in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has improved patient outcome in complex surgeries while the costs of maintaining services are high. ICU services in developing countries are often inadequate due to lack of funds. This study reviews the pattern and outcomes of General Surgical patients admitted to the ICU of our ...

  3. Rational Antimicrobial Use in an Intensive Care Unit in Jakarta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the rationality of antimicrobial usage and factors influencing it over the period of January to December 2010 in Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: Present study was conducted in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Gyssens method was used ...

  4. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [10] Furthermore, medication dosages in the PICU are often calculated on the basis of an estimated weight or body surface area. Dosing is almost always parenteral,. This open-access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

  5. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; Van Duijn, Pleun J.; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to

  6. Metabolic acid-base disorders in the critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Helio Autran; Bach, Jonathan F; DiBartola, Stephen P

    2008-05-01

    The recognition and management of acid-base disorders is a commonplace activity in the critical care unit, and the role of weak and strong acids in the genesis of metabolic acid-base disorders is reviewed. The clinical approach to patients with metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis is discussed in this article.

  7. Thrombocytopenia in intensive care unit: is it related to acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most common infections in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit is acquired pneumonia, which has a considerable mortality and morbidity. Low platelet count is considered one of the most common laboratory abnormal finding in ICU, and in this study we are trying to correlate it with ICU ...

  8. The Intensive Care Unit of the University Teaching Hospital, Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria, over a 10 - year period (October 1991 - Sept. 2001). This period marks the first decade of the establishment of our ICU. The purpose of this study is to describe the ...

  9. Complementary Health Approaches Used in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Zeynep; Atik, Derya

    Intensive care units are care centers where, in order to provide the maximum benefit to individuals whose life is in danger, many lifesaving technological tools and devices are present, and morbidity and mortality rates are high. In the intensive care unit, when classic treatments fail or become unbearable because of side effects, complementary methods have been suggested to be the best alternative. Complementary health approaches are methods that are used both for the continuation and the improvement of the well-being of an individual and as additions to medical treatments that are based on a holistic approach. These applications are especially helpful in the treatment of the stresses, anxieties, and other symptoms of unstable patients in the intensive care unit who do not tolerate traditional treatment methods well, increasing their psychological and physiological well-being, helping them sleep and rest. In intensive care patients, in order to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, antiemetic and medicine needs, mechanical ventilation duration, and the intensity of the disease as well as to cope with symptoms such as pain, anxiety, physiological parameters, dyspnea, and sleep problems, body-mind interventions such as massage, reflexology, acupressure, aromatherapy, music therapy, energy therapies (healing touch, therapeutic touch, the Yakson method), and prayer are used as complementary health approaches.

  10. [Palliative care in the intensive cardiac care unit: a new competence for the cardiac intensivist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Massimo; Bertona, Roberta; Zorzoli, Federica; Villani, Rosvaldo

    2017-10-01

    Admissions to the intensive care unit at the end of life of patients with chronic non-malignant diseases are increasing. This involves the need for the development of palliative care culture and competence, also in the field of intensive cardiology. Palliative care should be implemented in the treatment of all patients with critical stages of disease, irrespective of prognosis, in order to improve the quality of care at the end of life.This review analyzes in detail the main clinical, ethical and communicational issues to move toward the introduction of basics of palliative care in cardiac intensive care units. It outlines the importance of shared decision-making with the patient and his family, with special attention to withholding/withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments, palliative sedation, main symptom control, patient and family psychological support.

  11. [Neonatal intensive care units make new practices possible in the care of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberta; Padilha, Maria Itayra

    2011-06-01

    This is a qualitative research with a socio-historical approach. It aims to understand how practices of care to the newborn were established in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Florianopolis, Brazil, in the 1980's. The study's context was the Child's Hospital Joana de Gusmão. Interviewed for this research were health professionals that had a role in the NICU implementation. The analysis of the data was performed using Foucault's genealogical method. Four discursive groups were identified: Many children had gains with that; We learned how to care for newborns; A more scientific view of care was lacking; Sensible, humanized and individualized care. The establishment of a specific unit directed to newborns resulted in a reduction in neonatal morbimortality and in the acquisition of scientific knowledge. The health professionals' speeches show that, since the beginning of the NICU, there was a concern with the sensible, humanized and individualized care of the newborn.

  12. End-of-life care in intensive care unit: Family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisorio, Leah C; Langley, Gayle C

    2016-08-01

    To elicit family members' experiences of end-of-life care in adult intensive care units. A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select a sample of seventeen family members who had relatives receiving end-of-life care in the intensive care units at three academic affiliated, tertiary/quaternary specialist hospitals in the Johannesburg and Pretoria regions, South Africa. An interview guide was used to facilitate individual, semi-structured interviews with the selected participants. Data collection and analysis took place simultaneously as interviews were transcribed verbatim immediately after the interview. Tesch's (1990) steps of analysis were used to establish the major themes that arose from the data. Lincoln and Guba's (1985) criteria for ensuring trustworthiness of qualitative research were applied. Five major themes emerged: "most of the time we are in darkness", "emotional support", "involvement", "family presence" and "spiritual support". The findings reflect inadequate care to the families who had dying relatives in the intensive care unit. Negative experiences expressed by the families outweighed their positive experiences, as most families were not happy with the care observed or personally received while their relatives were in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of physiotherapy in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, N

    1988-01-01

    The role of physiotherapy in the neonatal intensive care unit has historically been mainly associated with the care of the neonate's lungs. Postural drainage coupled with percussion, vibrations and suction are all used in the physiotherapy management of neonatal respiratory disorders. At Monash Medical Centre all elective extubations are performed by the physiotherapist in accordance with the neonatal unit's protocol: this includes four hourly respiratory physiotherapy for the first 24 hours after extubation to ensure that post-extubation atelectasis does not occur. In addition to respiratory care, the physiotherapist is also engaged in the assessment and management of neonates with either neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  14. Review of noise in neonatal intensive care units regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Abril, A.; Terrón, A.; Boschi, C.; Gómez, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed.

  15. Review of noise in neonatal intensive care units - regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Abril, A [National Technological University, Regional Bioengineering Institute, Mendoza (Argentina); Terron, A; Boschi, C [National Technological University, Regional Bioengineering Institute, Mendoza (Argentina); Gomez, M [National Technological University, La Rioja (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed.

  16. Patients’ Admissions in Intensive Care Units: A Clustering Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care is a critical area of medicine having a multidisciplinary nature requiring all types of healthcare professionals. Given the critical environment of intensive care units (ICUs, the need to use information technologies, like decision support systems, to improve healthcare services and ICU management is evident. It is proven that unplanned and prolonged admission to the ICU is not only prejudicial to a patient's health, but also such a situation implies a readjustment of ICU resources, including beds, doctors, nurses, financial resources, among others. By discovering the common characteristics of the admitted patients, it is possible to improve these outcomes. In this study clustering techniques were applied to data collected from admitted patients in an intensive care unit. The best results presented a silhouette of 1, with a distance to centroids of 6.2 × 10−17 and a Davies–Bouldin index of −0.652.

  17. Obesity in the intensive care unit: risks and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU.

  18. [Cultural meaning of humanized care at intensive care units: "lots of words, little action"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Vanessa da Silva Carvalho; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    This work consists in an ethnographic study which aimed at understanding the cultural meaning attributed by nursing teams to humanized care in Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital of Goiás Federal University. Participant observations and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection with nursing teams at their workplace. Three main categories emerged from the data: humanized care--"love the other as you love yourself"; humanized care--"it's not present as it should be"; stress and suffering--"the ones who care need to be looked after". The cultural theme that emerged from the data was: the humanized care--"a lot is said about it, but little is experienced". This theme emphasize the reality of the care at the ICU that involves a nursing team with the humanization concept synthesized on the expression: "love the other as you love yourself"; but in a practical way, the caring process does not reveal this deep thought.

  19. A developmental care framework for a cardiac intensive care unit: a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torowicz, Deborah; Lisanti, Amy Jo; Rim, Jeong-Sook; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Within the past several decades, medical and surgical advancements have dramatically decreased mortality rates in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease. Although patients are surviving in greater numbers, little research is reported on issues related to newborn care for these at-risk infants. A developmental care model was introduced to the nursing staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, which included 5 core measures to support evidence-based developmental care practices: (1) sleep, pain, and stress assessment; (2) management of daily living; (3) positioning, feeding, and skin care; (4) family-centered care; and (5) a healing environment. The care practices were adapted to the specific issues of the late preterm and full-term infant who has experienced neonatal cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the process of implementing a development model of care in a cardiac intensive care unit.

  20. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A.; Aneman, A.; Guttormsen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units...... (ICUs) are unknown. METHODS: In March-May 2007, 120 Scandinavian ICUs were invited to answer a web-based survey consisting of 18 questions on types of colloids, indications, contraindications and rationale of use. RESULTS: Seventy-three ICUs, of which 31 were university hospital units, answered...... the questionnaire. Most ICUs used both synthetic and natural colloids, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was the preferred colloid in 59 units. Eleven ICUs had protocols for colloid use. The most frequent indication was second-line fluid for hypovolaemia, but one in three ICUs used colloids as first-line fluid...

  1. Knowledge and nursing practice of critical care nurses caring for patients with delirium in intensive care units in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Farhan, Ne'ameh Abbas; Othman, Elham Hani; Yacoub, Mohammed Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Delirium can have serious consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. An extensive literature review showed that delirium is not well understood, recognized, or managed by medical and nursing professionals. The goal for this study was to determine the level of knowledge and management skills among critical care nurses caring for patients with delirium who were treated in intensive care units (ICUs) in Jordan. A total of 232 critical care nurses, employed in different ICUs in Jordan, completed self-reported questionnaires. The nurses in critical care units who completed the questionnaires identified a need for more delirium-specific knowledge and skills to assess and manage this condition more effectively. To enhance health outcomes for patients treated in the ICU who have delirium, nurses need to receive education on current assessment and management modalities. These regular education programs should be complemented with evaluative research focusing on both nursing care and patient outcomes. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Patient's dignity in intensive care unit: A critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Farimah Shirani; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining patient's dignity in intensive care units is difficult because of the unique conditions of both critically-ill patients and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to uncover the cultural factors that impeded maintaining patients' dignity in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. The study was conducted using a critical ethnographic method proposed by Carspecken. Participants and research context: Participants included all physicians, nurses and staffs working in the study setting (two cardiac surgery intensive care units). Data collection methods included participant observations, formal and informal interviews, and documents assessment. In total, 200 hours of observation and 30 interviews were performed. Data were analyzed to uncover tacit cultural knowledge and to help healthcare providers to reconstruct the culture of their workplace. Ethical Consideration: Ethical approval for the study from Ethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was obtained. The findings of the study fell into the following main themes: "Presence: the guarantee for giving enough attention to patients' self-esteem", "Instrumental and objectified attitudes", "Adherence to the human equality principle: value-action gap", "Paternalistic conduct", "Improper language", and "Non-interactive communication". The final assertion was "Reductionism as a major barrier to the maintaining of patient's dignity". The prevailing atmosphere in subculture of the CSICU was reductionism and paternalism. This key finding is part of the biomedical discourse. As a matter of fact, it is in contrast with dignified care because the latter necessitate holistic attitudes and approaches. Changing an ICU culture is not easy; but through increasing awareness and critical self-reflections, the nurses, physicians and other healthcare providers, may be able to reaffirm dignified care and cure in their therapeutic relationships.

  3. Triggers and nursing influences on delirium in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jinshi; Jin, Yinji; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-28

    Among care providers, nurses have the most influence on the occurrence of delirium in patients. To identify and investigate the risk factors associated with delirium and analyse the nurse's influence on delirium, a secondary data analysis approach was used with clinical data from the electronic medical record and health care provider data from the management information systems of a university hospital. Data of 3284 patients (delirium = 688, non-delirium = 2596) hospitalized in the medical and surgical intensive care units containing 2178 variables were analysed. Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model was applied to categorize the factors for multilevel hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Sixteen factors (10 patient factors, 1 provider factor, 1 environmental factor, 2 nursing intervention factors and 2 medical intervention factors) were identified as significant in the final model. Longer intensive care unit experience of nurses did not decrease the risk of delirium. Greater number of nursing intervention needs and greater use of restraints were associated with an increased risk of delirium. The duration of nursing career did not affect the reduction of the risk of delirium. Nurses should therefore endeavour to acquire nursing experience specific for delirium care and attend training courses for delirium management. © 2016 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. [Organization of mechanical ventilation in French Intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montravers, P; Ichai, C; Dupont, H; Payen, J F; Orliaguet, G; Blanchet, P; Malledant, Y; Albanèse, J; Asehnoune, K; Bastien, O; Collange, O; Duranteau, J; Garrigues, B; Lepape, A; Paugam-Burtz, C

    2013-11-01

    To clarify the procedures related to mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit setting: allocation of ventilators, team education, maintenance and reference documents. Declarative survey. Between September and December 2010, we assessed the assignment and types of ventilators (ICU ventilators, temporary repair ventilators, non-invasive ventilators [NIV], and transportation ventilators), medical and nurse education, maintenance of the ventilators, presence of reference documents. Results are expressed in median/range and proportions. Among the 62 participating ICUs, a median of 15 ventilators/ICU (range 1-50) was reported with more than one trademark in 47 (76%) units. Specific ventilators were used for NIV in 22 (35%) units, temporary repair in 49 (79%) and transportation in all the units. Nurse education courses were given by ICU physicians in 54 (87%) units or by a company in 29 (47%) units. Medical education courses were made by ICU senior physicians in 55 (89%) units or by a company in 21 (34%) units. These courses were organized occasionally in 24 (39%) ICU and bi-annually in 16 (26%) units. Maintenance procedures were made by the ICU staff in 39 (63%) units, dedicated staff (17 [27%]) or bioengineering technicians (14 [23%] ICU). Reference documents were written for maintenance procedures in 48 (77%) units, ventilator setup in 22 (35%) units and ventilator dysfunction in 20 (32%) ICU. This first survey shows disparate distribution of ventilators and practices among French ICU. Education and understanding of the proper use of ventilators are key issues for security improvement. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Career Choice and Primary Care in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, Nicoline; Ibrahim, Halah; Shaban, Sami; Perez, Maria Nichole; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2015-12-01

    The low number of medical trainees entering primary care is contributing to the lack of access to primary care services in many countries. Despite the need for primary care physicians in the Middle East, there is limited information regarding trainees' career choices, a critical determinant in the supply of primary care physicians. We analyzed the career choices of medical students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with a larger goal of reforming postgraduate training in the region and enhancing the focus on primary care. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of applicants to a large established internal medicine residency program in the UAE. We calculated data for demographics, subspecialty choice, and factors affecting subspecialty choice, and we also reported descriptive statistics. Our response rate was 86% (183 of 212). Only 25% of applicants (n = 46) were interested in general internal medicine. The majority of respondents (n = 126, 69%) indicated a desire to pursue subspecialty training, and the remainder chose careers in research or administration. A majority of respondents (73%) were women, unmarried, and childless. Educational debt or lifestyle were not indicated as important factors in career choice. Low interest in primary care was similar to that in many Western countries, despite a much higher percentage of female applicants and a reduced emphasis on lifestyle or income factors in career decisions. Reasons for the reduced interest in primary care deserve further exploration, as do tests of interventions to increase interest, such as improving the primary care clerkship experience.

  6. Cost effectiveness of chest pain unit care in the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wailoo Allan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute chest pain is responsible for approximately 700,000 patient attendances per year at emergency departments in England and Wales. A single centre study of selected patients suggested that chest pain unit (CPU care could be less costly and more effective than routine care for these patients, although a more recent multi-centre study cast doubt on the generalisability of these findings. Methods Our economic evaluation involved modelling data from the ESCAPE multi-centre trial along with data from other sources to estimate the comparative costs and effects of CPU versus routine care. Cost effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY were generated from our model. Results We found that CPU compared to routine care resulted in a non-significant increase in effectiveness of 0.0075 QALYs per patient and a non-significant cost decrease of £32 per patient and thus a negative incremental cost effectiveness ratio. If we are willing to pay £20,000 for an additional QALY then there is a 70% probability that CPU care will be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Our analysis shows that CPU care is likely to be slightly more effective and less expensive than routine care, however, these estimates are surrounded by a substantial amount of uncertainty. We cannot reliably conclude that establishing CPU care will represent a cost-effective use of health service resources given the substantial amount of investment it would require.

  7. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means.

  8. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  9. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Family Satisfaction With Care Delivered in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathleen; Milner, Kerry A; Beck, Marlene; Mason, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    In our competitive health care environment, measuring the experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit to ensure that health care providers are meeting families' needs is critical. Surveys from Press Ganey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are unable to capture families' satisfaction with care in this setting. To implement a sustainable measure for family satisfaction in a 12-bed medical and surgical intensive care unit. To assess the feasibility of the selected tool for measuring family satisfaction and to make recommendations that are based on the results. A descriptive survey design using the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire to measure satisfaction with care and decision-making. Forty family members completed the survey. Overall, the mean score for families' satisfaction with care was 72.24% (SD, 14.87%) and the mean score for families' satisfaction with decision-making was 72.03% (SD, 16.61%). Families reported that nurses put them at ease and provided understandable explanations. Collaboration, inclusion of families in clinical discussions, and timely information regarding changes in the patient's condition were the most common points brought up in free-text responses from family members. Written communication, including directions and expectations, would have improved the families' experience. Although patients' family members reported being satisfied with their experience in the intensive care unit, there is room for improvement. Effective communication among the health care team, patients' families, and patients will be targeted for quality improvement initiatives. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Human factors issues in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Kathleen A; Marc, David

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an aging population, more critically ill patients, and a change in intensive care unit (ICU) services stemming from advances in technology, prevalent medical errors and staff burnout in the ICU are not surprising. The ICU provides ample opportunity for human factors experts to apply their knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of human capabilities to design more effective care delivery. Human factors experts design work processes, technology, and environmental factors to effectively and constructively channel the attention and behavior of those providing care; a few areas of focus can have marked impacts on care delivery and patient outcomes. In this review, we focus on these 3 areas and investigate the solutions and problems addressed by previous research.

  12. Hospital Magnet® Designation and Missed Nursing Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Pickler, Rita H; Mara, Constance A; Othman, Mohammad; Kovacs, Allison; Mark, Barbara A

    Missed nursing care is an emerging measure of front-line nursing care effectiveness in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Given Magnet® hospitals' reputations for nursing care quality, missed care comparisons with non-Magnet® hospitals may yield insights about how Magnet® designation influences patient outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the relationship between hospital Magnet® designation and 1) the occurrence of nurse-reported missed care and 2) reasons for missed nursing care between NICU nurses employed in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals. A random sample of certified neonatal intensive care unit nurses was invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2012; data were analyzed from nurses who provided direct patient care (n=230). Logistic regression was used to model relationships between Magnet® designation and reports of the occurrence of and reasons for missed care while controlling for nurse and shift characteristics. There was no relationship between Magnet® designation and missed care occurrence for 34 of 35 types of care. Nurses in Magnet® hospitals were significantly less likely to report tensions and communication breakdowns with other staff, lack of familiarity with policies/procedures, and lack of back-up support from team members as reasons for missed care. Missed nursing care in NICUs occurs regardless of hospital Magnet® recognition. However, nurses' reasons for missed care systematically differ in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals and these differences merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Delirium in Prolonged Hospitalized Patients in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian Azimi, Amir; Ebadi, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Saadat, Soheil

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) can impose long-term psychological effects on patients. One of the most significant psychological effects from prolonged hospitalization is delirium. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prolonged hospitalization of patients and subsequent delirium in the intensive care unit. This conventional content analysis study was conducted in the General Intensive Care Unit of the Shariati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from the beginning of 2013 to 2014. All prolonged hospitalized patients and their families were eligible participants. From the 34 eligible patients and 63 family members, the final numbers of actual patients and family members were 9 and 16, respectively. Several semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with patients and their families in a private room and data were gathered. Two main themes from two different perspectives emerged, 'patients' perspectives' (experiences during ICU hospitalization) and 'family members' perspectives' (supportive-communicational experiences). The main results of this study focused on delirium, Patients' findings were described as pleasant and unpleasant, factual and delusional experiences. Family members are valuable components in the therapeutic process of delirium. Effective use of family members in the delirium caring process can be considered to be one of the key non-medical nursing components in the therapeutic process.

  14. Efficacy beliefs predict collaborative practice among intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, Pascale M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Nap, Raoul E

    2010-03-01

    This paper is a report of an investigation of whether intensive care nurses' efficacy beliefs predict future collaborative practice, and to test the potential mediating role of team commitment in this relationship. Recent empirical studies in the field of work and organizational psychology have demonstrated that (professional) efficacy beliefs are reciprocally related to workers' resources and well-being over time, resulting in a positive gain spiral. Moreover, there is ample evidence that workers' affective commitment to their organization or work-team is related to desirable work behaviours such as citizenship behaviour. A longitudinal design was applied to questionnaire data from the EURICUS-project. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data. The sample consisted of 372 nurses working in 29 different European intensive care units. Data were collected in 1997 and 1998. However, our research model deals with fundamental psychosocial processes that are not time-dependent. Moreover, recent empirical literature shows that there is still room for improvement in ICU collaborative practice. The hypotheses that (i) the relationship between efficacy beliefs and collaborative practice is mediated by team commitment and (ii) efficacy beliefs, team commitment and collaborative practice are reciprocally related were supported, suggesting a potential positive gain spiral of efficacy beliefs. Healthcare organizations should create working environments that provide intensive care unit nurses with sufficient resources to perform their job well. Further research is needed to design and evaluate interventions for the enhancement of collaborative practice in intensive care units.

  15. [Analysis of NIC interventions in a neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Rodríguez, Dolores; Gómez, Dolores; Estrella, Pilar; Liz, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the nursing interventions NIC developed in the clinical practice by specialized nurses in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Descriptive study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of University Complex Hospital of León. The study population included all the neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 1 march to 30 november of 2011. Database was created with the statistical program Epi Info where NIC interventions were collected between the selected by the panel of experts. We collected a sum of 283 records of 44 neonates admitted with an average weight of 1705.5 gr and 14.3 days of age. Nurses have performed a total of 8861 NIC interventions. The highest percentage of interventions (47,1%) belong to the complex physiological domain, followed by the basic physiological (17,7%). We found 40,1%; 30,6% and 29,1% interventions in the early, late and night shifts. The highest percentage of interventions belong to the complex physiological domain although we can conclude that in the nursing clinical practice the solution of problems not only depend of interventions in that area but other areas such as family key intervention in the neonatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nu...... predictors of insufficient enteral nutrition. CONCLUSION: The use of a nurse-driven feeding protocol improves the delivery of enteral nutrition in ICU patients without concomitant increases in gastrointestinal symptoms or intra-abdominal hypertension.......AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...

  17. [Bone Fractures in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Angela; Rocha, Gustavo; Silva, Ana Isabel; Alegrete, Nuno; Guimarães, Hercília

    2015-01-01

    Fractures during the neonatal period are rare. Some fractures, especially long bones, may occur during birth. Moreover, neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit have an increased risk of fractures for several reasons. To evaluate the incidence and characterize fractures in newborns admitted in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A retrospective analysis of the newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis at discharge of one or more bone fractures from January 1996 to June 2013. Eighty neonates had one or more fractures. In 76 (95%) infants the fractures were attributed to birth injury. The most common fracture was the clavicle fracture in 60 (79%) neonates, followed by skull fracture in 6 (8%). In two (2.5%) neonates, extremely low birth weight infants, fractures were interpreted as resulting from osteopenia of prematurity. Both had multiple fractures, and one of them with several ribs. A change in obstetric practices allied to improvement premature neonateâÄôs care contributed to the decreased incidence of fractures in neonatal period. But in premature infants the diagnosis may be underestimated, given the high risk of fracture that these infants present.

  18. [Environmental noise levels in 2 intensive care units in a tertiary care centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Zárate-Coronado, Olivia; Gaxiola-González, Fabiola; Neyoy-Sombra, Venigna

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a maximum noise level of 40 decibels (dB) for an intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to compare the noise levels in 2 different intensive care units at a tertiary care centre. Using a cross-sectional design study, an analysis was made of the maximum noise level was within the intensive coronary care unit and intensive care unit using a digital meter. A measurement was made in 4 different points of each room, with 5minute intervals, for a period of 60minutes 7:30, 14:30, and 20:30. The means of the observations were compared with descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U. An analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to the mean noise level. The noise observed in the intensive care unit had a mean of 64.77±3.33dB (P=.08), which was similar to that in the intensive coronary care unit, with a mean of 60.20±1.58dB (P=.129). Around 25% or more of the measurements exceeded the level recommended by the WHO by up to 20 points. Noise levels measured in intensive care wards exceed the maximum recommended level for a hospital. It is necessary to design and implement actions for greater participation of health personnel in the reduction of environmental noise. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilisation of Intermediate Care Units: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost D. J. Plate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diversity in formats of Intermediate Care Units (IMCUs makes it difficult to compare data from different settings. The purpose of this article was to describe and quantify these different formations and utilisation. Methods. We performed a systematic review extracting geographic location, nomenclature used, admitting specialties, open (admitting specialist in charge or closed (intensivist/generalist in charge management format, location in hospital, number of beds, nursing workload, medical staff to patient ratios, and modalities—possibilities and limitations—implemented. Results. Nomenclature used was High Dependency Unit (56.8% or Intermediate Care Unit (24.3%, with the latter one increasingly being used recently. The median number of beds was 6 (IQR 4–10. Location (p<0.001 and admitting specialties (p=0.03 were related to the management format. IMCUs integrated or adjacent to Intensive Care Units were more often capable of using single vasoactive medication (p=0.025. The mean nurse to patient ratio was 1 to 2.5. Conclusions. IMCUs often have a specific task in a hospital, which is reflected in location, format, and utilisation. The management format depends on location and admitting specialist while incorporated supportive treatment modules reflect its function. Common IMCU denominators are continuous monitoring and respiratory support, without mechanical ventilation and multiple vasoactive medications.

  20. Care With The Potential Organ Donor In The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Patrícia Barreto de Carvalho

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organ transplants have expanded throughout the country, being extremely significant for the population. Objective: To know the reality of organ harvesting and describe the care with the potential organ donor in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU and compare it with the pertinent literature. Method: It is a research of exploratory and descriptive nature, with a qualitative approach. The data were analyzed through the content analysis idealized by Bardin. Results: The findings indicate that the resolution of care and procedures with the potential donor is essential to the success of transplants in our country. Conclusions: Several difficulties have been encountered, as the lack of human and material resources generating impasses in the specific care of the potential organ donor and the lack of provision of continuing education. Keywords: Organ donation; Intensive Care Unit; Nursing.

  1. Ethical challenges when intensive care unit patients refuse nursing care: A narrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Eva Martine; Sørlie, Venke

    2016-03-01

    Less sedated and more awake patients in the intensive care unit may cause ethical challenges. The purpose of this study is to describe ethical challenges registered nurses experience when patients refuse care and treatment. Narrative individual open interviews were conducted, and data were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method developed for researching life experiences. Three intensive care registered nurses from an intensive care unit at a university hospital in Norway were included. Norwegian Social Science Data Services approved the study. Permission was obtained from the intensive care unit leader. The participants' informed and voluntary consent was obtained in writing. Registered nurses experienced ethical challenges in the balance between situations of deciding on behalf of the patient, persuading the patient and letting the patient decide. Ethical challenges were related to patients being harmful to themselves, not keeping up personal hygiene and care or hindering critical treatment. It is made apparent how professional ethics may be threatened by more pragmatic arguments. In recent years, registered nurses are faced with increasing ethical challenges to do no harm and maintain dignity. Ethically challenging situations are emerging, due to new targets including conscious and aware critical care patients, leaving an altered responsibility on the registered nurses. Reflection is required to adjust the course when personal and professional ideals no longer are in harmony with the reality in the clinical practice. RNs must maintain a strong integrity as authentic human beings to provide holistic nursing care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Current nursing practice of point-of-care laboratory diagnostic testing in critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, L S; Parrish, R S; Goran, S F; Biel, M H

    1995-11-01

    The development of user-friendly laboratory analyzers, combined with the need for rapid assessment of critically ill patients, has led to the performance of in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care by personnel without formal laboratory training. To determine the range of laboratory testing performed by critical care nurses and their attitudes toward this role. A survey of critical care nursing consultants was conducted, using a modified Likert scale, to assess objective measures of point-of-care testing practice in critical care units and to determine nurses' attitudes toward the practice of point-of-care testing. Statistical analysis was performed to determine significant trends in responses. Of the units responding to the survey, 35% used critical care nurses exclusively to perform point-of-care testing, 32.5% used laboratory technicians and critical care nurses, and 25% used other personnel. Of critical care nurses performing laboratory testing, 95.5% performed blood glucose analysis; 18.7%, arterial blood gas analysis; 4.5%, electrolyte analysis; 4.5%, hematology profiles; and 22.7%, other testing. Most agreed that stat tests were not reported promptly, thereby necessitating bedside testing. Respondents indicated that they would prefer that laboratory personnel operate in vitro diagnostic equipment and that requirements for critical care nurses to perform laboratory testing detracted from other patient care duties. Most nurses who perform point-of-care testing responded that it was necessary and helpful in patient management. However, they would prefer, because of their other patient care responsibilities, that laboratory personnel take this responsibility.

  3. Giving a nutritional fast hug in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monares Zepeda, Enrique; Galindo Martín, Carlos Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Implementing a nutrition support protocol in critical care is a complex and dynamic process that involves the use of evidence, education programs and constant monitoring. To facilitate this task we developed a mnemonic tool called the Nutritional FAST HUG (F: feeding, A: analgesia, S: stools, T: trace elements, H: head of bed, U: ulcers, G: glucose control) with a process also internally developed (both modified from the mnemonic proposed by Jean Louis Vincent) called MIAR (M: measure, I: interpret, A: act, R: reanalysis) showing an easy form to perform medical rounds at the intensive care unit using a systematic process. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses in an intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicia de Holanda Cabral; Ítalo Rigoberto Cavalcante Andrade; Elizabeth Mesquita Melo; Tatiana de Medeiros Colletti Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    To identify the main nursing diagnostic titles used in the care of critically ill patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit, verifying the presence thereof in the diagnoses of NANDA International’s Taxonomy II. Methods: descriptive and documental study, in which 69 medical records of patients aged over 18 years were consulted. Results: 22 nursing diagnostic titles were found; the most frequent was risk for infection (99.0%), risk for skin integrity (75.0%) and risk for aspiration (61.0%...

  5. Care of Acute Gastrointestinal Conditions in the Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason J; Ordonez, Edgar; Wilkerson, R Gentry

    2017-08-01

    The Emergency Department Observation Unit (EDOU) provides a viable alternative to inpatient admission for the management of many acute gastrointestinal conditions with additional opportunities of reducing resource utilization and reducing radiation exposure. Using available evidence-based criteria to determine appropriate patient selection, evaluation, and treatment provides higher-quality medical care and improved patient satisfaction. Discussions of factors involved in creating an EDOU capable of caring for acute gastrointestinal conditions and clinical protocol examples of acute appendicitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and acute pancreatitis provide a framework from which a successful EDOU can be built. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Care of Neurologic Conditions in an Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Matthew A; Ross, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    As a group, neurologic conditions represent a substantial portion of emergency department (ED) visits. Cerebrovascular disease, headache, vertigo and seizures are all common reasons for patients to seek care in the ED. Patients being treated for each of these conditions are amenable to care in an ED observation unit (EDOU) if they require further diagnostic or therapeutic interventions beyond their ED stay. EDOUs are the ideal setting for patients who require advanced imaging such as MRIs, frequent neuro checks or specialist consultation in order to determine if they require admission or can be discharged home. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Care of Infectious Conditions in an Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pawan; Aurora, Taruna K

    2017-08-01

    Infectious conditions such as skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), Urogenital infections and peritonsillar abscesses frequently require care beyond emergency stabilization and are well-suited for short term care in an observation unit. SSTIs are a growing problem, partly due to emergence of strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Antibiotic choice is guided by the presence of purulence and site of infection. Purulent cellulitis is much more likely to be associated with MRSA. Radiographic imaging should be considered to aid in management in patients who are immunosuppressed, have persistent symptoms despite antibiotic therapy, recurrent infections, sepsis or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Status of neonatal intensive care units in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality in India accounts for 50% of infant mortality, which has declined to 84/1000 live births. There is no prenatal care for over 50% of pregnant women, and over 80% deliver at home in unsafe and unsanitary conditions. Those women who do deliver in health facilities are unable to receive intensive neonatal care when necessary. Level I and Level II neonatal care is unavailable in most health facilities in India, and in most developing countries. There is a need in India for Level III care units also. The establishment of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs in India and developing countries would require space and location, finances, equipment, staff, protocols of care, and infection control measures. Neonatal mortality could be reduced by initially adding NICUs at a few key hospitals. The recommendation is for 30 NICU beds per million population. Each bed would require 50 square feet per cradle and proper climate control. Funds would have to be diverted from adult care. The largest expenses would be in equipment purchase, maintenance, and repair. Trained technicians would be required to operate and monitor the sophisticated ventilators and incubators. The nurse-patient ratio should be 1:1 and 1:2 for other infants. Training mothers to work in the NICUs would help ease the problems of trained nursing staff shortages. Protocols need not be highly technical; they could include the substitution of radiant warmers and room heaters for expensive incubators, the provision of breast milk, and the reduction of invasive procedures such as venipuncture and intubation. Nocosomial infections should be reduced by vacuum cleaning and wet mopping with a disinfectant twice a day, changing disinfectants periodically, maintaining mops to avoid infection, decontamination of linen, daily changing of tubing, and cleaning and sterilizing oxygen hoods and resuscitation equipment, and maintaining an iatrogenic infection record book, which could be used to

  9. Monitoring the injured brain in the intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of managing patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care unit is to minimise secondary injury by maintaining cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. The mechanisms of secondary injury are frequently triggered by secondary insults, which may be subtle and remain undetected by the usual systemic physiological monitoring. Continuous monitoring of the central nervous system in the intensive care unit can serve two functions. Firstly it will help early detection of these secondary cerebral insults so that appropriate interventions can be instituted. Secondly, it can help to monitor therapeutic interventions and provide online feedback. This review focuses on the monitoring of intracranial pressure, blood flow to the brain (Transcranial Doppler, cerebral oxygenation using the methods of jugular bulb oximetry, near infrared spectroscopy and implantable sensors, and the monitoring of function using electrophysiological techniques.

  10. Teamwork as a nursing competence at Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim in this study was to identify how Intensive Care Unit nurses perceive professional competences in thecare team. Methodology. Qualitative multiple case study with an exploratory focus. The sample consisted of 24 nurses from Intensive Care Units (ICU at two large hospitals. To collect the information, direct observation and - structured, non-structuredand participant - interviews were used. Results. Ninety-six percent of the participants were women, 79% were less than 40 years old, and 63% possessed less than five years of professional experience in ICU. Data analysis revealed three study categories: teamwork as a nursing management tool, improving teamwork, and interpersonal communication for teamwork. Conclusion. At the ICU where the nurses work, a teamwork strategy is observed, which demands cooperation and participation by other disciplines.

  11. ISO 9001 in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitner, Gad; Nadir, Erez; Feldman, Michael; Yurman, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the process for approving and certifying a neonatal intensive care unit to ISO 9001 standards. The process started with the department head's decision to improve services quality before deciding to achieve ISO 9001 certification. Department processes were mapped and quality management mechanisms were developed. Process control and performance measurements were defined and implemented to monitor the daily work. A service satisfaction review was conducted to get feedback from families. In total, 28 processes and related work instructions were defined. Process yields showed service improvements. Family satisfaction improved. The paper is based on preparing only one neonatal intensive care unit to the ISO 9001 standard. The case study should act as an incentive for hospital managers aiming to improve service quality based on the ISO 9001 standard. ISO 9001 is becoming a recommended tool to improve clinical service quality.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Telemedicine on Nursing Care in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Barden, Connie; Rincon, Teresa; McCarthy, Mary; Zapatochny Rufo, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Information on the impact of tele-intensive care on nursing and priority areas of nursing care is limited. To conduct a national benchmarking survey of nurses working in intensive care telemedicine facilities in the United States. In a 2-phased study, an online survey was used to assess nurses' perceptions of intensive care telemedicine, and a modified 2-round Delphi study was used to identify priority areas of nursing. In phase 1, most of the 1213 respondents agreed to strongly agreed that using tele-intensive care enables them to accomplish tasks more quickly (63%), improves collaboration (65.9%), improves job performance (63.6%) and communication (60.4%), is useful in nursing assessments (60%), and improves care by providing more time for patient care (45.6%). Benefits of tele-intensive care included ability to detect trends in vital signs, detect unstable physiological status, provide medical management, and enhance patient safety. Barriers included technical problems (audio and video), interruptions in care, perceptions of telemedicine as an interference, and attitudes of staff. In phase 2, 60 nurses ranked 15 priority areas of care, including critical thinking skills, intensive care experience, skillful communication, mutual respect, and management of emergency patient care. The findings can be used to further inform the development of competencies for tele-intensive care nursing, match the tele-intensive care nursing practice guidelines of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, and highlight concepts related to the association's standards for establishing and sustaining healthy work environments. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. [Detection of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. Pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calero, Miguel Ángel; Julià-Mora, Joana María; Prieto-Alomar, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Previous to wider prevalence studies, we designed the present pilot study to assess concordance and time invested in patient evaluations using a palliative care needs assessment tool. We also sought to estimate the prevalence of palliative care needs in an acute care hospital unit. A cross-sectional study was carried out, 4 researchers (2 doctors and 2 nurses) independently assessed all inpatients in an acute care hospital unit in Manacor Hospital, Mallorca (Spain), using the validated tool NECPAL CCOMS-ICO©, measuring time invested in every case. Another researcher revised clinical recordings to analise the sample profile. Every researcher assessed 29 patients, 15 men and 14 women, mean age 74,03 ± 10.25 years. 4-observer concordance was moderate (Kappa 0,5043), tuning out to be higher between nurses. Mean time per patient evaluation was 1.9 to 7.72 minutes, depending on researcher. Prevalence of palliative care needs was 23,28%. Moderate concordance lean us towards multidisciplinary shared assessments as a method for future research. Avarage of time invested in evaluations was less than 8 minutes, no previous publications were identified regarding this variable. More than 20% of inpatients of the acute care unit were in need of palliative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) delirium: a "psychosomatic" problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michel; Rohn, Regis; Lefevre, Daniele

    2010-06-01

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) delirium is a common complication after major surgery and related among other potential medical precipitants to either pre-existing cognitive impairment or the intensity and length of anesthesiology or the type of surgery. Nevertheless, in some rare situations, an organic etiology is not always found, which can be frustrating for the medical team. Some clinicians working in an intensive care unit have a reluctance to seek another hypothesis in the psychological field. To illustrate this, we report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed a massive delirium during her intensive care unit stay after being operated on for a left retroperitoneal sarcoma. Interestingly, she had had no previous cognitive disorders and a somatic explanation for her psychiatric disorder could not been found. Just before the surgery, she was grieving the recent loss of a colleague of the same age, and also a close friend, and therefore had a death anxiety. With this case report, we would like to point out the importance of psychological factors that might precipitate delirium in a predominately somatic environment such as an intensive care unit. ICU delirium can sometimes be considered as a "psychosomatic" problem with either a stress response syndrome after surgery or a defense mechanism against death anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of such psychological factors even if they always must first rule out potential somatic causes for delirium and encourage thorough investigation and treatment of these medical causes. A collaboration with the psycho-oncologist is recommended to better manage this "psychosomatic" problem.

  15. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Lisa M; Jensen, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are susceptible to sleep deprivation. Disrupted sleep is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patients. The etiology of sleep disruption is multifactorial. The article reviews the literature on sleep in the ICU, the effects of sleep deprivation, and strategies to promote sleep in the ICU. Until the impact of disrupted sleep is better explained, it is appropriate to provide critically ill patients with consolidated, restorative sleep. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Nurses’ Burnout in Oncology Hospital Critical Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz İrem Tunçel; Menşure Kaya; Rukiye Neslihan Kuru; Saadet Menteş; Süheyla Ünver

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU) because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory) and depression (Beck Depressi...

  17. The Profile of Thrombocytosis in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nafianti, Selvi

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients thrombocytosis mostly occurred secondary or reactive to various factors. Reactive thrombocytosis is usually mediated by increased release of a number of cytokines in response to infections, inflammation, vasculitis, tissue trauma, and other factors. No evidence suggests that the incidence of thrombocytosis vary significantly from one country to another or from one ethnic group to another including Indonesia as an archipelago country. Ob...

  18. Physiotherapy practices in Intensive Care Units across Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Ujwal Lakshman Yeole; Ankita Ramesh Chand; Nandi, Biplab B.; Gawali, Pravin P.; Roshan G Adkitte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To find out the current physiotherapy practices in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) across Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: Study design was exploratory cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were sent to the physiotherapists working in hospitals across Maharashtra state, India. Four weeks for completion of questionnaire was given in an attempt to ensure good response rates. Result: Of 200, 73 questionnaires were received representing a 36% response rate. The study revealed that 76% of t...

  19. Prediction and Outcome of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening.

  20. Acinetobacter meningitis: acquired infection in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, M E; Hart, C A

    1982-01-01

    A cluster of 4 cases of meningitis due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus occurred during a 5-day period in a neonatal intensive care unit. Three of the infants were preterm and all had a history of other medical problems. Initiation of intravenous therapy with carbenicillin was accompanied by clinical recovery and a bacteriological cure. Intensive bacteriological investigation failed to show a common source for the infections.

  1. Green Urine after Propofol Infusion in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Urine discoloration occurs in the intensive care unit (ICU due to many causes such as medications, metabolic disorders, and infections. Propofol is advocated as one of the first line sedatives in the ICU, but it is not well known to the intensivists that propofol can induce urine color change. We experienced two cases of green urine after propofol infusion. Propofol should be warranted as the cause of urine discoloration during ICU stay.

  2. Nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit. 1997-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Luján Hernández; Leticia Justafré Couto; Gudelia Cuellar Gutiérrez

    2005-01-01

    Fundament: The infections nosocomiales constitute an important problem of health, for what is of supreme importance to identify the epidemic situation of this. Objective: Describe the behaviour of the infections nosocomiales in the Unit of Intensive Cares. Methods: I Study descriptive retrospective carried out in the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ of Cienfuegos during the years 1997-2002. The following variables were included: hospital expenditures, cases infected by months...

  3. Extubation failure in intensive care unit: Predictors and management

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Atul; Agarwal Vandana

    2008-01-01

    Extubation failure-need for reintubation within 72 h of extubation, is common in intensive care unit (ICU). It can cause increased morbidity, higher costs, higher ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality. Patients with advanced age, high severity of illness at ICU admission and extubation, preexisting chronic respiratory and cardiovascular disorders are at increased risk of extubation failure. Unresolved illness, development and progression of organ failure during the time from ext...

  4. Mobility decline in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Fábio Santos; Paim, Daniel de Macedo; Brito, Juliana de Oliveira; Barros, Idiel de Araujo; Nogueira, Thiago Barbosa; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Pires, Thiago Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the variation in mobility during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and its association with hospital mortality. Methods This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria included patients admitted with an independence score of ≥ 4 for both bed-chair transfer and locomotion, with the score based on the Functional Independence Measure. Patients with cardiac arrest and/or those who died during hospitalization were excluded. To measure the loss of mobility, the value obtained at discharge was calculated and subtracted from the value obtained on admission, which was then divided by the admission score and recorded as a percentage. Results The comparison of these two variables indicated that the loss of mobility during hospitalization was 14.3% (p < 0.001). Loss of mobility was greater in patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the intensive care unit (p < 0.02) and in patients who used vasopressor drugs (p = 0.041). However, the comparison between subjects aged 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years indicated no significant differences in the loss of mobility (p = 0.332), reason for hospitalization (p = 0.265), SAPS 3 score (p = 0.224), use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.117), or hospital mortality (p = 0.063). Conclusion There was loss of mobility during hospitalization in the intensive care unit. This loss was greater in patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours and in those who used vasopressors; however, the causal and prognostic factors associated with this decline need to be elucidated. PMID:27410406

  5. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Relatives in intensive care units: (Un)Satisfied needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönig, K; Gündel, H

    2016-03-01

    Relatives of patients in intensive care units (ICU) have important supportive care needs which are often unrecognized and rarely satisfactorily met. Description of stress factors and strains as well as supportive care needs, assessment of care needs, empirical evidence for care needs, satisfaction of care needs, options and efficacy of psychosocial support and communication recommendations for this special situation. Evaluation of literature review articles, discussion of basic qualitative and quantitative research findings, meta-analyses and expert recommendations. Relatives of ICU patients report a number of cognitive, emotional, social and pragmatic support needs. Important needs, such as maintenance of hope and security as well as sincere and needs-adjusted communication often remain unrecognized and are rarely satisfactorily met. The weighting and prioritization of support needs are modulated by sociodemographic and cultural factors. Psychoeducative interventions reduce the psychosocial distress of family members. Communicative strategies of healthcare professionals reduce the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders for family members, reduce anxiety and depression and improve participative decision making. Healthcare professionals in ICUs should be sensitized to the specific characteristics of these special situations. For healthcare professionals it is equally important to improve self-awareness regarding their own defense mechanisms and to refine communicative competence on accessibility and adequately address the reality of subjective experiences of family members. Psychosocial support services should be recommended and utilization should be encouraged.

  7. Health care units and human resources management trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Adriana Maria; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench; Santelle, Odete

    2013-02-01

    To identify factors producing new trends in basic health care unit management and changes in management models. This was a prospective study with ten health care unit managers and ten specialists in the field of Health in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The Delphi methodology was adopted. There were four stages of data collection, three quantitative and the fourth qualitative. The first three rounds dealt with changing trends in management models, manager profiles and required competencies, and the Mann-Whitney test was used in the analysis. The fourth round took the form of a panel of those involved, using thematic analysis. The main factors which are driving change in basic health care units were identified, as were changes in management models. There was consensus that this process is influenced by the difficulties in managing teams and by politics. The managers were found to be up-to-date with trends in the wider context, with the arrival of social health organizations, but they are not yet anticipating these within the institutions. Not only the content, but the professional development aspect of training courses in this area should be reviewed. Selection and recruitment, training and assessment of these professionals should be guided by these competencies aligned to the health service mission, vision, values and management models.

  8. Sound intensity and noise evaluation in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nancy; Thompson, Kim; Saunders, Gabrielle; Saiz, Jaya; Richardson, Jeannette; Brown, Deborah; Ince, Naomi; Caldwell, Marc; Pope, Diana

    2010-11-01

    Sound levels in intensive care units can be high. Unfortunately, high levels of sound tend to result in poor sleep quality, which leads to slower healing, poorer immune response, and decreased cognitive function. To measure sound levels to which patients in intensive care units are typically exposed. Peak sound pressure levels of alarms on medical devices set at different output levels were measured. Additionally, ambient sound pressure levels for durations of 10 to 24 hours were measured on 12 occasions in patients' rooms in the intensive care unit. Peak levels of equipment alarms measured inside a patient's room were high, and increased as the setting of the alarm level increased. The levels of these alarms when measured in an adjacent room did not increase with alarm output level. Mean sound levels inside the patient's room were generally less than 45 dB(A), but peak levels were often greater than 85 dB(C). Closing the door of the adjacent room did not decrease these peak levels. Peak and mean levels did not differ systematically during 24 hours of measurement. High-intensity equipment alarms disturb patients' sleep but are critical in a medical emergency. However, nurses should not assume that raising the alarm output level will ensure that the alarm is audible from an adjacent room. Ambient noise measurements indicate high peak levels during both day and night.

  9. [Developmental centered care. Situation in Spanish neonatal units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Maestro, M; Melgar Bonis, A; de la Cruz-Bertolo, J; Perapoch López, J; Mosqueda Peña, R; Pallás Alonso, C

    2014-10-01

    Developmental centered care (DC) is focused on sensorineural and emotional development of the newborns. In Spain we have had information on the application of DC since 1999, but the extent of actual implementation is unknown. To determine the level of implementation of DC in Spanish neonatal units where more than 50 infants weighing under 1500g were cared for in 2012. A comparison was made with previous data published in 2006. A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was performed using a survey with seven questions as in the 2006 questionnaire. The survey was sent to 27 units. The response rate was 81% in 2012 versus 96% in 2006. Noise control measures were introduced in 73% of units in 2012 versus 11% in 2006 (P<.01). The use of saccharose was 50% in 2012 versus 46% in 2006 (P=.6). Parents free entry was 82% in 2012 versus 11% in 2006 (P<.01). Kangaroo care was used without restriction by 82% in 2012 compared to 31% in 2006 (P<.01). The implementation of the DC in Spain has improved. There is still room for improvement in areas, such as the use of saccharose or noise control. However, it is important to highlight the positive change that has occurred in relation to unrestricted parental visits. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit: a phenomenological hermeneutical interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenmark-Blom, Michaela; Wigert, Helena

    2014-03-01

    A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit. As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home. An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012. The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care. This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Meaning of caring in pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Janet Yvonne; Arman, Maria; Castren, Maaret; Forsner, Maria

    2014-12-01

    When children are critically ill, parents still strive to be present and participate in the care of their child. Pediatric intensive care differs from other realms of pediatric care as the nature of care is technically advanced and rather obstructing than encouraging parental involvement or closeness, either physically or emotionally, with the critically ill child. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of caring in the pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents. The design of this study followed Benner's interpretive phenomenological method. Eleven parents of seven children participated in observations and interviews. The following aspects of caring were illustrated in the themes arising from the findings: being a bridge to the child on the edge, building a sheltered atmosphere, meeting the child's needs, and adapting the environment for family life. The overall impression is that the phenomenon of caring is experienced exclusively when it is directed toward the exposed child. The conclusion drawn is that caring is present when providing expert physical care combined with fulfilling emotional needs and supporting continuing daily parental care for the child in an inviting environment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a patient-based questionnaire of intensive care unit staff perception and relatives' psychological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Christiane S; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Riedemann, Niels C; Pfeifer, Ruediger; Guenther, Albrecht; Egerland, Kati; Sprung, Charles L; Hoyer, Heike; Gensichen, Jochen; Reinhart, Konrad

    2015-04-01

    Communication is a hallmark of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. It may influence the impact of end-of-life care on patients' relatives. We aimed to assess end-of-life care and communication from the perspective of intensive care unit staff and relate it to relatives' psychological symptoms. Prospective observational study based on consecutive patients with severe sepsis receiving end-of-life care; trial registration NCT01247792. Four interdisciplinary intensive care units of a German University hospital. Responsible health personnel (attendings, residents and nurses) were questioned on the day of the first end-of-life decision (to withdraw or withhold life-supporting therapies) and after patients had died or were discharged. Relatives were interviewed by phone after 90 days. Overall, 145 patients, 610 caregiver responses (92% response) and 84 relative interviews (70% response) were analysed. Most (86%) end-of-life decisions were initiated by attendings and only 2% by nurses; 41% of nurses did not know enough about end-of-life decisions to communicate with relatives. Discomfort with end-of-life decisions was low. Relatives reported high satisfaction with decision-making and care, 87% thought their degree of involvement had been just right. However, 51%, 48% or 33% of relatives had symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety or depression, respectively. Predictors for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder were patient age and relatives' gender. Relatives' satisfaction with medical care and communication predicted less anxiety (p = 0.025). Communication should be improved within the intensive care unit caregiver team to strengthen the involvement of nurses in end-of-life care. Improved communication between caregivers and the family might lessen relatives' long-term anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reflecting on healthcare and self-care in the Intensive Care Unit: our story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peterkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care professionals working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs are exposed to high levels of stress-provoking stimuli. Some may unconsciously employ negative coping skill s which may contribute to burnout and negatively affect patient care. We chose to explore ways of facilitating and encouraging self-reflective practice in an effort to increase empathic traits and enhance communication. A narrative medicine series, which included six sessions that were focused on different narrative approaches, was organized for staff of an academic teaching hospital. Totally, 132 interdisciplinary ICU staff attended the sessions. They were generally open to exploring the selected approaches and discussing their reflections within the interdisciplinary environment. The narrative medicine series provided tools for health care professionals to enhance self-reflective skills utilizing a team-based learning approach. The anticipated outcomes were improved self-care, increased empathy and communication skills, enhanced team functioning, which all contribute to better patient care at the bedside.

  14. Intensive care bereavement practices across New Zealand and Australian intensive care units: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen; Mitchell, Marion; James, Stephen; Wetzig, Krista

    2017-10-01

    End-of-life and bereavement care is an important consideration in intensive care. This study describes the type of bereavement care provided in intensive care units across Australia and New Zealand. Inductive qualitative content analysis was conducted on free-text responses to a web-based survey exploring unit-based bereavement practice distributed to nurse managers in 229 intensive care units in New Zealand and Australia. A total of 153 (67%) surveys were returned with 68 respondents making free-text responses. Respondents were mainly Australian (n = 54, 85·3%), from the public sector (n = 51, 75%) and holding Nurse Unit Managers/Charge Nurse roles (n = 39, 52·9%). From the 124 free-text responses, a total of 187 individual codes were identified focussing on bereavement care practices (n = 145, 77·5%), educational provision to support staff (n = 15, 8%) and organisational challenges (n = 27, 14·4%). Bereavement care practices described use of memory boxes, cultural specificity, annual memorial services and use of community support services. Educational provision identified local in-service programmes, and national bereavement courses for specialist bereavement nurse coordinators. Organisational challenges focussed on lack of funding, especially for provision of bereavement follow-up. This is the first Australasian-wide survey, and one of the few international studies, describing bereavement practices within intensive care, an important aspect of nursing practice. However, with funding for new bereavement services and education for staff lacking, there are continued challenges in developing bereavement care. Given knowledge about the impact of these areas of care on bereaved family members, this requires review. Nurses remain committed to supporting bereaved families during and following death in intensive care. With limited resource to support bereavement care, intensive care nurses undertake a range of bereavement care practices at time of death

  15. Stroke unit care, inpatient rehabilitation and early supported discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Helen; Price, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Stroke units reduce death and disability through the provision of specialist multidisciplinary care for diagnosis, emergency treatments, normalisation of homeostasis, prevention of complications, rehabilitation and secondary prevention. All stroke patients can benefit from provision of high-quality basic medical care and some need high impact specific treatments, such as thrombolysis, that are often time dependent. A standard patient pathway should include assessment of neurological impairment, vascular risk factors, swallowing, fluid balance and nutrition, cognitive function, communication, mood disorders, continence, activities of daily living and rehabilitation goals. Good communication and shared decision making with patients and their families are key to high-quality stroke care. Patients with mild or moderate disability, who are medically stable, can continue rehabilitation at home with early supported discharge teams rather than needing a prolonged stay in hospital. National clinical guidelines and prospective audits are integral to monitoring and developing stroke services in the UK. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental sustainability in the intensive care unit: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffling, Katie; Schenk, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In acute care practice sites, the intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most resource-intense environments. Replete with energy-intensive equipment, significant waste production, and multiple toxic chemicals, ICUs contribute to environmental harm and may inadvertently have a negative impact on the health of patients, staff, and visitors. This article evaluates the ICU on four areas of environmental sustainability: energy, waste, toxic chemicals, and healing environment and provides concrete actions ICU nurses can take to decrease environmental health risks in the ICU. Case studies of nurses making changes within their hospital practice are also highlighted, as well as resources for nurses starting to make changes at their health care institutions.

  17. X-ray investigations in intensive care units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokieser, H.

    1981-10-01

    From special care following surgery and from arteficial respiration of polio patients the modern and very special intensive medical care has developed. At the same time the provisional bedside radiology was improved to one branch of clinical radiology with special organisation and methods of investigation. Importance and urgency of radiological information are requiring close cooperation of all medical branches. Functions of these different groups have to be defined. The movable X-ray apparatus of 20 kV output is necessary for every intensive care unit. Hard beam technique for lung X-rays, scattered radiation grids and adequate positioning of the patient are important to get the same high quality pictures than from the radiological department.

  18. Postpartum depression on the neonatal intensive care unit: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahirkheli NN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Noor N Tahirkheli,1 Amanda S Cherry,1 Alayna P Tackett,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,3 Stephen R Gillaspy11Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 3Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions.Keywords: neonatal intensive care unit, postpartum depression, mothers

  19. [Multimorbidity of neurological patients in palliative care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzl, S

    2014-04-01

    Multimorbidity in patients with neurological diseases needs enhanced attention. Especially the treatment with medication for comorbidities should be regularly evaluated and adapted to the current condition of the patient. The problem of how to deal with multimorbidity of neurological patients on palliative care units is discussed. This article gives a retrospective review of data and presentation of own results together with a discussion on basic knowledge and expert recommendations. Multimorbidity of patients with neurological diseases depends on the underlying disease and age. Multimorbidity is often associated with polypharmacy which should be critically evaluated during palliative care treatment. Long-term pharmacological treatment often needs to be terminated as the side effects outweigh the benefits. Our own data show that patients leaving the palliative care unit often have a reduced amount of drugs compared to those who have died. Multimorbidity at the end of life includes dementia, delirium and epileptic seizures as well as symptoms associated with tube feeding. Artificial nutrition should be regarded as a form of pharmacological treatment and its usefulness at the end of life carefully evaluated.

  20. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Layout and Nurses' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doede, Megan; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) remain one of the few areas in hospitals that still use an open bay (OPBY) design for patient stays greater than 24 hr, housing multiple infants, staff, and families in one large room. This creates high noise levels, contributes to the spread of infection, and affords families little privacy. These problems have given rise to the single-family room NICU. This represents a significant change in the care environment for nurses. This literature review answers the question: When compared to OPBY layout, how does a single family room layout impact neonatal nurses' work? Thirteen studies published between 2006 and 2015 were located. Many studies reported both positive and negative effects on nurses' work and were therefore sorted by their cited advantages and disadvantages. Advantages included improved quality of the physical environment; improved quality of patient care; improved parent interaction; and improvements in nurse job satisfaction, stress, and burnout. Disadvantages included decreased interaction among the NICU patient care team, increased nurse workload, decreased visibility on the unit, and difficult interactions with family. This review suggests that single-family room NICUs introduce a complex situation in which trade-offs occur for nurses, most prominently the trade-off between visibility and privacy. Additionally, the literature is clear on what elements of nurses' work are impacted, but how the built environment influences these elements, and how these elements interact during nurses' work, is not as well understood. The current level of research and directions for future research are also discussed.

  1. Stress and mental health in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R. K.; Oates, P.

    1995-01-01

    The views of 34 neonatologists (a 78% response rate) and 192 neonatal intensive care nurses (a 66% response rate) were obtained on work, stress, and relationships in neonatal intensive care units. The survey was conducted by post and included Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A comparison of the responses of neonatologists and nurses to 21 identical statements showed significant differences in 12. Most neonatologists felt that they involved nurses in critical patient care decisions, provided adequate pain relief for their patients, gave nurses adequate information on patients' progress after discharge, and were aware of little doctor-nurse conflict. However, the nurses' responses differed significantly in these areas, suggesting that the neonatologists may have a more rosy view of life in the neonatal intensive care unit than their nurse colleagues. Twenty seven per cent of neonatologists and 32% of nurses had GHQ scores indicating psychological dysfunction. The neonatologists who had dysfunctional scores differed from their colleagues in only one area surveyed--a higher proportion experienced conflict between the demands of their work and their personal lives. PMID:7712267

  2. Neuro, trauma, or med/surg intensive care unit: Does it matter where multiple injuries patients with traumatic brain injury are admitted? Secondary analysis of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trials Committee decompressive craniectomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sarah; Scalea, Thomas; Sperry, Jason; Coimbra, Raul; Vercruysse, Gary; Enniss, Toby; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-03-01

    Patients with nontraumatic acute intracranial pathology benefit from neurointensivist care. Similarly, trauma patients with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) fare better when treated by a dedicated trauma team. No study has yet evaluated the role of specialized neurocritical (NICU) and trauma intensive care units (TICU) in the management of TBI patients, and it remains unclear which TBI patients are best served in NICU, TICU, or general (Med/Surg) ICU. This study is a secondary analysis of The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trials Committee (AAST-MITC) decompressive craniectomy study. Twelve Level 1 trauma centers provided clinical data and head computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 or less and CT evidence of TBI. Non-ICU admissions were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to measure the association between ICU type and survival and calculate the probability of death for increasing Injury Severity Score (ISS). Multiple injuries patients (ISS > 15) with TBI and isolated TBI patients (other Abbreviated Injury Scale score Med/surg ICU carried the greatest probability of death. Multiple injuries patients with TBI have lower mortality risk when admitted to a trauma ICU. This survival benefit increases with increasing injury severity. Isolated TBI patients have similar mortality risk when admitted to a neuro ICU compared with a trauma ICU. Med/surg ICU admission carries the highest mortality risk. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  3. [Visitation policy, design and comfort in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Martín, L; Viña, L; Quindós, B; Espina, M J; Forcelledo, L; López-Amor, L; García-Arias, B; del Busto, C; de Cima, S; Fernández-Rey, E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the design and comfort in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs), by analysing visiting hours, information, and family participation in patient care. Descriptive, multicentre study. Spanish ICUs. A questionnaire e-mailed to members of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Critical and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), subscribers of the Electronic Journal Intensive Care Medicine, and disseminated through the blog Proyecto HU-CI. A total of 135 questionnaires from 131 hospitals were analysed. Visiting hours: 3.8% open 24h, 9.8% open daytime, and 67.7% have 2 visits a day. Information: given only by the doctor in 75.2% of the cases, doctor and nurse together in 4.5%, with a frequency of once a day in 79.7%. During weekends, information is given in 95.5% of the cases. Information given over the phone 74.4%. Family participation in patient care: hygiene 11%, feeding 80.5%, physiotherapy 17%. Personal objects allowed: mobile phone 41%, computer 55%, sound system 77%, and television 30%. Architecture and comfort: all individual cubicles 60.2%, natural light 54.9%, television 7.5%, ambient music 12%, clock in the cubicle 15.8%, environmental noise meter 3.8%, and a waiting room near the ICU 68.4%. Visiting policy is restrictive, with a closed ICU being the predominating culture. On average, technological communication devices are not allowed. Family participation in patient care is low. The ICU design does not guarantee privacy or provide a desirable level of comfort. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Application and evalauation of care plan for patients admitted to Intensive Care Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzco Cabellos, C; Guasch Pomés, N

    2015-01-01

    Assess whether the use of the nursing care plans improves outcomes of nursing care to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The study was conducted in a University Hospital of Barcelona in Spain, using a pre- and post-study design. A total of 61 patient records were analysed in the pre-intervention group. A care plan was applied to 55 patients in the post-intervention group. Specific quality indicators in a medical intensive care unit to assess the clinical practice of nursing were used. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the degree of association between quality indicators in the two groups. A total of 116 records of 121 patients were evaluated: 61 pre-intervention and 55 post-intervention. Fisher test: The filling of nursing records, p=.0003. Checking cardiorespiratory arrest equipment, p <.001. Central vascular catheter related bacteraemia (B-CVC) p=.622. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) p=.1000. Elevation of the head of the bed more than 30° p=.049, and the pain management in non-sedated patients p=.082. The implementation of nursing care plans in patients admitted to the intensive care area may contribute to improvement in the outcomes of nursing care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  5. The Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit-An Evolving Model for Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, John; Puthawala, Tauqir; Sutton, Brad S; Brown, Lorrel E; Pronovost, Peter J; DeFilippis, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    Prior to the advent of the coronary care unit (CCU), patients having an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were managed on the general medicine wards with reported mortality rates of greater than 30%. The first CCUs are believed to be responsible for reducing mortality attributed to AMI by as much as 40%. This drastic improvement can be attributed to both advances in medical technology and in the process of health care delivery. Evolving considerably since the 1960s, the CCU is now more appropriately labeled as a cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) and represents a comprehensive system designed for the care of patients with an array of advanced cardiovascular disease, an entity that reaches far beyond its early association with AMI. Grouping of patients by diagnosis to a common physical space, dedicated teams of health care providers, as well as the development and implementation of evidence-based treatment algorithms have resulted in the delivery of safer, more efficient care, and most importantly better patient outcomes. The CICU serves as a platform for an integrated, team-based patient care delivery system that addresses a broad spectrum of patient needs. Lessons learned from this model can be broadly applied to address the urgent need to improve outcomes and efficiency in a variety of health care settings.

  6. End-of-life communication in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Moreno, Beatriz; Silvester, William; Kissane, David W

    2010-01-01

    Because one in five Americans die in the intensive care unit (ICU), the potential role of palliative care is considerable. End-of-life (EOL) communication is essential for the implementation of ICU palliative care. The objective of this review was to summarize current research and recommendations for ICU EOL communication. For this qualitative, critical review, we searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Ovid Medline, Cinahl and Psychinfo databases for ICU EOL communication clinical trials, systematic reviews, consensus statements and expert opinions. We also hand searched pertinent bibliographies and cross-referenced known EOL ICU communication researchers. Family-centered communication is a key component of implementing EOL ICU palliative care. The main forum for this is the family meeting, which is an essential platform for implementing shared decision making, e.g., transitioning from curative to EOL palliative goals of care. Better communication can improve patient outcomes such as reducing psychological trauma symptoms, depression and anxiety; shortening ICU length of stay; and improving the quality of death and dying. Communication strategies for EOL discussions focus on addressing family emotions empathically and discussing death and dying in an open and meaningful way. Central to this is viewing ICU EOL palliative care and withdrawal of life-extending treatment as predictable and not an unexpected emergency. Because the ICU is now a well-established site for death, ICU physicians should be trained with EOL communication skills so as to facilitate palliative care more hospitably in this challenging setting. Patient/family outcomes are important ways of measuring the quality of ICU palliative care and EOL communication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nurse work environment and quality of care by unit types: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chenjuan; Olds, Danielle M; Dunton, Nancy E

    2015-10-01

    Nursing unit is the micro-organization in the hospital health care system in which integrated patient care is provided. Nursing units of different types serve patients with distinct care goals, clinical tasks, and social structures and norms. However, empirical evidence is sparse on unit type differences in quality of care and its relation with nurse work environment. Nurse work environment has been found as an important nursing factor predicting nurse and patient outcomes. To examine the unit type differences in nurse-reported quality of care, and to identify the association between unit work environment and quality of care by unit types. This is a cross-sectional study using nurse survey data (2012) from US hospitals nationwide. The nurse survey collected data on quality of care, nurse work environment, and other work related information from staff nurses working in units of various types. Unit types were systematically classified across hospitals. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and the final sample included 7677 units of 14 unit types from 577 hospitals in 49 states in the US. Multilevel regressions were used to assess the relationship between nurse work environment and quality of care across and by unit types. On average, units had 58% of the nurses reporting excellent quality of care and 40% of the nurses reporting improved quality of care over the past year. Unit quality of care varied by unit types, from 43% of the nurses in adult medical units to 73% of the nurses in interventional units rating overall quality of care on unit as excellent, and from 35% of the nurses in adult critical care units to 44% of the nurses in adult medical units and medical-surgical combined units reporting improved quality of care. Estimates from regressions indicated that better unit work environments were associated with higher quality of care when controlling various hospital and unit covariates; and this association persisted among units of different types. Unit

  8. Care With The Potential Organ Donor In The Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Patrícia Barreto de Carvalho; Kênnia Stephanie Morais Oliveira; Glauber Weder dos Santos Silva; Geórgia Nóbrega Melo; Thiago Enggle de Araújo Alves; Ana Cristina Arrais; Ilana Deyse Rocha Leite; Amélia Carolina Lopes Fernandes; Lucidio Clebeson Oliveira; Francisco Rafael Ribeiro Soares

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Organ transplants have expanded throughout the country, being extremely significant for the population. Objective: To know the reality of organ harvesting and describe the care with the potential organ donor in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and compare it with the pertinent literature. Method: It is a research of exploratory and descriptive nature, with a qualitative approach. The data were analyzed through the content analysis idealized by Bardin. Results: The fin...

  9. [Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Solaro, Massimo; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units. Over the past 15 years, the model of medical and nursing care changed from being exclusively oriented to the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness, to the achievement of outcomes by preventing iatrogenic complications (Hospital Acquired Conditions). Nursing Sensitive Outcomes show as nursing is directly involved in the development and prevention of these complications. Many of these complications, including falls from the bed, use of restraints, urinary catheter associated urinary infections and intravascular catheter related sepsis, are related to basic nursing care. Ten years ago in critical care, a school of thought called get back to the basics, was started for the prevention of errors and risks associated with nursing. Most of these nursing practices involve hygiene and mobilization. On the basis of these reflections, Kathleen Vollman developed a model of nursing care in critical care area, defined Interventional Patient Hygiene (IPH). The IPH model provides a proactive plan of nursing interventions to strengthen the patients' through the Evidence-Based Nursing Care. The components of the model include interventions of oral hygiene, mobilization, dressing changes, urinary catheter care, management of incontinence and bed bath, hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. The implementation of IPH model follows the steps of Deming cycle, and requires a deep reflection on the priorities of nursing care in ICU, as well as the effective teaching of the importance of the basic nursing to new generations of nurses.

  10. Relationships, trust, decision-making and quality of care in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lauraine; Marais, Adele; McLaughlin, Sean; Falkenstein, Sandra; Argent, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    To assess the care-giving practices of health-care practitioners in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) through their qualitative insights, reflections and experience in participatory action research. Qualitative research in the form of 'participatory action research' was used to gather data from three sources within the unit: focus groups within disciplines, observations within the PICU, and semi-structured interviews. All staff members were active collaborators and equal stakeholders in the decision-making process, research and feedback. The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH). All staff members from various disciplines working in the PICU. Staff members described problems with respect to relationships, trust and decision-making within care-giving practices. The study qualitatively describes how poor communication amongst staff members in respect of relationships and decision-making impacted on trust and how this tended to compromise care-giving practices in the PICU. The data suggested that this was more evident in informal rather than formal clinical decision-making procedures. The strength of the study was that the participatory action design in the research allowed staff members to address the very dynamics that they themselves cited as problematic.

  11. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  12. Nurses' care practices at the end of life in intensive care units in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Catherine S; Yaqoob, Maryam; Faraj, Sumaya; O'Neill, Carla L

    2017-12-01

    The process of dying in intensive care units is complex as the technological environment shapes clinical decisions. Decisions at the end of life require the involvement of patient, families and healthcare professionals. The degree of involvement can vary depending on the professional and social culture of the unit. Nurses have an important role to play in caring for dying patients and their families; however, their knowledge is not always sought. This study explored nurses' care practices at the end of life, with the objective of describing and identifying end of life care practices that nurses contribute to, with an emphasis on culture, religious experiences and professional identity. Research Design and context: Grounded theory was used. In all, 10 nurses from intensive care unit in two large hospitals in Bahrain were participated. Ethical Considerations: Approval to carry out the research was given by the Research Ethics Committee of the host institution, and the two hospitals. A core category, Death Avoidance Talk, was emerged. This was supported by two major categories: (1) order-oriented care and (2) signalling death and care shifting. Death talk was avoided by the nurses, doctors and family members. When a decision was made by the medical team that a patient was not to be resuscitated, the nurses took this as a sign that death was imminent. This led to a process of signalling death to family and of shifting care to family members. Despite the avoidance of death talk and nurses' lack of professional autonomy, they created awareness that death was imminent to family members and ensured that end of life care was given in a culturally sensitive manner and aligned to Islamic values.

  13. Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The improvement of technology has increased noise levels in hospital Wards to higher than international standard levels (35-45 dB. Higher noise levels than the maximum level result in patient’s instability and dissatisfaction. Moreover, it will have serious negative effects on the staff’s health and the quality of their services. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the level of noise in intensive care units and emergency wards of the Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Mashhad. Procedure: This research was carried out in November 2009 during morning shifts between 7:30 to 12:00. Noise levels were measured 10 times at 30-minute intervals in the nursing stations of 10 wards of the emergency, the intensive care units, and the Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Departments of Imam Reza University Hospital, Mashhad. The noise level in the nursing stations was tested for both the maximum level (Lmax and the equalizing level (Leq. The research was based on the comparison of equalizing levels (Leq because maximum levels were unstable. Results: In our survey the average level (Leq in all wards was much higher than the standard level. The maximum level (Lmax in most wards was 85-86 dB and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 94 dB. The average level of Leq in all wards was 60.2 dB. In emergency units, it was 62.2 dB, but it was not time related. The highest average level (Leq was measured at 11:30 AM and the peak was measured in the Nephrology nursing station. Conclusion:  The average levels of noise in intensive care units and also emergency wards were  more than the standard levels and as it is known these wards have vital roles in treatment procedures, so more attention is needed in this area.

  14. Benchmarking and audit of breast units improves quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, P A; Verkinderen, L; Hauspy, J; Vermeulen, P; Dirix, L; Huizing, M; Altintas, S; Papadimitriou, K; Peeters, M; Tjalma, W

    2013-01-01

    Quality Indicators (QIs) are measures of health care quality that make use of readily available hospital inpatient administrative data. Assessment quality of care can be performed on different levels: national, regional, on a hospital basis or on an individual basis. It can be a mandatory or voluntary system. In all cases development of an adequate database for data extraction, and feedback of the findings is of paramount importance. In the present paper we performed a Medline search on "QIs and breast cancer" and "benchmarking and breast cancer care", and we have added some data from personal experience. The current data clearly show that the use of QIs for breast cancer care, regular internal and external audit of performance of breast units, and benchmarking are effective to improve quality of care. Adherence to guidelines improves markedly (particularly regarding adjuvant treatment) and there are data emerging showing that this results in a better outcome. As quality assurance benefits patients, it will be a challenge for the medical and hospital community to develop affordable quality control systems, which are not leading to excessive workload.

  15. First Come, First Served in the Intensive Care Unit: Always?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-01-01

    Because the demand for intensive care unit (ICU) beds exceeds the supply in general, and because of the formidable costs of that level of care, clinicians face ethical issues when rationing this kind of care not only at the point of admission to the ICU, but also after the fact. Under what conditions-if any-may patients be denied admission to the ICU or removed after admission? One professional medical group has defended a rule of "first come, first served" in ICU admissions, and this approach has numerous moral considerations in its favor. We show, however, that admission to the ICU is not in and of itself guaranteed; we also show that as a matter of principle, it can be morally permissible to remove certain patients from the ICU, contrary to the idea that because they were admitted first, they are entitled to stay indefinitely through the point of recovery, death, or voluntary withdrawal. What remains necessary to help guide these kinds of decisions is the articulation of clear standards for discontinuing intensive care, and the articulation of these standards in a way consistent with not only fiduciary and legal duties that attach to clinical care but also with democratic decision making processes.

  16. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Dupree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  17. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  18. Patients' experience of being in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasad, Jafar A; Abu Tabar, Nazih; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the Jordanian patients' experience during their stay in intensive care units (ICUs) and to explore factors that contribute to positive and negative experiences. A descriptive, exploratory design was used. The study was conducted at 3 hospitals in Jordan. Patients were selected from surgical and medical ICUs within 72 hours after transfer to the floor. Data were collected through structured interviews using the Intensive Care Experience Questionnaire with 98 patients. Data showed high level of awareness among patients to surrounding persons (82.2%) and relatives (90.3%). Although 58% of patients perceived pain as a problem during their stay, patients' perception of the care as good as it should be was generally high (82%). Male and female patients differed significantly in their frightening experiences (t=-2.559, P=.01). Understanding patients' experiences in the ICU would increase nurses' awareness to patients' stressors. It would help policy makers in designing structural and process-related care activities in a manner that promotes positive patient experiences, which would improve quality of care in general and specifically ICU patients' outcome. The ICU environment was found to adversely affect patients in many aspects. In addition, most patients were able to recall their ICU experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Palliative Care, Ethics, and the Law in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quill, Caroline M; Sussman, Bernard L; Quill, Timothy E

    2015-09-01

    Over the course of the last half-century, intensive care units have been the setting for many ethical and legal debates in medicine. This article outlines 3 important domains that lie at the intersection of critical care, palliative care, ethics, and the law: withholding and withdrawal of potentially life-sustaining therapies, making decisions for critically ill patients who lack decision-making capacity, and approaching cases of perceived futility when patients and families still request everything that is medically possible. Important principles and precedents that underlie our understanding of how nurses should approach critically ill patients are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. No Exit: Identifying Avoidable Terminal Oncology Intensive Care Unit Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Bobby; Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F; Hahn, Olwen M; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D; Polite, Blase N

    2016-10-01

    Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center's ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient's electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care.

  1. End of life in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Death at the beginning of life is tragic but not uncommon in neonatal intensive care units. In Portugal, few studies have examined the circumstances surrounding the final moments of neonates. We evaluated the care given to neonates and their families in terminal situations and the changes that had occurred one decade later. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 256 charts in a retrospective chart review of neonatal deaths between two periods (1992-1995 and 2002-2005 in a level III neonatal intensive care unit. RESULTS: Our results show differences in the care of dying infants between the two periods. The analysis of the 2002-2005 cohort four years revealed more withholding and withdrawing of therapeutic activities and more effective pain and distress relief; however, on the final day of life, 95.7% of the infants received invasive ventilatory support, 76.3% received antibiotics, 58.1% received inotropics, and 25.8% received no opioid or sedative administration. The 2002-2005 cohort had more spiritual advisor solicitation, a higher number of relatives with permission to freely visit and more clinical meetings with neonatologists. Interventions by parents, healthcare providers and ethics committees during decision-making were not documented in any of the charts. Only eight written orders regarding therapeutic limitations and the adoption of palliative care were documented; seven (87.5% were from the 2002-2005 cohort. Parental presence during death was more frequent in the latter four years (2002-2005 cohort, but only 21.5% of the parents wanted to be present at that moment. CONCLUSION: Despite an increase in the withholding and withdrawing of therapeutic activities and improvements in pain management and family support, many neonates still receive curative and aggressive practices at the end of life.

  2. Developing a trauma care syllabus for intensive care nurses in the United Kingdom: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Dean; Cole, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Increased rates of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) following injury have been associated with a lack of trauma specific training. Despite this, training relevant to nurses is limited. Currently, little consideration has been given to understanding the potential training needs of ICU nurses in caring for critically injured patients. The aim of this study was to construct a consensus syllabus of trauma care for registered nurses working in an intensive care setting. A two round modified Delphi was conducted. Twenty-eight intensive care professionals participated in the study in 2014 in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using content and descriptive statistics. Round-1 generated 343 subjects. Following analysis these were categorised into 75 subjects and returned to the panel for rating. An 82% (23/28) response rate to round-2 identified high consensus (equal to or greater than 80%) in 55 subjects, which reflected the most severely injured patients needs. There is a requirement for specific training to prepare the ICU nurse for caring for the critically injured patient. This survey presents a potential core syllabus in trauma care and should be considered by educators to develop a meaningful programme of trauma education for ICU nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nursing care of the newborn in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysa Costa da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the main measures of care for the newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit. Method: This is an integrative review, in which, it is possible to identify, analyze and synthesize research results with the inclusion of experimental and non-experimental studies. A total of 133 articles were collected. After reading titles, exclusion criteria and reading resumes, 10 were left, in which the sample was composed. Results: The selected publications were placed in 3 thematic categories: The importance of knowledge in nursing care, to the internal NB in ​​NICU; Nursing evaluation and care used for pain relief in NB; Main factors and adverse events that may lead to the hospitalization of the newborn and the increase of morbidity and mortality in an NICU. Conclusion: The analysis of the aforementioned study exposes the importance and main nursing care that can be administered in newborns in a NICU, so that the reduction of neonatal mortality can be provided. Descriptors: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; Nursing care; Newborn.

  4. Hypophosphatemia on the intensive care unit: individualized phosphate replacement based on serum levels and distribution volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.P.; Blans, M.; Raaijmakers, M.H.G.P.; Mulkens, C.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia occurs in about 25% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, a safe and validated phosphate replacement protocol is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an individualized phosphate replacement regimen. DESIGN: Fifty consecutive intensive care unit

  5. Racial differences in parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care unit nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A E; D'Agostino, J A; Passarella, M; Lorch, S A

    2016-11-01

    Nurses provide parental support and education in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but it is unknown if satisfaction and expectations about nursing care differ between racial groups. A prospective cohort was constructed of families with a premature infant presenting to primary care between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2013 (N=249, 52% white, 42% black). Responses to questions about satisfaction with the NICU were analyzed in ATLAS.ti using the standard qualitative methodology. One hundred and twenty (48%) parents commented on nursing. Fifty-seven percent of the comments were positive, with black parents more negative (58%) compared with white parents (33%). Black parents were most dissatisfied with how nurses supported them, wanting compassionate and respectful communication. White parents were most dissatisfied with inconsistent nursing care and lack of education about their child. Racial differences were found in satisfaction and expectations with neonatal nursing care. Accounting for these differences will improve parental engagement during the NICU stay.

  6. Care to terminal patients. Perception of nurses from the intensive care unit of a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin Tamaki, Camila; Meneguin, Silmara; Aguiar Alencar, Rubia; Bronzatto Luppi, Claudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    To identify the perception of nurses with regard to the process of providing care to patients in the context of hospice care. Qualitative study using the methodological framework Collective Subject Discourse. A total of 18 nursing professionals of the adult intensive care unit of a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed between June and August 2012. The process of providing care to terminal patients is permeated by negative, conflictive and mixed feelings. As regards communication, while the participants acknowledge its importance as a therapeutic resource, they also admit a lack of professional qualification. The interviewees have difficulties to deal with care provided to terminal patients. The qualification of these professionals needs to be improved, starting in the undergraduate program.

  7. Oral care for intubated patients: a survey of intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddki, Norkhafizah; Mohamad Sani, Farah Elani; Tin-Oo, Mon Mon

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine attitudes and practices of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses towards provision of oral care for intubated patients. Oral care is as an essential nursing intervention for intubated patients to maintain patient comfort and prevent colonization of dental plaque by respiratory pathogens. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 93 ICU nurses of a teaching hospital in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire. Some nurses agreed that oral cavity of intubated patients was difficult (40·8%) and unpleasant (16·2%) to clean, but all of them realized the importance of oral care and the majority (97·9%) would like to learn more about it. Most nurses reported providing oral care at least two times daily using various methods and products such as suction toothbrush (90·4%), manual toothbrush (49·5%), cotton swab (91·5%) and foam swab (65·7%). Chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse was the preferred mouthwash (97·8%) and swabs (93·5%) solution although few used non-optimal products such as sodium bicarbonate (14·0%), tap water (4·3%) and hydrogen peroxide (3·2%) to wash their patients' mouths. While the majority of nurses agreed that oral care supplies and equipments were available (93·6%) and suitable (88·2%), most of them also thought they need better hospital support (88·2%). The nurses' attitudes towards oral care were generally positive and most oral care methods were appropriate. However, some methods and products used were inconsistent with the current recommendations and they have mixed views about the suitability of oral care supplies and equipment provided by the hospital. Recommendations were made for providing standard oral care protocols for intubated patients and oral care training programs for ICU nurses to support delivery of quality patient care. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. Nursing diagnosis in intensive care unit: the Turkey experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akn; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Erdemir, Firdevs; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine intensive care unit nurses diagnostic abilities and diagnoses that they provide. A vignette study was performed. The vignette contained a patient's history, treatment, and signs/symptoms of 18 nursing diagnoses based on NANDA-I as the criterion standard. Turkish intensive care unit nurses (N = 45) stated nursing diagnoses described by patient data in the vignette. The resulting nursing diagnoses were grouped into Gordon's Functional Health Patterns, and descriptive analyses were performed. One-way analysis of variance was used to detect possible differences in diagnostic abilities based on nurses' education levels. Nurses identified 14 nursing diagnoses. Four of the predetermined psychosocial nursing diagnoses were not identified. The highest percentage of diagnoses was risk for impaired skin integrity (62.2%) and impaired oral mucous membrane (60.0%). The lowest number of diagnoses was impaired verbal communication (2.2%). A statistically significant difference was found between the educational level of nurses and their abilities to determine nursing diagnoses (P nursing education. They demonstrate the need to focus on patients as complete human beings, covering not only biological aspects but also cultural and social values, as well as emotional and spiritual care needs.

  9. Trace nitrous oxide levels in the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D G; Senjem, D H; Mazze, R I

    1999-08-01

    The effect of trace levels of waste anesthetic gases on the health of postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses who work in an unscavenged environment has been questioned, although it seems likely that levels of trace gases in the PACU would be much lower than those in the operating room. In this study, we documented nitrous oxide levels in the ambient air of two large PACUs. Nitrous oxide levels were measured using a time-weighted average monitor worn by 33 PACU workers at two different hospitals for the duration of their shifts. On the same day, patient data were collected at the time of admission to the PACU. Data included age and weight of the patient, type of surgery, anesthetic technique, and end-tidal level of nitrous oxide immediately before the patient left the operating room. The mean time-weighted average nitrous oxide level in PACU A was 2.0 ppm (range 0-6.4); in PACU B, it was undetectable, i.e., < 2.0 ppm. Levels of nitrous oxide to which PACU patient care personnel are exposed are well below the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and Occupational Health and Safety Administration recommended exposure level of 25 ppm measured for the duration of anesthetic administration. Our results indicate that the levels of nitrous oxide in postanesthesia care units with well maintained, modern ventilation systems are very low. Previous research suggests that the health of workers exposed to these levels should not be adversely affected.

  10. The Use of Modafinil in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Michal; Weinhouse, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    As patients recover from their critical illness, the focus of intensive care unit (ICU) care becomes rehabilitation. Fatigue, excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), and depression can delay their recovery and potentially worsen outcomes. Psychostimulants, particularly modafinil (Provigil), have been shown to alleviate some of these symptoms in various patient populations, and as clinical trials are underway exploring this novel use of the drug, we present a case series of 3 patients in our institution's Thoracic Surgery Intensive Care Unit. Our 3 patients were chosen as a result of their fatigue, EDS, and/or depression, which prolonged their ICU stay and precluded them from participating in physical therapy, an integral component of the rehabilitative process. The patients were given 200 mg of modafinil each morning to increase patient wakefulness, encourage their participation, and enable a more restful sleep during the night. Although the drug was undoubtedly not the sole reason why our patients became more active, the temporal relationship between starting the drug and our patients' clinical improvement makes it likely that it contributed. Based on our observations with these patients, the known effects of modafinil, its safety profile, and the published experiences of others, we believe that modafinil has potential benefits when utilized in some critically ill patients and that the consequences of delayed patient recovery and a prolonged ICU stay may outweigh the risks of potential modafinil side effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A business case for tele-intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Deslich, Stacie; Bailey, Deanna; Hairston, Alesia; Paul, David

    2014-01-01

    A tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) uses telemedicine in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, applying technology to provide care to critically ill patients by off-site clinical resources. The purpose of this review was to examine the implementation, adoption, and utilization of tele-ICU systems by hospitals to determine their efficiency and efficacy as identified by cost savings and patient outcomes. This literature review examined a large number of studies of implementation of tele-ICU systems in hospitals. The evidence supporting cost savings was mixed. Implementation of a tele-ICU system was associated with cost savings, shorter lengths of stay, and decreased mortality. However, two studies suggested increased hospital cost after implementation of tele-ICUs is initially expensive but eventually results in cost savings and better clinical outcomes. Intensivists working these systems are able to more effectively treat ICU patients, providing better clinical outcomes for patients at lower costs compared with hospitals without a tele-ICU.

  12. Appropriateness of care and moral distress among neonatal intensive care unit staff: repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jacoba Coby; van Rosmalen, Joost; Bakker, Arnold B; van Dijk, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Perceived constraints to providing patient care in their own morally justified way may cause moral distress (MD) in neonatal nurses and physicians. Negative long-term effects of MD include substandard patient care, burnout and leaving the profession. To assess the immediate impact of perceived inappropriate patient care on nurses' and physicians' MD intensity, and explore a possible moderating effect of ethical climate. In a repeated measures design, after baseline assessment, each participant completed self-report questionnaires after five randomly selected shifts. Data were analysed with logistic and Tobit regression. Data were collected among 117 of 147 eligible nurses and physicians (80%) in a level-III neonatal intensive care unit in the Netherlands. At baseline, overall MD was relatively low; in nurses, it was significantly higher than in physicians. Few morally distressing situations were reported in the repeated measurements, but distress could be intense in these cases; nurses' and physicians' scores were comparable. Physicians were significantly more likely than nurses to disagree with their patients' level of care (p = 0·02). Still, perceived overtreatment, but not undertreatment, was significantly related to distress intensity in both professional groups; ethical climate did not moderate this effect. Substandard patient care due to lack of continuity, poor communication and unsafe levels of staffing were rated as more important causes of MD than perceived inappropriate care. Although infrequently perceived, overtreatment of patients caused considerable distress in nurses and physicians. Our unit introduced multidisciplinary medical ethical decision making 5 years ago, which may partly explain the low MD at baseline. MD might be prevented by improved continuity of care, safe levels of staffing and better team communication, along with other targeted interventions with demonstrated effectiveness, such as palliative care programs and facilitated

  13. Palliative care for patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Paola Nóbrega; Miranda, Erique José Peixoto de; Cruz, Ronaldo; Forte, Daniel Neves

    2016-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment. The overall mortality rate was 88%. Among patients predicted with a terminally ill (68%), the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased from 50.0% to 23.1% (p = 0.02), the use of antibiotics decreased from 100% to 63.6% (p < 0.001), the use of vasoactive drugs decreased from 62.1% to 37.8% (p = 0.009), the use of renal replacement therapy decreased from 34.8% to 23.0% (p < 0.0001), and the number of blood product transfusions decreased from 74.2% to 19.7% (p < 0.0001). Meetings with the family were held in 48 cases, and 23% of the terminally ill patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. Palliative care was required in patients with severe illnesses and high mortality. The number of potentially inappropriate interventions in terminally ill patients monitored by the palliative care team significantly decreased, and 26% of the patients were discharged from the intensive care unit.

  14. Accounting for health-care outcomes: implications for intensive care unit practice and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Roslyn; Iedema, Rick

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the environment of health care, and how clinicians and managers respond in terms of performance accountability. A qualitative method was used in a tertiary metropolitan teaching intensive care unit (ICU) in Sydney, Australia, including interviews with 15 clinical managers and focus groups with 29 nurses of differing experience. The study found that a managerial focus on abstract goals, such as budgets detracted from managing the core business of clinical work. Fractures were evident within clinical units, between clinical units and between clinical and managerial domains. These fractures reinforced the status quo where seemingly unconnected patient care activities were undertaken by loosely connected individual clinicians with personalized concepts of accountability. Managers must conceptualize health services as an interconnected entity within which self-directed teams negotiate and agree objectives, collect and review performance data and define collective practice. Organically developing regimens of care within and across specialist clinical units, such as in ICUs, directly impact upon health service performance and accountability.

  15. [Psychological experience of health care professionals in intensive care unit: a qualitative and exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahraoui, K; Bioy, A; Cras, E; Gilles, F; Laurent, A; Valache, B; Quenot, J-P

    2011-04-01

    Study the subjective and emotional experience of health care professionals in intensive care unit in front of sources of professional stress connected to the emergency and to the gravity of the pathologies of hospitalized patients. A clinical interview was proposed to health care professionals of an intensive care unit during which they had to develop their personal feeling about the organization of the work and their management of the most stressful emotional situations. All interviews were entirely recorded and rewritten. Then, they were the object of a procedure of coding and a thematic analysis was detailed with the consensus of several individuals. Eighteen professionals agreed to participate in this research. The analysis of these clinical interviews showed a strong feeling of pressure in works as being mainly focused on the necessity of control the procedures and the technical means involved in intensive care unit and in the strong emotional load due to deaths of patients and to the pain of families. The management of the death and its conditions appears as a major and central difficulty. The discussion approaches the question of the feeling of pressure at works and its various items by underlining the interpersonal variations of these experiences, then the question of the emotional adaptation through the individual and collective defensive strategies organized to cope with these various situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. National audit of critical care resources in South Africa – unit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the national distribution of intensive care unit (ICU)/high care (HC) units and beds. Design and setting. A descriptive, non-interventive, observational study design was used. An audit of all public and private sector ICU and high care units in South Africa was undertaken. Results. A 100% sample was ...

  17. Clinical Profile of Hypertensive Emergencies in an Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadke, Shubhangi V; Dhadke, Vithal N; Batra, Dhruv S

    2017-05-01

    To study the prevalence of hypertensive emergencies in an ICU set up and to study the clinical presentation of hypertensive emergencies related to cardiovascular, neurological and renovascular system. Type of Study: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Two years from 1st December 2011 till 30th November 2013. 50 patients of hypertensive emergencies admitted to the intensive care unit of Dr. V.M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur were studied. Inclusion criteria All patients above 18 years of age. Systolic blood pressure > 180 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure > 120 mm Hg Exclusion criteria Pregnancy Patients with diabetes mellitus We classified as hypertensive emergencies all cases in which the increase in blood pressure was associated with one or more of the following types of acute or ongoing end-organ damage: hypertensive encephalopathy; stroke (cerebral infarction or intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack); acute pulmonary edema, left ventricular failure; acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina, progressive renal insufficiency features suggestive of retinopathy. All these conditions were diagnosed clinically or by approprriate diagnostic tests. most common presenting complaint in patients was breathlessness seen in 17 patients (34%), followed by neurological deficit in 14 patients (28%). Thirteen patients (26%) had complaints of headache, whereas 12 (24%) patients complained of chest pain on admission. Other symptoms included vomiting, giddiness, psychomotor agitation, and decreased urine output. Out of a total of 4076 admissions during the study period in the intensive care unit we had 50 cases of hypertensive emergencies with prevalence of 1.22% in our intensive care unit. Most common organ involvement was the retina followed by cardiovascular system, renal and then the central nervous system.

  18. Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Beliefs About Delirium Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhouse, Kimberly J; Vincent, Catherine; Foreman, Marquis D; Gruss, Valerie A; Corte, Colleen; Berger, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Delirium, the most frequent complication of hospitalized older adults, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), can result in increased mortality rates and length of stay. Nurses are neither consistently identifying nor managing delirium in these patients. The purpose of this study was to explore ICU nurses' identification of delirium, actions they would take for patients with signs or symptoms of delirium, and beliefs about delirium assessment and management. In this cross-sectional study using qualitative descriptive methods guided by the theory of planned behavior, 30 ICU nurses' responses to patient vignettes depicting different delirium subtypes were explored. Descriptive and content analyses revealed that nurses did not consistently identify delirium; their actions varied in different vignettes. Nurses believed that they needed adequate staffing, balanced workload, interprofessional collaboration, and established policy and protocols to identify and manage delirium successfully. Research is needed to determine if implementing these changes increases recognition and decreases consequences of delirium. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Centralization of Intensive Care Units: Process Reengineering in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Centralization of intensive care units (ICUs is a concept that has been around for several decades and the OECD countries have led the way in adopting this in their operations. Singapore Hospital was built in 1981, before the concept of centralization of ICUs took off. The hospital's ICUs were never centralized and were spread out across eight different blocks with the specialization they were associated with. Coupled with the acquisitions of the new concept of centralization and its benefits, the hospital recognizes the importance of having a centralized ICU to better handle major disasters. Using simulation models, this paper attempts to study the feasibility of centralization of ICUs in Singapore Hospital, subject to space constraints. The results will prove helpful to those who consider reengineering the intensive care process in hospitals.

  20. Perceived and actual noise levels in critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brittany Lynn; Zomorodi, Meg

    2017-02-01

    To compare the noise levels perceived by critical care nurses in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to actual noise levels in the ICU. Following a pilot study (n=18) and revision of the survey tool, a random sample of nurses were surveyed twice in a 3-day period (n=108). Nurses perception of noise was compared to the actual sound pressure level using descriptive statistics. Nurses perceived the ICUs to be noisier than the actual values. The ICU was louder than the recommended noise level for resotrative sleep. This finding raises the question of how we can assist nurses to reduce what they perceive to be a loud environment. Future work is needed to develop interventions specifically for nurses to raise awareness of noise in the ICU and to provide them with skills to assist in noise reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. End-of-life decisions in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background When making end-of-life decisions in intensive care units, the different staff groups have different roles in the decision-making process and may not always assess the situation identically. Practice recommendations for withholding or withdrawing therapy state that decisions should...... (135) from 10 ICUs in the Region of Southern Denmark. Additionally the survey included primary physicians (146) from two regional ICUs. Subproject 4. Audit: Three interdisciplinary audits with the participation of 8 primary care physicians, 9 intensivists, and 12 nurses were conducted. Form and profit...... be interdisciplinary, but the literature shows that this is not always the case. Research on end-of-life issues in Danish ICUs is limited. Aim The aims of this thesis were to • Examine Danish practices regarding end-of-life decisions in the ICU. • Examine the opinions of nurses and physicians who work in Danish ICUs...

  2. [Family satisfaction in intensive care unit: a prospective survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumagne, N; Levrat, Q; Frasca, D; Dahyot, C; Pinsard, M; Debaene, B; Mimoz, O

    2011-12-01

    To assess family satisfaction in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify parameters for improvement. Prospective observational monocentric study. One hundred and twenty families were given a questionnaire of twenty-four items covering: satisfaction with reception and waiting areas, satisfaction with care and satisfaction with information/decision-making. Each item was evaluated by families according to three levels: high, intermediate, and poor satisfaction. Opinions concerning accessibility time, information notice and visitor limitations were also gathered. Several factors, such as waiting time, respect of family's wishes, visiting hours, lack of social support, and examination's results communication were associated with poor level of satisfaction. Twenty-three percent of families felt restricted by visitation policy for children and 17 % by visitor's number limitation. Quality of family reception in the ICU needs to be improved concerning waiting time, visiting hours, social and emotional support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  4. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, M; Perner, A; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this statistical analysis plan, we aim to provide details of the pre-defined statistical analyses of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) trial. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump...... comparing the two intervention groups in the intention-to-treat population. In a secondary analysis, we will additionally adjust the primary outcome for potential random differences in baseline characteristics. The conclusion will be based on the intention-to-treat population. CONCLUSION: Stress ulcer...... prophylaxis is standard of care in ICUs worldwide, but has never been tested in large high-quality randomised placebo-controlled trials. The SUP-ICU trial will provide important high-quality data on the balance between the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis in adult critically ill patients....

  5. End-of-life care in intensive care units: family routines and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridh, Isabell; Forsberg, Anna; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family care routines and to explore environmental factors when patients die in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs). The main research questions were: what are the physical environmental circumstances and facilities when caring for patients in end-of-life and are there any routines or guidelines when caring for dying patients and their families? A questionnaire was sent to 79 eligible Swedish ICUs in December 2003, addressed to the unit managers. The response rate was 94% (n = 74 units). The findings show that, despite recommendations highlighting the importance of privacy for dying ICU patients and their families, only 11% of the respondents stated that patients never died in shared rooms in their ICU. If a patient dies in a shared room, nurses strive to ensure a dignified goodbye by moving the body to an empty room or to one specially designated for this purpose. The majority (76%) of the units had waiting rooms within the ICU. The study also revealed that there is a need for improvements in the follow-up routines for bereaved families. Many units reported (51%) that they often or almost always offer a follow-up visit, although in most cases the bereaved family had to initiate the follow-up by contacting the ICU. Guidelines in the area of end-of-life care were used by 25% of the ICUs. Further research is necessary to acquire a deeper knowledge of the circumstances under which patients die in ICUs and what impact the ICU environment has on bereaved families.

  6. Nurses Empathy and Family Needs in the Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Moghaddasian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients’ families in intensive care units (ICUs experience excessive stress which may disrupt their performance in daily life. Empathy is basic to the nursing role and has been found to be associated with improved patient outcomes and greater satisfaction with care in patient and his/her family. However, few studies have investigated the nursing empathy with ICU patients. This study aimed to assess nursing empathy and its relationship with the needs, from the perspective of families of patients in ICU.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 subjects were selected among families of patients admitted to ICUs in Tabriz, Iran, by convenience sampling, from May to August 2012. Data were collected through Barrett-Lennard Relationship inventory (BLRI empathy scale and Critical Care Family Needs Intervention (CCFNI inventories and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results: Findings showed that most of the nurses had high level of empathy to the patients (38.8%. There was also statistically significant relationship between nurses’ empathy and needs of patients’ families (p < 0.001. Conclusion: In this study we found that by increasing the nurse’s empathy skills, we would be able to improve providing family needs. Through empathic communication, nurses can encourage family members to participate in planning for the care of their patients. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the results.

  7. The Social Work in the Continuous Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita dos Santos de Pina Duarte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Social Worker is a qualified professional who, by proper training intervention and by research and analysis of social reality, is ready to act, execute and evaluate services, programs and social policies aiming to preserve, protect and expand human rights and social justice. The Portuguese National Network of Integrated Continuous Care (RNCCI emerged in 2006 considering the health care needs with the recognition that the system could not cope with the rehabilitation needs of the different groups of patients. Thus, this health structure was created to establish an intermediary between health and social care and as a way to connect hospitalization and clinical discharge, as well as re-integration into the community. The primary goal was to clearly assess the importance of the social service in one Continuous Care Unit by using, as methodology, questioner applications for different professionals (social service team and other health team members. The results were helpful and positive, allowing us to conclude that the social service area is valued by the team members at different levels with a fundamental goal of supporting patients, families / caregivers and the other health professionals in their interventions.

  8. Target value design: applications to newborn intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkowski, Zofia K; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Ballard, H Glenn

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for greater understanding of the health impact of various design elements in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) as well as cost-benefit information to make informed decisions about the long-term value of design decisions. This is particularly evident when design teams are considering the transition from open-bay NICUs to single-family-room (SFR) units. This paper introduces the guiding principles behind target value design (TVD)-a price-led design methodology that is gaining acceptance in healthcare facility design within the Lean construction methodology. The paper also discusses the role that set-based design plays in TVD and its application to NICUs.

  9. [The nutritional status of children in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglitskikh, A K; Kon', I Ia; Ostreĭkov, I F; Shilina, N M; Smirnov, V F

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the nutritional status of infants in intensive care units (ICU). It shows nutritional trends in 269 children aged 1 month to 15 years, treated in the ICU of a Tushino children's city hospital, Moscow, for brain injury, abdominal surgical diseases, and severe pneumonia. The paper evaluates the physical development of children in the ICU, shows the trends in weight-height, somatometric, laboratory parameters, and balance study data. The values of protein losses and nitrogen balance in children in the postaggression period and their relationship to age and feeding mode (enteral, parenteral-enteral) are shown.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism in the Postanesthesia Care Unit: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie; Murauski, Jackie

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a complication that can occur at any time during the perioperative period. The patient undergoing surgery to repair a hip fracture is at a high risk of developing a PE due to venous thrombosis, tissue, or fat emboli. The signs and symptoms of a PE are often nonspecific and can be obscured in the patient receiving or recovering from general anesthesia. This case study describes the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of a patient experiencing a pulmonary embolism in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after surgery to repair a hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Mark; Herman, Jennifer; Dickason, Stephanie; Mayo, Helen

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August 2016 for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU. Of 1,938 citations reviewed, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study explicitly discussed occupational therapy interventions performed and only one study specifically tested the efficacy of occupational therapy. Future research is needed to clarify the specific interventions and role of occupational therapy in the ICU and the efficacy of these interventions.

  12. Nutrition in the pediatric population in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component of patient management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Poor nutrition status accompanies many childhood chronic illnesses. A thorough assessment of the critically ill child is required to inform the plan for nutrition support. Accurate and clinically relevant nutritional assessment, including growth measurements, provides important guidance. Indirect calorimetry provides the most accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure, but is too often unavailable in the PICU. To prevent inappropriate caloric intake, reassessment of the child's nutrition status is imperative. Enteral nutrition is the recommended route of intake. Human milk is preferred for infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddelien, Heidi Shil; Hoffmeyer, Henrik Westy; Lund, Eva Charlotte Løbner

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are used for intensive care unit (ICU) patients on several indications. We present a patient who was admitted to the ICU due to severe respiratory failure caused by bronchospasm requiring mechanical ventilation and treated with methylprednisolone 240 mg/day in addition...... to antibiotics and bronchiolytics. When the sedation was lifted on day 10, the patient was awake but quadriplegic. Blood samples revealed elevated muscle enzymes, electromyography showed myopathy, and a muscle biopsy was performed. Glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was suspected, GC treatment was tapered...

  14. Care of Respiratory Conditions in an Observation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Margarita E; Kazan, Viviane M; Helmreich, Michael N; Mace, Sharon E

    2017-08-01

    In adults, respiratory disorders are the second most frequent diagnoses treated in emergency department observation units (EDOUs) and account for the most frequent indication for placement of pediatric patients into an EDOU. With appropriate patient selection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, and community-acquired pneumonia can be managed in the EDOU. EDOU management results in equivalent or better outcomes than inpatient care with decreased length of stay, increased patient satisfaction, lower cost and in some studies decreased mortality. Evidence-based protocols are important to ensure appropriate patients are placed in the EDOU, standardize best practice interventions, and guide disposition decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders in the Critical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of respiratory acid-base abnormalities in the critical care unit (CCU) is unknown, although respiratory alkalosis is suspected to be common in this population. Abnormal carbon dioxide tension can have many physiologic effects, and changes in Pco 2 may have a significant impact on outcome. Monitoring Pco 2 in CCU patients is an important aspect of critical patient assessment, and identification of respiratory acid-base abnormalities can be valuable as a diagnostic tool. Treatment of respiratory acid-base disorders is largely focused on resolution of the primary disease, although mechanical ventilation may be indicated in cases with severe respiratory acidosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chien-Huai; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Burnout has been described as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stress on the job that is often the result of a period of expending excessive effort at work while having too little recovery time. Healthcare workers who work in a stressful medical environment, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU), may be particularly susceptible to burnout. In healthcare workers, burnout may affect their well-being and the quality of professional care they provide and can, therefore, be detrimental to patient safety. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of burnout in the ICU setting; and to identify factors associated with burnout in ICU professionals. The original articles for observational studies were retrieved from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science in June 2016 using the following MeSH terms: "burnout" and "intensive care unit". Articles that were published in English between January 1996 and June 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified using our search criteria prior to full text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to have employed an observational study design and examined the associations between any risk factors and burnout in the ICU setting. Overall, 203 full text articles were identified in the electronic databases after the exclusion of duplicate articles. After the initial review, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of burnout in ICU professionals in the included studies ranged from 6% to 47%. The following factors were reported to be associated with burnout: age, sex, marital status, personality traits, work experience in an ICU, work environment, workload and shift work, ethical issues, and end-of-life decision-making. The impact of the identified factors on burnout remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, this review presents important information, suggesting that ICU professionals may suffer from a high level

  17. Opportunity costs of ambulatory medical care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kristin N; Chari, Amalavoyal V; Engberg, John; Bertolet, Marnie; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2015-08-01

    The typical focus in discussions of healthcare spending is on direct medical costs such as physician reimbursement. The indirect costs of healthcare-patient opportunity costs associated with seeking care, for example-have not been adequately quantified. We aimed to quantify the opportunity costs for adults seeking medical care for themselves or others. Secondary analysis of the 2003-2010 American Time Use Survey (ATUS). We used the nationally representative 2003-2010 ATUS to estimate opportunity costs associated with ambulatory medical visits. We estimated opportunity costs for employed adults using self-reported hourly wages and for unemployed adults using a Heckman selection model. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to compare opportunity costs with direct costs (ie, patient out-of-pocket, provider reimbursement) in 2010. Average total time per visit was 121 minutes (95% CI, 118-124), with 37 minutes (95% CI, 36-39) of travel time and 84 minutes (95% CI, 81-86) of clinic time. The average opportunity cost per visit was $43, which exceeds the average patient's out-of-pocket payment. Total opportunity costs per year for all physician visits in the United States were $52 billion in 2010. For every dollar spent in visit reimbursement, an additional 15 cents were spent in opportunity costs. In the United States, opportunity costs associated with ambulatory medical care are substantial. Accounting for patient opportunity costs is important for examining US healthcare system efficiency and for evaluating methods to improve the efficient delivery of patient-centered care.

  18. Paediatric admissions and outcome in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embu Henry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that intensive care greatly improves the prognosis for critically ill children and that critically ill children admitted to a dedicated Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU do better than those admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A retrospective study of all paediatric (< 16 years admissions to our general ICU from January 1994 to December 2007. Results: Out of a total of 1364 admissions, 302 (22.1% were in the paediatric age group. Their age ranged from a few hours old to 15 years with a mean of 4.9 ± 2.5 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Postoperative admissions made up 51.7% of the admissions while trauma and burn made up 31.6% of admissions. Medical cases on the other hand constituted 11.6% of admissions. Of the 302 children admitted to the ICU, 193 were transferred from the ICU to other wards or in some cases other hospitals while 109 patients died giving a mortality rate of 36.1%. Mortality was significantly high in post-surgical paediatric patients and in patients with burn and tetanus. The length of stay (LOS in the ICU ranged from less than one day to 56 days with a mean of 5.5 days. Conclusion: We found an increasing rate of paediatric admissions to our general ICU over the years. We also found a high mortality rate among paediatric patients admitted to our ICU. The poor outcome in paediatric patients managed in our ICU appears to be a reflection of the inadequacy of facilities. Better equipping our ICUs and improved man-power development would improve the outcome for our critically ill children. Hospitals in our region should also begin to look into the feasibility of establishing PICUs in order to further improve the standard of critical care for our children.

  19. Paediatric admissions and outcome in a general intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embu, Henry Y; Yiltok, Simon J; Isamade, Erdoo S; Nuhu, Samuel I; Oyeniran, Olushola O; Uba, Francis A

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that intensive care greatly improves the prognosis for critically ill children and that critically ill children admitted to a dedicated Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) do better than those admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective study of all paediatric (< 16 years) admissions to our general ICU from January 1994 to December 2007. Out of a total of 1364 admissions, 302 (22.1%) were in the paediatric age group. Their age ranged from a few hours old to 15 years with a mean of 4.9 ± 2.5 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Postoperative admissions made up 51.7% of the admissions while trauma and burn made up 31.6% of admissions. Medical cases on the other hand constituted 11.6% of admissions. Of the 302 children admitted to the ICU, 193 were transferred from the ICU to other wards or in some cases other hospitals while 109 patients died giving a mortality rate of 36.1%. Mortality was significantly high in post-surgical paediatric patients and in patients with burn and tetanus. The length of stay (LOS) in the ICU ranged from less than one day to 56 days with a mean of 5.5 days. We found an increasing rate of paediatric admissions to our general ICU over the years. We also found a high mortality rate among paediatric patients admitted to our ICU. The poor outcome in paediatric patients managed in our ICU appears to be a reflection of the inadequacy of facilities. Better equipping our ICUs and improved man-power development would improve the outcome for our critically ill children. Hospitals in our region should also begin to look into the feasibility of establishing PICUs in order to further improve the standard of critical care for our children.

  20. [Good care for patients who die in intensive care units in Spain. A study based on international care quality indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, M B; Monedero, P; Centeno, C; Grupo Español de Cuidados Al Final de la Vida En, U C I

    2017-12-29

    Good care for patients who die in intensive care should be pursued in the same way that excellence is sought in other clinical aspects. To assess the quality of clinical care given to patients who die in intensive care units (ICU) in Spain. Methodos. A retrospective observational cohort study of patients who died in the ICU based on a Spanish sample. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18 years who died in ICU after a minimum stay of 24 hours. Consecutive admissions without exclusions were analyzed. Excellence criteria in intensive care were assessed by quality indicators and measures, related to end-of-life care, developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup. Two hundred and eighty-two patients from 15 Spanish ICU were included. A median of 13% was observed in the achievement of the indicators. Almost all clinical records assessed both the patients' decision making capacity (96%) and their communication with families (98%), while a plan of care goals was achieved in only 50% of them. Only two ICU had open visiting policies. Distress assessment (48%) was better than that of pain assessment (28%). The absence of protocol for the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments was observed in thirteen ICU. The indicators of emotional and spiritual support were achieved in less than 10%. The quality of end-of-life care in the participating ICU needs to be improved. The study identifies shortcomings and indicates existing resources in clinical practice from which a gradual improvement plan, adapted to the situation in each hospital, can be designed. The analysis, inexpensive in its implementation, offers an opportunity for improvement, a goal recommended by most professional societies of intensive care medicine. Key words. End-of-life care. Intensive care. Critical care. Palliative care. Quality improvement.